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Encyclopedia > Manfred von Richthofen
Manfred von Richthofen
2 May 189221 April 1918 (aged 25)

Manfred von Richthofen

Around his neck he wears the Pour le Mérite, the "Blue Max," Prussia's highest military order.
Nickname Red Baron
Place of birth Breslau, Silesia, Germany
(now in Poland)
Place of death Morlancourt, France
Allegiance German Empire
Service/branch Uhlan (Lancers)
Luftstreitkräfte (Imperial German Army Air Service, forerunner of the Luftwaffe}
Years of service 1911-1918
Rank Rittmeister (Cavalry Captain)
Unit Jasta 11, Jagdgeschwader 1
Commands Jasta 11 (01.1917)

Jagdgeschwader 1 (24.06.1917-21.04.1918) May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1795x2597, 267 KB) Photograph of Manfred von Richthofen, the Red Baron. ... The Order Pour le Mérite, known informally as the Blue Max (German: Blauer Max), was Prussias highest military order until the end of World War I. The award was a blue-enameled Maltese Cross with eagles between the arms, the Prussian royal cypher, and the French legend Pour... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Wrocław. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Polish uhlans from Duchy of Warsaw army Uhlans (in Polish: UÅ‚an also spelled Ulan, German, from Turkish oÄŸlan [1]) were originally Polish light cavalry soldiers armed with lances, sabres, pistols, rifles; later they also served in the Prussian and Austrian armies. ... The Luftstreitkräfte or Imperial German Army Air Service (Die Fliegertruppen des deutschen Kaiserreiches), was the over-land air arm of the German military during World War I (1914–1918). ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Rittmeister (in German language literally [Horse] riding master or Cavalry master) was the military rank of a commissioned cavalry officer in charge of a squadron, the equivalent of Captain, in the armies of German-speaking states and Austro-Hungarian. ... The Jagd-Staffel 11 (Pursuit-Squadron 11), also known as the Richthofen Squadron was founded in September 1916 ,as part of the German Air forces expansion programme, forming permanent specialised air fighting squadrons or Jastas. Its first commander was Oberleutnant Rudolf Lang, although Jasta 11s first months of... Jagdgeschwader 1 (JG 1) was formed in the World War I, and was a composite fighter group made up of four Jastas or squadrons on June 24, 1917 with Baron Manfred von Richtofen as commander. ... The Jagd-Staffel 11 (Pursuit-Squadron 11), also known as the Richthofen Squadron was founded in September 1916 ,as part of the German Air forces expansion programme, forming permanent specialised air fighting squadrons or Jastas. Its first commander was Oberleutnant Rudolf Lang, although Jasta 11s first months of... Jagdgeschwader 1 (JG 1) was formed in the World War I, and was a composite fighter group made up of four Jastas or squadrons on June 24, 1917 with Baron Manfred von Richtofen as commander. ...

Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen (2 May 189221 April 1918) was a German fighter pilot known as "The Red Baron". He was the most successful flying ace of World War I, and was credited with 80 confirmed air combat victories.[1][2] He was a member of an aristocratic family with many famous relatives. Red Baron may refer to: Manfred von Richthofen, World War I flying ace Michael Schumacher, Formula 1 motor racing champion Red Baron, a popular computer game The Red Baron, a movie (2007) about Manfred von Richthofen Red Baron, an arcade game by Atari. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with aerial warfare. ... The Red Baron, Manfred von Richthofen, perhaps the most famous ace of all The first ace, Adolphe Pegoud being awarded the Croix de Guerre A flying ace or fighter ace is a military aviator credited with shooting down five or more enemy aircraft during aerial combat. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Air Combat is a semi-realistic flight-sim/action game, it was developed by Namco and was released in 1995 for the Sony Playstation. ... Aristocrat redirects here. ... There are several individuals with the name von Richthofen Ferdinand von Richthofen (1833-1905), German traveller, geographer and scientist. ...

Contents

Nicknames

Richthofen is also known as "le Diable Rouge" ("Red Devil") or "Le Petit Rouge" ("Little Red") in French, and the "Red Knight" or the "Red Baron" in English. The German translation of Red Baron is "der Rote Baron" ; Richthofen also is so known in Germany, although rarely referred to as "Baron" in his lifetime, but as Freiherr, the correct title for his level of nobility. Richthofen's 1917 autobiography is titled Der rote Kampfflieger, the translation by J. Ellis Barker was published in 1918 as The Red Battle Flyer.[3] It has been noted that due to the publishing date of the German original before the end of WWI, the book is certainly influenced by propaganda and censorship of the time. Richthofen died during the war, and while he did not have the opportunity of publishing a revised version, he was quoted as saying the book was "too insolent" and that he was "no longer that kind of person".[4] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Image File history File links De-der_Rote_Baron. ... For other uses, see Baron (disambiguation). ... Freiherr (German for Free Lord) is a title of lower nobility in Germany, the Baltic states and Austria-Hungary, considered equal to the title Baron. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ...


Early life

Richthofen was born in Kleinburg, near Breslau, Silesia, into a family of old Prussian nobility. When he was nine years old, he moved with his family to nearby Schweidnitz. The young Richthofen enjoyed riding horses and hunting. After completing cadet training in 1911, he joined the Ulanen-Regiment Kaiser Alexanders des III. von Russland (1. Westpreußisches)' ("Uhlan Regiment Emperor Alexander III of Russia 1st Regiment, West Prussia"), a cavalry unit. Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... There are several individuals with the name von Richthofen Ferdinand von Richthofen (1833-1905), German traveller, geographer and scientist. ... Świdnica (German Schweidnitz) is a town in southwestern Poland. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Polish uhlans from Duchy of Warsaw army Uhlans (in Polish: UÅ‚an also spelled Ulan, German, from Turkish oÄŸlan [1]) were originally Polish light cavalry soldiers armed with lances, sabres, pistols, rifles; later they also served in the Prussian and Austrian armies. ... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ...


When the First World War broke out, Richthofen served as a cavalry scout on both the eastern and western fronts. However, when traditional cavalry operations became obsolete due to machine guns and barbed wire, the Uhlans were used in ordinary battlefield operations and for reinforcements.[5] Due to his disappointment with not being able to participate more often in combat operations, Richthofen applied for a transfer to the Flying Service. After a while his query was granted and he joined the flying service at the end of May 1915.[6] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Combatants Belgium British Empire Australia[1] Canada[2] India[3] Newfoundland[4] New Zealand[5] South Africa[6] United Kingdom France and French Overseas Empire Portugal[7] United States Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then Ferdinand Foch Moltke → Falkenhayn → Hindenburg and Ludendorff → Hindenburg and Groener Casualties ~4,800... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Typical modern agricultural barbed wire. ... Uhlan dressed in the characteristic czapka. ... The Luftstreitkräfte or Imperial German Army Air Service (Die Fliegertruppen des deutschen Kaiserreiches), was the over-land air arm of the German military during World War I (1914–1918). ...


Piloting career

He was initially a reconnaissance observer over the Eastern Front from June to August 1915, with the No. 69 Flying Squadron. On being transferred to the Champagne front, he managed to shoot down a French Farman aircraft with his observer's machine gun, but was not credited with the kill, as it fell behind Allied lines. ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Henri Farman on September 21, 1913 in France Farman Aviation Works was an aeroneutic enterprise founded and run by the brothers Henry and Maurice Farman. ...


He then trained as a pilot in October, 1915. In March 1916, he joined Kampfgeschwader 2 flying a two-seater Albatros B.II. Over Verdun on 26 April 1916 he fired on a French Nieuport downing it over Fort Douaumont, although once again he gained no official credit. At this time he flew a Fokker Eindecker single-seat fighter. The Albatros B.II was an unarmed German two-seat reconnaissance biplane of the First World War. ... Capital Verdun Government Republic Historical era Middle Ages  - Established Uncertain  - Three Bishoprics     annexed by France   1552  - Treaty of Westphalia     recognises annexation   1648 For other uses see Verdun (disambiguation) Verdun (medieval German: Wirten, official name before 1970 Verdun-sur-Meuse) is a city and commune in the Lorraine région, northeast... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Nieuport 17 C.1 fighter of World War I Nieuport is a French aeroplane company famous for racers before World War I (WWI) and fighter aircraft during WWI and between the wars. ... Douaumont is a village and a commune in the Meuse département in France, near Verdun. ... The Fokker Eindecker was a German First World War monoplane single-seat fighter aircraft designed by Dutch engineer Anthony Fokker. ...


After a further spell flying two seaters on the Eastern Front in August 1916 he met fighter pilot Oswald Boelcke. Boelcke, touring the East looking for candidates for his newly formed fighter unit, selected Richthofen to join the new Jagdstaffel, Jasta 2. Richthofen won his first aerial combat over Cambrai, France, on September 17, 1916. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with aerial warfare. ... Oswald Boelcke (IPA: ; 19 May 1891–28 October 1916) was a German flying ace of the First World War and one of the most influential patrol leaders and tacticians of the early years of air combat. ... Cambrai (Dutch: Kamerijk) is a French city and commune, in the Nord département, of which it is a sous_préfecture. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

A replica of Freiherr Manfred von Richthofen's red Fokker Dr.I triplane.
A replica of Freiherr Manfred von Richthofen's red Fokker Dr.I triplane.

After his first victory, Richthofen ordered a silver cup engraved with the date of the fight and the type of enemy machine from a jeweller friend in Berlin. He continued this tradition until he had 60 cups, by which time the supply of silver in blockaded Germany was restricted. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 3134 KB) Summary Nachbau der Fokker DR1 auf der ILA 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 3134 KB) Summary Nachbau der Fokker DR1 auf der ILA 2006. ... The Fokker Dr. I Dreidecker (triplane) was a World War I fighter aircraft designed by Reinhold Platz and built by the company led by Anthony Fokker. ... A triplane is a fixed-wing aircraft equipped with three sets of wings, each roughly the same size and mounted one above the other. ...


Rather than engage in risky tactics like his brother Lothar (40 air kills), Manfred von Richthofen strictly observed a set of flight maxims (commonly referred to as the "Dicta Boelcke") to assure the greatest success for both squadron and individual flyer. Lothar von Richthofen (right) with elder brother Manfred Lothar-Siegfried Freiherr von Richthofen (27 September 1894 – 4 July 1922) was a German First World War fighter ace credited with 40 victories during the war. ... The Dicta Boelcke is a list of fundamental tactics of air combat formulated by the first great German flying ace of the First World War, Oswald Boelcke. ...


On 23 November 1916, Richthofen downed his most renowned adversary, the British ace Major Lanoe Hawker VC, described by Richthofen himself as "the British Boelcke." The victory came while Richthofen was flying an Albatros D.II and Hawker was flying a D.H.2. After this engagement, he was convinced he needed a fighter aircraft with more agility, though this implied a loss of speed. He switched to the Albatros D.III in January 1917, scoring two kills before suffering a crack in the spar of the aircraft's lower wing. After this incident, Richthofen reverted to the Albatros D.II for the next five weeks. Richthofen scored one kill in the D.III on 9 March, but the D.III was temporarily grounded for the rest of the month, so Richthofen switched to the Halberstadt D.II, scoring six kills in the Halberstadt between 11 March and 25 March, 1917. is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Lanoe Hawker Major Lanoe George Hawker, VC, DSO (December 30, 1890 â€“ November 23, 1916) was a World War I English fighter pilot. ... Albatros D.II The Albatros D.II was a German fighter airplane used during World War I. It was the successor to the Albatros D.I, designed by Thelen, Schubert and Gnädig in an attempt to rectify the D.Is poor visibility. ... The Airco DH.2 was a single-seat biplane pusher aircraft which operated as a fighter during the First World War. ... The Albatros D.III was a highly successful single seat, biplane fighter aircraft used by the Imperial German Army Air Service (Luftstreitkräfte) and the Austro-Hungarian Air Service (Luftfahrtruppen) during the First World War. ... The Halberstadt D.II was a biplane fighter aircraft of the Imperial German Army Air Service that served through the period of Allied air superiority in early 1916, but had begun to be superseded in the Jagdstaffeln by the superior Albatros fighters by the autumn of that year. ...


Richthofen returned to the Albatros D.III on 2 April 1917. He scored his next 22 kills in this type before switching to the Albatros D.V in late June. From his return from convalescence in October, Richthofen was flying the celebrated Fokker Dr.I triplane, the distinctive three-winged aircraft with which he is most commonly associated, although he probably did not use the type exclusively until after it was reissued with strengthened wings in November. Albatros D.Va Captured D.Va in British markings Cockpit view The Albatros D.V was a German fighter airplane used during World War I. In April 1917, Albatros received an order from the Idflieg (Inspektion der Fliegertruppen) for an improved version of the D.III. The resulting D.V... The Fokker Dr. I Dreidecker (triplane) was a World War I fighter aircraft designed by Reinhold Platz and built by the company led by Anthony Fokker. ... A triplane is a fixed-wing aircraft equipped with three sets of wings, each roughly the same size and mounted one above the other. ...


Despite the popular link between Richthofen and the Fokker Dr. I, just 20 of his 80 kills were made in this now-famous triplane. In fact, it was his Albatros D.III that was first painted bright red and in which he first earned his name and reputation.


Richthofen championed the development of the Fokker D.VII with suggestions to overcome the deficiencies of the then current German fighter aircraft.[2] However, he never had an opportunity to fly it in combat as he was killed just days before it entered service. Fokker D.VII Fokker D.VII Fokker D.VII preserved in the Deutsches Museum The Fokker D.VII was a late World War I fighter aircraft designed by Reinhold Platz at the Fokker company. ...


The Flying Circus

In January 1917, after his 16th confirmed kill, Richthofen received the Pour le Mérite, the highest military honour in Germany at the time. That same month, he assumed command of Jasta 11, which ultimately included some of the elite of Germany's pilots, many of whom he trained himself. Several in turn subsequently became leaders of their own squadrons. The Order Pour le Mérite, known informally as the Blue Max (German: Blauer Max), was Prussias highest military order until the end of World War I. The award was a blue-enameled Maltese Cross with eagles between the arms, the Prussian royal cypher, and the French legend Pour... The Jagd-Staffel 11 (Pursuit-Squadron 11), also known as the Richthofen Squadron was founded in September 1916 ,as part of the German Air forces expansion programme, forming permanent specialised air fighting squadrons or Jastas. Its first commander was Oberleutnant Rudolf Lang, although Jasta 11s first months of...


As a practical aid to easy identification in the melee of air combat, Jasta 11's aircraft soon adopted red colourations with various individual markings, with some of Richthofen's own planes painted entirely red. This practice soon had its use in German propaganda, even the RFC aircrew dubbing Richthofen "Le Petit Rouge."


Richthofen led his new unit to unparalleled success, peaking during "Bloody April" of 1917. In that month alone, he downed 22 British aircraft, raising his official tally to 52. By June, he was the commander of the first of the new larger Jagdgeschwader (wing) formations, leading Jagdgeschwader 1 composed of Jastas 4, 6, 10, and 11. These were highly mobile combined tactical units that could be sent at short notice to different parts of the front as required. In this way, JG1 became "The Flying Circus" or "Richthofen's Circus", which got its name both from the unit's highly mobile nature (including the use of tents), and from its brightly coloured aircraft. During the First World War, the month of April 1917 was known as Bloody April by the Allied air forces. ... Jagdgeschwader 1 (JG 1) was formed in the World War I, and was a composite fighter group made up of four Jastas or squadrons on June 24, 1917 with Baron Manfred von Richtofen as commander. ... Monty Pythons Flying Circus is a famous British comedy TV show. ...


Incidentally, although he was now performing the duties of a major or a lieutenant colonel, he remained a captain, in deference to a German army tradition that a son should not hold a higher rank than his father (Richthofen's father was a reserve major in the German army).


On 6 July, during combat with a formation of F.E.2d two seat fighters of No. 20 Squadron RFC, Richthofen sustained a serious head wound that forced him to land near Wervicq and grounded him for several weeks. The air victory was credited to Captain Donald Cunnell of No. 20, who himself was killed a few days later. It was during his convalescence that Richthofen (probably with the help of a ghostwriter from a German propaganda unit) wrote his "autobiography". Although the Red Baron returned to combat in October 1917, this injury is thought to have caused lasting damage, as he later often suffered from post-flight nausea and headaches, as well as a change in temperament. There is even a theory linking this injury with his eventual death (see relevant section of this article). is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Royal Aircraft Factory F.E.2 was a two-seat pusher biplane that was operated as a day and night bomber and as a fighter aircraft by the Royal Flying Corps during the First World War. ... No. ... The Royal Aircraft Factory FE2d fighter Donald Charles Cunnell (born December 1893 at Norwich, Norfolk, England, died 12 July 1917 near Wervicq, Belgium, was a British World War I fighter pilot. ... For other uses, see Ghostwriter (disambiguation). ...


Richthofen was a brilliant tactician, building on Boelcke's tactics. But unlike Boelcke, he led by example and force of will rather than by inspiration. He was often described as distant, unemotional, and rather humourless, though some colleagues contend otherwise.[7]


In 1918, Richthofen had become such a legend that it was feared that his death would be a blow to the morale of the German people. Richthofen himself refused to accept a ground job after his wound, stating that if the average German soldier had no choice in his duties, he would therefore continue to fly in combat. Certainly he had become part of a cult of hero-worship, assiduously encouraged by official propaganda. German propaganda circulated various false rumours, including that the British had raised squadrons specially to hunt down Richthofen, and were offering large rewards and an automatic Victoria Cross to any Allied pilot who shot him down. Passages from his correspondence indicate he may have at least half believed some of these stories himself. For other uses, see Victoria Cross (disambiguation). ...


Death

Australian airmen with Richthofen's plane, after it was dismembered by souvenir hunters.
Australian airmen with Richthofen's plane, after it was dismembered by souvenir hunters.

Richthofen was killed just after 11 a.m. on 21 April 1918, while flying over Morlancourt Ridge, near the Somme River. Download high resolution version (700x636, 91 KB)Wreckage of Manfred von Richthofens plane. ... Download high resolution version (700x636, 91 KB)Wreckage of Manfred von Richthofens plane. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Somme river The Somme River (French Rivière Somme) is a river in Picardy, northern France. ...


At the time, the Baron had been pursuing (at very low altitude) a Sopwith Camel piloted by a novice Canadian pilot, Lieutenant Wilfrid "Wop" May of No. 209 Squadron, Royal Air Force. In turn, the Baron was spotted and briefly attacked by a Camel piloted by a school friend (and flight Commander) of May, Canadian Captain Arthur "Roy" Brown, who had to dive steeply at very high speed to intervene, and then had to climb steeply to avoid hitting the ground. Richthofen turned to avoid this attack, and then resumed his pursuit of May. The Sopwith Camel Scout is a British First World War single-seat fighter aircraft that was famous for its maneuverability. ... Wilfrid Reid Wop May, DFC (April 20, 1896 – June 21, 1952), was a pioneering aviator who created the rôle of bush pilot while working the Canadian west. ... RAF redirects here. ... Captain Arthur Roy Brown Captain Arthur Roy Brown (DFC and bar) (23 December 1893–9 March 1944) was a Canadian World War I flying ace whom the Royal Air Force officially credited with shooting down Manfred von Richthofen, the Red Baron, although evidence has shown that it is very unlikely...


It was almost certainly during the last stage of this pursuit that Richthofen was hit by a single .303 bullet, that caused such severe damage to his heart and lungs that it must have produced a very speedy death. In the last seconds of his life, he managed to make a hasty but controlled landing in a field on a hill near the Bray-Corbie road, just north of the village of Vaux-sur-Somme, in a sector controlled by the Australian Imperial Force (AIF). His Fokker was not badly damaged by the landing, but it was speedily demolished by souvenir hunters. One witness, Gunner George Ridgway, stated that when he and other Australian soldiers reached the plane, Richthofen was still alive but died moments later.[8] Another eye witness, Sgt Ted Smout of the Australian Medical Corps, reported that Richthofen's last word was "kaputt" ("broken") immediately before he died.[9] .303 cartridge The . ... The First Australian Imperial Force (1st AIF) was the main expeditionary force of the Australian Army during World War I. It was formed from August 15, 1914, following Britains declaration of war on Germany. ... Sgt Edward David (Ted) Smout (January 5, 1898 – June 22, 2004) was a World War I veteran. ... The Royal Australian Army Medical Corps (RAAMC) is a branch of the Australian Army. ...


No. 3 Squadron, Australian Flying Corps, as the nearest Allied air unit, assumed responsibility for the Baron's remains. No. ... The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) is the Air Force branch of the Australian Defence Force. ...


Who fired the fatal shot?

The identity of the person who fired the fatal shot is unknown.


The RAF credited Brown with shooting down the Red Baron. However Richthofen died following an extremely serious and inevitably fatal chest wound from a single bullet, penetrating from the right armpit and resurfacing next to the left nipple. It seems almost impossible that, if this was from Brown's guns, Richthofen could have continued his pursuit of May for as long as he did.[8] Brown himself never spoke much about what happened that day, claiming "There is no point in me commenting, as the evidence is already out there".[10]


Most experts now believe that Richthofen was killed by someone on the ground.[8][11] The wound through his body indicated that it had been caused by a bullet moving in an upward motion, from the right side, and more importantly, that it was probably received some time after Brown's attack.[8]


Many sources, including a 1998 article by Dr Geoffrey Miller — a physician and historian of military medicine — and a US Public Broadcasting Service documentary made in 2003, have suggested that Sergeant Cedric Popkin was the person most likely to have killed Richthofen.[8][11] Popkin was an anti-aircraft (AA) machine gunner with the Australian 24th Machine Gun Company, and was using a Vickers gun. He fired at Richthofen's plane on two occasions: first as the Baron was heading straight at his position, and then at long range from the right. Popkin stated — in a 1935 letter, which included a sketch map — to the Australian official war historian, that he believed he had fired the fatal shot as Richthofen approached his position. Such a shot would have been from directly in front of the plane and could not have been the one that resulted in the Baron's death. However, Popkin was well-placed to fire the fatal shot when Richthofen passed him for a second time on the right.[8][11] PBS redirects here. ... Group portrait of the officers and NCOs of the 24th Machine Gun Company in March 1918. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... The Vickers machine gun or Vickers gun is a name primarily used to refer to the water-cooled . ...


One source, a 2002 documentary produced by the Discovery Channel suggests that Gunner W. J. "Snowy" Evans, a Lewis machine gunner with the 53rd Battery, 14th Field Artillery Brigade, Royal Australian Artillery is likely to have killed Richthofen.[9] However, Dr Miller and the PBS documentary dismiss these theories.[8][11] Discovery Channel is a cable and satellite TV channel founded by John Hendricks which is distributed by Discovery Communications. ... William John Snowy Evans (c. ... The Lewis Gun was a pre-WWI era British machine gun that continued to see service all the way through WWII. It is visually distinctive because of the wide tubular cooling shroud around the barrel, and the top mounted drum magazines. ... UBIQUE (Everywhere) and QUO FAS ET GLORIA DUCUNT (Whither Right And Glory Lead) The Royal Regiment of Australian Artillery is descended from the original colonial artillery units prior to Australias federation. ...


Other sources have suggested that Gunner Robert Buie (also of the 53rd Battery) may have fired the fatal shot. There is now little support for this theory.[8][11] Nevertheless, in March 2007, the municipality of Hornsby Shire, in Sydney, recognised Buie, a former resident, as the man who shot down Richthofen.[12] Buie, who died in 1964, has never been officially recognised in any other way. The Shire placed a plaque near Buie's former home in the suburb of Brooklyn. Hornsby Shire is a vast Local Government Area in the North Shore region of Sydney, Australia. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... Brooklyn is a small town in New South Wales, Australia, 35 kilometres north of Sydneys central business district. ...


The commanding officer of No. 3 Squadron AFC, Major David Blake suggested initially that Richthofen had been killed by the crew of one of his squadron's R.E.8s, which had also fought Richthofen's unit that afternoon. However, this was quickly disproved, and, following an autopsy that he witnessed, Blake became a strong proponent of the view that an AA machine gunner had killed Richthofen. David Valentine Jardine Blake, born in Parramatta on November 10, 1887, (date of death unknown) was a notable Australian military figure. ... A Siddeley-Deasy-built R.E.8 The Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.8 was a British two-seat biplane reconnaissance and bomber aircraft of the First World War. ... This article is about the medical procedure. ...


Theories about Richthofen's poor judgement in his last combat

Richthofen was a highly experienced and skilled fighter pilot — fully aware of the risk from ground fire. Furthermore he was fully in accord with his late mentor Boelcke's rules of air fighting, which were strongly against taking foolish risks. In view of all this, it is universally accepted that Richthofen's judgement during his last combat was uncharacteristically unsound in several respects. Several theories have been propounded to account for this behaviour. Oswald Boelcke (IPA: ; 19 May 1891–28 October 1916) was a German flying ace of the First World War and one of the most influential patrol leaders and tacticians of the early years of air combat. ... The Dicta Boelcke is a list of fundamental tactics of air combat formulated by the first great German flying ace of the First World War, Oswald Boelcke. ...


In 1999, a German medical researcher, Dr Henning Allmers, published an article in prestigious British medical journal The Lancet, suggesting that it was likely brain damage from the head wound suffered by Richthofen in June 1917 (see above) played a part in the Baron's death. This theory was supported by a 2004 paper from researchers at the University of Texas. Richthofen's behaviour after his injury was noted as consistent with brain-injured patients, and such an injury may account for his perceived lack of judgment on his final flight: flying too low over enemy territory and suffering target fixation.[13] The Lancet is one of the oldest and most respected peer-reviewed medical journals in the world, published weekly by Elsevier, part of Reed Elsevier. ... The University of Texas at Austin, often called UT or Texas, is the flagship institution of the University of Texas System. ... Brain damage or brain injury is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. ... Target fixation is a process by which the brain is focused so intently on an observed object that awareness of other obstacles or hazards can diminish. ...


There is also a possibility that Richthofen was suffering from cumulative combat stress, which made him fail to observe some of his usual precautions. It is remarkable that one of the leading British air aces, Major Edward "Mickey" Mannock, was also killed by ground fire on 26 July 1918 while crossing the lines at low level, an action against which he had always cautioned his younger pilots. And the most popular of all French air aces, Georges Guynemer, went missing on 11 September 1917, probably while attacking a two-seater without realizing some Fokkers were escorting it. Image from The Great War taken in an Australian Dressing Station near Ypres in 1917. ... Major Edward Corringham Mick Mannock VC DSO & Two Bars MC & Bar (24 May 1887 – 26 July 1918) was a British First World War flying ace and posthumous recipient of the Victoria Cross. ... Georges Guynemer Georges Guynemer (December 24, 1894 - September 11, 1917) was a French aviator during World War I. Georges Marie Ludovic Jules Guynemer was born into a wealthy Compiègne family and experienced an often sickly childhood. ...


Perhaps more relevant is the suggestion in Franks and Bennett's 2007 book,[14] that on the day of Richthofen's death, the prevailing wind was about 25 mph (40 km/h) easterly, rather than the usual 25 mph (40 km/h) westerly. This meant that Richthofen, heading generally westward at an airspeed of about 100 mph (160 km/h), was travelling over the ground at 125 mph (200 km/h) rather than the 75 mph (120 km/h) ground speed he would have been used to. This is 50 mph (80 km/h) or 60% faster than normal and thus he could easily have strayed over the lines without realizing it, especially since he was struggling with one jammed gun and another that was only firing short bursts before needing re-cocking.


On the other hand, in assessing all these factors the circumstances of the time have to be borne in mind. At the time of Richthofen's death the front was in a highly fluid state, following the initial success of the German offensive of March-April 1918. The Baron must have been acutely aware that the battle he was engaged in was part of Germany's last real chance to win the war — in the face of Allied air superiority, the German air service was having great difficulty in acquiring vital reconnaissance information, such as the positions of batteries, and could do little to prevent Allied squadrons from completing very effective reconnaissance and close support of their armies. In this situation, foolhardiness and extreme bravery may be unusually hard to distinguish. This article is about the First World War. ...


Burial and memorials

No 3 Squadron AFC officers were pallbearers and other ranks from the squadron acted as a guard of honour during the Red Baron's funeral on 22 April 1918.
No 3 Squadron AFC officers were pallbearers and other ranks from the squadron acted as a guard of honour during the Red Baron's funeral on 22 April 1918.

In common with most Allied air officers, Major Blake, who was responsible for Richthofen's remains, regarded the Red Baron with great respect, and he organised a full military funeral, to be conducted by the personnel of No. 3 squadron AFC. Richthofen was buried in the cemetery at the village of Bertangles near Amiens on 22 April 1918. Six airmen with the rank of Captain — the same rank as Richthofen — served as pallbearers, and a guard of honour from the squadron's other ranks fired a salute. Other Allied squadrons presented memorial wreaths. Image File history File links Richthofen_funeral. ... Image File history File links Richthofen_funeral. ... No. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... A caisson bearing a coffin, with military escort. ... Amiens is a city and commune in the north of France, 120 km north of Paris. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Von Richthofen's aircraft was dismembered by souvenir hunters. Its engine was donated to the Imperial War Museum in London, where it is still on display. The Imperial War Museum is a museum in London featuring military vehicles, weapons, war memorabilia, a library, a photographic archive, and an art collection of 20th century and later conflicts, especially those involving Britain, and the British Empire. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


In 1925, Manfred von Richthofen's youngest brother, Bolko, recovered the body and took it home. The family's first intention was to lay Manfred's coffin down at the Schweidnitz cemetery, beside the graves of his father (died in 1920) and his brother, who had been killed in a post-war air crash in 1922.[15] But German authorities expressed a wish that the final place of rest for the body to be interred at the Invalidenfriedhof Cemetery in Berlin, where many German military heroes and leaders were buried. The family agreed, and Richthofen's grave remained in Berlin until 1975, when his body was exhumed and buried in his family’s tomb at the Südfriedhof in Wiesbaden. The Invalidenfriedhof Cemetery (German: Invalids Cemetery) is one of the oldest cemeteries in Berlin. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Wiesbaden is a city in central Germany. ...


On 6 June 1959, Jagdgeschwader 71 "Richthofen", named after the baron, became the first jet fighter unit established by the post-World War II Luftwaffe (German Air Force). is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Jagdgeschwader 71 (JG71) was was the first West German jet fighter unit in operation. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ...


Number of kills

For decades after World War I, some authors questioned whether Richthofen achieved 80 victories, insisting that his record was exaggerated for propaganda purposes. Some claimed that he took credit for planes downed by his squadron or wing. However, in the 1990s, resurgence in Great War scholarship resulted in detailed investigation of many facets of air combat. A study conducted by British historian Norman Franks with two colleagues, published in Under the Guns of the Red Baron in 1998, concluded that at least 73 of Richthofen's claimed victories were accurate, with documented identities of the Allied airmen whom Richthofen had fought and defeated. There were also unconfirmed victories that could put his actual total as high as 100. The highest scoring allied ace was Frenchman René Fonck, with 75 victories and the highest scoring British Empire fighter pilot was Canadian Billy Bishop with 72 kills. Norman Franks is an English writer who specialises in aviation related topics. ... René Fonck wearing the Légion dhonneur. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Air Marshal William Avery Billy Bishop VC CB DSO & Bar MC DFC ED (8 February 1894 – 11 September 1956) was a Canadian First World War flying ace, officially credited with 72 victories, the highest number for a British Empire pilot. ...


It is also significant that while Richthofen's early victories and the establishment of his reputation coincided with a period of German air superiority, the majority of his successes were achieved against a numerically superior enemy, flying fighter aircraft that were on the whole better than his own. Air superiority is the dominance in the air power of one side air forces of another side during a military campaign. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ...


Videos

  • The funeral of Manfred von Richthofen.

    The funeral of Manfred von Richthofen.


    Image File history File links Richthofen_funeral. ... Image File history File links Richthofen_funeral. ...

  • Problems seeing the videos? See media help.

Decorations & Awards:

• Prussian Pour le Mérite Order: 12 January 1917 (in recognition of his 16th aerial victory).
• Prussian Red Eagle Order, 3rd Class with Crown and Swords: 6 April 1918 (in recognition of his 70th aerial victory).
• Prussian Royal Hohenzollern House Order, Knight’s Cross with Swords: 11 November 1916.
• Prussian Iron Cross, 1st Class (1914)
• Prussian Iron Cross, 2nd Class (1914): September 1914.
• Bavarian Military Merit Order, 4th Class with Swords: 29 April 1917.[16]
• Saxon Military St. Henry Order, Knight’s Cross: 16 April 1917.
• Württemberg Military Merit Order, Knight’s Cross: 13 April 1917.
• Saxe-Ernestine Ducal House Order, Knight 1st Class with Swords (issued by the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha): 9 May 1917.
• Hesse General Honour Decoration, “for Bravery”
• Lippe War Honour Cross for Heroic Deeds: 13 October 1917.
• Schaumburg-Lippe Cross for Faithful Service: 10 October 1917.
• Brunswick War Merit Cross, 2nd Class: 24 September 1917.
• Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Duke Carl Eduard Medal, 2nd Class with Swords and Date: 30 December 1916
• Hamburg Hanseatic Cross
• Bremen Hanseatic Cross: 25 September 1917.
• Lübeck Hanseatic Cross: 22 September 1917.
• Austrian Order of the Iron Crown, 3rd Class with War Decoration: 8 August 1917.
• Austrian Military Merit Cross, 3rd Class with War Decoration
• Bulgarian Bravery Order, 4th Class (1st Grade): June 1917.
• Turkish Imtiaz Medal in Silver with Sabres
• Turkish Liakat Medal in Silver with Sabres
• Turkish War Medal (“Iron Crescent”): 4 November 1917.
• German Army Pilot’s Badge
• German Army Observer’s Badge[17]
• Austrian Field Pilot’s Badge (Franz Joseph pattern)


See also

Fokker Dr.I. Replica of the famous Manfred von Richthofen tri-plane at the ILA 2006 // In the comic strip Peanuts, one of Snoopys fantasies portrays him as a World War I flying ace (Arthur Browns nickname was Snoopy) with a personal grudge against the Red Baron. ... The following is a list of the flying aces of World War I. List of World War I flying aces by nationality Categories: | ... The Red Baron (German title: Der Rote Baron) is an upcoming 2007 feature film about legendary fighter pilot Manfred von Richthofen. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Detailed list of Manfred von Richthofen's air victories
  2. ^ a b Citation | last = Baker | first = David | title = Manfred von Richthofen: The Man and the Aircraft he flew | publisher = Voyageur Press | year = 1991 | Volume = Famous Flyers Series}}
  3. ^ von Richthofen, Manfred & von Richthofen, Bolko (1933), Der rote Kampfflieger, Ullstein, <http://books.google.com/books?id=mxUZAAAAIAAJ&q=der+rote+kampfflieger&dq=der+rote+kampfflieger&pgis=1>
  4. ^ Johnson (Contributing Editor for WTJ), Karl. THE RED FIGHTER PILOT BY MANFRED VON RICHTHOFEN online edition. The War Times Journal. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  5. ^ Richthofen's autobiography: Early battlefield experiences
  6. ^ Richthofen's autobiography: Transfer to the Luftstreitkräfte
  7. ^ Karl Bodenschatz, Hunting With Richthofen.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Dr. Geoffrey Miller, 1998, "The Death of Manfred von Richthofen: who fired the fatal shot?", in Sabretache: Journal and Proceedings of the Military History Society of Australia, vol. XXXIX, no. 2
  9. ^ a b Unsolved History: Death of the Red Baron, 2002, Discovery Channel
  10. ^ 'Dogfight: The Mystery of the Red Baron.' - UKTV History, 6th November 2007.
  11. ^ a b c d e NOVA, 2003, "Who Killed the Red Baron? Explore Competing Theories" (Public Broadcasting Service)
  12. ^ Mark Day, "Unsung No.1 with a bullet" (The Australian, 7 April 2007) Access date: 4 May 2007.
  13. ^ Allmers, H., "Manfred Freiherr von Richthofen's medical record — was the "Red Baron" fit to fly?", The Lancet, 1999 (August 7); 354 (9177), pp.502-4. Published online by anzacs.net, access date: September 23, 2007
  14. ^ The Red Baron's last flight, 1997, Norman Franks and Alan Bennett. Republished 2006 by Grub Street, London SW11 6SS
  15. ^ Biography Lothar Freiherr von Richthofen
  16. ^ For many years, World War I aviation historians believed Richthofen had received the 3rd Class with Crown and Swords of the Bavarian Military Merit Order prior to his submission for the Military Max Joseph Order. However, recent research has proved that he received the usual class of that order common for an officer of his rank: the 4th Class with Swords of the Bavarian Military Merit Order. See errata and addenda, pages 371-374, of Neal W. O’Connor’s Aviation Awards of Imperial Germany in World War I and the Men Who Earned Them – Volume VI: The Aviation Awards of the Grand Duchies of Baden and Oldenburg (Foundation of Aviation World War I, Princeton, New Jersey & Flying Machines Press, Stratford, Connecticut, 1999).
  17. ^ No record or photographic evidence has been seen to indicate Richthofen qualified for this badge. However, he successfully completed the training and served for nearly five months as an observer before retraining as a pilot.)

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Unsolved Histories is a 2002-2005 documentary television series produced by MorningStar Entertainment, Termite Art Productions, and others for The Discovery Channel. ... Discovery Channel is a cable and satellite TV channel founded by John Hendricks which is distributed by Discovery Communications. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

References

Notes
  1. ^ Detailed list of Manfred von Richthofen's air victories
  2. ^ a b Citation | last = Baker | first = David | title = Manfred von Richthofen: The Man and the Aircraft he flew | publisher = Voyageur Press | year = 1991 | Volume = Famous Flyers Series}}
  3. ^ von Richthofen, Manfred & von Richthofen, Bolko (1933), Der rote Kampfflieger, Ullstein, <http://books.google.com/books?id=mxUZAAAAIAAJ&q=der+rote+kampfflieger&dq=der+rote+kampfflieger&pgis=1>
  4. ^ Johnson (Contributing Editor for WTJ), Karl. THE RED FIGHTER PILOT BY MANFRED VON RICHTHOFEN online edition. The War Times Journal. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  5. ^ Richthofen's autobiography: Early battlefield experiences
  6. ^ Richthofen's autobiography: Transfer to the Luftstreitkräfte
  7. ^ Karl Bodenschatz, Hunting With Richthofen.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Dr. Geoffrey Miller, 1998, "The Death of Manfred von Richthofen: who fired the fatal shot?", in Sabretache: Journal and Proceedings of the Military History Society of Australia, vol. XXXIX, no. 2
  9. ^ a b Unsolved History: Death of the Red Baron, 2002, Discovery Channel
  10. ^ 'Dogfight: The Mystery of the Red Baron.' - UKTV History, 6th November 2007.
  11. ^ a b c d e NOVA, 2003, "Who Killed the Red Baron? Explore Competing Theories" (Public Broadcasting Service)
  12. ^ Mark Day, "Unsung No.1 with a bullet" (The Australian, 7 April 2007) Access date: 4 May 2007.
  13. ^ Allmers, H., "Manfred Freiherr von Richthofen's medical record — was the "Red Baron" fit to fly?", The Lancet, 1999 (August 7); 354 (9177), pp.502-4. Published online by anzacs.net, access date: September 23, 2007
  14. ^ The Red Baron's last flight, 1997, Norman Franks and Alan Bennett. Republished 2006 by Grub Street, London SW11 6SS
  15. ^ Biography Lothar Freiherr von Richthofen
  16. ^ For many years, World War I aviation historians believed Richthofen had received the 3rd Class with Crown and Swords of the Bavarian Military Merit Order prior to his submission for the Military Max Joseph Order. However, recent research has proved that he received the usual class of that order common for an officer of his rank: the 4th Class with Swords of the Bavarian Military Merit Order. See errata and addenda, pages 371-374, of Neal W. O’Connor’s Aviation Awards of Imperial Germany in World War I and the Men Who Earned Them – Volume VI: The Aviation Awards of the Grand Duchies of Baden and Oldenburg (Foundation of Aviation World War I, Princeton, New Jersey & Flying Machines Press, Stratford, Connecticut, 1999).
  17. ^ No record or photographic evidence has been seen to indicate Richthofen qualified for this badge. However, he successfully completed the training and served for nearly five months as an observer before retraining as a pilot.)
General bibliography
  • Allmers, Henning. "Manfred Freiherr von Richthofen's Medical Record: Was the "Red Baron" fit to fly?" Lancet 1999, 354: p. 502-504.
  • Baker, David. Manfred von Richthofen: The Man and the Aircraft He Flew McGregor, Minnesota: Voyageur Press, 1991. ISBN 1-87154-706-7.
  • Franks, Norman , et al. Under the Guns of the Red Baron. London: Grub Street, 1998. ISBN 1-84067-145-9.
  • Kilduff, Peter. The Red Baron: Beyond the Legend. London: Cassell, 1994. ISBN 0-304-35207-1.
  • Von Richthofen, Manfred. Red Fighter Pilot: The Autobiography of the Red Baron. St Petersburg, Florida: Red and Black Publishers, 2007. ISBN 978-0-9791813-3-7.
Concerning The Red Baron's Death
  • Day, Mark. "Unsung No.1 with a bullet - World War I ace Manfred von Richthofen seems to have met his match in an Australian gunner," 30 April 2007. The Australian News Corporation. World War I ace Manfred von Richthofen Access date: 30 April 2007.
  • Franks, Norman and Bennett, Alan. The Red Baron's Last Flight. London: Grub Street, 1997. ISBN 1-90494-333-0.
  • Miller, Geoffrey. "The Death of Manfred von Richthofen: Who fired the fatal shot?" Sabretache: Journal and Proceedings of the Military History Society of Australia, Vol. XXXIX, No. 2, online available.
  • Titler, Dale. The Day the Red Baron Died. New York: Ballantine Books, 1970. ISBN 0-345-24923-2.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Unsolved Histories is a 2002-2005 documentary television series produced by MorningStar Entertainment, Termite Art Productions, and others for The Discovery Channel. ... Discovery Channel is a cable and satellite TV channel founded by John Hendricks which is distributed by Discovery Communications. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Australian is a national daily broadsheet newspaper published by Rupert Murdochs News Corporation. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

External links


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