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Encyclopedia > Manetho

Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). His work is of great interest to Egyptologists, and is often used as evidence for the chronology of the reigns of Pharoahs. A historian is a person who studies history. ... Roman Catholic priest LCDR Allen R. Kuss (USN) aboard USS Enterprise A priest or priestess is a holy man or woman who takes an officiating role in worship of any religion, with the distinguishing characteristic of offering sacrifices. ... Sebennytos was the Ancient Greek name for an area now known as Samannud, located on the Damietta branch of the Nile delta. ... The Ptolemaic dynasty was a Greek royal family which ruled over Egypt for nearly 300 years, from 305 BC to 30 BC. Ptolemy, a Macedonian and one of Alexander the Greats generals, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexanders death in 323 BC. In 305 BC he declared... // Events The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean Rome conquers Spain Gaulish migration to Macedonia, Thrace and Galatia 281 BCE Antiochus I Soter, on the assassination of his father Seleucus becomes emperor of the Seleucid empire. ... An Egyptologist is any archaeologist or historian who specialises in Egyptology, the scientific study of Ancient Egypt and its antiquities. ...

Contents


Name

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The original Egyptian version of his name unknown, but it is speculated to have meant "Gift of Thoth," "Beloved of Thoth," "Truth of Thoth," "Beloved of Neith," or "Lover of Neith." Less accepted proposals are Myinyu-heter ("Horseherd" or "Groom") and Ma'ani-Djehuti ("I have seen Thoth").[citation needed] In Greek, the earliest fragments (the Carthage inscription and Flavius Josephus) write his name as Μανεθων Manethōn, so the rendering of his name here is given as Manetho (the same way that Platōn is rendered "Plato"). Other renderings in Greek include Manethōs, Manethō, Manethos, Manēthōs, Manēthōn, and even Manethōth. In Latin we find Manethon, Manethos, Manethonus, and Manetos. Image File history File links Stop_hand. ... Thoth (Ramesseum, Luxor) In Egyptian mythology, Thoth (also spelt Thot or Thout), pronounced tot, is the Greek name given to Djehuty (also spelt Tahuti, Tehuti, Zehuti, Techu, Tetu) - the original pronunciation of his name is disputed, and may have been approximately Tee-HOW-ti -, who was originally the deification of... Neith In Egyptian mythology, Neith (also known as Nit, Net and Neit) was a psychopomp, a goddess of war and the hunt and the patron deity of Sais, in the Western Delta. ... A map of the central Mediterranean Sea, showing the location of Carthage (near modern Tunis). ... Josephus (c. ... Plato Plato (Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn) (c. ...


Life and work

Although no sources for the dates of his life and death remain, his work is usually associated with the reigns of Ptolemy I Soter (323-283 BCE) and Ptolemy II Philadelphos (285-246 BCE). If the mention of Manetho in the Hibeh Papyri, dated to 240/1 BCE, is in fact Manetho the author of Aegyptiaca, then he may well have been working during the reign of Ptolemy III Euergetes (246-222 BCE) as well. Although he was Egyptian and his topics dealt with Egyptian matters, he wrote solely in Greek. Other works he wrote include Against Herodotus, The Sacred Book, On Antiquity and Religion, On Festivals, On the Preparation of Kyphi, the Digest of Physics. The astrological treatise Book of Sothis has also been attributed to Manetho. In Aegyptiaca, he coined the term "dynasty" (Greek: dynasteia, abstractly meaning "governmental power") to represent groups of rulers with a common origin. Ptolemy I Soter (367 BC–283 BC) was a Macedonian Greek who became the ruler of Egypt (323 BC - 283 BC) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. ... Head of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309-246 BC), with Arsinoë II. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309-246 BC), was of a delicate constitution, no Macedonian warrior-chief of the old style. ... Ptolemy III Euergetes, (Ptolemaeus III) (Evergetes, Euergetes) (reigned 246 BC-222 BC) is sometimes called Ptolemy III Euergetes I. (Ptolemy VIII also titled himself Euergetes: the Beneficent; but he is usually known, then and since, as Ptolemy Physcon: Belly. ... // A dynasty is a succession of rulers who are members of the same family for generations. ...


He was probably a priest of the sun god Ra at Heliopolis (according to Syncellus, he was the chief priest), and was also considered an authority on the cult of Sarapis (a derivation of Osiris-Apis). Sarapis itself was a Greco-Macedonian annexation of the Egyptian cult, probably started after Alexander the Great's establishment of Alexandria in Egypt. A statue of the god was imported between 286-278 BCE by Ptolemy (either Soter or Philadelphos), where Timotheus of Athens (an authority on Demeter at Eleusis) and Manetho oversaw the project. , , or This article is about the Egyptian god. ... Heliopolis (Greek Ἡλίου πόλις) was one of the most ancient cities of Egypt, and capital of the 13th Lower Egyptian nome. ... George the Syncellus (died after 810) was a Byzantine chronicler and ecclesiastic. ... This page refers to the god Serapis. ... Osiris (Greek language, also Usiris; the Egyptian language name is variously transliterated Asar, Aser, Ausar, or Ausare) is the Egyptian God of the dead and the underworld. ... Apis can refer to the following: Apis — An Egyptian god Apis — A Bee genus Apis — In Greek mythology a prophet. ... Alexander the Great fighting Persian king Darius (not in frame) (Pompeii mosaic, from a 3rd century BC original Greek painting, now lost). ... Antiquity and modernity stand cheek-by-jowl in Egypts chief Mediterranean seaport Located on the Mediterranean Sea coast, Alexandria Αλεξάνδρεια (in Arabic, الإسكندرية, transliterated al-ʼIskandariyyah) is the chief seaport in Egypt, and that countrys second largest city, and the capital of the Al Iskandariyah governate. ... Demeter, Greek goddess of the harvest. ... Eleusis (Game) The cardgame invented by Robert Abbott in 1962, and later popularized in 1977 by Martin Gardner in his Mathematical Games column in Scientific American magazine. ...


Aegyptiaca

Aegyptiaca (also called Aigyptiaka), the "History of Egypt," was Manetho's largest work, and certainly the most important. It was organised chronologically and divided into three volumes, and his division of rulers into dynasties was a new innovation. However, he did not use the term the way we do, by bloodlines, but rather, introduced new dynasties whenever he detected some sort of discontinuity whether geographical (Dynasty IV from Memphis, V from Elephantine), or genealogical (especially in Dynasty I, he refers to each successive Pharaoh as the "son" of the previous to define what he means by "continuity"). Within the superstructure of a genealogical table of rulers, he fills in the gaps with substantial narratives of the Pharaonic rulers. The Fourth dynasty of Egypt was the second of the four dynasties considered forming the Old Kingdom. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Fifth Dynasty. ... The First and second Dynasties of Ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt. ...


Some have suggested that Aegyptiaca was written as a competing account to Herodotus' Histories of Herodotus, to provide a national history for Egypt that did not exist before. From this perspective, Against Herodotus may have been an abridged version or just a part of Aegyptiaca that circulated independently. Unfortunately, neither survive in their original form today.


Transmission and reception

The problems with a close study of Manetho, despite the reliance of Egyptologists on him for their reconstructions of the Egyptian dynasties, is that not only was Aegyptiaca not preserved as a whole, but that it became involved in a bitter battle between Jewish and anti-Jewish polemicists. During this period, disputes raged over the "oldest" civilizations, and so Manetho's account was probably excerpted during this time for use in this argument with significant alterations. Material similar to Manetho's has been found in Lysimakhos of Alexandria, and it has been suggested that this was inserted into Manetho. We do not know when this occurred, but scholars place a terminus ante quem at the first century CE, when Josephus began writing. Look up Polemic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Polemic is the art or practice of inciting disputation or causing controversy, for example in religious, philosophical, or political matters. ... (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 99. ...


The earliest surviving attestation to Manetho is that of Josephus' Contra Apionem, "Against Apion." Even here, it is clear that Josephus did not have the originals. Avaris and Osarsephos are both mentioned twice (1.78, 86-87; 238, 250). Apion 1.95-97 is merely a list of kings with no narratives until 1.98, while running across two of Manetho's dynasties without mention (Dynasties XVIII and XIX). Many scholars have attempted to recreate which portions were written by the anti-Jewish and pro-Jewish writers, or even by an independent Greek copyist, but the conclusions have been disputed. Against Apion was a work written by Flavius Josephus as a defense of Judaism as a classical religion and philosophy, stressing its antiquity against the relatively more recent traditions of the Greeks. ... Osarseph is a person that Manetho (writing in the first millenium BC) claimed was a high priest mainly during the reign of Amenhotep III. According to Manetho, he was part of the priesthood at Heliopolis, and supported the introduction of monotheism by Akhenaten. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Eighteenth Dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Nineteenth Dynasty. ...


Contemporaneously or perhaps after Josephus wrote, an Epitome, or summary, of Manetho's work. This would have involved preserving the outlines of his dynasties and a few details deemed significant. For the first ruler of the first Dynasty, Menes, we learn that "He was snatched and killed by a hippopotamus." The extent to which the epitome preserved Manetho's original writing is unclear, so caution must be exercised. Nevertheless, the epitome was preserved by Sextus Julius Africanus and Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea (Chronicon). Because Africanus predates Eusebius, his version is usually considered more reliable, but there is no assurance that this is the case. Eusebius in turn was preserved by Jerome in his Latin translation, an Armenian translation, and by Syncellus. Syncellus recognised the similarities between Eusebius and Africanus, so he placed them side by side in his work, Ecloga Chronographica. 1. ... Menes was an Egyptian pharaoh of the First dynasty, to some authors the founder of this dynasty, to others the Second. ... Sextus Julius Africanus, a Christian traveller and historian of the 3rd century, was probably born in Libya, and may have served under Septimius Severus against the Osrhoenians in AD 195. ... Eusebius of Caesarea (~275 – May 30, 339) (often called Eusebius Pamphili, Eusebius [the friend] of Pamphilus) was a bishop of Caesarea in Palestine and is often referred to as the father of church history because of his work in recording the history of the early Christian church. ... , by Albrecht Dürer Saint Jerome (ca. ... George the Syncellus (died after 810) was a Byzantine chronicler and ecclesiastic. ...


These last four copies are what remains of the epitome of Manetho. Other significant fragments include Malalas' Chronographia and Excerpta Latina Barbari, "Excerpts in Bad Latin." The route of transmission for the bulk of Manetho's work is given in the table below (adapted from Verbrugghe and Wickersham 2000:118). John Malalas (or Ioannes, or Malelas) (Syriac for orator) (c. ...


Transmission of Manetho

Transmission of Manetho: Table Image File history File links Aegyptiaca. ...


Sources and methods

Manetho's methods involved the use of king-lists to provide a structure for his history. There were probably precedents to his writing available in Egypt (plenty of which has survived to this day), and his Hellenistic and Egyptian background would have been influential in his writing. Josephus records him admitting to using "nameless oral tradition" (1.105) and "myths and legends" (1.229) into his account, and there is no reason to doubt this, as admissions of this type were common among historians (including Josephus). His familiarity with Egyptian legends is undisputable, but how he came to know Greek is more open to debate. He must have been familiar with Herodotus, and in some cases, he even attempted to synchronise Egyptian history with Greek (for example, equating Memnon with Amenophis, and Armesis with Danaos). This suggests he was also familiar with the Greek Epic Cycle (where the Ethiopian Memnon is slain by Achilles during the Trojan War) and the history of Argos (in Aeschylus' Suppliants). However, it has also been suggested that these were later interpolations particularly when the epitome was being written, so these guesses are at best tentative. At the very least, he wrote in fluent Koinê. In Greek mythology, Memnon was an Ethiopian king and son of Tithonus and Eos. ... Amenhotep (also Amenophis, the Greek spelling), is the name of several Egyptian pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty: Amenhotep I Amenhotep II Amenhotep III Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) Amenophis German progressive rock band of the 80th. ... Danaus, or Danaos (sleeper) was a Greek mythological character, twin of Aegyptus and son of Belus, a mythic king of Egypt. ... The Trojan War cycle, also widely known as the Epic Cycle, was a collection of eight Ancient Greek epic poems that related the history of the Trojan War. ... The wrath of Achilles, by Léon Benouville In Greek mythology, , transliterated to Akhilleus or Achilause in Roman letters, Latinized from this ancient Greek to Achilles, appearing in Etruscan as Achle, was a hero (ancient Greek heros, defender) of the Trojan War, the greatest and the most central character of... The Trojan War was a war waged, according to legend, against the city of Troy in Asia Minor by the armies of the Achaeans, following the kidnapping (or elopement) of Helen of Sparta by Paris of Troy. ... Aeschylus This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... In the mathematical subfield of numerical analysis, interpolation is a method of constructing new data points from a discrete set of known data points. ... The literal meaning of the Greek word koine (κοινή) is common. It is used in several senses: Koiné Greek (Κοινή Ἑλληνική), a Greek dialect that developed from the Attic dialect (of Athens) and became the spoken language of Greece at the time of the Empire of Alexander the Great. ...


King lists

The king-list that Manetho had access to is unknown to us, but of the surviving king-lists, the one most similar to his is the Turin Royal Canon (or Turin Papyrus). The oldest source with which we can compare to Manetho are the Old Kingdom Annals (ca. 2500-2200 BCE). From the New Kingdom are the list at Karnak (erected by Thutmose), two at Abydos (by Seti I and Ramesses—the latter a duplicate but updated version of the former), and the Saqqara list by the priest Tenry. The Turin King List also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is a unique papyrus, written in hieratic, currently in the Museo Egizio (Egyptian Museum) at Turin, to which it owes its modern name. ... The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization complexity and achievement - this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the Nile Valley (the... The New Kingdom is the period in Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BCE, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... Obelisk at Karnak temple El-Karnak is a small village in Egypt, located on the banks of the River Nile some 2. ... Thutmose (also rendered Thutmosis, Tutmose, Tutmosis, Thothmes, Tuthmosis, etc. ... Abydos, one of the most ancient cities of Upper Egypt, stood about 11 km (6 miles) west of the Nile at latitude 26° 10 N. The Egyptian name was Abdju (technically, 3bdw, hieroglyphs shown to the right), the hill of the symbol or reliquary, in which the sacred head of... -1... Ramesses (also commonly spelled Ramses [RAM seez] or Rameses [RAM uh seez]) is the name conventionally given in English transliteration to eleven Egyptian pharaohs of the later New Kingdom period. ...


The provenance of the Old Kingdom Annals is unknown, surviving as the Palermo Stone. The differences between the Annals and Manetho are vast. The Annals only reach to the fifth dynasty, but its pre-dynastic rulers are listed as the kings of Lower Egypt and kings of Upper Egypt. By contrast, Manetho lists several Greek and Egyptian gods beginning with Hephaistos and Helios. Secondly, the Annals give annual reports of the activities of the kings, while there is little probability that Manetho would have been able to go into such detail. The Palermo Stone is an ancient Egyptian stone of black [basalt] engraved toward the end of the 5th dynasty (twenty-fifth century BC) and is probably the earliest Egyptian historical text. ... The Temple of Hephaestus, Athens: western face. ... This article is about Helios in Greek and Roman mythology. ...


The New Kingdom lists are each selective in their listings: that of Seti I, for instance, lists 76 kings from Dynasties I to XIX omitting the Hyksos rulers and those associated with the heretic Akhenaten. The Saqqara list, contemporaneous with Ramesses II, has 58 names, with similar omissions. If Manetho used these lists at all, he would have been unable to get all of his information from them alone, due to the selective nature of their records. Verbrugghe and Wickersham argue: The Hyksos (Egyptian heka khasewet) were an ethnically mixed group of Southwest Asiatic or Semitic people who appeared in the eastern Nile Delta during the Second Intermediate Period. ... Heretic, meaning literally a person guilty or accused of heresy, is also often used as a title. ... Bust of Pharaoh Akhenaten. ... Ramesses II, Abu Simbel Ramesses II (also known as Ramesses the Great and alternatively transcribed as Ramses and Rameses) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the nineteenth dynasty. ...

Furthermore, the purpose of these lists was to cover the walls of a sacred room in which the reigning Pharoah (or other worshiper, as in the case of Tenry and his Saqqara list) made offerings or prayers to his or her predecessors, imagined as ancestors. Each royal house had a particular traditional list of these "ancestors," different from that of the other houses. The purpose of these lists is not historical but religious. It is not that they are trying and failing to give a complete list. They are not trying at all. Seti and Ramesses did not wish to make offerings to Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, or Hatshepsut, and that is why they are omitted, not because their existence was unknown or deliberately ignored in a broader historical sense. For this reason, the Pharaonic king-lists were generally wrong for Manetho's purposes, and we should commend Manetho for not basing his account on them (2000:105).

These large stelae stand in contrast to the Turin Royal Canon (like Saqqara, contemporaneous with Ramesses II), written in hieratic script. Like Manetho, it begins with the gods, and like Manetho, appears to be an epitome very similar in spirit and style to Manetho. Interestingly, the opposite side of the papyrus includes government records. Verbrugghe and Wickersham suggest that a comprehensive list like this would be necessary for a government office "to date contracts, leases, debts, titles, and other instruments (2000:106)" and so could not have been selective the way the king-lists in temples were. Despite numerous differences between the Turin Canon and Manetho, the format must have been available to him. As a priest (or chief priest), he would have had access to practically all written materials in the temple. Tutankhamun (alternate transcription Tutankhamen), named Tutankhaten early in his life, was Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (1334 BC/1333 BC - 1323 BC), during the period known as the New Kingdom. ... An indurated limestone sculpture of Hatshepsut in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. ... Ancient Egyptian funerary stela A stela (or stele) is a stone or wooden slab, generally taller than it is wide, erected for funerary or commemorative purposes, most usually decorated with the names and titles of the deceased inscribed, carved in relief or painted onto the slab. ... Development of hieratic script from hieroglyphs; after Champollion. ...


While the precise origins for Manetho's Kinglist are unknown, it was certainly a Northern Lower Egyptian one. This can be deduced most noticeably from his selection of the kings for the Third Intermediate Period. Manetho consistently includes the Tanite Dynasty 21 and Dynasty 22 line in his Epitome such as Psusennes I, Amenemopet and even such short-lived rulers here like Amenemnisu(5 years) and Osochor(6 years). In contrast, he ignores the existence of Theban kings such as Osorkon III, Takelot III, Harsiese A and Pinedjem I and rulers from Middle Egypt like Peftjaubast of Herakleopolis. This implies that Manetho derived the primary sources for his Epitome from a local city's temple library in the Delta Region which was under the control of the Tanite based Dynasty 21 and Dynasty 22 kings. The Middle and Upper Egyptian Pharaohs had no impact upon this specific region of the Delta; hence their exclusion from Manetho's kinglist. Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-First Dynasty. ... The Twenty-second (22nd) dynasty or Dynasty 22 ruled between 945 BC or 943 BC and 720 BC. Their kings were Meshwesh Libyans who had settled in Egypt since the 20th dynasty). ... 1. ... Gold burial mask of King Psusennes I, discovered 1940 by Pierre Montet. ... King Usimare Amenemopet (or Amenemope) was the son of Psusennes I and Queen Mutnedjemet. ... King Hedjkheperre Setepenamun Harsiese or Harsiese A, is viewed by the eminent scholar Kenneth Kitchen in his books on the Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, to be both a High Priest of Amun(HPA) and the son of the High Priest of Amun, Shoshenq C. The archaeological evidence does suggest... Pharaoh (Hebrew פַּרְעֹה (without niqqud: פרעה), Standard Hebrew Parʿo, Tiberian Hebrew Parʿōh, Arabic فرعون) is a title used to refer to the kings (of godly status) in ancient Egypt. ...


Transcriptions of Pharaonic names

After the Fourth Dynasty, the Pharaohs bore five different titles, the "Horus" name; the "Two Ladies" name; the "Gold Horus" name; the praenomen or "throne name"; and a nomen, the personal name given at birth (also called a "Son of Ra" name as it was preceded by Sa Re'). Some Pharoahs also had multiple names within these titles, such as Ramesses II with six Horus names. Because his transliterations agree with many king-lists, it is generally accepted that he was reliant on one such king-list, and it is not clear to what extent he was aware of the different pharaonic names of rulers long past (and he had alternate names for some). Not all the different names for each ruler have been uncovered. Ramesses II, Abu Simbel Ramesses II (also known as Ramesses the Great and alternatively transcribed as Ramses and Rameses) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the nineteenth dynasty. ...


As such, he did not pick consistently from the five different types of names, but in some cases, a straightforward transliteration is possible. Egyptian Men or Meni (Son of Ra and king-list names) becomes Menes (officially, this is Pharaoh I.1 Aha—"I" represents Dynasty I, and "1" means the first king of that dynasty), while Menkauhor/Menkahor (Throne and king-list names, the Horus names is Menkhau and the Son of Ra name is "Kaiu Horkaiu[...]") is transcribed as Menkheres (V.7 Menkauhor). Others involve a slight shortening, such as A'akheperen-Re' (Throne and king-list names) becoming Khebron (XVIII.4 Thutmose II). A few more have consonants switched for unknown reasons, as in Tausret becoming Thouoris (XIX.6 Twosre/Tausret). One puzzle is in the conflicting names of some early dynastic rulers—though they did not have all five titles, they still had multiple names. I.3/4 Djer, whose Son of Ra name is Itti is seen as the basis for Manetho's I.2 Athothis. I.4 Oenephes then is a puzzle unless it is compared with Djer's Gold Horus name, Ennebu. It may be that Manetho duplicated the name or he had a source for a name unknown to us. Finally, there are some names where the connection is a complete mystery to us. V.6 Rhathoures/Niuserre's full name was Set-ib-tawi Set-ib-Nebty Netjeri-bik-nebu Ni-user-Re' Ini Ni-user-Re', but Manetho writes it as Rhathoures. It may be that some pharoahs were known by names other than even just the five official ones. AHA is a TLA that may refer to: The American Historical Association a-ha, a Norwegian pop music band American Heart Association American Hockey Association American Homebrewers Association American Humanist Association American Humane Association Alpha Hydroxy Acid aha! In some languages its an exclamation used when one gets... praenomen or throne name nomen or birth name Menkauhor Kaiu, (in Greek known as Menkeris), was Pharaoh in Egypt during the Fifth dynasty. ... nomen or birth name Akheperenre Thutmose II (d. ... Queen Twosret Sitre Meryamun was a Queen of Egypt and the last Pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Djer is the second Egyptian king of the first dynasty. ...


Thus, how Manetho transcribed these names varies, and as such we cannot reconstruct the original Egyptian forms of the names. However, because of the simplicity with which Manetho transcribed long names (see above), they were prefered until original king-lists began to be uncovered, translated, and corroborated in ancient Egyptian sites. Manetho's division of dynasties, however, is still used as a basis for all Egyptian discussions.


Content

Volume 1 begins from the earliest times, listing gods and demigods as rulers of Egypt. We do not know what the stories inside contained, but some of the associated legends of Isis, Osiris, Seth, or Horus might have been found in here. Manetho does not transliterate either, but gives the Greek equivalents in a convention that predates him: Ptah = Hephaistos; Isis = Demeter; Thoth = Hermes; Horus = Apollo; Seth = Typhon; etc. This is one of the clues as to how syncretism developed between seemingly disparate religions. He then proceeds to Dynastic Egypt, from Dynasty I to XI. This would have included the Old Kingdom (pyramid-builders), the First Intermediate Period, and the early Middle Kingdom. A demigod, a half-god, is a person whose one parent was a god and whose other parent was a human. ... Isis is a goddess in the Egyptian belief. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Horus is an ancient god of Egyptian mythology, whose cult survived so long that he evolved dramatically over time and gained many names. ... Syncretism is the attempt to reconcile disparate, even opposing, beliefs and to meld practices of various schools of thought. ... Manethos statement that the Eleventh dynasty consisted of 16 kings who reigned 43 years is contradicted by contemporary inscriptions and the evidence of the Turin King List, whose combined testimony proves that it consisted of seven kings who ruled about 160 years. ...


Volume 2 covers Dynasties XII - XIX, which includes the end of the Middle Kingdom and the Second Intermediate Period (XV-XVII—the Hyksos invasion), and then their expulsion and the establishment of the New Kingdom (XVIII onward). The Second Intermediate Period was of particular interest to Josephus, where he equated the Hyksos or "shepherd-kings" as the ancient Israelites who eventually made their way out of Egypt (Apion 1.82-92). He even includes a brief etymological discussion of the term "Hyksos". Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twelfth Dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Motto: none Anthem: Hatikvah Capital Jerusalem Largest city Jerusalem Official language(s) Hebrew, Arabic Government President Prime Minister Acting Prime Minister Parliamentary democracy Moshe Katsav Ariel Sharon1 Ehud Olmert Independence  Declaration From the United Kingdom 14 May 1948 (05 Iyar 5708) Area  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Water (%)   20,770 km² (150th) ~2% Population...


Volume 3 continues with Dynasty XX and brings it to a conclusion in Dynasty XXX (or XXXI, see below). The Saite Renaissance comes in Dynasty XXVI, while XXVII involves the Achaemenid interruption to Egyptian rule. Three more local dynasties are mentioned, though they must have overlapped with Persian rule. XXXI consisted of three Persian rulers, and some have suggested that this was added by a continuator. Both Moses of Chorene and Jerome end at Nectanebo ("last king of the Egyptians" and "destruction of the Egyptian monarchy" respectively), but XXXI fits within Manetho's schemata of demonstrating power through the dynasteia well. The Thirty-second dynasty would have been the Ptolemies. Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twentieth Dynasty. ... The Thirtieth dynasty of Egypt followed Nectanebo Is deposition of Nefaarud II, the son of Hakor. ... Sais was the chief city of the fifth nome of Lower Egypt, located in the western edge of the Nile Delta. ... The Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest, and had its capital was Sais. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Pakistan, Jordan, Israel... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Pakistan, Jordan, Israel... Nectanebo II (ruled 360 - 343 BC), also known by the name Nakhthoreb, was the third and last king of the Thirtieth dynasty of Egypt and the last native ruler of the country. ...


Similarities with Berossos

Most of the ancient witnesses group him together with Berossos, and treat the pair as similar in spirit, and it is no coincidence that those who preserved the bulk of their writing are largely the same (Josephus, Africanus, Eusebius, and Syncellus). Certainly, both wrote about the same time, and both adopted the historiographical approach of the Greek historians, Herodotus and Hesiod, who preceded them. While the subjects of their history are different, the form is similar, using chronological royal genealogies as the structure from which the narratives came. Both extend their histories far into the mythic past, to give the gods rule over the earliest ancestral histories. Berossus (also spelled Berosus), Greek: Βεροσσος, at the beginning of the 3rd century BC, was a priest of Baal in Babylonia. ... This article is about deities or gods from a non-monotheistic perspective. ...


Syncellus goes so far as to insinuate that the two copied each other:

If one carefully examines the underlying chronological lists of events, one will have full confidence that the design of both is false, as both Berossos and Manetho, as I have said before, want to glorify each his own nation, Berossos the Chaldean, Manetho the Egyptian. One can only stand in amazement that they were not ashamed to place the beginning of their incredible story in each in one and the same year.
Ecloga Chronographica, 30

While this does seem an incredible coincidence, the reliability of the report is unclear. The reasoning for assuming they started their histories in the same year involved some considerable contortions. Berossos dated the period before the Flood to 120 saroi (3,600 year periods), giving an estimate of 432,000 years before the flood. This was unacceptable to later Christian commentators, so it was assumed he meant solar days. 432,000 divided by 365 days gives a rough figure of 1,183½ years before the flood. For Manetho, even more numeric contortions ensued. With no flood mentioned, they assumed that Manetho's first era describing the gods represented the ante-diluvian age. Secondly, they took the spurious Book of Sothis for a chronological count. Six dynasties of gods totalled 11,985 years, while the nine dynasties with demigods came to 858 years. Again, this was too long for the Biblical account, so two different units of conversion were used. The 11,985 years were considered to be months of 29½ days each (a conversion used in antiquity, for example Diodorus Siculus), which comes out to 969 years. The latter period, however, was divided into "seasons", or quarters of a year, and reduces to 214½ years (another conversion attested to by Diodorus). The sum of these comes out to 1,183½ years, equal to that of Berossos. Syncellus rejected both Manetho's and Berossos' incredible time-spans, as well as the efforts of other commentators to harmonise their numbers with scripture. Ironically as we see, he also blamed them for the synchronicity concocted by later writers. Chaldean can refer to an ancient people of lower Mesopotamia and their culture, or a contemporary Christian people living mostly in Iraq, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Iran, Michigan, as well as a relativley widespread diaspora concentrated in the western world. ... The Deluge by Gustave Doré The story of a Great Flood sent by God or the gods to destroy civilization as an act of divine retribution is a widespread theme in myths. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ...


Impact of Aegyptiaca

It is speculated that Manetho wrote at the request of Ptolemy I or II to give an account of the history of Egypt to the Greeks from a native's perspective. However, there is no evidence to support this hypothesis. If such were the case, Aegyptiaca was a failure, since Herodotus' Histories continued to provide the standard account in the Hellenistic world. It may also have been that some nationalistic sentiments in Manetho provided the impetus for his writing, but that again is conjecture. It is clear, however, that when it was written, it would have proven to be the authoritative account of the history of Egypt, superior to Herodotus in every way. The completeness and systematic nature in which he marshalled his sources was unprecedented. Furthermore, its influence could be seen in the way the Hellenistic Jews and their opponents considered it of prime importance in the struggle over their histories.


Syncellus similarly recognised its importance when recording Eusebius and Africanus, and even provided a separate witness from the Book of Sothis. Unfortunately, this material is likely to have been a forgery or hoax of unknown date. Every king in Sothis after Menes is irreconcilable with the versions of Africanus and Eusebius. Manetho should not be judged on the factuality of his account, but on the approach he took to recording history, and in this, he was as successful as Herodotus and Hesiod.


Finally, in modern times, the impact is still visible in the way Egyptologists divide the dynasties of the pharoahs. The French explorer and Egyptologist, Jean-François Champollion reportedly carried a copy of Manetho's lists in one hand as he attempted to decipher the hieroglyphics he encountered (though it probably gave him more frustration than joy, considering the way Manetho transcribed the names). Most modern scholarship that mentions the names of the pharoahs will render both the modern transcription and Manetho's version, and Manetho's names are even preferred to more authentic ones in some cases. Today, his division of dynasties is universally used, and this has permeated into the study of nearly all royal genealogies through the understanding of succession in terms of dynasties or houses. Jean-Fran ois Champollion For the comet rendezvous spacecraft, see Champollion (spacecraft). ... Hieroglyphs are a system of writing used by the Ancient Egyptians, using a combination of logographic, syllabic, and alphabetic elements. ...


References

  • Helck, Hans Wolfgang. 1975. "Manethon (1)". In Der kleine Pauly: Lexikon der Antike, auf der Grundlage von Pauly’s Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, edited by Konrat Ziegler, Walter Sontheimer, and Hans Gärtner. Vol. 3. München: Alfred Druckenmüller Verlag. 952–953. ISBN 0828867763.
  • Laqueur, Richard. 1928. "Manethon". In Paulys Real-Encyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, edited by August Friedrich von Pauly, Georg Wissowa, and Wilhelm Kroll. Vol. 14 of 24 vols. Stuttgart: Alfred Druckenmüller Verlag. 1060–1106. ISBN 347601018X.
  • M.A. Leahy. 1990. "Libya and Egypt c1300–750 BC." London: School of Oriental and African Studies, Centre of Near and Middle Eastern Studies, and The Society for Libyan Studies.
  • Redford, Donald Bruce. 1986a. "The Name Manetho". In Egyptological Studies in Honor of Richard A. Parker Presented on the Occasion of His 78th Birthday, December 10, 1983, edited by Leonard H. Lesko. Hannover and London: University Press of New England. 118–121. ISBN 0874513219.
  • ———. 1986b. Pharaonic King–Lists, Annals and Day–Books: A Contribution to the Study of the Egyptian Sense of History. Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities Publications 4, ser. ed. Loretta M. James. Mississauga: Benben Publications. ISBN 0920168086.
  • ———. 2001. "Manetho". In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, edited by Donald Bruce Redford. Vol. 2 of 3 vols. Oxford, New York, and Cairo: Oxford University Press and The American University in Cairo Press. 336–337. ISBN 0195102347.
  • Thissen, Heinz-Josef. 1980. "Manetho". In Lexikon der Ägyptologie, edited by Hans Wolfgang Helck, and Wolfhart Westendorf. Vol. 3 of 7 vols. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. 1180–1181. ISBN 3447014415.
  • Verbrugghe, Gerald P., and John Moore Wickersham. 1996. Berossos and Manetho, Introduced and Translated: Native Traditions in Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0472086871.
  • Waddell, William Gillian, ed. 1940. Manetho. The Loeb Classical Library 350, ser. ed. George P. Goold. London and Cambridge: William Heinemann ltd. and Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674993853.

Pauly-Wissowa is the name commonly used for the Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, 1894ff, a German encyclopedia of classical scholarship. ... Pauly-Wissowa is the name commonly used for the Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, 1894, a German encyclopedia of classical scholarship. ... The Loeb Classical Library is a series of books, today published by the Harvard University Press, which present important works of ancient Greek and Latin Literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each...

See also


Plutarch Mestrius Plutarchus (c. ... Berossus (also Berossos or Berosus) Greek: Βεροσσος was a Hellenistic Babylonian writer who was active at the beginning of the 3rd century BC. // Life and work Berossus published the Babyloniaca (hereafter, History of Babylonia) some time around 290-278 B.C.E. for the Macedonian/Seleucid king, Antiochus I. Certain astrological... The Ptolemaic dynasty was a Greek royal family which ruled over Egypt for nearly 300 years, from 305 BC to 30 BC. Ptolemy, a Macedonian and one of Alexander the Greats generals, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexanders death in 323 BC. In 305 BC he declared... The history of ancient [wierd] Egypt begins around 3300 BC when Egypt became a unified Egyptian state. ...

Ankh Notable Ancient Egyptians edit Ankh
Old Kingdom Rulers: Narmer | Hor-Aha | Djoser | Sneferu | Khufu | Khafra | Menkaura | Pepi II
Middle Kingdom Rulers: Mentuhotep II | Mentuhotep IV | Senusret III | Amenemhat III | Sobekneferu
New Kingdom Rulers: Hatshepsut | Thutmose III | Amenhotep III | Akhenaten | Tutankhamun | Ramesses I | Ramesses II
Other Rulers: Psammetichus I | Shoshenq I | Piye | Taharqa | Ptolemy I | Cleopatra VII
Consorts: Tetisheri | Ahmose-Nefertari | Ahmose | Tiy | Nefertiti | Ankhesenpaaten | Nefertari | Mark Antony
Court officials: Imhotep | Weni | Ahmose, son of Ebana | Ineni | Senemut | Yuya | Maya | Yuny | Manetho | Pothinus

Download high resolution version (500x878, 30 KB)The original image was created by Ihcoyc who said: An ankh. ... The following is a list of Ancient Egyptian people. ... Download high resolution version (500x878, 30 KB)The original image was created by Ihcoyc who said: An ankh. ... The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization complexity and achievement - this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the Nile Valley (the... Front and Back Sides of the Narmer Palette Narmer was an Egyptian pharaoh who ruled in the 32nd century BC. Thought to be the successor to the pre-dynastic Serket, he is considered by some to be the founder of the First dynasty. ... Hor-Aha was the 2nd Pharaoh of the 1st dynasty of Ancient Egypt. ... Netjerikhet Djoser (Turin King List Dsr-it; Manetho Tosarthros) is the best-known pharaoh of the Third dynasty of Egypt, for commissioning his vizier Imhotep to build his Step Pyramid at Saqqara. ... Sneferu, Egyptian Museum The Red Pyramid of Sneferu Sneferu, also spelt as Snefru or Snofru (in Greek known as Soris), was the founder of the Fourth dynasty of Egypt, reigning from around 2613 BC to 2589 BC. His name, Snefer, means To make beautiful in Egyptian. ... Statuette of Khufu Khufu (in Greek known as Cheops) was a Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts Old Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Khafre (disambiguation). ... Menkaura clutching short rods in his fists. ... nomen or birth name Pepi II was a ruler of the Sixth dynasty in Egypts Old Kingdom. ... The Middle Kingdom is a period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 1991 BC and 1648 BC. The Eleventh Dynasty The Middle Kingdom has been usually dated to the time when Pharaoh Mentuhotep... nomen or birth name Nebhotepre Mentuhotep II was a Pharaoh of the 11th dynasty, the son of Intef III of Egypt and a minor queen called Iah. ... nomen or birth name Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV was the last king of the 11th Dynasty. ... nomen or birth name Senusret III was a pharaoh of Egypt. ... nomen or birth name Amenemhat III (ca. ... nomen or birth name Queen Sobekneferu (sometimes written as Nefrusobek) was the Egyptian queen of the Twelfth dynasty, who ruled without a king. ... The New Kingdom is the period in Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BCE, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... An indurated limestone sculpture of Hatshepsut in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. ... nomen or birth name Granite statue of Pharaoh Thutmose III Menkheperre Thutmose III (also written as Tuthmosis III; called Manahpi(r)ya in the Amarna letters) (d. ... nomen or birth name Nebmaatre Amenhotep III (called Nibmu(`w)areya in the Amarna letters) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty. ... Bust of Pharaoh Akhenaten. ... A portrait of the young Tutankhamun by Winifred Brunton. ... nomen or birth name Menpehtyre Ramesses I (also written Ramses and Rameses) was the founding Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 19th dynasty. ... Ramesses II, Abu Simbel Ramesses II (also known as Ramesses the Great and alternatively transcribed as Ramses and Rameses) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the nineteenth dynasty. ... praenomen or throne name nomen or birth name Psammetichus, or Psamtik I, was the first of three kings of the Saite, or Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt. ... nomen or birth name Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I (Egyptian ššnq), also known as Sheshonk I (for discussion of the spelling, see Shoshenq), was a Meshwesh Libyan king of Egypt and founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty. ... Piye (whose name was once transliterated as Piankhy) (d. ... Taharqa (also spelled Tirhakah, Taharka, Manethos Tarakos) was king of Egypt, and a member of the Nubian or Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt, whose reign is usually dated 690 BC to 664 BC. He was also the son of Piye, the Nubian king of Napata who previously conquered Egypt. ... Ptolemy I Soter (367 BC–283 BC) was the ruler of Egypt (323 BC - 283 BC) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. ... Egyptian statue of Cleopatra VII Cleopatra VII Philopator (January 69 BC – August 12, 30 BC) was queen of ancient Egypt, the last member of the Ptolemaic dynasty and hence the last Hellenistic ruler of Egypt. ... Tetisheri was the matriarch of the Egyptian royal family of the late 17th Dynasty and early 18th Dynasty. ... Queen Ahmose-Nefertari of Egypt was the sister-wife of Egypts Pharaoh King Ahmose I. She had two children-Amenhotep I and Aahhotep II, who wed each other and had the Princess Aahmes. ... Queen Ahmose was the mother of Hatshepsut of Egypt. ... Tiy (c. ... Bust of Nefertiti from Berlins Altes Museum. ... Ankhesenpaaten, a. ... A picture of Nefertari taken in her Abu Simbel temple. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N¹) (ca. ... Imhotep, the one who comes in peace Imhotep (sometimes spelled Immutef, Ȧmhotep, or Ii-em-Hotep, Egyptian ii-m-ḥtp) was a vizier, wizard, and the first architect and physician known by name to written history. ... Weni was a court official of the 6th dynasty of Ancient Egypt. ... Ahmose, son of Ebana served in the Egyptian military under the pharaohs; Tao II Seqenenre, Ahmose, Amenhotep I, and Thutmose I. His autobiography has survived intact on the wall of his tomb and has proven a valuable source of information on the late 17th Dynasty and the early 18th Dynasty. ... Ineofficial of the 18th Dynasty, responsible for major constructions un Egypt| Thutmose II]], Hatshepsut, and Thutmose III. Ineni came from an aristocratic family and likely began his career as an architect under Amenhotep I. Amenhotep I commissioned Ineni to expand the Temple of Karnak. ... Senemut was an 18th dynasty Ancient Egyptian architect and government official. ... An excavation assistant beside the 2. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Maya (Egyptian official). ... Yuny was an official through the reign of Ramesses II, in the 19th Dynasty, serving as chief scribe of the court, the overseer of priests, and royal steward. ... Pothinus (early 1st Century BC - 48 or 47 BC) was regent for Pharaoh Ptolemy XIII of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Manetho - LoveToKnow 1911 (470 words)
MANETHO (Ma 40ow in an inscription of Carthage; MavcOeos in a papyrus), Egyptian priest and annalist, was a native of Sebennytus in the Delta.
Manetho's work was probably based on native lists like that of the Turin Papyrus of Kings: even his division into dynasties may have been derived from such.
The brief notes attached to some of the names may be derived from Manetho's narrative, but they are chiefly references to kings mentioned by Herodotus or to marvels that were supposed to have occurred: they certainly possess little historical value.
The Ancient Egypt Site - Manetho, Egypt's Most Famous Historian (797 words)
Manetho lived in Sebennytos, the capital of Egypt during the 30th Dynasty, and was a priest during the reigns of Ptolemy I and Ptolemy II.
Manetho owes his importance to the fact that he wrote the Aegyptiaca, a collection of three books about the history of Ancient Egypt, commissioned by Ptolemy II in his effort to bring together the Egyptian and Hellenistic cultures.
It is to Manetho's Aegyptiaca that we owe the division of Ancient Egyptian history in 30 dynasties.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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