FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Mandate of Heaven

Mandate of Heaven (天命 Pīnyīn: Tiānmìng) was a traditional Chinese sovereignty concept of legitimacy used to support the rule of the kings of the Zhou Dynasty and later the Emperors of China. Heaven would bless the authority of a just ruler, but Heaven would be displeased with an unwise ruler and give the Mandate to someone else. "Mandate of Heaven" was also the very first era name of the Qin Dynasty. Pinyin is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard Mandarin, where pin means spell and yin means sound. The most common variant of pinyin in use is called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n), also known as scheme... The king or wang (王 wáng) was the Chinese head of state from the Zhou to Qin dynasties. ... A monarch (see sovereignty) is a type of ruler or head of state. ... Boundaries of the Western Zhou Dynasty (1050 - 771 BC) in China The Zhou Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou Ch`ao; 1122 BC to 256 BC (ref) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... The king or wang (王 wang2) was the Chinese head of state from the Zhou to Qin dynasties. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BCE - 206 BCE) was preceded by the Zhou Dynasty and followed by the Han Dynasty in China. ...


The Mandate has no time limitations, but a performance standard. The Duke of Zhou explained to the people of Shang, that if their king had not misused his power, his Mandate would not have been taken away. This means that a legitimate emperor need not be of noble birth, and in fact, dynasties as powerful as the Han dynasty and Ming dynasty were founded by people of modest birth. The Duke of Zhou (Chinese: 周公旦, pinyin: Zhōu Gōng Dàn) was the brother of King Wu of Zhou. ... Han Dynasty commanderies and kingdoms, AD 2 Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 AD - 24 AD... For other uses, see Ming. ...


The concept was first found in written records from the words of the Duke of Zhou, younger brother of King Wu of Zhou and regent for King Wu's infant son King Cheng of Zhou. He is usually considered to be the first supporter of the idea. The notion of the Mandate of Heaven was also invoked by Mencius, a very influential Chinese scholar[1]. King Wu of Zhou (Chinese: ; pinyin: zhōu wÅ­ wáng) or King Wu of Chou was the first sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... King Cheng of Zhou (ch 周成王 zhōu chéng wáng) or King Cheng of Chou was the second sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. ... Mencius (most accepted dates: 372 BC – 289 BC; other possible dates: 385 BC – 303 BC or 302 BC) was born in the State of Zou (鄒國), now forming the territory of the county-level city of Zoucheng (邹城市), Shandong province, only 30 km (18 miles) south of Qufu, the town of Confucius. ...


Eventually, as Chinese political ideas developed further, the Mandate was linked to the notion of the dynastic cycle. Times of floods or famines were considered divine signs from the heaven in violation of the Mandate. According to Chinese political theory, every dynasty goes through a dynastic cycle: A new ruler unites China and founds a new dynasty. ...

Contents

The Shang and Zhou

The Mandate of Heaven concept was first used by the Zhou dynasty to justify their overthrow of the Shang dynasty and would be used by many succeeding dynasties to come. Boundaries of the Western Zhou Dynasty (1050 - 771 BC) in China The Zhou Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou Ch`ao; 1122 BC to 256 BC (ref) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ...


The Shang legitimized rule by family connections to divine power. It was believed their founders had been deities, and their descendants went to join them in Heaven. Heaven was very active and interfering, in mysterious ways, in earthly rule, as shown by the divination texts preserved from the later part of the Shang, the oracle bones. The Mandate of Heaven may be thought of as changing this divination legitimization to a feudal one. Categories: Stub ...


The Five Dynasties Period

Song Dynasty scholar-official Xue Juzheng compiled the Five Dynasties History (五代史) during the 960s and 970s, after the Song Dynasty had taken northern China from the last of the Five Dynasties, the Later Zhou Dynasty. A major purpose was to establish justification for the transference of the Mandate of Heaven through these five dynasties, and thus to the Song Dynasty. Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: WÇ”dàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1279) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou Dynasty 960  - Battle of Yamen; the end of Song rule 1279 Population  - Peak est. ... Xue Jucheng (薛居正)(912-981) was a Chinese scholar-historian who served under the Song Dynasty, as well as four of the Five Dynasties that preceded the Song Dynasty. ... The Five Dynasties History (五代史} was an official history of the Five Dynasties (907-960), which controlled much of northern China. ... Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Decades: 910s - 920s - 930s - 940s - 950s - 960s - 970s - 980s - 990s - 1000s - 1010s Years: 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 Events Khazar kingdom is attacked and defeated by Kievan Rus (965) Categories: 960s ... Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Decades: 920s - 930s _ 940s - 950s - 960s - 970s - 980s - 990s - 1000s - 1010s - 1020s Years: 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 977 978 979 Events Categories: 970s ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1279) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou Dynasty 960  - Battle of Yamen; the end of Song rule 1279 Population  - Peak est. ... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: WÇ”dàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1279) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou Dynasty 960  - Battle of Yamen; the end of Song rule 1279 Population  - Peak est. ...


He argued that these dynasties met certain vital criteria to be considered as having attained the Mandate of Heaven despite never having ruled all of China. One is that they all ruled the traditional Chinese heartland. They also held considerably more territory than any of the other Chinese states that had existed conterminously in the south.


However, there were certain other areas where these dynasties all clearly fell short. The brutal behavior of Zhu Wen and the Later Liang Dynasty was a source of considerable embarrassment, and thus there was pressure to exclude them from the Mandate. The following three dynasties, the Later Tang, Later Jin, and Later Han were all non Han Chinese dynasties, all having been ruled by the non-Chinese Shatuo Turks. There is also the concern that though each of them were the most powerful Chinese kingdom of their respective eras, none of them ever really had the ability to unify the entire Chinese realm as there were several powerful states to the south. However, it was the conclusion of Xue Juzheng that the Mandate had indeed passed through each of the Five Dynasties, and thus onto the Song Dynasty when it conquered the last of those dynasties. Zhu Quanzhong 朱全忠, originally named Zhu Wen 朱温 (852-912), was a jiedushi (節度使, military governor) at the end of the Tang dynasty. ... The Later Liang (Simplified Chinese character: 后梁, Traditional Chinese character: 後梁, Hanyu pinyin Hòu Liáng) (907-923) was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. ... The Later Tang Dynasty was a short-lived dynasty that lasted from 923 to 936 one of the five dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. ... The Later Jin (936-947) was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. ... The Later Han Dynasty could refer to two dynasties in China: The Eastern Han Dynasty (206 BC - AD 9) A dynasty in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period (936-947) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... Languages Chinese languages, Indian languages, Hebrew Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... The Shatuo 沙陀 were a Turkic tribe that heavily influenced northern Chinese politics from the late ninth century through the tenth century. ... Xue Jucheng (薛居正)(912-981) was a Chinese scholar-historian who served under the Song Dynasty, as well as four of the Five Dynasties that preceded the Song Dynasty. ...


Comparison

The Mandate concept is similar to the European notion of Divine Right, which legitimized rule, but allowed the overthrowing of unjust rulers. In Chinese thought a successful revolt was considered evidence that the Mandate of Heaven had passed. In both systems it was wrong to revolt, but a successful insurrection was understood as evidence of divine approval. In Japan rulers are thought of unbroken successions of the sun goddess. The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... It has been suggested that Sun cults be merged into this article or section. ...


See also

The Tiananmen The Gate of Heavenly Peace is the front entrance into the Imperial City A close-up of the rooftop The Tiananmen or Tiananmen (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Tiānānmén; Manchu: Abkai elhe obure duka), is the main entrance to the Imperial City, the... The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... The Imperial Seal of China, or the Heirloom Seal of the Realm (Traditional Chinese: 傳國璽; Simplified Chinese: 传国玺) is a Chinese jade seal carved out of the He Shi Bi, a historically famous piece of jade. ... The Sun goddess emerging out of a cave, bringing sunlight back to the universe. ...

Bibliography

  • Mote, F.W. (1999). Imperial China: 900-1800. Harvard University Press. 

References

  1. ^ Perry, Elizabeth. [2002] (2002). Challenging the Mandate of Heaven: Social Protest and State Power in China. Sharpe. ISBN 0765604442

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mandate of Heaven - definition of Mandate of Heaven in Encyclopedia (590 words)
The Mandate of Heaven (天命 Pinyin: Tiānmìng) was a Chinese concept used to justify the rule of the kings of the Zhou Dynasty and later the Emperors of China.
The concept of the Mandate of Heaven was that a king's rule was based on the blessing of Heaven and that if a king ruled unwisely, Heaven would be displeased and would give the Mandate to someone else.
One consequence of the idea of the Mandate of Heaven was that it was not necessary for a person to be of noble birth to lead a revolt and become a legitimate emperor, and in fact a number of dynasties such as the Han dynasty and Ming dynasty were founded by persons of modest birth.
Mandate of Heaven - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (512 words)
The Mandate of Heaven (天命 Pinyin: Tiānmìng) was a traditional Chinese concept of legitimacy used to support the rule of the kings of the Shang Dynasty and later the Emperors of China.
Heaven was very active and interfering, in mysterious ways, in earthly rule, as is shown by the divination texts preserved from the later part of the Shang dynasty, the oracle bones.
The Mandate of Heaven theory may be thought of as changing this familial connection to a feudal one—the world was now a fief, held at Heaven's pleasure, which could and would be reassigned if the holder misbehaved.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m