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Encyclopedia > Mandarin orange
Mandarin orange
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Rosidae
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Citrus
Species: C. reticulata
Binomial name
Citrus reticulata

The Mandarin orange or mandarin (瓯柑) is a small citrus tree (Citrus reticulata) with fruit resembling the orange. The fruit is oblate, rather than spherical, and roughly resembles a pumpkin in shape. Mandarin oranges are usually eaten plain, or in fruit salads. Specifically reddish orange mandarin cultivars can be marketed as tangerines, but this is not a botanical classification. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 471 KB) Mandarines If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or paper mail giving you an authorization to use my works in your products or a license with the terms of your... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Orders See text. ... Orders See text The botanical Sub-class Rosidae is a large dicotyledonous flowering plant taxon, containing over 58,000 species grouped within 108 families. ... Families See text Sapindales is a botanical name for an order of flowering plants. ... Genera About 160 genera; selected important genera: Amyris - West Indian Sandalwood Choisya - Mexican orange Citrus - Citrus Dictamnus - Burning-bush Fortunella - Kumquat Melicope - Corkwood, Alani Murraya - Curry tree Phellodendron - Cork-trees Poncirus - Trifoliate orange Ptelea - Hoptree Ruta - Rue Skimmia - Skimmia Tetradium (Euodia) - Euodias Zanthoxylum - Toothache trees Rutaceae is a family of... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus aurantifolia - Key lime Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus ×sinensis - Sweet Orange Citrus ×aurantium - Bitter Orange Citrus ×paradisi - Grapefruit Citrus ×limon - Lemon Citrus ×limonia - Rangpur lime Citrus ×latifolia - Persian lime See also main text for other hybrids Citrus... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus aurantifolia - Key lime Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus ×sinensis - Sweet Orange Citrus ×aurantium - Bitter Orange Citrus ×paradisi - Grapefruit Citrus ×limon - Lemon Citrus ×limonia - Rangpur lime Citrus ×latifolia - Persian lime See also main text for other hybrids Citrus... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck Orange—specifically, sweet orange—refers to the citrus tree Citrus sinensis (syn. ... In mathematics, a spheroid is a quadric surface in three dimensions obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes. ... A sphere is a symmetrical geometrical object. ... For the film, see Pumpkin (film). ... Binomial name Citrus reticulata Blanco For other uses, see Tangerine (disambiguation). ...

The tree is more tolerant to drought than the fruit. The mandarin is tender, and is damaged easily by cold. It can be grown in tropical and subtropical areas.


Varieties and characteristics

The mandarin has many names, some of which actually refer to crosses between the mandarin and another citrus fruit. Most canned mandarins are of the satsuma variety, of which there are over 200 cultivars. Satsumas are known as mikan in Japan. One of the more well-known satsuma cultivars is the "Owari", which ripens during the late fall season in the Northern Hemisphere. Clementines, however, have displaced satsumas in many markets, and are becoming the most important commercial mandarin variety. A basket of mikan Cross section Citrus unshiu Marc. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... A basket of mikan Cross section Citrus unshiu Marc. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... Box of Clementines with hand for size reference. ...

The mandarin is easily peeled with the fingers, starting at the thin rind covering the depression at the top of the fruit, and can be easily spilt into even segments without spilling juice. This makes it convienient to eat, as one doesn't require utensils to peel or cut the fruit.

The tangor, which is also called the temple orange, is a cross between the mandarin and the common orange. Its thin rind is easy to peel; and its pale orange pulp is spicy, full-flavored, and tart. The tangor is a Citrus which is a hybrid of the Tangerine and the Orange. ... In botany, a rind is the thick outer skin of various structures such as fruit. ...

The rangpur is a cross between the mandarin and the lemon. Rangpurs, also known as lemanderins, are a hybrid between the mandarin orange and the lemon. ... This article is about the fruit. ...

Biological characteristics

Citrus fruit varieties are usually self-fertile (needing a bee only to move pollen within the same flower) or parthenocarpic (not needing pollination and therefore seedless) (such as satsumas). For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... In botany and horticulture, parthenocarpic literally means virgin fruit; the fruit develops without fertilization of ovules, therefore it is seedless. ... A flower-fly pollinating a Common Daisy (Bellis perennis) Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ...

Blossoms from the Dancy cultivar, for example, are an exception. They are self sterile, therefore must have a pollenizer variety to supply pollen, and a high bee population to make a good crop. The words pollenizer (polleniser) and pollinator are often confused. ...

Furthermore, some varieties, notably clementines, are usually seed free, but will develop seeds if cross-pollinated with a seeded citrus. Thus, great efforts are taken to isolate clementine orchards from any seeded citrus varieties.

Ethnomedical uses

Qi, also commonly spelled chi, chi or ki, is a fundamental concept of everyday Chinese culture, most often defined as air or breath (for example, the colloquial Mandarin Chinese term for weather is tiān qi, or the breath of heaven) and, by extension, life force or spiritual energy... Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... Abdominal distension (or Distended abdomen) can be a sign of many other conditions, including: diverticulitis lactose intolerance obstructed bowel premenstrual syndrome pregnancy weight gain See also Gastric distension Bloating External links University of Maryland MedlinePlus/NIH Categories: | ... Phlegm (pronounced ) is sticky fluid secreted by the typhoid membranes of animals. ...

Production volume

Tangerines, Mandarins, clementines
Top Ten Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes)
Flag of the People's Republic of China China 11,395
Flag of Spain Spain 2,125
Flag of Brazil Brazil 1,236
Flag of Japan Japan 1,132
Flag of Iran Iran 720
Flag of Turkey Turkey 715
Flag of Thailand Thailand 670
Flag of Egypt Egypt 665
Flag of Argentina Argentina 660
Flag of Pakistan Pakistan 639
World Total 24,000
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
, [1]

The "Clemenules" (or "Nules", the Valencian town where it was born) is a variety of clementine that accounts for the great majority of clementines produced in the world. Spain alone has over 200,000 acres (800 km2), producing fruit between November and January. Mandarins marketed as tangerines are usually Dancy, Sunburst or Murcott (Honey) cultivars. Clementines, Klementia or Clementine Pseudo-writings are names given to the curious religious romance which has come down to us in two forms as composed by Pope St. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... FAO emblem With its headquarters in Rome, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that works to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and... Nules is a town in eastern Spain, in the province of Castelló, in the Land of Valencia. ...


Canned mandarin segments are peeled to remove the white pith prior to canning; otherwise, they turn bitter. Segments are peeled using a chemical process. First, the segments are scalded in hot water to loosen the skin; then they are bathed in a lye solution which digests the albedo and membranes. Finally, the segments undergo several rinses in plain water. Lye is a caustic solution used for glass and soap making. ...

External links

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Mandarin Orange (2166 words)
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