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Encyclopedia > Mandan
Mandan
A Mandan man in a buffalo robe overlooking the Missouri River. Photograph by Edward S. Curtis, circa 1908. Courtesy of the Library of Congress.
Total population

Full-blooded*: Mandan can refer to: The Mandan Native American tribe Mandan, North Dakota Mandan, Michigan This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (487x640, 127 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the United States. ... Edward Sheriff Curtis (February 16, 1868 – October 19, 1952) was a photographer of the American West and of Native American peoples. ...

1971 1
1838 125
1836 ≈1,600

Descendants: Approximately several thousands of mixed ancestry.

Regions with significant populations
Descendants:

Fort Berthold Reservation, North Dakota, USA The Fort Berthold Reservation is a federal indian reservation in North Dakota that is home for the Three Affiliated Tribes which consists of the Mandan, Arikara and Hidatsa peoples. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ...

Language(s)
Mandan, Hidatsa, English
Religion(s)
Mandan
Related ethnic groups
Hidatsa, Arikara

The Mandan are a Native American tribe that historically lived along the banks of the Missouri River and two of its tributaries—the Heart and Knife Rivers—in present-day North and South Dakota. Speakers of Mandan, a Siouan language, the Mandan were in contrast with other tribes in the Great Plains region in the establishment of permanent villages instead of leading a nomadic existence tracking herds of buffalo. These permanent settlements featured round, earthen lodges surrounding a central plaza. While the buffalo were key to the daily life of the Mandan, the buffalo were supplemented by agriculture and trade. why did u chanage it |name=Mandan |states=United States |region=Fort Berthold Reservation, North Dakota |speakers=6 |familycolor=American |fam1=Siouan-Catawban |fam2=Siouan |iso2=sio||iso3=mhq}} Mandan is an endangered Siouan language. ... Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation, also known as the Three Affiliated Tribes, are a Native American group comprised of a union of the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara peoples, whose native lands ranged across the Missouri River basin in the Dakotas. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Pehriska-Ruhpa of the Dog Band of the Hidatsa. ... It has been suggested that Arikara language be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... The Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the United States. ... The Heart River The Heart River is a tributary of the Missouri River, approximately 180 mi (290 km) long, in western North Dakota in the United States. ... The Knife River The Knife River is a tributary of the Missouri River, approximately 120 mi (193 km) long, in North Dakota in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... why did u chanage it |name=Mandan |states=United States |region=Fort Berthold Reservation, North Dakota |speakers=6 |familycolor=American |fam1=Siouan-Catawban |fam2=Siouan |iso2=sio||iso3=mhq}} Mandan is an endangered Siouan language. ... Pre-contact distribution of the Siouan languages The Siouan (a. ... The Great Plains covers much of the central United States, portions of Canada and Mexico. ... Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ...


Archaeological research suggests the Mandan people migrated from the Ohio River valley to the banks of the Missouri River. They were first encountered there by Europeans in 1738 and their friendliness and willingness to trade brought many traders and fur trappers to their villages over the next century. By the turn of the 19th century, attacks by neighboring tribes and epidemics of smallpox and whooping cough, significantly diminished the Mandan's population. A major smallpox outbreak in 1837 reduced their numbers to approximately 125.[1] With such meager numbers, the Mandan banded together with two neighboring tribes, the Arikara and Hidatsa. View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... It has been suggested that Arikara language be merged into this article or section. ... Pehriska-Ruhpa of the Dog Band of the Hidatsa. ...


Over the next few decades, the three tribes saw their land holdings reduced by various treaties. In an effort to establish good relations, the U.S. government founded the Fort Berthold Agency to care for the combined tribes. The Agency soon set up the Fort Berthold Reservation originally consisting of some 8 million acres (32,000 km²), but by 1910, the size of the reservation was about 900,000 acres (3,600 km²) of land. With the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act, the Mandan officially merged with the Hidatsa and the Arikara into the "Three Affiliated Tribes," known as the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Nation. The last full blooded Mandan died in 1971, with the remaining members of mixed ancestry. About half of the Mandan still reside in the area of the reservation, the rest residing around the United States and in Canada. The Fort Berthold Reservation is a federal indian reservation in North Dakota that is home for the Three Affiliated Tribes which consists of the Mandan, Arikara and Hidatsa peoples. ... The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, also known as the Wheeler-Howard Act or informally, the Indian New Deal, was a U.S. federal legislation which secured certain rights to Native Americans, including Alaska Natives. ... Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation, also known as the Three Affiliated Tribes, are a Native American group comprising a union of the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara peoples, whose native lands ranged across the Missouri River basin in the Dakotas. ...

Contents

Synonymy

The English name Mandan is derived from similar exonyms from surrounding Siouan languages, such as Teton Miwátąni, Yanktonai Miwátani, Yankton Mawátani or Mąwátanį, Dakota Mawátąna or Mawátadą, etc. The Mandan have used several terms at different times to refer to themselves: An exonym is a name for a place or people that is created by people outside of that place and is different from the name used in the native language. ... Lakota (also Lakhota, Teton, Teton Sioux) is the largest of the three languages of the Sioux, of the Siouan family. ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... The Sioux (IPA ) are a Native American and First Nations people. ...

  • Rųwą́ʔka·ki "men, people": before 1837 (transcribed by Westerners as Numakaki, Numangkake)
  • Wį́ʔti Ų́tahąkt "East Village" (after the village of the same name): late 19th century (transcribed by Westerners as Metutahanke or Mitutahankish)
  • Rų́ʔeta "ourselves, our people" (originally the name of a specific division): the currently-used term

The Mandan probably used Rųwą́ʔka·ki to refer to a general tribal entity. Later, this word fell to disuse and instead two divisions names were used, Nuweta or Ruptare (i.e. Mandan Rų́ʔeta). Later the term, Rų́ʔeta was extended to refer to a general tribal entity. The name Mi-ah´ta-nēs recorded by Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden in 1862 reportedly means "people on the river bank", but this is may be a folk etymology. Various other terms and alternate spellings that occur in the literature including: Mayátana, Mayátani, Mąwádanį, Mąwádąδį, Huatanis, Mandani, Wahtani, Mantannes, Mantons, Mendanne, Mandanne, Mandians, Maw-dân, Meandans, les Mandals, Me-too´-ta-häk, Numakshi, Rųwą́ʔkši, Wíhwatann, Mevatan, Mevataneo.[2] Gloria Jahoda in her book Trail of Tears states that they also call themselves the "Pheasant people."[3] Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ...


Language

Main article: Mandan language

The Mandan language belongs to the Siouan language family. It was initially thought to be closely related to the languages of the Hidatsa and the Crow. However, since the Mandan language has been in contact with Hidatsa and Crow for many years, the exact relationship between Mandan and other Siouan languages (including Hidatsa and Crow) has been obscured and is currently undetermined. For this reason, Mandan is most often considered to be a separate branch of the Siouan family. why did u chanage it |name=Mandan |states=United States |region=Fort Berthold Reservation, North Dakota |speakers=6 |familycolor=American |fam1=Siouan-Catawban |fam2=Siouan |iso2=sio||iso3=mhq}} Mandan is an endangered Siouan language. ... why did u chanage it |name=Mandan |states=United States |region=Fort Berthold Reservation, North Dakota |speakers=6 |familycolor=American |fam1=Siouan-Catawban |fam2=Siouan |iso2=sio||iso3=mhq}} Mandan is an endangered Siouan language. ... Pre-contact distribution of the Siouan languages The Siouan (a. ... Pehriska-Ruhpa of the Dog Band of the Hidatsa. ... The Crow, also called the Absaroka or Apsáalooke, are a tribe of Native Americans who historically lived in the Yellowstone river valley and now live on a reservation south of Billings, Montana. ... Language contact occurs when speakers of distinct speech varieties interact. ...


Mandan has two main dialects: Nuptare and Nuetare. Only the Nuptare variety survived into the 20th century, and all speakers were bilingual in Hidatsa. Linguist Mauricio Mixco of the University of Utah has been involved in fieldwork with remaining speakers since 1993. As of 1999, there were only six fluent speakers of Mandan still alive, though there are currently programs in local schools to encourage the use of the language.[4] A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ... The University of Utah (also The U or the U of U or the UU), located in Salt Lake City, is the flagship public research university in the state of Utah, and one of 10 institutions that make up the Utah System of Higher Education. ...


The Mandan and their language received much attention from Euro-Americans because of their lighter skin color, which some speculated was due to an ultimate European origin. In the 1830s, Prince Maximilian of Wied spent more time recording Mandan over all other Siouan languages and additionally prepared a comparison list of Mandan and Welsh words (he thought that the Mandan may be displaced Welsh).[5] The theory of the Mandan/Welsh connection, now discounted, was also supported by George Catlin. Prince Maximilian of Weid (23 September 1782 - 3 February 1867) was a German naturalist and explorer. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... George Catlin (1796 in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania – December 23, 1872 in Jersey City, New Jersey) was an American painter who specialized in portraits of Native Americans in the Old West. ...


Mandan has different grammatical forms that depend on gender of the addressee. Questions asked of men must use the suffix -oʔša while the suffix -oʔrą is used when asking of women. Likewise the indicative suffix is -oʔs when addressing men and -oʔre when addressing women, and also for imperatives: -ta (male), -rą (female).[6] Mandan, like many other North American languages, has elements of sound symbolism in their vocabulary. A /s/ sound often denotes smallness/less intensity, /ʃ/ denotes medium-ness, /x/ denotes largeness/greater intensity:[7] Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... In linguistics, an addressee is an intended direct recipient of the speakers communication. ... It has been suggested that Ending (linguistics) be merged into this article or section. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood (or mode), which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood (or mode), which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... Sound symbolism or phonosemantics is a branch of linguistics and refers to the idea that vocal sounds have meaning. ...

  • síre "yellow"
  • šíre "tawny"
  • xíre "brown"
  • sró "tinkle"
  • xró "rattle"

Culture

Lodges and villages

Mandan lodge, circa 1908. Photographed by Edward S. Curtis.

One of the most recognizable features of the Mandan was their permanent villages made up of earthen lodges. Each lodge was circular with a dome-like roof and a square hole at the apex of the dome through which smoke could escape. The exterior was covered with a matting made from reeds and twigs and then covered with hay and earth. The lodge also featured a portico-type structure at the entrance. The interior consisted of four large pillars upon which crossbeams supported the roof. These lodges were designed, built and owned by the women of the tribe, and ownership was passed through the female line. They could hold up to 30 or 40 people and villages usually had around 120 lodges.[8] Reconstructions of these lodges may be seen at Fort Abraham Lincoln State Park near Mandan, North Dakota, and the Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site. Originally lodges were rectangular, but around 1500 CE, lodges began to be constructed in a circular form. Towards the end of the 19th century, the Mandan began constructing small log cabins, usually with two rooms. When traveling or hunting, the Mandan would use skin tipis.[9] Today, Mandan live in modern dwellings. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For other uses, see Dome (disambiguation). ... Categories: Architectural elements | Stub ... Fort Abraham Lincoln was an important infantry and cavalry post about seven miles south of todays Mandan, North Dakota and was built by Lieutenant Colonel Daniel Huston. ... Mandan is a city in Morton County, North Dakota in the United States. ... Explore the lives of the Northern Plains Indians on the Upper Missouri. ... “BCE” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Log cabin (disambiguation). ... A tipi of the Nez Perce tribe, circa 1900. ...


Villages were usually oriented around a central plaza that was used for games and ceremonial purposes. In the center of the plaza was a tree surrounded by a wood enclosure representing the Lone Man, one of the main figures in Mandan mythology who built a wooden wall thus saving the people of the world from a deluge. Villages were often situated on high bluffs over the river. Often, villages would be constructed at the meeting of tributaries in order to use the water as a natural barrier. Where there were few or no natural barriers, the villages utilized some type of fortification including ditches and palisades. Plaza is a Spanish word related to field which describes an open urban public space, such as a city square. ... Palisade and Moat A palisade is a Medieval wooden fence or wall of variable height, used as a defensive structure. ...

Interior of a Mandan lodge by George Catlin showing the four pillars supporting the roof and the smoke hole.

Some speculate that the lodging, religion, and occasional blue eyes among the Mandan were remnants of Viking explorers, who left the Kensington Runestone as evidence of contact with the plains Indians.[10] Image File history File links Catlin_mandan_feast. ... Image File history File links Catlin_mandan_feast. ... George Catlin (1796 in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania – December 23, 1872 in Jersey City, New Jersey) was an American painter who specialized in portraits of Native Americans in the Old West. ... The Kensington runestone is a roughly rectangular slab of greywacke covered in runes on its face and side. ...

Family life

The Mandan were originally divided into thirteen clans organized around successful hunters and their kin. Each clan was expected to care for its own, including orphans and the elderly, from birth to death. Clans held a sacred bundle, which consisted of a few gathered objects believed to hold sacred powers. Those in possession of the bundles were considered to have sacred powers bestowed to them by the spirits and thus were considered the leaders of the clan and tribe. See also Clan (computer gaming) A clan is a group of people united by kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor. ...


Children were named ten days after their birth in a naming ceremony, which also officially linked the child with their family and clan. Girls would be taught domestic duties, farming, and how to keep a home, while boys were taught hunting and fishing, and would begin fasting at the age of ten or eleven. Marriage among the Mandan was generally arranged by members of one's own clan, though occasionally it would take place without the approval of the couple's parents. Divorce could be easily obtained. Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. ...

Snow scene of a modern reconstruction of a Mandan lodge at the Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site, North Dakota.
Snow scene of a modern reconstruction of a Mandan lodge at the Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site, North Dakota.

Upon the death of a family member, a scaffold would be erected near the village to contain the body. The body would be placed with the head towards the northwest and feet to the southeast. (Southeast is the direction of the Ohio River Valley, from whence the Mandan came. The Mandan would not sleep in this orientation, because it invited death.) After a ceremony to send the spirit away, the family would mourn at the scaffold for four days. After the body rotted and the scaffold collapsed, the bones would be gathered up and buried except for the skull, which was placed in a circle near the village. Family members would visit the skulls and talk to them, sometimes bearing their problems or regaling the dead with jokes. After the Mandan moved onto the Fort Berthold Reservation, they resorted to placing the bodies in boxes or trunks or wrapped them in fur robes and placed them in rocky crevices. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 761 KB) Summary Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site in North Dakota From http://www. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 761 KB) Summary Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site in North Dakota From http://www. ... Explore the lives of the Northern Plains Indians on the Upper Missouri. ...


Subsistence

A Mandan hunter with his sacred buffalo skull, circa 1909. Photograph by Edward S. Curtis.
A Mandan hunter with his sacred buffalo skull, circa 1909. Photograph by Edward S. Curtis.

The Mandan survived by hunting, farming and gathering wild plants, though some food came from trade. Mandan gardens were often located near river banks, where annual flooding would leave the most fertile soil, sometimes in locations miles from villages. The gardens were owned and tended by the women, and they would plant corn, beans and squash, usually enough to last a single year. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (485x640, 111 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (485x640, 111 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... This article is on the plant. ... Species - hubbard squash, buttercup squash - cushaw squash C. moschata- butternut squash C. pepo- most pumpkins, acorn squash, summer squash References: ITIS 223652002-11-06 Hortus Third Squashes are four species of the genus Cucurbita, also called pumpkins and marrows depending on variety or the nationality of the speaker. ...


The buffalo which the Mandan hunted played an important part in Mandan rituals; calling the buffalo near to the village being one of the main objectives of the Okipa ceremony at the beginning of each summer. In addition to eating the flesh, the Mandan used all remaining parts of the buffalo, so nothing went to waste. The hides were used for buffalo-fur robes or were tanned, and the leather used for clothing and other uses. The Mandan were known for their painted buffalo hides that often recorded historic events. The bones would be carved into items such as needles and fish hooks. Bones were also used in farming, such as the scapula, which was used as a hoe-like device for breaking the soil. Besides buffalo, the Mandan trapped small mammals for food and hunted deer. Deer antlers were used to create rake-like implements used in farming. Birds were hunted for feathers, which were used for adornment. A Variety of Fish Hooks Fish hook used as foundation for artificial fly Fish hooks attached to artificial lures The Fish hook is a device for catching fish either by impaling them in the mouth or, more rarely, by snagging the body of the fish. ... Left scapula - front view () Left scapula - rear view () In anatomy, the scapula, or shoulder blade, is the bone that connects the humerus (arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone). ... Agricultural square bladed hoe. ... This article is about the ruminant animal. ... For the Poet Laureate of Milwaukee, see Antler (Poet). ... A heavy-duty rake for soil and rocks A light-duty rake for grass and leaves A double-sided rake A Rake better known as Kiran Buckman in various parts of Australia (Old English raca, cognate with Dutch raak, German Rechen, from a root meaning to scrape together, heap up...


Dress

Mandan girls gathering berries, circa 1908. Photographed by Edward S. Curtis.

Up until the late 19th century when they began adopting Western-style dress, the Mandan commonly wore clothing made from the hides of buffalo as well as deer and sheep. From the hides, tunics, dresses, buffalo-fur robes, moccasins, gloves, loincloths and leggings could be made. These items were often ornamented with quills and bird feathers and sometimes even the scalps of enemies. Download high resolution version (487x640, 187 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (487x640, 187 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The word moccasin was first introduced into English in 1612, from a Virginia Algonquian language, most likely Powhatan (makasin ‘shoe’), though similar words exist in Narragansett (mokussin), Micmac (m’kusun), and Ojibwa (makasin). ... Girl wearing modern leggings Leggings are any of several sorts of fitted clothing to cover the legs. ... Native American Big Mouth Spring with decorated scalp lock on right shoulder. ...


Mandan women wore ankle-length dresses made of deerskin or sheepskin. This would often be girded at the waist with a wide belt. Sometimes the hem of the dress would be ornamented with pieces of buffalo hoof. Underneath the dress, leather leggings would be worn with ankle-high moccasins. Women's hair was worn straight down in braids. Sheepskin is the hide of a sheep, sometimes also called lambswool. ... Rear hooves of a Horse A hoof is the horny covering of the end of the foot in ungulate mammals. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ...

A pair of Mandan men in a print by Karl Bodmer. Note the buffalo-fur robes, moccasins, and the treatment of the hair.
A pair of Mandan men in a print by Karl Bodmer. Note the buffalo-fur robes, moccasins, and the treatment of the hair.

During the winter months, men would commonly wear deerskin tunics and leggings with moccasins. They also kept themselves warm by wearing a robe of buffalo fur. During the summer months, however, a loincloth of deerskin or sheepskin would often suffice. Unlike the women, men would wear various ornaments in their hair. The hair was parted across the top with three sections hanging down in front. Sometimes the hair would hang down the nose and would be curled upwards with a curling stick. The hair would hang to the shoulders on the side, and the back portion would sometimes reach to the waist. The long hair in the back would create a tail-like feature, as it would be gathered into braids then smeared with clay and spruce gum then tied with cords of deerskin. Headdresses of feathers were often worn as well.[11] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (503x640, 147 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (503x640, 147 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... Species About 35; see text. ...

Crow's Heart, a Mandan, circa 1908. He is wearing a traditional deerskin tunic. Photographed by Edward S. Curtis.

Download high resolution version (487x640, 135 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (487x640, 135 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...

Religion

Of the tribes living on the Great Plains, the Mandan's religion was one of the more complex. Much of their mythology centered on a figure known as Lone Man. Lone Man was involved in many of the creation myths as well as one of the deluge myths. In their creation myth, the world was created by two rival deities, the First Creator and the Lone Man. The Missouri River divided the two worlds that the beings created. First Creator created the lands to the south of the river with hills, valleys, trees, buffalo, antelope and snakes. To the north of the river, Lone Man created the Great Plains, domesticated animals, birds, fish and humans. The first humans lived underground near a large lake. Some of the more adventurous humans climbed a grapevine to the surface and discovered the two worlds. After returning underground they shared their findings and decided to return with many others. As they were climbing the grapevine it broke and half of the Mandan were left underground.[12] Creation beliefs and stories describe how the universe, the Earth, life, and/or humanity came into being. ... Binomial name Antilocapra americana Ord, 1815 Subspecies The Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is the only surviving member of the family Antilocapridae, and the fastest mammal in North America running at speeds of 58 mph (90 km/h). ...


According to pre-Christian Mandan beliefs, each person possessed four different, immortal souls. The first soul was white and often seen as a shooting star. The second soul was colored a light brown and was seen in the form of the meadowlark. The third soul, called the lodge spirit, remained at the site of the lodge after death and would remain there forever. The final soul was black and after death would travel away from the village. These final souls existed as did living people; residing in their own villages, farming and hunting.[9] This page is about the core essence of a being. ... Binomial name Sturnella neglecta Audubon, 1844 The Western Meadowlark, Sturnella neglecta, is a medium-sized blackbird, very similar in appearance to the Eastern Meadowlark. ...

The okipa ceremony as witnessed by George Catlin, circa 1835.

One notable feature of the Mandan’s religious life was the Okipa, which was first recorded by George Catlin. The ceremony opened with a Bison Dance followed by a variety of torturous ordeals through which warriors proved their courage and gained the approval of the spirits. The Okipa began with the warriors sitting with smiling faces while the skin of their chest was pierced with sticks. Using the sticks to support the weight of their bodies, the warriors would be suspended from the roof of the lodge and would hang there until they fainted. After fainting, the warrior would be pulled down and the men (women were not allowed to attend this ceremony) would watch the warrior until he awoke, proving the spirits' approval. After awakening, the warrior would sacrifice the little finger on both hands, each finger being severed by a medicine man with a knife. Finally, the warrior would be taken outside where he would run around the central plaza of the village a number of times. Those finishing the ceremony were seen as being honored by the spirits; those completing the ceremony twice would gain everlasting fame among the tribe. Chief Four Bears, or Ma-to-toh-pe, completed this ceremony twice.[13] The last Okipa ceremony was performed in 1889 but the ceremony was resurrected in a somewhat different form in 1983.[12] The version of the Okipa as practiced by the Lakota may be seen in the 1970 film A Man Called Horse starring Richard Harris. Image File history File links Catlin_Okipa. ... Image File history File links Catlin_Okipa. ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus (breath). // The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath (compare spiritus asper), but also soul, courage, vigor, ultimately from a PIE root *(s)peis- (to blow). In the Vulgate, the Latin word translates Greek (πνευμα), pneuma (Hebrew (רוח) ruah), as... Medicine man is an English term used to describe Native American religious figures; such individuals are analogous to shamans. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... A Man Called Horse was originally published in 1968 as a short story in a book called Indian Country by Dorothy M. Johnson. ... Richard Harris as Marcus Aurelius in Gladiator. ...

Print of the Mandan Bison Dance as observed by Karl Bodmer.

Image File history File links Bodmer_bison_dance. ... Image File history File links Bodmer_bison_dance. ... Karl Bodmer, (February 6, 1809-October 30, 1893), was a Swiss painter of the American West. ...

History

Origins and early history

Like all native American peoples, the exact origins and early history of the Mandan is unknown Early studies by linguists gave evidence that the Mandan language may have been closely related to the language of the Ho-Chunk or Winnebago people of present-day Wisconsin, which has given rise to the theory that they may have settled in the region at one time. This idea is possibly confirmed in their mythology, where reference is made to having come from an eastern location near a lake. The Ho-Chunk or Winnebago (as they are commonly called) are a tribe of Native Americans, native to what are now Wisconsin and Illinois. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to 92° 53′ W Population  Ranked...


Ethnologists and scholars studying the Mandan subscribe to the theory that, like other Sioux people (possibly including the Hidatsa), they originated in the area of the upper Mississippi River and the Ohio River in present-day Ohio. If this is the case, the Mandan would have migrated north towards the Missouri River valley and its tributary the Heart River in present-day North Dakota, where Europeans first encountered them. This migration is believed to have occurred possibly as early as the 7th century but probably between 1000 CE and the 13th century.[14] For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Greater Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ...


After their arrival on the banks of the Heart River, the Mandan constructed nine villages, two on the east side of the river and seven on the west side. At some point during this time, the Hidatsa people also moved into the region. Mandan tradition states that the Hidatsa were a nomadic tribe until their encounter with the Mandan, who taught them to build stationary villages and agriculture. The Hidatsa continued to maintain amicable relations with the Mandan and constructed villages north of them on the Knife River.


European encounter

Painting of a Mandan village by George Catlin. Circa 1833.

The first encounter with Europeans occurred with the visit of the French Canadian trader Sieur de la Verendrye in 1738. It is estimated that at the time of his visit there were approximately 15,000 Mandan residing in the nine villages on the Heart River.[15] Horses were acquired by the Mandan in the mid-18th century and were used for transportation and hunting. The horses helped with the expansion of Mandan hunting territory. The encounter with the French in the 18th century created a trading link between the French and the Native Americans of the region with the Mandan serving as middlemen in the of trade in furs, horses, guns, crops and buffalo products. Image File history File links Catlin_mandan_village. ... Image File history File links Catlin_mandan_village. ... George Catlin (1796 in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania – December 23, 1872 in Jersey City, New Jersey) was an American painter who specialized in portraits of Native Americans in the Old West. ... Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye (November 17, 1685 – December 5, 1749) was a French Canadian military officer, fur trader and explorer. ... Who ever deleted my page is a prat and i wil hunt them down on lucy and shout at them loudly! RAAAAARRR! connie sansom ... middle_man is a program created by Krunch Software with the sole purpose of Enhancing your AIM experience. The AOL Instant Messenger plug-in enhances and extends funtionality of AIM to its users. ... This article is about the video game. ...


In 1796 the Mandan were visited by the Welsh explorer John Evans, who was hoping to find proof that their language contained Welsh words. Evans spent the winter of 1796–97 with the Mandan, but found no evidence of any Welsh influence. John Thomas Evans (1770 - 1799) was a Welsh explorer who produced an early map of the Missouri River. ...


By 1804 when Lewis and Clark visited the tribe, the number of Mandan had been greatly reduced due to smallpox epidemics and warring bands of Assiniboins, Lakotas and Arikaras (whom they would later join together with to fight against the Lakota). The nine villages at this point had consolidated into two villages. The Lewis and Clark expedition met with such hospitality in the Upper Missouri River villages that the expedition stopped there for the winter. In honor of their hosts, the expedition dubbed the settlement they constructed Fort Mandan. It was here that Lewis and Clark first met Sakakawea, a Shoshone woman who had been captured by the Hidatsa. Sakakawea guided the expedition westward towards the Pacific Ocean. Upon their return to the Mandan villages, Lewis and Clark took the Mandan Chief Sheheke (Coyote or Big White) to Washington to meet with President Thomas Jefferson. Chief Sheheke was killed in his own village by Sioux raiders in 1832. [16] The Lewis and Clark expedition (1804-1806) was the first American overland expedition to the Pacific coast and back. ... The Assiniboine, also known as the Assnipwan or sometimes the Stone Sioux, are a Native American people, originally from the Northern Great Plains area of North America, specifically in present-day Montana and parts of Canada around the US/Canadian border. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... Sacagawea (Sakakawea, Sacajawea; see below) (c. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ...


In 1833, artist George Catlin visited the Mandan near Fort Clark. Catlin painted and drew scenes of Mandan life as well as portraits of chiefs including Four Bears or Ma-to-toh-pe. His skill at rendering so impressed Four Bears that Catlin was the first man of European descent to be allowed to watch the Okipa ceremony. Catlin believed the Mandan were the "Welsh Indians" of folklore, the descendants of Prince Madoc and his followers who had emigrated to America from Wales circa 1170, a view that was then popular but is disputed by the bulk of scholarship today.[17] The winter months of 1833 and 1834 brought Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied and Swiss artist Karl Bodmer to stay with the Mandan. George Catlin (1796 in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania – December 23, 1872 in Jersey City, New Jersey) was an American painter who specialized in portraits of Native Americans in the Old West. ... A typical Mandan village — possibly what the early settlement may have looked like Fort Clark Trading Post State Historic Site was once the home to a Mandan and later an Arikara settlement. ... Mandan Chief Mato-tope by George Catlin Mato-tope (also known as Ma-to-toh-pe or Four Bears) (c. ... Madoc (Madog or Madawg) ap Owain Gwynedd was a Welsh prince who, according to legend, discovered America in 1170, over three hundred years before Christopher Columbuss voyage in 1492. ... This article is about the country. ... Prince Alexander Philipp Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied (1782 - 1867) was a German explorer. ... Karl Bodmer, (February 6, 1809-October 30, 1893), was a Swiss painter of the American West. ...


Smallpox epidemic of 1837–38

Mandan Chief Ma-to-toh-pe or Four Bears, by George Catlin

The Mandan were first plagued by smallpox in the 16th century and had been hit by similar epidemics every few decades. Between 1837 and 1838, another smallpox epidemic swept the region. In June 1837, an American Fur Company steamboat traveled westward up the Missouri River from St. Louis. Its passengers and traders aboard infected the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara tribes. There were approximately 1,600 Mandan living in the two villages at that time. The disease effectively destroyed the Mandan settlements. Almost all the tribal members, including the chief, Four Bears, died. Estimates of the number of survivors vary from only 27 individuals to up to 150, though most sources usually give the number 125. The survivors banded together with the nearby Hidatsa in 1845 and created Like-a-Fishhook Village. Image File history File links Catlin_Chief_Four_Bears. ... Image File history File links Catlin_Chief_Four_Bears. ... Mandan Chief Mato-tope by George Catlin Mato-tope (also known as Ma-to-toh-pe or Four Bears) (c. ... George Catlin (1796 in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania – December 23, 1872 in Jersey City, New Jersey) was an American painter who specialized in portraits of Native Americans in the Old West. ... The American Fur Company was founded by John Jacob Astor in 1808. ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... Like-a-Fishhook Village was an indian village in North Dakota established by members of the Three Affiliated Tribes, the Mandan, Arikara and Hidatsa. ...


Mandan chief Four Bears reportedly stated “a set of Black harted Dogs, they have deceived Me, them that I always considered as Brothers, has turned Out to be My Worst enemies”.[18] Francis Chardon, in his "Journal at Fort Clark 1834–1839", wrote that the Gros Ventre, who were one of the tribes affected by the smallpox, “swear vengeance against all the Whites, as they say the small pox was brought here by the S[team] B[oat].” (Chardon, Journal, p. 126). In the earliest detailed study of the event in 1902, "History of the American Fur Trade of the Far West" Hiram Martin Chittenden pointed blame on the American Fur Company for the epidemic.[19] Oral tradition of the effected tribes continue to claim that whites were to blame for the disease.[20] R. G. Roberton in his book Rotting Face: Smallpox and the American Indian places blame on Captain Pratte of St. Peter’s for failing to quarantine once the epidemic broke out, stating that while “not guilty of premeditated genocide, but he was guilty of contributing to the deaths of thousands of innocent people. The law calls his offence criminal negligence. Yet in light of all the deaths, the almost complete annihilation of the Mandans, and the terrible suffering the region endured, the label criminal negligence is benign, hardly befitting an action that had such horrendous consequences”.[21]


Ward Churchill has alleged that the US Army gave smallpox infected blankets to the Mandan Indians in 1837, as part of a genocidal conspiracy. No historian specializing in that event has agreed with Churchill's accusations against the Army. A University of Colorado investigation into Churchill's research found that in this instance he had misrepresented his sources and "created myths under the banner of academic scholarship."[22][23] Ward LeRoy Churchill (born October 2, 1947) is an American writer and political activist. ...


Late 19th and the 20th centuries

Dance lodge from the Elbowoods area on the Fort Berthold Reservation. This is a wooden version of the classic Mandan lodge built in 1923. This area was flooded in 1951. From the Historic American Engineering Record collection, Library of Congress.

The Mandan joined with the Arikara in 1862. By this time, Like-a-Fishhook Village had become a major center of trade in the region. By the 1880s, though, the village was abandoned. With the second half of the 19th century there was a gradual decrease in the holdings of the Three Affiliated Tribes (the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara). The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 recognized 12 million acres (49,000 km²) of land in the territory owned jointly by these tribes. With the creation of the Fort Berthold Reservation by Executive Order on 12 April 1870, the federal government recognized the holdings as only being 8 million acres (32,000 km²). On 1 July 1880, another executive order deprived the tribes of 7 million acres (28,000 km²) lying outside the boundaries of the reservation. Image File history File links Wooden_dance_lodge. ... Image File history File links Wooden_dance_lodge. ... The Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) is an office of the National Park Service. ... The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 was signed on September 17 between United States treaty commissioners and representatives of the Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Crow, Shoshone, Assiniboine, Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara nations. ... An executive order is an edict issued by a member of the executive branch of a government, usually the head of that branch. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


With the arrival of the 20th century, the government seized more land, and by 1910, the reservation had shrunk to a mere 900,000 acres (3,600 km²).[24] This land is located in Dunn, McKenzie, McLean, Mercer, Mountrail and Ward counties in North Dakota. In 1951, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers began construction of Garrison Dam on the Missouri River. This dam created Lake Sakakawea, which flooded portions of the Fort Berthold Reservation including the villages of Fort Berthold and Elbowoods as well as a number of other villages. The former residents of these villages were moved and New Town was established for them. Dunn County is a county located in the state of North Dakota. ... McKenzie County is a county located in the state of North Dakota. ... McLean County is a county located in the state of North Dakota. ... Mercer County is a county located in the state of North Dakota. ... Mountrail County is a county located in the U.S. state of North Dakota. ... Ward County redirects here. ... United States Army Corps of Engineers logo The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ... Garrison Dam is an earth-embankment dam on the Missouri River in North Dakota, and the fifth-largest earthen dam in the world. ... Lake Sakakawea is a reservoir on the Missouri River. ... New Town is a city in Mountrail County, North Dakota in the United States. ...


While a new town was constructed for the displaced tribal members, much damage was done to the social and economic foundations of the reservation. The flooding claimed approximately one quarter of the reservations land. This land contained some of the most fertile agricultural land upon which the agricultural economy had been constructed. In addition, the flooding claimed the sites of historic villages and archaeological sites.


Present day

The Mandan and the two related tribes while being combined have intermarried but do maintain, as a whole, the varied traditions of their ancestors. The last full-blood Mandan died in 1971.[12] The tribal residents have recovered from the trauma of their displacement in the 1950s and part of their recovery has been aided by two recent additions to New Town. The Four Bears Casino and Lodge was constructed in 1993 drawing tourists and money to the impoverished reservation.[25] The most recent addition to the New Town area has been the new Four Bears Bridge, which was built in a joint effort between the three tribes and the North Dakota Department of Transportation. The bridge, spanning the Missouri River, replaces an older Four Bears Bridge that was built in 1955. The new bridge—the largest bridge in the state of North Dakota—is decorated with medallions celebrating the cultures of the three tribes. The bridge was opened to traffic 2 September 2005 and was officially opened in a ceremony on the 3 October.[26] Four Bears Bridge is one of two bridges built over the Missouri River on the Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Notes

  1. ^ This number is given by most sources though there is some controversy regarding it.
  2. ^ Synonymy section written by D. R. Parks in Wood & Irwin pp. 362–364.
  3. ^ Jahoda p. 174.
  4. ^ Personal communication from Mauricio Mixco in 1999, reported in Parks & Rankin p. 112.
  5. ^ Chafe pp. 37–38.
  6. ^ Hollow 1970, p. 457 (in Mithun p. 280).
  7. ^ Hollow & Parks 1980, p. 82.
  8. ^ Pritzker p. 336.
  9. ^ a b Zimmerman pp. 298–299.
  10. ^ Viking settlement and the Mandans
  11. ^ Ibid pp. 299–300.
  12. ^ a b c Dying Tongues
  13. ^ Jahoda pp. 177–182.
  14. ^ Hodge p. 796.
  15. ^ Mandan entry in The Catholic Encyclopedia.
  16. ^ http://www.lewis-clark.org/content/content-article.asp?ArticleID=1025].
  17. ^ Mystery of the Mandan by Charles Moore, 1998.
  18. ^ http://www.smithsonianmagazine.com/issues/2005/may/tribal.php?page=2
  19. ^ http://www.jstor.org/view/00433810/ap030029/03a00020/1?frame=noframe&userID=9052d6c8@ucl.ac.uk/01cce4406700501bb5928&dpi=3&config=jstor
  20. ^ http://www.colorado.edu/news/reports/churchill/download/WardChurchillReport.pdf
  21. ^ Robertson, Rotting Face, pp. pp. 299–303.
  22. ^ Brown, Thomas (2006), "Did the U.S. Army Distribute Smallpox Blankets to Indians? Fabrication and Falsification in Ward Churchill’s Genocide Rhetoric", Plagiary: Cross-Disciplinary Studies in Plagiarism, Fabrication, and Falsification 1 (9), <http://www.plagiary.org/smallpox-blankets.pdf>
  23. ^ Wesson, Marianne; Clinton, Robert & Limón, José et al. (2006), Report of the Investigative Committee of the Standing Committee on Research Misconduct at the University of Colorado at Boulder concerning Allegations of Academic Misconduct against Professor Ward Churchill, University of Colorado at Boulder, <http://www.colorado.edu/news/reports/churchill/download/WardChurchillReport.pdf>
  24. ^ Pritzker p. 335.
  25. ^ Indian Gaming Association press release For casino opening date.
  26. ^ Article on bridge opening from the Williston Herald

References

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Mandan

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Books

  • Hayden, Ferdinand Vandeveer. (1862). Contributions to the ethnography and philology of the Indian tribes of the Missouri Valley: Prepared under the direction of Capt. William F. Reynolds, T.E.U.S.A., and published by permission of the War Department. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 12 (2), 231–461. Philadelphia: C. Sherman and Son.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb, Ed. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Originally published by the Bureau of American Ethnology and the Smithsonian Institute in 1906. (Reprinted in New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 1971. ISBN 1-58218-748-7)
  • Jahoda, Gloria. Trail of Tears: The Story of the American Indian Removals, 1813–1835. New York: Wings Books, 1975. ISBN 0-517-14677-0
  • Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture and Peoples. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-513877-5
  • Robertson, R. G. (2001). Rotting Face. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Press. ISBN 0870044192.
  • Wood, W. Raymond, & Lee Irwin. "Mandan". In R. J. DeMallie (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians: Plains (Vol. 13, Part 1, pp. 94–114). W. C. Sturtevant (Gen. Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 2001. ISBN 0-16-050400-7
  • Zimmerman, Karen. "Mandan". In The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes, Vol. III. Detroit: Gale, 1998. ISBN 0-7876-1088-7

Language

  • Chafe, Wallace. (1976). The Caddoan, Iroquoian, and Siouan languages. Trends in linguistics: State-of-the-art report (No. 3). The Hague: Mouton. ISBN 90-279-3443-6.
  • Hollow, Robert C. (1970). A Mandan dictionary. (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley).
  • Hollow, Robert C.; & Parks, Douglas. (1980). Studies in plains linguistics: A review. In W. R. Wood & M. P. Liberty (Eds.), Anthropology on the Great Plains (pp. 68–97). Lincoln: University of Nebraska. ISBN 0-8032-4708-7.
  • Kennard, Edward. (1936). Mandan grammar. International Journal of American Linguistics, 9, 1–43.
  • Lowie, Robert H. (1913). Societies of the Hidatsa and Mandan Indians. In R. H. Lowie, Societies of the Crow, Hidatsa, and Mandan Indians (pp. 219–358). Anthropological papers of the American Museum Of Natural History (Vol. 11, Part 3). New York: The Trustees. (Texts are on pp. 355–358).
  • Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
  • Mixco, Mauricio C. (1997). Mandan. Languages of the world series: Materials 159. Münich: LINCOM Europa. ISBN 3-89586-213-4.
  • Parks, Douglas R.; Jones, A. Wesley; Hollow, Robert C; & Ripley, David J. (1978). Earth lodge tales from the upper Missouri. Bismarck, ND: Mary College.
  • Parks, Douglas R.; & Rankin, Robert L. (2001). The Siouan languages. In R. J. DeMallie (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians: Plains (Vol. 13, Part 1, pp. 94–114). W. C. Sturtevant (Gen. Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-050400-7.
  • Will, George; & Spinden, H. J. (1906). The Mandans: A study of their culture, archaeology and language. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University (Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 81–219). Cambridge, MA: The Museum. (Reprinted 1976, New York: Kraus Reprint Corporation).

Online sources


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mandan: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (4822 words)
The Mandan were a sedentary tribe of the Plains area and were culturally connected with their neighbors on the Missouri River, the Arikara and the Hidatsa.
The Mandan are a Native American tribe that historically lived along the banks of the Missouri River and its tributaries, the Heart and Knife rivers in present-day North and South Dakota.
Mandan tradition states that the Hidatsa were a nomadic tribe until their encounter with the Mandan, who taught them to build stationary villages and agriculture.
Lewis and Clark . Native Americans. Mandan Indians | PBS (537 words)
The Corps of Discovery reached the Mandan villages in the fall of 1804 and stayed the winter in Fort Mandan, across the river from Matootonha.
In Mandan culture, the village was the focus of political, economic and ceremonial activity.
In contrast, relations between the Mandans and the Corps were friendly throughout the duration of the expedition’s stay.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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