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Encyclopedia > Mandala
Buddhist mandala
Buddhist mandala

Mandala (Sanskrit maṇḍala "circle", "completion")[1] is a term used to refer to various objects. It is of Hindu origin, but is also used in other Dharmic religions, such as Buddhism. In the Tibetan branch of Vajrayana Buddhism, they have been developed into sandpainting. In practice, mandala has become a generic term for any plan, chart or geometric pattern that represents the cosmos metaphysically or symbolically, a microcosm of the Universe from the human perspective. Mandala (만다라) is a 1981 South Korean film about Buddhist monks in Korea. ... Image File history File links Mandala_gross. ... Image File history File links Mandala_gross. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... map showing the prevalence of Dharmic (yellow) and Abrahamic (purple) religions in each country. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Sandpainting is the art of painting ritual paintings for religious or healing ceremonies. ... The Ancient and Medieval cosmos as depicted in Peter Apians Cosmographia (Antwerp, 1539). ... Macrocosm and microcosm is an ancient Greek schema of seeing the same patterns reproduced in all levels of reality. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ...


In various spiritual traditions, mandala may be employed for focusing attention of aspirants and adepts, a spiritual teaching tool, for establishing a sacred space and as an aid to meditation and trance induction. Its symbolic nature can help one "to access progressively deeper levels of the unconscious, ultimately assisting the meditator to experience a mystical sense of oneness with the ultimate unity from which the cosmos in all its manifold forms arises." [2] The Psychoanalyst Carl Jung saw the mandala as "a representation of the unconscious self,"[3] and believed his paintings of mandalas enabled him to identify emotional disorders and work towards wholeness in personality. [4] Greek Temenos ([1], from the Greek verb to cut) (plural = temene) is a piece of land cut off and assigned as an official domain, especially to kings and chiefs, or a piece of land marked off from common uses and dedicated to a god, a sanctuary, holy grove or holy... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... Trance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Psychoanalysis is the revelation of unconscious relations, in a systematic way through an associative process. ... “Jung” redirects here. ...

Contents

In Hinduism

A Hindu temple's ground floor plan often takes the form of a mandala symbolizing the universe. The lotus is sacred not only because it transcends the darkness of the water and mud where its roots are, but also because of its perfectly symmetrical and sucks mandala.[5]


In Buddhism

Tibetan Vajrayana

Tibetan monks making a temporary "Sand-Mandala" in the City-Hall of Kitzbühel in Austria in 2002
Tibetan monks making a temporary "Sand-Mandala" in the City-Hall of Kitzbühel in Austria in 2002
Details of Sand-Mandala
Details of Sand-Mandala

A kyil khor (Tibetan for mandala) in Vajrayana Buddhism usually depicts a landscape of the Buddha land or the enlightened vision of a Buddha (which are inevitably identified with and represent the nature of experience and the intricacies of both the enlightened and confused mind): "a microcosm representing various divine powers at work in the universe."[6] Such mandalas consist of an outer circular mandala and an inner square (or sometimes circular) mandala with an ornately decorated mandala palace[7] placed at the center. Any part of the inner mandala can be occupied by Buddhist glyphs and symbols [8] as well as images of its associated deities, which "symbolise different stages in the process of the realisation of the truth." [9] Mandalas are commonly used by tantric Buddhists as an aid to meditation. More specifically, a Buddhist mandala is envisaged as a "sacred space,"[10] a Pure Buddha Realm[11] and also as an abode of fully realised beings or deities. [12] While on the one hand, it is regarded as a place separated and protected from the ever-changing and impure outer world of Samsara,[13] and is thus seen as a Buddhafield[14] or a place of Nirvana and peace, the view of Vajrayana Buddhism sees the greatest protection from samsara being the power to see samsaric confusion as the "shadow" of purity (which then points towards it). By visualizing purelands, one learns to understand experience itself as pure, and the abode of enlightenment. The protection we need, in this view, is from our own minds, as much as from external sources of confusion. In many tantric mandalas, this aspect of separation and protection from the outer samsaric world is depicted by "the four outer circles: the purifying fire of wisdom, the vajra circle, the circle with the eight tombs, the lotus circle."[15] The ring of vajras forms a connected fence-like arrangement running around the perimeter of the outer mandala circle[16] The mandala is also "a support for the meditating person,"[17] something to be repeatedly contemplated, to the point of saturation, such that the image of the mandala becomes fully internalised in even the minutest detail and which can then be summoned and contemplated at will as a clear and vivid visualised image. With every mandala comes what Tucci calls "its associated liturgy...contained in texts known as tantras,"[18] instructing practitioners on how the mandala should be drawn, built and visualised and indicating the mantras to be recited during its ritual use. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 634 KB) Motive-description: Tibetan monks making a temporary Sand-Mandala in the City-Hall of Kitzbuehel in Austria Scan/photo by: User:Henryart Date: July 2002 File links The following pages link to this file: Mandala Sandpainting Wikiportal:Art... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 634 KB) Motive-description: Tibetan monks making a temporary Sand-Mandala in the City-Hall of Kitzbuehel in Austria Scan/photo by: User:Henryart Date: July 2002 File links The following pages link to this file: Mandala Sandpainting Wikiportal:Art... Kitzbühel is a medieval city in Tyrol, Austria, situated along the river Kitzbühler Ache. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1530x1196, 756 KB) Motive-description: Tibetan monks making a temporary Sand-Mandala in the City-Hall of Kitzbuehel in Austria Scan/photo by: User:Henryart Date: July 2002 File links The following pages link to this file: Mandala Sandpainting ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1530x1196, 756 KB) Motive-description: Tibetan monks making a temporary Sand-Mandala in the City-Hall of Kitzbuehel in Austria Scan/photo by: User:Henryart Date: July 2002 File links The following pages link to this file: Mandala Sandpainting ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Wheel of Life as portrayed within Buddhism, showing the cycle of Samsara, or reincarnation. ... Vajrasattva holds the vajra in his right hand and a bell in his left hand. ...


The photograph at right is a good example of a Tibetan sand mandala.[19] This pattern is painstakingly created on the temple floor by several monks who use small tubes and rub another metal object against the tube's notched surface to create a tiny flow of grains.[20] The various aspects of the traditionally fixed design represent symbolically the objects of worship and contemplation of the Tibetan Buddhist cosmology. Sandpainting is the art of painting ritual paintings for religious or healing ceremonies. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Buddhist cosmology is the description of the shape and evolution of the universe according to the canonical Buddhist scriptures and commentaries. ...


To symbolize impermanence (a central teaching of Buddhism), after days or weeks of creating the intricate pattern, the sand is brushed together and is usually placed in a body of running water to spread the blessings of the mandala. A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ...


The visualization and concretization of the mandala concept is one of the most significant contributions of Buddhism to Transpersonal Psychology. Mandalas are seen as sacred places which, by their very presence in the world, remind a viewer of the immanence of sanctity in the Universe and its potential in his or her self. In the context of the Buddhist path the purpose of a mandala is to put an end to human suffering, to attain enlightenment and to attain a correct view of Reality. It is a means to discover divinity by the realization that it resides within one's own self. Transpersonal psychology is a school of psychology that studies the transpersonal, the transcendent or spiritual aspects of the human mind. ...


A mandala can also represent the entire Universe, which is traditionally depicted with Mount Meru as the axis mundi in the center, surrounded by the continents. A 'mandala offering'[21] in Tibetan Buddhism is a symbolic offering of the entire Universe. Every intricate detail of these mandalas is fixed in the tradition and has specific symbolic meanings, often on more than one level. Axis mundi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ...


The mandala can be shown to represent in visual form the core essence of the Vajrayana teachings. In the mandala, the outer circle of fire usually symbolises wisdom. The ring of 8 charnel grounds[22] probably represent the Buddhist exhortation to always be mindful of death and impermanence with which samsara is suffused: "such locations were utilized in order to confront and to realize the transient nature of life."[23] Described elsewhere thus: "within a flaming rainbow nimbus and encircled by a black ring of dorjes, the major outer ring depicts the eight great charnel grounds, to emphasize the dangerous nature of human life."[24] Inside these rings lie the walls of the mandala palace itself, specifically a place populated by deities and Buddhas. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The Wheel of Life as portrayed within Buddhism, showing the cycle of Samsara, or reincarnation. ... Dorje is a Tibetan word referring to a ritual object held in the right hand of a Lama while preforming religious ceremonies. ... Media:Example. ...


One well-known type of mandala in Japan is the mandala of the "Five Buddhas", archetypal Buddha forms embodying various aspects of enlightenment, the Buddhas are depicted depending on the school of Buddhism and even the specific purpose of the mandala. A common mandala of this type is that of the Five Wisdom Buddhas (a.k.a. Five Jinas), the Buddhas Vairocana, Aksobhya, Ratnasambhava, Amitabha and Amoghasiddhi. When paired with another mandala depicting the Five Wisdom Kings, this forms the Mandala of the Two Realms. A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... In Vajrayana Buddhism, the Five Wisdom Buddhas (Jp. ... This article is about the primordial Buddha Vairocana. ... In Vajrayana Buddhism, Akshobhya (Sanskrit for Immovable One, Jp. ... In Vajrayana Buddhism, the Five Dhyani Buddhas (Dhyani Skt. ... Amitabha Buddha pictured in the Ushiku Daibutsu in Japan Amitābha (Sanskrit: अमिताभः, Amitābhaḥ; Chinese: 阿彌陀佛, Ēmítuó Fó; Japanese: 阿弥陀如来, Amida Nyorai; Vietnamese: 阿彌陀佛, A Di Ðà Phật; Tibetan: འོད་དཔག་མེད་; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Mongolian: Caɣlasi ügei gerel-tü) is a celestial buddha described in the scriptures of the Mahāyāna school... Amoghasiddhi (Sanskrit, unfailing power), is the fifth dhyanibuddha (representations of the five qualities of the Buddha). ... In Vajrayana Buddhism, the Five Wisdom Kings (Jp. ... The Mandala of the Two Realms (Jp. ...


Mandala offering

Whereas the above mandala represents the pure surroundings of a Buddha, this mandala represents the Universe. This type of mandala is used for the mandala-offerings, during which one symbolically offers the Universe to the Buddhas or one's teacher for example. Within Vajrayana practice, 100,000 of these mandala offerings (to create merit) can be part of the preliminary practices before a student can begin with actual tantric practices.[25] This mandala is generally structured according to the model of the Universe as taught in a Buddhist classic text the Abhidharmakosha, with Mount Meru at the centre, surrounded by the continents, oceans and mountains, etc. Abhidharma-kośa (the compendium of Abhidharma) is a key text in verse written in Sanskrit by Vasubandhu. ... Mount Meru is a sacred mountain in Hindu mythology which is believed to be the abode of Brahma and other gods. ...


Shingon Buddhism

The Japanese branch of Vajrayana Buddhism, Shingon Buddhism, makes frequent use of mandalas in their rituals as well, though the actual mandalas differ. When Shingon's founder, Kukai returned from his training in China, he brought back two mandalas that became central to Shingon ritual: the Mandala of the Womb Realm and the Mandala of the Diamond Realm. Shingon (真言宗) is a major school of Japanese Buddhism, and the most important school of Vajrayana Buddhism outside of the Himalayan region. ... Painting of Kukai (774-835). ... Center of a Garbhadhatu mandala, representing Vairocana Buddha surrounded by eight Buddhas and bodhisattvas (clockwise from top: Ratnaketu, Samantabhadra, Samkusumitaraja, Manjusri, Amitabha, Avalokitesvara, Dundubhinirghosa, Maitreya) In Vajrayana Buddhism, the Womb Realm (Skt. ... In Vajrayana Buddhism, the Diamond Realm (Skt. ...


These two mandalas are engaged in the abhiseka initiation rituals for new Shingon students. A common feature in this ritual is to blindfold the new initiate and have them throw a flower upon either mandala. Where the flower lands assists in the determination of which tutelary deity the initiate should work with. Abhiseka is the name used to describe a number of ritualistic practices in Dharmic religions. ...


Sand Mandalas, as found in Tibetan Buddhism, are not practiced in Shingon Buddhism.


Nichiren Buddhism

The mandala in Nichiren Buddhism is called a moji-mandala (文字漫荼羅) and is a hanging paper scroll or wooden tablet whose inscription consists of Chinese characters and medieval-Sanskrit script representing elements of the Buddha's enlightenment, protective Buddhist deities and certain Buddhist concepts. Called the Gohonzon, it was originally inscribed by Nichiren, the founder of this branch of Japanese Buddhism, during the late 13th Century. The Gohonzon is the primary object of veneration in some Nichiren schools and the only one in others, which consider it to be the supreme object of worship as the embodiment of the supreme Dharma and Nichiren's inner enlightenment. The seven characters Nam Myoho Renge Kyo, considered to be the name of the supreme Dharma and the invocation that believers chant, are written down the center of all Nichiren-sect Gohonzons, whose appearance may otherwise vary depending on the particular school and other factors. Nichiren Buddhism (日蓮系諸宗派: Nichiren-kei sho shÅ«ha) is a branch of Buddhism based on the teachings of the 13th century Japanese monk Nichiren (1222–1282). ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Siddham (Sanskrit, accomplished or perfected) — referred to in Japanese as bonji (梵字) — is the name of a North Indian script used for writing Sanskrit. ... Bodhi (Pali and Sanskrit. ... Gohonzon (ご本尊 or 御本尊) refers to the object of devotion in many forms of Japanese Buddhism. ... Nichiren (日蓮) (February 16, 1222 – October 13, 1282), born Zennichimaro (善日麿), later Zeshō-bō Renchō (是生房蓮長), and finally Nichiren (日蓮), was a Buddhist monk of 13th century Japan. ... Japanese Buddhist priest c. ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... Nam Myōhō Renge Kyō (南無妙法蓮華経, also transliterated Namu Myōhō Renge Kyō) is a mantra, which is recited as part of the practice of Nichiren Buddhism. ... An invocation (from the Latin verb invocare to call on, invoke) is: A supplication. ...


Pure Land Buddhism

Like Nichiren, Pure Land Buddhists such as Shinran and his descendent Rennyo sought a way to create objects of reverence, but objects that were readily available to the lower-classes of Japanese society that could not afford the traditional form of mandala. In the case of Shin Buddhism, Shinran designed a mandala using a hanging scroll, and the words of the nembutsu (南無阿彌陀佛) written vertically. Nichiren (日蓮) (February 16, 1222 – October 13, 1282), born Zennichimaro (善日麿), later Zeshō-bō Renchō (是生房蓮長), and finally Nichiren (日蓮), was a Buddhist monk of 13th century Japan. ... The Buddha Amitabha, 13th century, Kamakura, Japan. ... Shinran Shonin (親鸞聖人) (1173-1263) was a pupil of Honen and the founder of the Jodo Shinshu (or True Pure Land) sect in Japan. ... Rennyo )(1415-1499) was the 8th abbot of the Jodo Shinshu sect of Buddhism (a. ... Jōdo ShinshÅ« ), also known as Shin Buddhism, was founded by the former Tendai Japanese monk Shinran Shonin. ... Nianfo (念佛. Chinese pinyin nian fo; Japanese: nembutsu; Korean: yeombul), literally mindfulness of the Buddha. ...


Such mandalas are still often used by Pure Land Buddhists in home altars called butsudan today. A butsudan A butsudan (仏壇) is a shrine found in religious temples and homes of Japanese and other Buddhist cultures. ...


In Christianity

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Cowen (2005: p.?),[attribution needed] holds that mandala-esque forms are prevalent throughout Christianity: celtic cross; rosary; halo; aureole; oculi; Crown of Thorns; rose windows; Rosy Cross'; dromenon[26] on the floor of Chartres Cathedral. The dromenon represents a journey from the outer world to the inner sacred centre where the Divine is found.[27] Image File history File links Circle-question. ... Celtic cross For Celtic Cross, the ambient/dub band see Celtic Cross (band) A Celtic cross is a symbol that combines the cross with a ring surrounding the intersection. ... Our Lady of Lourdes - Mary appearing at Lourdes with Rosary beads. ... A halo (Greek: ; also known as a nimbus, glory, or Gloriole) is a ring of light that surrounds an object. ... Images of Mary, mother of Jesus are often surrounded by an aureole, as in this image of Our Lady of Guadalupe. ... Oculus is the Latin word for eye. ... Jesus Carrying the Cross as portrayed by El Greco - Domenikos Theotokopoulos, 1580 In Christianity, the Crown of Thorns, one of the instruments of the Passion, was the woven chaplet of thorn branches worn by Jesus before his crucifixion. ... The rose window in Bristol Cathedral, Bristol, England, at the western end of the nave. ... The rosy cross (also called rose cross and rose croix) is a symbol largely associated with the semi-mythical Christian Rosencreutz (1378-1484), alchemist and founder of the Rosicrucian Order. ... The Cathedral of Chartres (Cathedral of Our Lady in Chartres, French: Cathédrale Notre_Dame de Chartres), located in Chartres, about 50 miles from Paris, is considered the finest example in all France of the high Gothic style of architecture. ...


Similarly, many of the Illuminations of Hildegard von Bingen can be used as Mandalas, as are many of the images of esoteric Christianity ie Christian Hermeticism, Christian Alchemy & Rosicrucianism. A medieval illumination showing Hildegard von Bingen and the monk Volmar Hildegard von Bingen or Hildegard of Bingen (September 16, 1098 – September 17, 1179) was a German abbess, monastic leader, mystic, author, and composer of music. ... Esoteric Christianity refers to the occult study and the mystic living of the esoteric knowledge related to what adherents view as the inner teachings of early Christianity, seen as a Mystery religion. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Hermeticism should not be confused with the concept of a hermit. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... The Temple of the Rose Cross, Teophilus Schweighardt Constantiens, 1618. ...


In Islam

In Islam, sacred art is dominated by geometric shapes in which a segment of the circle, the crescent moon, together with a star, represent the Divine. The entire building of the mosque becomes a mandala as the dome of the roof represents the arch of the heavens and turns the worshipper's attention towards Allah.[28]


Medicine wheel as mandala

Medicine wheels are stone structures built by the natives of North America for various spiritual and ritual purposes. Medicine wheels were built by laying out stones in a circular pattern that often looked like a wagon wheel lying on its side. The wheels could be large, reaching diameters of 75 feet. Although archeologists are not definite on the purpose of each medicine wheel, it is considered that they had ceremonial and astronomical significance. Medicine wheels are still used today in the Native American spirituality, however most of the meaning behind them is not shared amongst non-Native peoples. Dream catchers are also mandalas. Medicine wheels were commonly used by North American natives such as the Ojibwa. ... Stone structures have been erected and built by mankind for thousands of years. ... Brazilian Indian chiefs The scope of this indigenous peoples of the Americas article encompasses the definitions of indigenous peoples and the Americas as established in their respective articles. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... A ceremony is an activity, infused with ritual significance, performed on a certain occasion. ... Astronomy, which etymologically means law of the stars, (from Greek: αστρονομία = άστρον + νόμος) is a science involving the observation and explanation of events occurring outside Earth and its atmosphere. ... Brazilian Indian chiefs The scope of this indigenous peoples of the Americas article encompasses the definitions of indigenous peoples and the Americas as established in their respective articles. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Bora ring as mandala

A Bora is the name given both to an initiation ceremony of Indigenous Australians, and to the site Bora Ring on which the initiation is performed. At such a site, young boys are transformed into men via rites of passage. The word Bora was originally from South-East Australia, but is now often used throughout Australia to describe an initiation site or ceremony. The term "bora" is held to be etymologically derived from that of the belt or girdle that encircles initiated men. The appearance of a Bora Ring varies from one culture to another, but it is often associated with stone arrangements, rock engravings, or other art works. Women are generally prohibited from entering a bora. In South East Australia, the Bora is often associated with the creator-spirit Baiame. Bora rings, found in South-East Australia, are circles of foot-hardened earth surrounded by raised embankments. They were generally constructed in pairs (although some sites have three), with a bigger circle about 22 metres in diameter and a smaller one of about 14 metres. The rings are joined by a sacred walkway. Matthews (1897)[29] gives an excellent eye-witness account of a Bora ceremony, and explains the use of the two circles. Bora or Bura is a northern to north-eastern katabatic wind in the Adriatic, Greece and Turkey. ... For other uses, see Initiation (disambiguation). ... Languages Several hundred indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religions Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group names Indigenous... A This page is bora-ring is a cultural site important to Indigenous Australians. ... A rite of passage is a ritual that marks a change in a persons social or sexual status. ... a small part of the Wurdi Youang stone arrangement Aboriginal stone arrangements are a ritual art form constructed by Indigenous Australians, and are a form of rock art. ... The Sydney Rock Engravings are a form of Australian Aboriginal Rock Art consisting of carefully drawn images of people, animals, or symbols, in the sandstone around Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... Aboriginal hollow log tomb Indigenous Australian art is art produced by Indigenous Australians, covering works that pre-date European colonisation as well as contemporary art by Aboriginal Australians based on traditional culture. ... In Aboriginal mythology, Baiame was the ancestor and patron god of the Kamilaroi. ...


Other meanings of mandala

a contemporary mandala made from a photograph of tree fungus.

In the West, mandala is also used to refer to the "personal world" in which one lives, the various elements of the mandala or the activities and interests in which one engages, the most important being at the centre of the mandala and the least important at the periphery. Depicting one's personal mandala in pictorial form can give one a good indication of the state of one's spiritual life.[citation needed] Image File history File links Woodland_fairylodge_600. ... Image File history File links Woodland_fairylodge_600. ...


See also

In the dharmic religions (Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism), the wheel of life or dharmachakra (Sanskrit धर्मचक्र; Tibetan chos kyi khor lo; see also the Names section below) is a mandala or symbolic representation of samsara, the continuous cycle of birth, life, death. ... “Jung” redirects here. ... For the Naruto jutsu, see Chakra (Naruto). ... Concept mapping is a technique for visualizing the relationships between different concepts. ... It has been suggested that Dharma-chakra be merged into this article or section. ... A representation of a form constant. ... A Ganachakra (Sanskrit gana (gathering); chakra (circle); Tib. ... The Gankyil (Tib. ... Gohonzon (ご本尊 or 御本尊) refers to the object of devotion in many forms of Japanese Buddhism. ... Image schema is a recurring structure of, or within, our cognitive processes, which establishes patterns of understanding and reasoning. ... Kālacakra (Sanskrit कालचक्र; Tibetan དུས་ཀྱི་འཁོར་ལོ་ dus kyi khor lo) is a term used in Tantric Buddhism that means time-wheel or time-cycles. It refers both to a Tantric deity (Tib. ... Landscape planning is a branch of landscape architecture. ... The mandala system was the main pattern of power relationships between the states of south-east Asia until the advent of European cultural and political colonisation in the mid-19th century. ... Namkha (Tibetan for sky/space/aether weaving and is a form of yarn or thread cross composed traditionally of wool or silk and is metonymic of the Endless knot of the Ashtamangala. ... Five dots forming a quincunx A quincunx is the arrangement of five units in the pattern corresponding to the five-spot on dice, playing cards, or dominoes. ... The rose window in Bristol Cathedral, Bristol, England, at the western end of the nave. ... Sacred art is imagery intended to uplift the mind to the spiritual. ... The Kalachakra Sand Mandala The Sand Mandala (tib: kilkhor) is a Tibetan Buddhist tradition which symbolises the transitory nature of things. ... Sandpainting is the art of painting ritual paintings for religious or healing ceremonies. ... The Sri Yantra This article is an overview of Tantra and an in-depth look at the Tantra of Hinduism. ... A Thangka is a painted or embroidered Tibetan banner which was hung in a monastery or a family altar and carried by lamas in ceremonial processions. ... Trul khor (lit. ... Vaastu Shastra (Vaastu- physical environment and Shastra- knowledge/ text/ principles. ... The Sri Yantra. ...

Notes

  1. ^ For a Wiktionary definition refer: Mandala.
  2. ^ See David Fontana: "Meditating with Mandalas", p. 10
  3. ^ http://www.crystalinks.com/mandala.html
  4. ^ See C G Jung: Memories, Dreams, Reflections, pp.186-197
  5. ^ See David Fontana: "Meditating with Mandalas", p. 12
  6. ^ http://www.mandala21century.org/the_mandala.html
  7. ^ http://www.jyh.dk/indengl.htm#Symbols
  8. ^ http://www.jyh.dk/indengl.htm#Symbols Mandala by Jytte Hansen
  9. ^ http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2122/stories/20041105000106500.htm
  10. ^ http://www.exoticindiaart.com/article/mandala/
  11. ^ http://www.lotsawahouse.org/cdmandala.html
  12. ^ http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2122/stories/20041105000106500.htm
  13. ^ http://www.angelfire.com/electronic/awakening101/sudgrad2.html
  14. ^ http://home.swipnet.se/ratnashri/ngondro.htm
  15. ^ http://www.jyh.dk/indengl.htm
  16. ^ http://www.jyh.dk/indengl.htm#Circles
  17. ^ http://www.jyh.dk/indengl.htm
  18. ^ http://www.asianart.com/mandalas/tibet.html
  19. ^ See Sand Mandala http://www.artnetwork.com/Mandala/
  20. ^ http://www.artnetwork.com/Mandala/gallery.html
  21. ^ http://www.berzinarchives.com/tantra/meaning_use_mandala.html
  22. ^ http://www.bdcu.org.au/scw/thanka.html
  23. ^ http://www.yoniversum.nl/dakini/charnel_g.html
  24. ^ http://www.sootze.com/tibet/mandala.htm
  25. ^ http://www.thubtenchodron.org/PrayersAndPractices/preliminary_practice.htm
  26. ^ It is correctly termed a dromenon, not a maze nor labyrinth, as there is only one path to the centre.
  27. ^ See David Fontana: "Meditating with Mandalas", p. 11, 54, 118
  28. ^ See David Fontana: "Meditating with Mandalas", p. 11-12
  29. ^ The Burbung of the Darkinung Tribes, 1897, Matthews, R.H., 1897, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 10, 1: 1-12.

References

  • Brauen, M. (1997). The Mandala, Sacred circle in Tibetan Buddhism Serindia Press, London.
  • Bucknell, Roderick & Stuart-Fox, Martin (1986). The Twilight Language: Explorations in Buddhist Meditation and Symbolism. Curzon Press: London. ISBN 0-312-82540-4
  • Cammann, S. (1950). Suggested Origin of the Tibetan Mandala Paintings The Art Quarterly, Vol. 8, Detroit.
  • Cowen, Painton (2005). The Rose Window, London and New York, (offers the most complete overview of the evolution and meaning of the form, accompanied by hundreds of colour illustrations.)
  • Fontana, David (2005). "Meditating with Mandalas", Duncan Baird Publishers, London.
  • Gold, Peter (1994). Navajo & Tibetan sacred wisdom: the circle of the spirit. ISBN 0-89281-411-X.  Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions International.
  • Grossman, Sylvie and Barou, Jean-Pierre (1995). Tibetan Mandala, Art & Practice The Wheel of Time, Konecky and Konecky.
  • Tucci,Giuseppe (1973). The Theory and Practice of the Mandala trans. Alan Houghton Brodrick, New York, Samuel Weisner.
  • Vitali, Roberto (1990). Early Temples of Central Tibet London, Serindia Publications.
  • Wayman, Alex (1973). "Symbolism of the Mandala Palace" in The Buddhist Tantras Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass.

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Mandala software

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  Results from FactBites:
 
The Kalachakra Mandala (967 words)
Both the deity, which resides at the centre of the mandala, and the mandala itself are recognised as pure expressions of the Buddha's fully enlightened mind.
The Kalachakra deity resides in the centre of the mandala.
The Kalachakra sand mandala is dedicated to peace and physical balance, both for individual and for the world, thanks to the deities carefully among minute human, animal and floral forms, abstract pictographs, and the Sanskrit syllables that comprises the mandala's design.
Mandala - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1222 words)
The Mandala of the hexagram, somewhat resembling the Star of David, is an archetypal symbol for the sacred union of opposite energies.
A mandala in tantric Buddhism usually depicts a landscape of the Buddha land or the enlightened vision of a Buddha.
Mandalas are seen as sacred places which, by their very presence in the world, remind a viewer of the immanence of sanctity in the universe and its potential in his or her self.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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