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Encyclopedia > Mandaeism
Mandaeans
Mandeyānā
Total population

60,000 to 70,000[1]

Regions with significant populations
Flag of Iraq Iraq
Flag of Iran Iran
Religions
Mandaeism
Scriptures
Ginza Rba, Qolusta
Languages
Mandaic, Arabic, Aramaic

Mandaeism or Mandaeanism is a monotheistic religion with a strongly dualistic worldview. Its adherents, the Mandaeans, revere Adam, Abel, Seth, Enosh, Noah, Shem, Aram, and especially John the Baptist. They describe Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad as false Prophets. Mandaeans consider John the Baptist to be God's most honorable messenger. Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Ginza Rba (in Mandaic, which translates into The Great Treasure) or Siddra Rba (The Great Book) is one of many holy scriptures of the Mandaean religion. ... The Qolusta is the canonical prayerbook of the Mandaeans, a present day gnostic sect within Iraq and Iran. ... The Mandaic language is the liturgical language of the Mandaean religion; a vernacular form is still spoken by a small community in Iran around Ahwaz. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ... In the Book of Genesis, Abel (Hebrew הֶבֶל / הָבֶל, Standard Hebrew Hével / Hável, Tiberian Hebrew Héḇel / Hāḇel; Arabic هابيل HābÄ«l) was the second son of Adam. ... Seth (Hebrew: שֵׁת, Standard Å et, Tiberian ; Arabic: شيث Shith or Shiyth; Placed; appointed), in the Book of Genesis of the Hebrew Bible, is the third listed son of Adam and Eve and brother of Cain and Abel and is the only other son mentioned by name. ... Enos or Enosh, (אֱנוֹשׁ Mortal man; sick, Standard Hebrew Enoš, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔnôš) is the first son of Seth in the Jewish and Christian Bible. ... This article is about the biblical Noah. ... Shem (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Greek: Σημ, SÄ“m ; Arabic:  ; Geez: Sham ; renown; prosperity; name) was one of the sons of Noah in the Bible. ... The term Aram can refer to: Aram (אֲרָם or ), the son of Shem, according to the Table of nations of Genesis 10 in the Hebrew Bible. ... St. ... “Abram” redirects here. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Prophets may refer to: The Prophets (Neviim), which is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... St. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


Worldwide, there are thought to be between 60,000 and 70,000 Mandaeans.[1] Mandaeism has historically been practiced primarily in the country around the lower Euphrates and Tigris and the rivers that surround the Shatt-al-Arab. This area is currently part of southern Iraq[2] and the Iranian province of Khuzestan. Persecution in Iraq and Iran[3] has caused many Mandaeans to leave for diaspora populations in Europe, Australia, and North America. Also, as of early 2007, most Iraqi Mandaeans have fled to Syria and Jordan under the threat of violence by Islamic extremists.[4] Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrūd in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Islamism refers to anti-secular political ideologies derived from fundamentalist interpretations of the religion of Islam. ...


The Mandaeans have remained separate and intensely private—what has been reported of them and their religion has come primarily from outsiders, particularly from the Orientalists J. Heinrich Petermann, Nicholas Siouffi, and Lady Ethel Drower. Orientalism is the study of Near and Far Eastern societies and cultures, by Westerners. ... Lady Ethel Stefana Drower (1879–1972) studied the Middle East and its cultures. ...


The term "Mandaeism" comes from Mandaic: mandaiuta (Arabic مندائية Manda'eyya, classical Mandaic mandaiia, Neo-Mandaic Mandeyānā), meaning followers of Mandā d-Heyyi (Mandaic manda ḏ-hiia "Knowledge of Life"). In Islam, the term Sabian (Arabic: صابئين) is used as a blanket term for adherents to a number of religions, including that of the Mandaeans. The Mandaic language is the liturgical language of the Mandaean religion; a vernacular form is still spoken by a small community in Iran around Ahwaz. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Not to be confused with Sabaeans, who were ancient people living in what is now Yemen. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...

Contents

Origin of the term 'Mandaean'

Part of a series on
Gnosticism

History of Gnosticism
This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Image File history File links Simple_crossed_circle. ... The History of Gnosticism is subject to a great deal of debate and interpretation. ...

Gnosticism
History of Gnosticism
Mandaeism
Manichaeism This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The History of Gnosticism is subject to a great deal of debate and interpretation. ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ...

Syrian-Egyptic Gnosticism
Sethians
Thomasines
Valentinians
Basilideans
Bardaisanites Syrian-Egyptian Gnostic Schools were ancient Gnostic sects from around the middle east, with some Judaic influences. ... Sethian is also a Finnish progressive metal band. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      St Thomas... Valentinius, more usually called Valentinus (c. ... The Basilideans were a Gnostic sect founded by Basilides of Alexandria in the 2nd century. ... Bar Daisan (154-222), also latinized as Bardesanes, was a Syrian gnostic and an outstanding scientist, scholar, and poet. ...

Proto-Gnostics
Philo
Simon Magus
Cerinthus
Basilides Philo (20 BC - 50 AD), known also as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo Judaeus And as Yedidia, was a Hellenized Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... For the film, see Simon Magus (film). ... Cerinthus was the leader of a late first-century or early 2nd century sect, an offshoot of the Ebionites yet similar to Gnosticism in some respects, interesting in that it demonstrates the wide range of conclusions that could be drawn from the life and teachings of Jesus. ... Basilides redirects here. ...

Fathers of Christian Gnosticism
Theudas
Valentinus The death of Simon Magus. ... Theudas was the name of a Christian Gnostic thinker, who was a follower of Paul of Tarsus. ... This article is about the Gnostic Valentinus. ...

Early Gnosticism
Ophites
Cainites
Carpocratians
Borborites
Thomasines Early Gnosticism Ophites Cainites Carpocratians Borborites Thomasines ... The Ophites is a blanket term for numerous gnostic sects in Syria and Egypt about 100 A.D. The common trait was that these sects would give great importance to the serpent of the biblical tale of Adam and Eve, connecting the Tree of Knowledge (of Good and Evil) to... The Cainites, or Cainians, were a Gnostic and Antinomian sect who were known to worship Cain as the first victim of the Demiurge Jehovah, the Old Testament God, who was identified by many groups of gnostics as evil. ... Carpocrates was an early Gnostic from sometime in the second century A.D. who was mentioned by Clement of Alexandria in the Mar Saba letter discovered in 1958 by ancient historian Morton Smith. ... According to Epiphanius of Salamis book Panarion/Adversus Haereses chapter xxv, xxvi and Theodorets Haereticarum Fabularum Compendium the borborites (or barbelos, barbelites, phibionites, stratiotici, coddians etc) were a extraordinarily filthy and evil Gnostic ophite sect. ... ...

Medieval Gnosticism
Paulicianism
Tondrakians
Bogomilism
Bosnian Church
Catharism Paulicianism was a Gnostic and Manichaean Christian sect that florished between 650 and 872 in Anatolia, outgoing from Armenia and the Eastern Themes of the Byzantine Empire. ... Tondrakians were members of an anti-feudal, heretical Christian sect that flourished in medieval Armenia between the early 9th century and 11th century and centered around the city of Tondrak, north of Lake Van. ... Bogomilism is the Gnostic dualistic sect, the synthesis of Armenian Paulicianism and the local Slavonic Church reform movement in Bulgaria between 950 and 1396 and in the Byzantine Empire between 1018 and 1186. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ...

Gnosticism in modern times
Gnosticism in popular culture
This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // Literature Harold Bloom explores Gnosticism in his novel The Flight to Lucifer: A Gnostic Fantasy, and, with William Golding, traces Gnosticism in American beliefs in The American Religion: The Emergence of the Post-Christian Nation. ...

Gnostic texts
Nag Hammadi library
Codex Tchacos
Gnosticism and the New Testament
Gnostic Gospels Gnosticism used a number of religious texts that are preserved, in part or whole, in ancient manuscripts or are lost but mentioned critically in Patristic writings. ... The Nag Hammadi library is a collection of early Christian Gnostic texts discovered near the Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi in 1945. ... The Codex Tchacos is an ancient Egyptian Coptic papyrus document containing early Christian Gnostic texts: The Gospel of Judas The First Apocalypse of James The Letter of Peter to Philip A fragment of Allogenes It is important because it contains the first known surviving text of the Gospel of Judas... This article discusses the relationship between Gnosticism and the New Testament. ... The Gnostic Gospels are a class of writings about the life of Jesus which are associated with the early mystical trend of Gnostic Christianity. ...

Related articles
Gnosis
Pythagoreanism
Neoplatonism and Gnosticism
Esoteric Christianity
Theosophy
This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Bust of Pythagoras Pythagoreanism is a term used for the esoteric and metaphysical beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were much influenced by mathematics and probably a main inspirational source for Plato and platonism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Esoteric Christianity refers to the occult study and the mystic living of the esoteric knowledge related to what adherents view as the inner teachings of early Christianity, seen as a Mystery religion. ... Theosophy, literally god-wisdom (Greek: θεοσοφία theosophia), designates several bodies of ideas. ...

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On the basis of cognates in other Aramaic dialects, Semitists such as Mark Lidzbarski and Rudolf Macuch have translated the term manda, from which mandaiia "Mandaeans" is derived, as "knowledge" (cf. Biblical Aramaic מַנְדַּע mandaʕ in Dan. 2:21, 4:31, 33, 5:12; cpr. Hebrew מַדַּע maddaʕ, with the typical assimilation of /n/). If this translation is correct, it would make the Mandaeans the sole sect from late Antiquity to identify themselves as Gnostics. Certainly, the Mandaean religion shares much with the ensemble of sects labelled as Gnostics, which date to the 1st c. AD and the following centuries; however, there are crucial differences, particularly in the realm of the behavioral ethics of the laity. Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ...


It should be emphasized that this identification is largely a product of western scholarship, and was not current in the Mandaean community itself until recently. Other scholars derive the term mandaiia from manda ḏ-hiia, ( "Knowledge of Life", with reference to the chief divinity hiia rbia "the Great Life") or from the word (bi)manda, which is the cultic hut in which many Mandaean ceremonies are performed (such as the baptism, which is the central sacrament of Mandaean religious life). This last term is possibly to be derived from Pahlavi m’nd mānd "house." The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ...


Mandaean beliefs

Mandaeism, as the religion of the Mandaean people, is based more on a common heritage than on any set of religious creeds and doctrines. A basic guide to Mandaean theology does not exist. The corpus of Mandaean literature, though quite large, covers topics such as eschatology, the knowledge of God, the afterlife only in an unsystematic manner, and, apart from the priesthood, is known only to a few laypeople. For the book by Pope Benedict XVI, see Eschatology (book). ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ...


Fundamental tenets

According to E.S. Drower in the introduction to The Secret Adam (p. xvi), the Mandaean Gnosis is characterized by nine features, which appear in various forms in other gnostic sects:

  1. A supreme formless Entity, the expression of which in time and space is creation of spiritual, etheric, and material worlds and beings. Production of these is delegated by It to a creator or creators who originated in It. The cosmos is created by Archetypal Man, who produces it in similitude to his own shape.
  2. Dualism: a cosmic Father and Mother, Light and Darkness, Right and Left, syzygy in cosmic and microcosmic form.
  3. As a feature of this dualism, counter-types, a world of ideas.
  4. The soul is portrayed as an exile, a captive: her home and origin being the supreme Entity to which she eventually returns.
  5. Planets and stars influence fate and human beings, and are also places of detention after death.
  6. A saviour spirit or saviour spirits which assist the soul on her journey through life and after it to 'worlds of light'.
  7. A cult-language of symbol and metaphor. Ideas and qualities are personified.
  8. 'Mysteries', i.e. sacraments to aid and purify the soul, to ensure her rebirth into a spiritual body, and her ascent from the world of matter. These are often adaptations of existing seasonal and traditional rites to which an esoteric interpretation is attached. In the case of the Naoreans this interpretation is based upon the Creation story (see 1 and 2), especially on the Divine Man, Adam, as crowned and anointed King-priest.
  9. Great secrecy is enjoined upon initiates; full explanation of 1, 2, and 8 being reserved for those considered able to understand and preserve the gnosis.

Mandaeans believe in marriage and procreation, and in the importance of leading an ethical and moral lifestyle in this world, placing a high priority upon family life. Consequently, Mandaeans do not practice celibacy or asceticism. Mandaeans will, however, abstain from strong drink and red meat. While they agree with other gnostic sects that the world is a prison governed by the planetary archons, they do not view it as a cruel and inhospitable one. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Syzygy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses of Fate, see Fate Destiny refers to a predetermined course of events. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... Rebirth may refer the following spiritual/religious concepts: Reincarnation Buddhist Rebirth The experience of being born again in Christianity Rebirth may also refer to: Rebirth, an album by Pain Rebirth, an album by Jennifer Lopez Rebirth, an album by Gackt Rebirth, an album by Angra ReBirth RB-338, software synthesizer... Look up Esotericism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Clerical celibacy is the practice of various religious traditions in which clergy, monastics and those in religious orders (female or male) adopt a celibate life, refraining from marriage and sexual relationships, including masturbation and impure thoughts (such as sexual visualisation and fantasies). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Red meat in culinary terminology refers to meat which is red-colored when raw, while in nutritional terminology, it refers to meat from mammals. ... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge... For other uses, see Archon (disambiguation). ...


Mandaean scriptures

The Mandaeans have a large corpus of religious scriptures, the most important of which is the Genzā Rabbā or Ginza, a collection of history, theology, and prayers. The Genzā Rabbā is divided into two halves — the Genzā Smālā or "Left Ginza" and the Genzā Yeminā or "Right Ginza". By consulting the colophons in the Left Ginza, Jorunn J. Buckley has identified an uninterrupted chain of copyists to the late 2nd or early 3rd c. AD. The colophons attest to the existence of the Mandaeans during the late Arsacid period at the very latest, a fact corroborated by the Harrān Gāwetā legend, according to which the Mandaeans left Palestine after the destruction of Jerusalem in the 1st c. AD, and settled within the Arsacid empire. Although the Ginza continued to evolve under the rule of the Sassanians and the Islamic empires, few textual traditions can lay claim to such extensive continuity. Ginza Rba (in Mandaic, which translates into The Great Treasure) or Siddra Rba (The Great Book) is one of many holy scriptures of the Mandaean religion. ... The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Persia. ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Persia. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ...


Other important books include the Qolastā, the "Canonical Prayerbook of the Mandaeans," which was translated by E.S. Drower. One of the chief works of Mandaean scripture, accessible to laymen and initiates alike, is the draša ḏ-iahia, the book of John the Baptist, which includes a dialog between John and Jesus. In addition to these works, there are also many other religious texts such as ritual commentaries, which are generally only consulted by the members of the priesthood. The language in which the Mandaean religious literature was originally composed is known as Mandaic, and is a member of the Aramaic family of dialects. It is written in a cursive variant of the Parthian chancery script. The majority of Mandaean lay people do not speak this language, though some members of the Mandaean community resident in Iran (ca. 300-500 out of a total of ca. 5,000 Iranian Mandaeans) continue to speak Neo-Mandaic, a modern version of this language. The Qolusta is the canonical prayerbook of the Mandaeans, a present day gnostic sect within Iraq and Iran. ... Lady Ethel Stefana Drower (1879–1972) studied the Middle East and its cultures. ... St. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Mandaic language is the liturgical language of the Mandaean religion; a vernacular form is still spoken by a small community in Iran around Ahwaz. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo-European language family with estimated 150-200 million native speakers. ... The Mandaic language is the liturgical language of the Mandaean religion; a vernacular form is still spoken by a small community in Iran around Ahwaz. ...


Cosmology

As noted above (under Mandaean Beliefs) Mandaean theology is not systematic. There is no one single authoritative account of the creation of the cosmos, but rather a series of several accounts. Some scholars, such as Edmondo Lupieri, maintain that comparison of these different accounts may reveal the diverse religious influences upon which the Mandaeans have drawn and the ways in which the Mandaean religion has evolved over time.[5] On the other hand, modern mystics such as Steve Wilson have suggested that these may be more akin to meditation manuals resembling the Merkabah and Heikhalot texts of first millennium Jewish mysticism, than explanatory texts for the entire faith. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In contrast with the religious texts of the western Gnostic sects formerly found in Syria and Egypt, the earliest Mandaean religious texts suggest a more strictly dualistic theology, typical of other Iranian religions such as Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, and the teachings of Mazdak. In these texts, instead of a large pleroma, there is a discrete division between light and darkness. The ruler of darkness is called Ptahil (similar to the Gnostic Demiurge), and the originator of the light (i.e. God) is only known as "the great first Life from the worlds of light, the sublime one that stands above all works". When this being emanated, other spiritual beings became increasingly corrupted, and they and their ruler Ptahil created our world. The similarity between the name Ptahil and the Egyptian Ptah, followed by the semitic -il added to "spiritualise" a word should also be noted - the Mandaeans believe that they were resident in Egypt for a while. Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pleroma (Greek πληρωμα) generally refers to the totality of Gods powers. ... The Demiurge, The Craftsman or Creator, in some belief systems, is the deity responsible for the creation of the physical universe. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Emanationism is a component in the cosmology or cosmogony of certain religious or philosophical systems that argue that a sentient, self-aware Supreme Being, born from an unmanifested The Absolute (Root of Existence) beyond comprehension, emanated lower and lower spiritual modalities and lastly matter (the physical universe) as the resultant... Ptah In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (also spelt Peteh) was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead cosmogony, which was more literally referred to as Ta-tenen (also spelt Tathenen), meaning risen land, or as Tanen, meaning submerged land. ...


The issue is further complicated by the fact that Ptahil alone does not constitute the demiurge but only that he fills that role insofar as he is the creator of our world. Rather, Ptahil is the lowest of a group of three 'demiurgic' beings, the other two being Yushamin (a.k.a. Joshamin) and Abathur. Abathur's demiurgic role consists of his sitting in judgment upon the souls of mortals. The role of Yushamin, the senior being, is more obscure; wanting to create a world of his own, he was severely punished for opposing the King of Light.


Chief prophets

Mandaeans recognize several prophets, among whom John the Baptist (Mandaic Iahia Iuhana) is accorded a special status, higher than his role in Christianity and Islam. In contrast to common belief, Mandaeans do not consider John the Baptist to be the founder of their religion but merely revere him as one of their greatest teachers, tracing their beliefs back to Adam. St. ... Yahya is a common persian or arabic name, and therefore has several meanings. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... St. ... Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ...


Mandaeans maintain that Jesus was a mšiha kdaba or "false messiah" who perverted the teachings entrusted to him by John. The word k(a)daba, however, derives from two roots in Mandaic: the first root, meaning "to lie," is the one traditionally ascribed to Jesus; the second, meaning "to write," might provide a second meaning, that of "book;" hence some Mandaeans, motivated perhaps by an ecumenical spirit, maintain that Jesus was not a "lying Messiah" but a "Book Messiah", the "book" in question presumably being the Christian Gospels. This however seems to be a folk etymology without support in the Mandaean texts.[6] This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oi on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ...


Likewise, the Mandaeans believe that Abraham, Moses, and Muhammad were false prophets, but recognize other prophetic figures from the monotheistic traditions, such as Adam, his sons Hibil (Abel) and Šitil (Seth), and his grandson Anuš (Enosh), as well as Nuh (Noah), his son Sam (Shem), and his son Ram (Aram). The latter three they consider to be their direct ancestors. “Abram” redirects here. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ... In the Book of Genesis, Abel (Hebrew הֶבֶל / הָבֶל, Standard Hebrew Hével / Hável, Tiberian Hebrew Héḇel / Hāḇel; Arabic هابيل HābÄ«l) was the second son of Adam. ... Seth (Hebrew: שֵׁת, Standard Å et, Tiberian ; Arabic: شيث Shith or Shiyth; Placed; appointed), in the Book of Genesis of the Hebrew Bible, is the third listed son of Adam and Eve and brother of Cain and Abel and is the only other son mentioned by name. ... Enos or Enosh (אֱנוֹשׁ mortal man; sick, Standard Hebrew EnoÅ¡, Tiberian Hebrew ʼĔnôš) is a biblical name in the genealogies of Adam, and consequently referred to within the genealogies of Chronicles, and of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke. ... This article is about the biblical Noah. ... Shem (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Greek: Σημ, SÄ“m ; Arabic:  ; Geez: Sham ; renown; prosperity; name) was one of the sons of Noah in the Bible. ... The term Aram can refer to: Aram (אֲרָם or ), the son of Shem, according to the Table of nations of Genesis 10 in the Hebrew Bible. ...


Priests and laymen

There is a strict division between Mandaean laity and the priests. According to E.S. Drower (The Secret Adam, p. ix):

[T]hose amongst the community who possess secret knowledge are called Nauraiia - Naoreans (or, if the heavy '' is written as 'z', Nazorenes). At the same time the ignorant or semi-ignorant laity are called 'Mandaeans', Mandaiia - 'gnostics'. When a man becomes a priest he leaves 'Mandaeanism' and enters tarmiduta, 'priesthood'. Even then he has not attained to true enlightenment, for this, called 'Nairuta', is reserved for a very few. Those possessed of its secrets may call themselves Naoreans, and 'Naorean' today indicates not only one who observes strictly all rules of ritual purity, but one who understands the secret doctrine.

There are three grades of priesthood in Mandaeism: the tarmidia (Neo-Mandaic tarmidānā) or "disciples", the ganzibria (Neo-Mandaic ganzeḇrānā) or "treasurers," and the rišamma or "leader of the people." This last office, the highest level of the Mandaean priesthood, has lain vacant for many years. At the moment, the highest office currently occupied is that of the ganzeḇrā, a title which appears first in a religious context in the Aramaic ritual texts from Persepolis (ca. 3rd c. BCE) and which may be related to Kamnaskires (from Elamite <qa-ap-nu-iš-ki-ra> kapnušgir "treasurer"), the title of the rulers of Elymais (modern Khuzestan) during the Hellenistic age. Traditionally, any ganzeḇrā who baptizes seven or more ganzeḇrānā may qualify for the office of rišamma, though the Mandaean community has yet to rally as a whole behind any single candidate. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mandaeism. ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ...


The modern priesthood dates to the first half of the 19th century. In 1831, an outbreak of cholera devastated the region and eliminated most if not all of the Mandaean religious authorities. Two of the surviving acolytes (šgandia), Yahia Bihram and Ram Zihrun, reestablished the priesthood on the basis of their own training and the texts that were available to them.


Influences

According to the Fihrist of ibn al-Nadim, Mani, the founder of Manichaeism, was brought up within the Elkasaites (Elcesaites or Elchasaite) sect. The Elkasaites were a Christian baptismal sect which may have been related to the Mandaeans. The members of this sect, like the Mandaeans, wore white and performed baptisms. They dwelled in east Judea and northern Mesopotamia, whence the Mandaeans claim to have migrated to southern Mesopotamia, according to the Harran Gawaitā legend. Mani later left the Elkasaites to found his own religion. In a remarkable comparative analysis, Mandaean scholar Säve-Söderberg demonstrated that Mani's Psalms of Thomas were closely related to Mandaean texts. This would imply that Mani had access to Mandaean religious literature. This leads to the question of just how close the origins of the Elkasaites, the Manichaeans, and the Mandaeans are to one other. Ibn al-Nadim (Abu al-Faraj Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Muhammad ibn Ishaq), (died September 17, 995 or 998) was an muslim scholar (of either Arab or Persian origin) and bibliographer and the author of the Kitab al-Fihrist. ... Mani (in Persian: مانی, Syriac: ) was born of Iranian (Parthian) parentage in Babylon, Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) which was a part of Persian Empire about 210-276 CE. He was a religious preacher and the founder of Manichaeism, an ancient Persian gnostic religion that was once prolific but is now extinct. ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ... This article incorporates text from the public-domain Catholic Encyclopedia The Elcesaites, Elkasites, or Helkesaites were a sect of followers of Jesus, whose religion was a syncretism of Gnosticism and Jewish Christianity. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... For other uses, see Mesopotamia (disambiguation). ... Mani may refer to: Mani Peninsula in Greece Maní, Yucatán, a small city in Yucatán, Mexico Mani, Evros, a town in the northeastern part of the Evros Prefecture in Greece Mani (prophet), a third-century Persian prophet, the founder of the dualistic Manichaean religion, which borrowed eclectically from...


Other associated terms

Within the Middle East, but outside of their community, the Mandaeans are more commonly known as the ubba (singular ubbī). Likewise, their Muslim neighbors will refer to them collectively as the Sabians (Arabic الصابئون al-Ṣābiʾūn), in reference to the Ṣabians of the Qur'an. Occasionally, the Mandaeans are also called the "Christians of St. John" (a misnomer, since they are not Christians), based upon preliminary reports made by members of the Barefoot Carmelite mission in Basra during the 16th century. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Not to be confused with Sabaeans, who were ancient people living in what is now Yemen. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... St. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


Other groups which have been identified with the Mandaeans include the "Nasoraeans" described by Epiphanius and the Dositheans mentioned by Theodore Bar Kōnī in his Scholion. Ibn al-Nadim also mentions a group called the Mughtasila, "the self-ablutionists," who may be identified with one or the other of these groups. The members of this sect, like the Mandaeans, wore white and performed baptisms. Nasoraean or Nasaraean is the name of a pre-christian Jewish sect described by Epiphanius. ... Epiphanius (clearly manifested) was the name of several early Christian scholars and ecclesiastics: Epiphanius of Salamis, bishop of Salamis in Cyprus, died 410, author of Panarion Epiphanius of Constantinople, died 535, Patriarch of Constantinople 520&#8212;535 Epiphanius Scholasticus, known only as the assistant of Cassiodorus who compiled the Historiae... Ibn al-Nadim (Abu al-Faraj Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Muhammad ibn Ishaq), (died September 17, 995 or 998) was an muslim scholar (of either Arab or Persian origin) and bibliographer and the author of the Kitab al-Fihrist. ...


Whether it can be said that the Elkasaites, the Mughtasila, the Nasoraeans, and/or the Dositheans are to be identified with the Mandaeans is a separate question. While it seems certain that a number of distinct groups are intended by these names, the nature of their sects and the connections between them are less than clear.


The Mandaean canon is also utilized by a modern religious movement called the Order of Nazoraean Essenes; material from the former can be found on the latter's websites. This latter movement however is entirely independent of Mandaeism.


Persecution

Further information: Iraqi minorities

Today (early 2007) Mandaeans in Iraq are being subjected to forced conversions, rape and murder by Islamic extremists. There are also reports of attacks on women who refuse to veil themselves. Most Iraqi Mandaeans have fled as a result, and the Mandaean community in Iraq faces extinction.[4][7] Iraq has a multicultural population. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Islamism refers to anti-secular political ideologies derived from fundamentalist interpretations of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ...


Mandaeans in Iran are not subject to sectarian violence as they are in Iraq, but are prohibited from fully participating in civil life in Iran by the Gozinesh Law (passed in 1985). This law and other gozinesh provisions make access to employment, education, and a range of other areas conditional upon a rigorous ideological screening, the principal prerequisite for which is devotion to the tenets of Islam.[8] These laws are regularly applied to discriminate against religious and ethnic groups that are not officially recognized, such as the Mandaeans.[3]


Diaspora

Out of the over 60,000 Mandaeans in Iraq in the early 1990s, only about 5,000 to 7,000 remain there; as of early 2007, over 80% of Iraqi Mandaeans are now refugees in Syria and Jordan. There are small Mandaean diaspora populations in Australia (c. 3,500 as of 2006), Canada, the USA (c. 1,500) and Sweden (c. 5,000).[4][9][10][11][12] Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Sociological

According to a 10 February 2007 Associated Press article by Chris Newmarker, many of the roughly 1,500 Mandaeans living in the United States are professionals including physicians, engineers and jewelers. One concern of Mandaeans is assimilation into American culture, especially intermarriage. For mixed marriages, the Mandaean religion has "no mechanism to bring their children into the fold. [...] [T]he religion's few dozen priests [are] reluctant to bring in the children of mixed marriages [...]"


According to a National Public Radio story, Mandaeans are the chief gold traders in Iraq.[citation needed]


A darfash, "a cross with cloth hanging off it" is used by Mandaeans as a symbol of their religion.[9]


See also

St. ... The Johannites are a sect of Gnostics who reject Jesus Christ, and instead posit that the true savior of the world (sent to fulfill Old Testament prophecy) was in fact John the Baptist, as he was performing baptisms before Jesus birth. ... The city of Jerusalem, located in modern-day Israel, is significant in a number of religious traditions, including the Abrahamic religions Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. ...

Other related religions

Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... Mazdak was a proto-socialist Persian philosopher who gained influence under the reign of the Sassanian king Kavadh I. He was hanged and his followers were massacred by Khosrau I, Kavadhs son. ... Yazdânism or Cult of Angels (also Yazdâni or Yazdanism) is a modern term for the monotheistic, though universalist, religion that was practiced by most Kurds up to the Islamization during the sixteenth century. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Proto-Indo-Iranian religion is the term for the religion and beliefs of the Proto-Indo-Iranians, that is, the common predecessor of the various Indo-Iranian peoples. ... Ancient anthropomorphic Ukrainian stone stela (Kernosovka stela), possibly depicting a late Proto-Indo-European god, most likely Dyeus The existence of similarities among the deities and religious practices of the Indo-European peoples allows glimpses of a common Proto-Indo-European religion and mythology. ...

References

Buckley, Jorunn Jacobsen. 2002. The Mandaeans: Ancient Texts and Modern People. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Buckley. J.J. "Mandaeans" in Encyclopedia Iranica [3]


Drower, Ethel Stefana. 2002. The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran: Their Cults, Customs, Magic Legends, and Folklore (reprint). Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press.


Newmarker, Chris, Associated Press article, "Faith under fire: Iraq war threatens extinction for ancient religious group" (headline in The Advocate of Stamford, Connecticut, page A12, February 10, 2007) is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


Petermann, J. Heinrich. 2007 The Great Treasure of the Mandaeans (reprint of Thesaurus s. Liber Magni). Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press.


Yamauchi, Edwin. 2004. Gnostic Ethics and Mandaean Origins (reprint). Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press.

  1. ^ a b Iraqi minority group needs U.S. attention, Kai Thaler, Yale Daily News, March 9, 2007.
  2. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Iraq_demography.jpg
  3. ^ a b Iran, Amnesty International report, 2005.
  4. ^ a b c Iraq's Mandaeans 'face extinction', Angus Crawford, BBC, March 4, 2007.
  5. ^ Lupieri, Edmondo (2002). The Mandaeans: The Last Gnostics. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 38-41. 
  6. ^ Macuch, Rudolf (1965). Handbook of Classical and Modern Mandaic. Berlin: De Gruyter & Co., 61 fn. 105. 
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ [2]
  9. ^ a b Survival of Ancient Faith Threatened by Fighting in Iraq, Chris Newmarker, Associated Press. February 10, 2007.
  10. ^ The Plight of Iraq's Mandeans, John Bolender. Counterpunch.org, January 8/9, 2005.
  11. ^ An exodus to Sweden from Iraq for ethnic Mandaeans, Ivar Ekman. International Herald Tribune, April 9, 2007.
  12. ^ Mandaeans persecuted in Iraq. ABC Radio National (Australia), June 7, 2006.

is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a pressure group that promotes human rights. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mandaeism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1949 words)
Mandaeism or Mandaeanism (Mandaic: mandaiuta) is a blanket term for the religion of the Mandaeans (Classical Mandaic mandaiia, Neo-Mandaic Mandeyānā) who are the followers of Mendā d-Heyyi (Mandaic manda ḏ-hiia "Knowledge of Life").
Mandaeism is a monotheistic religion practiced primarily in southern Iraq and the Iranian province of Khuzestan, as well as among a substantial diaspora population in Europe, Australia, and North America.
The language in which the Mandaean religious literature was originally composed is known as Mandaic, and is a member of the Aramaic family of dialects.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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