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Encyclopedia > Manchuria
Extent of Manchuria according to Definition 1 (dark red), Definition 3 (dark red + medium red) and Definition 4 (dark red + medium red + light red)      Dark Red      Medium Red      Light Red
Extent of Manchuria according to Definition 1 (dark red), Definition 3 (dark red + medium red) and Definition 4 (dark red + medium red + light red)      Dark Red      Medium Red      Light Red

Manchuria ( Romanized Manchu: Manju, Simplified Chinese: 满洲; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Pinyin: Mǎnzhōu, Russian: Маньчжурия, Mongolian: Манж) is a historical name given to a vast geographic region in northeast Asia. Depending on the definition of its extent, Manchuria either falls entirely within China, or is divided between China and Russia. The first definition of the region is commonly known as Northeast China (Chinese: 東北; Pinyin: Dongbei), and historically referred as Guandong (Chinese: 關東; Pinyin: Guandong), which literally means "the east of Shanhai Pass." The Manchurian Candidate is a 1959 thriller novel written by Richard Condon, later adapted into films in 1962 and 2004. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... Manzhouli (Chinese: 满洲里, Mongolian: manÇ°uur) is a sub-prefecture-level city located in Hulunbuir prefecture-level city, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (941x740, 36 KB) Description: Dongbei northeastern provinces of China Source: own work Date: December 2005 Author: --Immanuel Giel 10:20, 19 December 2005 (UTC) Other versions: none File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (941x740, 36 KB) Description: Dongbei northeastern provinces of China Source: own work Date: December 2005 Author: --Immanuel Giel 10:20, 19 December 2005 (UTC) Other versions: none File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages... Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... Image File history File links Manjui_gisun. ... The Manchu language is a Tungusic language spoken by Manchus in Manchuria; it is the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... First Gate Under Heaven, under repairs in 2003. ...


This region is the traditional homeland of the Xianbei, Khitan, and Jurchen people, who built several dynasties in northern China. The region is also the home of the Manchus, after whom Manchuria is named. In the 17th century, the Manchus ruled China until the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. The Xianbei (Simplified Chinese: 鲜卑; Traditional Chinese: 鮮卑; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsien-pei) were a significant nomadic people residing in modern Manchuria and eastern Mongolia, or Xianbei Shan, a historic term for Greater Khingan, before migrating into areas of the modern Chinese provinces of Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Hebei, Inner Mongolia... The Khitan (or Khitai, Chinese: ; pinyin: Qìdān) were an ethnic group which dominated much of Manchuria in the 11th century and has been classified by Chinese historians as one of the Eastern proto-Mongolic ethnic groups Donghu (東胡族 dōng hú zú). They established the Liao Dynasty in 907... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Contents

Extent of Manchuria

History of Manchuria
(Northeast China)
and Russian Far East
Not based on timeline
Early tribes
Gojoseon
Yan (state) | Gija Joseon
Han Dynasty | Xiongnu
Donghu | Wiman Joseon
Wuhuan | Sushen | Buyeo
Xianbei | Goguryeo
Cao Wei
Jin Dynasty (265-420)
Yuwen
Former Yan
Former Qin
Later Yan
Northern Yan
Mohe | Shiwei
Khitan | Kumo Xi
Northern Wei
Tang Dynasty
Balhae
Liao Dynasty
Jin Dynasty (1115-1234)
Yuan Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
Far Eastern Republic (USSR)
Republic of China
Manchukuo
Northeast China (PRC)
Russian Far East (RUS)

"Manchuria" can refer to any one of several regions of various size. These are, from smallest to largest: Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: Д́альний Вост́ок Росс́ии; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) is an informal term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gojoseon was an ancient Korean kingdom. ... Yan State knife money Yan (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a state during the Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods in China. ... Gija Joseon (around 1126 BC - 194 BC) describes the period after the alleged arrival of Gija in northern Korean peninsula. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... Donghu(Chinese 东胡;pinyin dong hu), was an ancient nomad tribe or tribe union in Northeast China. ... Wiman Joseon (194 BC - 108 BC) was the continuation of Go-Joseon, founded by Wiman. ... The Wuhuan (traditional Chinese: 烏桓; simplified Chinese: 乌桓; pinyin: WÅ«huán) were a nomadic people who inhabited northern China, in what is now the provinces of Hebei, Liaoning, Shanxi, the municipality of Beijing and the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia. ... Sushen (Chinese: 肅愼 su4 shen4) was an ancient ethnic group or something outside China. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Xianbei (Simplified Chinese: 鲜卑; Traditional Chinese: 鮮卑; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsien-pei) were a significant nomadic people residing in modern Manchuria and eastern Mongolia, or Xianbei Shan, a historic term for Greater Khingan, before migrating into areas of the modern Chinese provinces of Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Hebei, Inner Mongolia... Goguryeo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria (present-day Northeast China), southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ... The territories of Cao Wei (in yellow), AD 262 Capital Luoyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 220 - 226 Cao Pi  - 226 - 239 Cao Rui  - 239 - 254 Cao Fang  - 254 - 260 Cao Mao  - 260 - 265 Cao Huan Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Cao Pi taking over the throne of the Later... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin: jìn, 265-420), one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Yuwen (Simplified Chinese character: 宇文, Traditional Chinese character: 宇文, pinyin Yǔwén) was a pre-state tribe of Xianbei and Hun ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Former Yan (Simplified Chinese character: 前燕, Traditional Chinese character: 前燕, pinyin Qiányàn) (337-370) was a state of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Former Qin (Chinese character: 前秦, Hanyu pinyin Qiánqín) (351-394) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Later Yan (Simplified Chinese character: 后燕, Traditional Chinese character: 後燕, pinyin Hòuyàn) (384-407 or 409) was a state of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Northern Yan (Simplified Chinese character: 北燕, Traditional Chinese character: 北燕, pinyin Bĕiyàn) (407 or 409-436) was a state of Han Chinese during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Mohe (靺鞨, Korean: Malgal, 말갈), were a Tungusic tribe in ancient Manchuria. ... Shiwei may refer to: The Shiwei ethnic people, who now reside largely in Inner Mongolia Wang Shiwei, a notable Chinese journalist. ... Khitan may refer to: Khitan people Khitan language Khitan script Category: ... The Northern Wei Dynasty (北魏 386-534) is most noted for the unification of northern China in 440, it was also heavily involved in funding the arts and many antiques and art works from this period have survived. ... China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li Yuan... Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Balhae (698 - 926) (Bohai in Chinese) was an ancient Korean kingdom established after the fall of Goguryeo. ... The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ... The Jin Dynasty (金 pinyin: JÄ«n 1115-1234; Anchu in Jurchen), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 Ukhaatu Khan History  - establishing the Yuan Dynasty 1271  - Fall of Dadu September 14, 1368 Population  - 1330 est. ... Ming China under the Yongle Emperor Capital Nanjing (1368-1421) Beijing (1421-1644) Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1368-1398 Hongwu Emperor  - 1627-1644 Chongzhen Emperor History  - Established in Nanjing January 23, 1368  - Fall of Beijing 1644  - End of the Southern Ming April, 1662 Population  - 1393 est. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... Flag of the Far Eastern Republic The Far Eastern Republic (Russian: Дальневосто́чная Респу́блика (ДВР); English transliteration: Dalnevostochnaya Respublika (DVR)) was a nominally independent state established in the former Russian Far East and Siberia east of Lake Baikal on April 6, 1920. ... Anthem National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital (and largest city) Taipei1 Official languages Standard Mandarin (GuóyÇ”), Taiwanese, Aborigine Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Chen Shui-bian  -  Vice President Annette Lu  -  Premier Chang Chun-hsiung Establishment Xinhai Revolution   -  Independence declared October 10, 1911   -  Republic established January 1, 1912... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui History  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Japanese name KyÅ«jitai: Shinjitai: Romaji: Manchukuo... Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: Д́альний Вост́ок Росс́ии; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) is an informal term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... Anthem Hymn of the Russian Federation Capital (and largest city) Moscow Official languages Russian official throughout nation; thirty others co-official in various regions Government Semi-presidential federal republic  -  President Vladimir Putin  -  Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov Formation  -  Declared June 12, 1990   -  Finalized December 25, 1991  Area  -  Total 17,075,400...

  1. Northeast China: generally defined as the three provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning
  2. The above, plus part of northeastern Inner Mongolia
  3. The above, plus the Jehol region of Hebei province. The part of Manchuria in China is called Inner Manchuria[citation needed] to contrast it with Outer Manchuria (see below)
  4. The above, plus Outer Manchuria or Russian Manchuria, a region in Russia that stretches from the Amur and Ussuri rivers to the Stanovoy Mountains and the Sea of Japan. Russian Far East comprises Primorsky Krai, southern Khabarovsk Krai, the Jewish Autonomous Oblast and Amur Oblast. These were part of Manchu China according to the Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689, but were ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Aigun (1858);
  5. The above, plus Sakhalin Oblast, which is generally included on Chinese maps as part of Outer Manchuria, even though it is not explicitly mentioned in the Treaty of Nerchinsk.

Manchuria borders Mongolia in the west, Siberia in the north, China proper to the south and North Korea in the southeast. Inner Manchuria has access to the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea to the south, while Outer Manchuria has access to the Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk to the east and northeast. Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... Heilongjiang (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江省; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江省; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Heilungkiang) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: Jílín; Wade-Giles: Chi-lin; Postal System Pinyin: Kirin; Manchu: Girin ula), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liáoníng) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... Rehe (热河 or 熱河 pinyin: Rèhé, lit. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Outer Manchuria is in light red on this map. ... The Amur River or Heilong Jiang (Russian: Амур; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , or Black Dragon River; Mongolian: , Khar Mörön or Black River; Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black River) is the worlds eighth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China. ... The Ussuri River (Chinese: Wūsūlǐ Jīang 乌苏里江, Russian: река Уссури) is a river in south east Russia, flowing north, forming part of the Chinese border, to the Amur River. ... The Stanovoi Range (Russian: Станово́й хребе́т), also spelled as Stanovoy Range, is a mountain range located in southeastern parts of the Russian Far East. ... The Sea of Japan is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, bordered by Japan, Korea and Russia. ... Administrative center Vladivostok Area - total - % water Ranked 26th - 165,900 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 26th - est. ... Khabarovsk Krai (Russian: ) (1995 pop. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Administrative center Blagoveshchensk Area - total - % water Ranked 14th - 363,700 km² - Population - Total - Density Ranked 59th - est. ... Nerchinsk Treaty was the first treaty between Russia and China. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... The Treaty of Aigun was the Russian-Chinese treaty that established the modern borders of the Russian Far East. ... Sakhalin Oblast on the map of Russia Flag of Sakhalin Oblast Sakhalin Oblast (Russian: , Sakhalinskaya Oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... “Siberian” redirects here. ... China proper refers to the historical heartlands of China in the context of that paradigm which contrasts these heartlands with frontier regions of Outer China (including sections of Inner Asia and other regions). ... ... A map showing the location of the Bohai Sea. ... The Sea of Japan is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, bordered by Japan, Korea and Russia. ... Map of the Sea of Okhotsk. ...


Origin of the name

Manchuria is a translation of the Manchu word Manju (Chinese language: Mǎnzhōu). After the 1911 revolution in China, which resulted in the collapse of the Manchu's Qing Dynasty, the name of the region where the Manchus originated was replaced by Northeast in official documents in the newly founded Republic of China. The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Combatants Qing Dynasty Chinese Revolutionary Alliance Commanders Feng Guozhang, Yuan Shikai, and local Qing governors. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... Anthem National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital (and largest city) Taipei1 Official languages Standard Mandarin (GuóyÇ”), Taiwanese, Aborigine Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Chen Shui-bian  -  Vice President Annette Lu  -  Premier Chang Chun-hsiung Establishment Xinhai Revolution   -  Independence declared October 10, 1911   -  Republic established January 1, 1912...


An inhabitant of "the Northeast", or Northeast China, is a "Northeasterner" (Dōng-běi-rén). "The Northeast" is a term that denotes the entire region, encompassing its history, culture, traditions, dialects, cuisines, and so forth. In effect, it replaces the concept of "Manchuria". As such, other provinces in the northeastern part of China (such as Hebei) are not considered to be a part of "the Northeast". This is similar to the situation in the United States, where "The South" usually refers only to the southeastern states and their culture and history, and not to other "geographically southern" states like California, Arizona, and New Mexico. Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The U.S. Southern states or the South, also known colloquially as Dixie, constitute a distinctive region covering a large portion of the United States, with its own unique heritage, historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ...


Geography and climate

Manchuria consists primarily of the northern side of the funnel-shaped North China Craton, a large area of highly tiled and overlaid Precambrian rocks. The North China Craton was an independent continent prior to the Triassic period, and is known to have been the northernmost piece of land in the world during the Carboniferous. The Khingan Mountains in the west are a Triassic mountain range formed by the collision of the North China Craton with the Siberian Craton, which marked the final stage of the formation of the supercontinent Pangaea. The North China Craton is one of the smaller continental cratons of the Earth. ... The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 ± 0. ... The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... In geology, a supercontinent is a land mass comprising more than one continental core, or craton. ... For other uses, see Pangaea (disambiguation). ...


Although no part of Manchuria was glaciated during the Quaternary, the surface geology of most of the lower-lying and more fertile parts of the region consists of extremely deep layers of loess, which have been formed by the wind-born movement of dust and till particles formed in glaciated parts of the Himalayas, Kunlun Shan and Tien Shan, as well as the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts. Soils are mostly fertile Mollisols and Fluvents, except in the more mountainous parts where they are poorly developed Orthents, as well as the extreme north where permafrost occurs and Orthels dominate. A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... The Quaternary Period is the geologic time period from the end of the Pliocene Epoch roughly 1. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up dust in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Glacial till with tufts of grass Till is an unsorted glacial sediment. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Region containing Kunlun Mountains The Kunlun mountain range (崑崙山) is one of the longest mountain chains in Asia, extending more than 3000 km. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... The Gobi is a large desert region in northern China and southern Mongolia. ... Dust storm in Taklamakan from space, June 25, 2005 The Taklamakan (also Taklimakan) is a desert of Central Asia, in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Mollisols are a soil order in USA soil taxonomy. ... In USA soil taxonomy, Orthents are defined as Entisols that lack horizon development due to either steep slopes or parent materials that contain no permanent weatherable minerals (such as ironstone). ... In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is soil at or below the freezing point of water (0°C or 32°F) for two or more years. ... Gelisols are an order in USA soil taxonomy. ...


The climate of Manchuria has extreme seasonal contrasts, ranging from humid, almost tropical heat in the summer to windy, dry, Arctic cold in the winter. This extreme character occurs because the position of Manchuria on the boundary between the great Eurasian continental landmass and the huge Pacific Ocean causes complete monsoonal wind reversal. Monsoon in the Vindhya mountain range, central India A monsoon is a rainy season which lasts for several months and has lasting climatic effects. ...


In the summer, when the land heats up faster than the ocean, low pressure forms over Asia and warm, moist south to southeasterly winds bring heavy, thundery rain, yielding annual rainfall ranging from 400 mm (16 in.), or less in the west, to over 1150 mm (45 in.) in the Changbai Mountains. Temperatures in the summer are very warm to hot, with July averages ranging from 31 °C (88 °F) in the south to 24 °C (75 °F) in the extreme north. Except in the far north near the Amur River, high humidity causes major discomfort at this time of year. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Amur (Russian: Амур) (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江; Hēilóng Jiāng, literally meaning Black Dragon River) (Mongolian: Хара-Мурэн, Khara-Muren or Black River) (Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black...


In the winter, however, the vast Siberian High causes very cold, north to northwesterly winds that bring temperatures as low as −5 °C (23 °F) in the extreme south and −30 °C (-22 °F) in the north, where the zone of discontinuous permafrost reaches northern Heilongjiang. However, because the winds from Siberia are exceedingly dry, snow only falls on a few days every winter and it is never heavy. This explains why, whereas corresponding latitudes of North America were fully glaciated during glacial periods of the Quaternary, Manchuria, though equally cold, always remained too dry to form glaciers – a state of affairs enhanced by stronger westerly winds from the surface of the ice sheet in Europe. “Siberian” redirects here. ... In meteorology, an anticyclone (that is, opposite to a cyclone) is a weather phenomenon in which there is a descending movement of the air and a high pressure area over the part of the planets surface affected by it. ... This article is about frozen ground. ... Snow is a type of precipitation in the form of crystalline water ice, consisting of a multitude of snowflakes that fall from clouds. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Glacial and Glaciation redirect here. ... An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km² (19,305 mile²).[1] The only current ice sheets are in Antarctica and Greenland; during the last ice age at Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) the Laurentide ice sheet covered much... World map showing the location of Europe. ...


History

Early history

A wooden Bodhisattva statue, Jin Dynasty, Shanghai Museum.
A wooden Bodhisattva statue, Jin Dynasty, Shanghai Museum.

Manchuria was the homeland of several nomadic tribes, including the Manchu, Ulchs, and Hezhen (also known as the Goldi and Nanai). Various ethnic groups and their respective kingdoms, including the Gojoseon, Sushen, Xianbei, Buyeo, Mohe, Goguryeo, Balhae, Khitan, and Jurchens, have risen to power in Manchuria. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 453 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Wood Bodhisattva, Jin Dynasty (1115-1234 AD), photoed by Mountain at Shanghai Museum File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 453 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Wood Bodhisattva, Jin Dynasty (1115-1234 AD), photoed by Mountain at Shanghai Museum File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Jin Dynasty (金 pinyin: JÄ«n 1115-1234; Anchu in Jurchen), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... Shanghai Museum The Shanghai Museum (Chinese:上海博物館) is a museum of ancient Chinese art, situated on the Peoples Square in the Huangpu District of Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The Ulchis or Ulchs (Ульчи, ольчи in Russian; self designation: пани, or pani) are an indigenous people of Siberia. ... The Hezhen people (also called Hezhe, Nanai, Gold/Goldi, Samagir; own names in IPA: [xÉ™dÊ‘É™n], [nanio] and [kilÉ™n]; Chinese: 赫哲族, Hèzhézú) are an ethnic group. ... Gojoseon was an ancient Korean kingdom. ... Sushen (Chinese: 肅愼 su4 shen4) was an ancient ethnic group or something outside China. ... The Xianbei (Simplified Chinese: 鲜卑; Traditional Chinese: 鮮卑; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsien-pei) were a significant nomadic people residing in modern Manchuria and eastern Mongolia, or Xianbei Shan, a historic term for Greater Khingan, before migrating into areas of the modern Chinese provinces of Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Hebei, Inner Mongolia... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Mohe (靺鞨, Korean: Malgal, 말갈), were a Tungusic tribe in ancient Manchuria. ... Goguryeo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria (present-day Northeast China), southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ... Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Balhae (698 - 926) (Bohai in Chinese) was an ancient Korean kingdom established after the fall of Goguryeo. ... Khitan may refer to: Khitan people Khitan language Khitan script Category: ... The Jurchens (Traditional Chinese: 女眞; Simplified Chinese: 女真; pinyin: nÇšzhÄ“n) were a Tungus people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the 17th century, when they became the Manchus. ...


Chinese dynasties in China controlled and influenced a large part of Manchuria until the Song Dynasty. During the Song Dynasty, the Khitan set up the Liao dynasty in Manchuria. Later, the Jurchen (Manchu) overthrew the Liao and formed the Jin Dynasty (1115–1234), which went on to control parts of northern China and Mongolia. In 1234, the Jin Dynasty fell to the Yuan Dynasty, who were later replaced by the Ming Dynasty in 1368. In 1644, the Manchu overthrew the Ming Dynasty and established the Qing Dynasty (1644–1912). Below is a table of the dynasties in Chinese history. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... This article needs cleanup. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... The Jin Dynasty (金 pinyin: JÄ«n 1115-1234; Anchu in Jurchen), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 Ukhaatu Khan History  - establishing the Yuan Dynasty 1271  - Fall of Dadu September 14, 1368 Population  - 1330 est. ... Ming China under the Yongle Emperor Capital Nanjing (1368-1421) Beijing (1421-1644) Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1368-1398 Hongwu Emperor  - 1627-1644 Chongzhen Emperor History  - Established in Nanjing January 23, 1368  - Fall of Beijing 1644  - End of the Southern Ming April, 1662 Population  - 1393 est. ... Ming China under the Yongle Emperor Capital Nanjing (1368-1421) Beijing (1421-1644) Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1368-1398 Hongwu Emperor  - 1627-1644 Chongzhen Emperor History  - Established in Nanjing January 23, 1368  - Fall of Beijing 1644  - End of the Southern Ming April, 1662 Population  - 1393 est. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late...


To the south, the region was separated from China proper by the Inner Willow Palisade, a ditch and embankment planted with willows intended to restrict the movement of the Han Chinese into Manchuria during the Qing Dynasty, as the area was off-limits to the Han until the Qing started colonizing the area with them later on in the dynasty's rule. The Manchu area was still separated from modern-day Inner Mongolia by the Outer Willow Palisade, which kept the Manchu and the Mongols in the area separate. Species About 350, including: Salix acutifolia - Violet Willow Salix alaxensis - Alaska Willow Salix alba - White Willow Salix alpina - Alpine Willow Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Salix arbuscula - Mountain Willow Salix arbusculoides - Littletree Willow Salix arctica - Arctic Willow Salix atrocinerea Salix aurita - Eared Willow Salix babylonica - Peking Willow Salix bakko Salix barrattiana... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N...


Russian and Japanese influences

To the north, the boundary with Russian Siberia was fixed by the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) as running along the watershed of the Stanovoy mountains. South of the Stanovoy Mountains, the basin of the Amur and its tributaries belonged to the Manchu Empire. North of the Stanovoy Mountains, the Uda valley and Siberia belonged to the Russian Empire. In 1858, a weakening Manchu China was forced to cede Manchuria north of the Amur to Russia under the Treaty of Aigun, except for a small region known as the Sixty-Four Villages East of the Heilongjiang River. In 1860, at the Treaty of Peking, the Russians managed to extort a further large slice of Manchuria, east of the Ussuri River. Finally, in 1900, Russia invaded and occupied the Sixty-Four Villages East of the Heilongjiang River. As a result, Manchuria was divided into a Russian half known as “Outer Manchuria”, and a remaining Chinese half known as “Inner Manchuria”. In modern literature, “Manchuria” usually refers to Inner (Chinese) Manchuria. (cf. Inner and Outer Mongolia). As a result of the Treaties of Argun and Peking, Manchuria (and China) lost access to the Sea of Japan. “Siberian” redirects here. ... Nerchinsk Treaty was the first treaty between Russia and China. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... The Stanovoi Range (Russian: Станово́й хребе́т), also spelled as Stanovoy Range, is a mountain range located in southeastern parts of the Russian Far East. ... The Amur River or Heilong Jiang (Russian: Амур; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , or Black Dragon River; Mongolian: , Khar Mörön or Black River; Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black River) is the worlds eighth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Treaty of Aigun was the Russian-Chinese treaty that established the modern borders of the Russian Far East. ... The Sixty-Four Villages East of the Heilongjiang River (Traditional Chinese: 江東六十四屯; Simplified Chinese: 江东六十四屯; Pinyin: Jiāngdōng Liùshísì Tún) are located on the left bank (north bank) of the Amur River (known as HÄ“ilóng Jiāng in Chinese) opposite of Heihe and on the east... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Beijing Treaty can also refer to the 1860 China and Great Britain. ... The Ussuri River (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Russian: река Уссури; Manchu: Usuri ula) is a river in the east of Northeast China and south of the Russian Far East. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... The Sixty-Four Villages East of the Heilongjiang River (Traditional Chinese: 江東六十四屯; Simplified Chinese: 江东六十四屯; Pinyin: Jiāngdōng Liùshísì Tún) are located on the left bank (north bank) of the Amur River (known as HÄ“ilóng Jiāng in Chinese) opposite of Heihe and on the east... Outer Manchuria is in light red on this map. ... The Sea of Japan is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, bordered by Japan, Korea and Russia. ...


Manchuria was known for its shamanism, ginseng and tigers. The Manchu imperial symbol was a tiger with a ball of opium in its mouth. Manchu Emperors were, first and foremost, accomplished shamans. By the 19th century, Manchu rule had become increasingly sinicized and, along with other borderlands of the Chinese Empire such as Mongolia and Tibet, came under the influence of colonial powers. Britain nibbled at Tibet, France at Hainan and Germany at Shantung, while Russia encroached upon Turkestan and Outer Mongolia, having annexed Outer Manchuria. A shaman doctor of Kyzyl. ... Species Subgenus Panax Section Panax Series Notoginseng Panax notoginseng Series Panax Panax bipinnatifidus Panax ginseng Panax japonicus Panax quinquefolius Panax vietnamensis Panax wangianus Panax zingiberensis Section Pseudoginseng Panax pseudoginseng Panax stipuleanatus Subgenus Trifolius Panax trifolius Panax is a genus of 11 species of slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Historical distribution of tigers (pale yellow) and 2006 (green). ... The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sinicization, or less commonly Sinification, is to make things Chinese. ... Tibet (see Name section below for other spellings) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Shandong (Simplified Chinese: 山东; Traditional Chinese: 山東; pinyin: Shāndōng; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Outer Mongolia makes up Mongolia (presently a sovereign state) and Tannu Uriankhai (the majority of which is the modern-day Tuva Republic, a federal subject of the Russian Federation), while Inner Mongolia (内蒙古; Nèi MÄ›nggÇ”) is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Inner Manchuria also came under strong Russian influence with the building of the Chinese eastern railway through Harbin to Vladivostok. Japan replaced Russian influence in Inner Manchuria as a result of the Russo-Japanese War in 19041905, and Japan laid the South Manchurian Railway in 1906 to Port Arthur (Japanese: Ryojun). In this series of historical events, Jiandao (in the region bordering Korea), was handed over to Qing Dynasty as a compensation for the South Manchurian Railway. This article discusses the city of Harbin in Manchuria. ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... Combatants Russian Empire Montenegro[1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: , Chinese: , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... The South Manchuria Railway Company (Japanese: 満鉄); Mantetsu) was a company founded by Japan in 1906, after the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), and operated in Japanese-occupied Manchuria. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Location within China Lüshun city or Lüshunkou or (literally) Lüshun Port (Simplified Chinese: 旅顺口; Traditional Chinese: 旅順口; Pinyin: , formerly in historic references both Port Arthur and Ryojun, is a town in the southernmost administrative district of Dalian of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Gando, Jiandao, and Kantō are the Korean, Chinese, and Japanese pronunciations of a name (間島) that refers to parts of Manchuria populated by Koreans. ... The 1909 Jian Dao/Gando Convention (間島協約) was a treaty signed between Japan and China in which Japan received railroad concessions in Manchuria(Northeastern China). ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... The South Manchuria Railway Company (Japanese: 満鉄); Mantetsu) was a company founded by Japan in 1906, after the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), and operated in Japanese-occupied Manchuria. ...


Between World War I and World War II, Manchuria became a political and military battleground. Japanese influence extended into Outer Manchuria in the wake of the Russian Revolution of 1917, but Outer Manchuria had reverted to Soviet control by 1925. Japan took advantage of the disorder following the Russian Revolution to occupy Outer Manchuria, but Soviet successes and American economic pressure forced Japanese withdrawal. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Manchuria was (and is) an important region for its rich mineral and coal reserves, and its soil is perfect for soy and barley production. For pre-World War II Japan, Manchuria was an essential source of raw materials. Without occupying Manchuria, the Japanese probably could not have carried out its plan for conquest over South-East Asia or taken the risk to attack Pearl Harbor.[1] This article is about the actual attack. ...


Around the time of World War I, Chang Tso-Lin established himself as a hugely powerful warlord with influence over most of Manchuria. He was determined to keep his Manchu army under his control and to keep Manchuria free of foreign influence. The Japanese tried to kill him in 1916 by throwing a bomb under his carriage, but failed. The Japanese finally succeeded on June 2 1928, when a bomb exploded under his seven-carriage train a few miles from Mukden station.[2] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Chang Tso-lin Zhāng Zuòlín (Chinese: 张作霖 , pinyin: Zhāng Zuòlín, WG: Chang Tso-Lin) (March 19, 1873 – June 4, 1928), nicknamed the Old Marshal (大帥) or Mukden Tiger, was a Chinese warlord in Manchuria in the early 20th century. ...


Following the Mukden Incident in 1931 and the subsequent Japanese invasion of Manchuria, Inner Manchuria was proclaimed as an independent state, Manchukuo. The last Manchu emperor, Pu Yi, was then placed on the throne to lead a Japanese puppet government in the Wei Huang Gong, better known as "Puppet Emperor's Palace". Inner Manchuria was thus formally detached from China by Japan to create a buffer zone to defend Japan from Russia's Southing Strategy and, with Japanese investment and rich natural resources, became an industrial powerhouse. But, under the control of the Japanese, Manchuria was one of the most brutally run regions in the world, with a systematic campaign of terror and intimidation against the local Russian and Chinese populations, arrests, organized riots, and other acts of subversion.[3] The Japanese also began a campaign of emigration to Manchukuo; the Japanese population there rose from 240,000 in 1931 to 837,000 in 1939. Hundreds of Manchu farmers were evicted and their farms given to Japanese immigrant families.[4] Manchukuo was used as a base to invade the rest of China, an expensive action (in terms of the damage to men, matériel and political integrity) that was as costly to Japan as the invasion of Russia was to Germany, and for the same reasons. It has been suggested that Manchuria Incident be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan Commanders Zhang Xueliang, Ma Zhanshan, Feng Zhanhai, Ting Chao Shigeru Honjo, Jiro Tamon, Senjuro Hayashi Strength 160,000 men 30,000 - 60,450 men Casualties  ?  ? The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on September 19, 1931, one day... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui History  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Japanese name KyÅ«jitai: Shinjitai: Romaji: Manchukuo... Aisin-Gioro Puyi (February 7, 1906 - October 17, 1967) was the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1912, and non-ruling emperor between 1912 and 1924), the tenth (and last) emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty to rule over... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Puppet Emperors Palace Wei Huang Gong (Chinese: 伪皇宫) also known as Puppet Emperors Palace was created by the Japanese Army for Chinas last emperor Puyi to live in as part of the Japanese colonialism in Manchukuo. ...


At the end of the 1930s Manchuria was a trouble spot with Japan clashing twice with Russia. These clashes - at Lake Khasan in 1938 and at Khalkhin Gol one year later - resulted in many Japanese casualities. Russia won these two fights and a peace agreement was signed. However, the regional unrest endured.[5] Combatants Soviet Union Empire of Japan Commanders Vasily Blyukher Nikolai Berzarin Kotoku Sato Strength 22,950 20,000+ Casualties 717 killed, 75 missing 525 killed, 913 wounded Soviet-Japanese Border Wars Lake Khasan – Khalkhin Gol The Battle of Lake Khasan ( July 29, 1938 – August 11, 1938) and also known as... Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Commanders Georgy Zhukov Michitaro Komatsubara Strength 57,000 30,000 Casualties 6,831 killed, 15,952 wounded (stated estimate) 8,440 killed, 8,766 wounded (stated estimate) The Battle of Khalkhyn Gol (Mongolian: ; Japanese: ノモンハン事件 Nomonhan jiken), named after the river...


After World War II

After the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, Japan in 1945, the Soviet Union invaded from Russian Manchuria as part of its declaration of war against Japan. From 1945 to 1948, Inner Manchuria was a base area for the Chinese People's Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War. With the encouragement of the Soviet Union, Manchuria was used as a staging ground during the Chinese Civil War for the Communist Party of China, who were victorious in 1949. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... The Japanese city of Hiroshima ) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshū, the largest of Japans islands. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... USMC convoys staging prior to going north into Iraq in March of 2004 A staging area is a temporary location where military units, aircraft and warships plus their matériel are assembled ahead of an attack or invasion. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ...


During the Korean War of the 1950s, 300,000 soldiers of the Chinese People's Liberation Army crossed the Chinese-Korean border from Manchuria to recapture North Korea from UN forces led by the United States. Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ...


In the 1960s, Manchuria became the site of the most serious tension between the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China. The treaties of 1858 and 1860, which ceded territory north of the Amur, were ambiguous as to which course of the river was the boundary. This ambiguity led to dispute over the political status of several islands. This led to armed conflict in 1969, called the Sino-Soviet border conflict. The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Combatants People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Mao Tse-Tung Leonid Brezhnev Strength 814,000 658,000 Casualties 800 killed, 620 wounded, 1 lost [1] 58 killed, 94 wounded [2] The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and...


With the end of the Cold War, this boundary issue was discussed through negotiations. In 2004, Russia agreed to transfer Yinlong Island and one half of Heixiazi Island to China, ending a long-standing border dispute. Both islands are found at the confluence of the Amur and Ussuri Rivers, and were until then administered by Russia and claimed by China. The event was meant to foster feelings of reconciliation and cooperation between the two countries by their leaders, but it has also sparked different degrees of discontents on both sides. Russians, especially Cossack farmers of Khabarovsk, who would lose their plowlands on the islands, were unhappy about the apparent loss of territory. Meanwhile, some Chinese both at home and abroad have criticized the treaty as an official acknowledgement of the legitimacy of Russian rule over Outer Manchuria, which was ceded by the Qing Dynasty to Imperial Russia under a series of Unequal Treaties, which included the Treaty of Aigun in 1858 and the Convention of Peking in 1860, in order to exchange exclusive usage of Russia's rich oil resources. As a result of these criticisms, news and information regarding the border treaty were censored in mainland China by the PRC government. The transfer has been ratified by both the Chinese National People's Congress and the Russian State Duma, but has yet to be carried out to date. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Heixiazi / Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island is depicted in the inset map on the lower right. ... The Amur River or Heilong Jiang (Russian: Амур; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , or Black Dragon River; Mongolian: , Khar Mörön or Black River; Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black River) is the worlds eighth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China. ... The Ussuri River (Chinese: Wūsūlǐ Jīang 乌苏里江, Russian: река Уссури) is a river in south east Russia, flowing north, forming part of the Chinese border, to the Amur River. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... Government Country District Krai Russia Far Eastern Federal District Khabarovsk Krai Established 1858 Mayor Alexandr Sokolov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 372 km² Population  - City (2005) 579,000 Coordinates Other Information Postal Code 680xxx Dialing Code +7 4212 Website: www. ... Outer Manchuria is in light red on this map. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... The Unequal Treaties is the name in the English language used by modern China for a series of treaties signed by several Asian states, including the Qing Empire in China, late Tokugawa Japan, and late Joseon Korea, and foreign powers (列強, ì—´ê°•) during the 19th and early 20th centuries. ... The Treaty of Aigun was the Russian-Chinese treaty that established the modern borders of the Russian Far East. ... The Convention of Peking (October 18, 1860), also known as the First Convention of Peking, was a treaty between the Qing Government of China and the British Empire, and between China and France, and China and Russia. ... ... The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest... For other uses, see State Duma (disambiguation). ...


See also

Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui History  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Japanese name KyÅ«jitai: Shinjitai: Romaji: Manchukuo... War crimes in Manchukuo are war crimes committed during the Japanese rule of Manchukuo, from 1931 to 1945. ... Northeastern Chinese cuisine (东北菜; pinyin: dōngbÄ›i cài), or Manchurian cuisine, relies heavily on preserved foods and hearty fare due to the harsh winters and relatively short growing seasons. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Edward Behr, The Last Emperor, 1987, p. 202
  2. ^ Edward Behr, ibid, p. 168
  3. ^ Edward Behr, ibid, p. 202
  4. ^ Edward Behr, ibid, p. 204
  5. ^ Battlefield - Manchuria

References

  • Elliott, Mark C. "The Limits of Tartary: Manchuria in Imperial and National Geographies." Journal of Asian Studies 59, no. 3 (2000): 603-46.
  • Jones, Francis Clifford, Manchuria Since 1931, London, Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1949

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Manchuria - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3107 words)
Manchuria was the traditional homeland of the Xianbei, the Khitan and the Jurchen, who built several dynasties in both Manchuria and China proper, and most recently and famously the Manchus, who lent their name to the region and, in the 17th century, conquered and ruled China until the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in 1911.
Manchuria borders Mongolia in the west, Siberia in the north, China proper to the south and North Korea in the east.
Prior to World War II, Manchuria was colonized by the Japanese, and Manchukuo was used as a base to invade China, an expensive action (in terms of the damage to men, matériel and political integrity) that was as costly to Japan as the invasion of Russia was to Nazi Germany, and for the same reasons.
Manchuria - definition of Manchuria in Encyclopedia (1865 words)
Manchuria was the traditional homeland of peoples such as the Xianbei, the Khitans, the Jurchen, and most recently and famously, the Manchus, who lent their name to the region.
Manchuria is more technically referred to as Inner Manchuria or Chinese Manchuria, and is contrasted with Outer Manchuria or Russian Manchuria, a region that stretches from the Amur and Ussuri rivers to the Stanovoy Mountains and the Sea of Japan, encompassing Sakhalin.
From 1945 to 1948, Manchuria (Inner Manchuria) was a base area for the People's Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War and with the encouragement of Soviet Russia, Manchuria was used as a staging ground during the Chinese Civil War for the Chinese Communists, victorious in 1949.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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