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Encyclopedia > Manchukuo
滿洲國
Mǎnzhōuguó / Manshū-koku
State of Manchuria (1932-34)
大滿洲帝國
Dà Mǎnzhōu Dìguó / Dai Manshū Teikoku
Empire of Manchuria (1934-45)
Puppet state of Empire of Japan

1932 – 1945

Flag of Manchukuo A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister (many other Prime Ministers preceded the below list)  - 1916–1918 Count Masatake Terauchi  - 1937-1939, 1940-1941 Prince Fumimaro Konoe  - 1941–1944 Hideki... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Manchukuo. ...


Flag National flag of Manchukuo War Ensign The flag of the now-defunct Manchukuo was yellow field (symbolizing unification and representing the Manchurians), with four horizontal stripes in the upper right corner: Red for Bravery Blue for Justice White for Purity Black for Determination Flags of the World - Manchukuo (Japanese Puppet...

Anthem
National Anthem of Manchukuo
Location of Manchukuo
Map of Manchukuo
Capital Hsinking
Government Constitutional monarchy
Emperor
 - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)
 - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi)
Prime Minister
 - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu
 - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui
Historical era World War II
 - Established 1932
 - Disestablished 1945

Manchukuo (満州国, lit. "State of Manchuria") was a puppet state in Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia created by former Qing Dynasty officials with help from Imperial Japan in 1932. The state was founded and administered by Imperial Japan, with Puyi, the last Qing emperor, as the nominal regent and emperor.[1] Manchukuo's government was abolished in 1945 after the defeat of Imperial Japan at the end of World War II. Despite the name, Manchus were only a minority in Manchukuo, whose largest ethnic group were Han Chinese. There were also Koreans, Japanese, Mongols and smaller minorities. The Mongol regions of western Manchukuo were ruled under a slightly different system in acknowledgement of the Mongolian traditions there. A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... During Manchukuos 14-years existence, two national anthems have been used. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 391 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1592 × 2441 pixel, file size: 3. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Changchun (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the capital and largest city of Jilin province, located at the northeast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a... PÇ”yí (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the Qing Dynasty... PÇ”yí (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the Qing Dynasty... Zhèng XiàoxÅ« (Traditional Chinese: 鄭孝胥; Simplified Chinese 郑孝胥; Wade-Giles: Chêng Hsiao-hsü; 2 April 1860 - 28 March 1938). ... Zhang Jinghui (Traditional Chinese: 張景惠; 1871-1959) Chinese warlord and politician. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... PÇ”yí (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the Qing Dynasty... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Languages Chinese languages Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ...

Contents

History

After Manchu tribes conquered China they replaced the Ming Dynasty with the Qing, the Manchu emperors did not fully integrate their homeland into China. This legal, and to a degree ethnic, division persisted until the Qing dynasty began to fall apart in the 1800s. For other uses, see Ming. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late...


As the power of the court in Beijing weakened, many outlying areas either broke free (like Kashgar) or fell under the control of Imperialist powers. In the 1800s, Imperial Russia was most interested in the northern lands of the Qing Empire. In 1858, Russia gained nominal control over a huge tract of land called Outer Manchuria thanks to the Supplementary Treaty of Beijing that ended the Second Opium War. But Russia was not satisfied, and as the Qing Dynasty continued to weaken, they made further efforts to take control over the rest of Manchuria. Inner Manchuria came under strong Russian influence in the 1890s with the building of the Chinese Eastern Railway through Harbin to Vladivostok. “Peking” redirects here. ... Location of Kashgar Kashgars Sunday market Kashgar (also spelled Cascar[1]) (Uyghur: /; Chinese: ; pinyin: , ), is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Outer Manchuria is in light red on this map. ... The Convention of Peking (October 18, 1860), also known as the First Convention of Peking, was a treaty between the Qing Government of China and the British Empire, and between China and France, and China and Russia. ... Combatants Qing China United Kingdom French Empire Commanders Unknown Michael Seymour James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin Jean-Baptiste Louis Gros The Second Opium War or Arrow War was a war of the United Kingdom and France against the Qing Dynasty of China from 1856 to 1860. ... The China Far East Railway (a. ... This article discusses the city of Harbin in Manchuria. ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ...


However, Japanese influence replaced Russia's in Inner Manchuria as a result of the Russo-Japanese War (1904–5). In 1906, Japan laid the South Manchurian Railway to Port Arthur (Japanese: Ryojun). Between World War I and World War II Manchuria became a political and military battleground between Russia, Japan, and China. Japan moved into Outer Manchuria as a result of the chaos following the Russian Revolution of 1917. A combination of Soviet military successes and American economic pressure forced the Japanese to withdraw from the area, however, and Outer Manchuria returned to Soviet control by 1925. Combatants Russian Empire Montenegro[1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: , Chinese: , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of... The South Manchuria Railway Company (Japanese: 満鉄); Mantetsu) was a company founded by Japan in 1906, after the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), and operated in Japanese-occupied Manchuria. ... Dalian (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Japanese: Dairen; Russian: Далянь, Dalian or Дальний, Dalny) is the governing sub-provincial city in the eastern Liaoning Province of Northeast China. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Outer Manchuria is in light red on this map. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... “CCCP” redirects here. ...


During the warlord period in China, the warlord Zhang Zuolin established himself in Inner Manchuria with Japanese backing. Later the Japanese Kantogun found him too independent and assassinated him in 1928. After the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, the former Emperor of China, Puyi, was invited to come with his followers and act as the head of state for Manchuria; he accepted this request. On February 18, 1932 the "State of Manchuria" (Manchukuo, Pinyin: Mǎnzhōuguó)[2] was declared to exist and recognized by Japan. The city of Changchun, renamed Hsinking (Xinjing, 新京), literally means the "New Capital", became the capital of the new entity. Chinese in Manchuria organized volunteer armies to oppose the Japanese and the new state required a war lasting several years to pacify the country. A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. ... Chang Tso-Lin (WG) (Chinese: 張作霖, pinyin: Zhāng Zuòlín) (1873 – June 4, 1928), nicknamed the Old Marshall or Mukden Tiger, was a Chinese warlord in Manchuria in the early 20th century. ... Approximate extent Manchuria and Northeast China are names for a region (ca. ... The Kantogun (Kanji: 関東軍; Nihon-shiki: Kantōgun; Postal System Pinyin: Kwantungchun; Pinyin: Guandongjun), more commonly known as the Kwantung Army or Guandong Army, was a unit of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA). ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan Commanders Zhang Xueliang, Ma Zhanshan, Feng Zhanhai, Ting Chao Shigeru Honjo, Jiro Tamon, Senjuro Hayashi Strength 160,000 men 30,000 - 60,450 men Casualties  ?  ? The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on September 19, 1931, one day... PÇ”yí (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the Qing Dynasty... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Changchun (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the capital and largest city of Jilin province, located at the northeast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... In the invasion of the Northeast or Manchuria it is assumed that Japan was soon able to establish complete control and that, after the League of Nations refused to do more than voice its disapproval, the Manchurian Incident was over. ... Combatants Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies, Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan, Manchukuo Imperial Army, Manchukuo Commanders Ma Zhanshan, Ting Chao, Tang Juwu, Wang Fengge, Wang Delin, Su Bingwen, Feng Yuxiang, Yang Jingyu, Zhou Baozhong, Li Zhaolin Shigeru Honjo, Nobuyoshi Muto, Takashi Hishikari...

Manchukuo
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese: 滿洲國
Simplified Chinese: 满洲国
Literal meaning: State of Manchuria
Japanese name
Kanji: 滿州國 or 滿洲國
Hiragana: まんしゅうこく

The Japanese initially installed Puyi as chief executive in 1932 but two years later he was declared Emperor of Manchukuo with the era name of Kangde or "Tranquility and Virtue". Manchukuo thus became the Great Manchurian Empire, sometimes termed Manchutikuo (Pinyin: Mǎnzhōu Dìguó). Zheng Xiaoxu served as Manchukuo's first prime minister until 1935, when Zhang Jinghui succeeded him. Puyi was nothing more than a figurehead and real authority rested in the hands of the Japanese military officials. A palace, Wei Huang Gong, was built for the emperor. All of the Manchu ministers served as front-men for their Japanese vice-ministers, who made all decisions. Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Chinese, Modern Standard Chinese or Standard spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... This article is about all of the Cantonese (Yue) dialects. ... Jyutping (sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Standard Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Hiragana ) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana and kanji; the Latin alphabet is also used in some cases. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji The Hepburn romanization system ) is named after James Curtis Hepburn, who used it to transcribe the sounds of the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet in the third edition of his Japanese–English dictionary, published... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 Kunrei-shiki (訓令式, Cabinet-ordered system) is a romanization system, that is, a system for transcribing the Japanese language into the Roman alphabet. ... An era is a long period of time with different technical and colloquial meanings, and usages in language. ... Zhèng XiàoxÅ« (Traditional Chinese: 鄭孝胥; Simplified Chinese 郑孝胥; Wade-Giles: Chêng Hsiao-hsü; 2 April 1860 - 28 March 1938). ... Zhang Jinghui (Traditional Chinese: 張景惠; 1871-1959) Chinese warlord and politician. ... Puppet Emperors Palace Wei Huang Gong (Chinese: 伪皇宫) also known as Puppet Emperors Palace was created by the Japanese Army for Chinas last emperor Puyi to live in as part of the Japanese colonialism in Manchukuo. ...

Empire of Manchuria
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese: 大滿洲帝國
Simplified Chinese: 大满洲帝国
Japanese name
Kanji: 大滿州帝國 or 大滿洲帝國
Hiragana: だいまんしゅうていこく

In this manner Japan formally detached Manchukuo from China in the course of the 1930s. With Japanese investment and rich natural resources, the area became an industrial powerhouse. In a newspaper article of August 30, 2007 the journalist Reiji Yoshida argued that the Japanese investments were partly financed by selling drugs. According to Reiji Yoshida, a document he found shows that the Kōa-in (Greater East Asia Development Board) was directly implicated in providing funds to drug dealers in China for the benefit of the puppet governements of Manchukuo, Nanjing and Mongolia.[3] This document corroborate proof analyzed earlier by the Tokyo tribunal which stated that «Japan's real purpose in engaging drug trafic was far more sinister than even the debauchery of Chinese people. Japan, having signed and ratified the opium conventions, was bound not to engage in drug traffic, but she found in the alleged but false independence of Manchukuo a convenient opportunity to carry on a worlwide drug traffic and cast the guilt upon that puppet state (...) In 1937, it was pointed out in the League of Nations that 90% of all illicit white drugs in the world were of Japanese origin...» [4]. Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Chinese, Modern Standard Chinese or Standard spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Hiragana ) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana and kanji; the Latin alphabet is also used in some cases. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji The Hepburn romanization system ) is named after James Curtis Hepburn, who used it to transcribe the sounds of the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet in the third edition of his Japanese–English dictionary, published... Categories: Possible copyright violations ...

Puyi as the Kangde Emperor of Manchukuo

Out of 80 then-existing nations, only 23 recognised the new state. The League of Nations (via the Lytton Report) declared that Manchuria remained rightfully part of China, leading Japan to resign its membership in 1934. The Manchukuo case prompted the United States to articulate the so-called Stimson Doctrine, under which international recognition was withheld from changes in the international system created by force of arms. Of the major powers Imperial Japan, the Soviet Union, Vichy France, Fascist Italy, Francoist Spain and Nazi Germany recognised Manchukuo diplomatically. In addition Manchukuo gained recognition from the Japanese collaborationist government of China under Wang Jingwei, as well as El Salvador and the Dominican Republic. Although the Chinese government did not recognise Manchukuo, the two countries established official ties for trade, communications and transportation. Image File history File links 满洲国皇帝溥仪.jpg File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links 满洲国皇帝溥仪.jpg File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... PÇ”yí (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the Qing Dynasty... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... Lytton Report was a report generated by a League of Nations commission to try to resolve the Manchurian Crisis. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... History of Spain Series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History The Spanish Civil War officially ended... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Wang Jingwei * Courtesy name: Jixin (季新) * Alternate name: Zhaoming (兆銘). Wang Jingwei (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wang Ching-wei) (May 4, 1883 – November 10, 1944), was a Chinese politician. ...


Dates of recognition of Manchukuo by other states (up to 1941) were as follows: Japan, 16 Sept 1932; El Salvador, 3 Mar 1934; Vatican, 18 Apr 1934 (de facto); Italy, 29 Nov. 1937; Spain, 2 Dec 1937; Germany, 12 May 1938; Poland, 19 Oct 1939 (de facto); Hungary, 9 Jan 1939; Slovakia, 1 June 1940 (puppet state of Nazi Germany which was recognized by Manchukuo on this date); ‘New’ China, 30 Nov. 1940 (date of pact); Rumania, 1 Dec 1940; Bulgaria, 10 May 1941; Finland, 18 July 1941; Croatia, 2 Aug 1941 (puppet state of Nazi Germany which was recognized by Manchukuo on this date); and Thailand, 5 Aug 1941.


Prior to World War II, the Japanese colonised Manchukuo and used it as a base from which to invade China. In the summer of 1939 a border dispute between Manchukuo and Mongolia resulted in the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, when a combined Soviet-Mongolian force defeated the Japanese Kantogun. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Soviet Union Mongolian Peoples Republic Empire of Japan Manchukuo Commanders Georgy Zhukov Michitaro Komatsubara Strength 57,000 30,000 (initially), 60,000 (as positions reinforced) Casualties Archival research 7,974 killed, 15,251 wounded[1] Japanese government claim 8,440 killed, 8,766 wounded Soviet claim 60,000... This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ... The Kantogun (Kanji: 関東軍; Nihon-shiki: Kantōgun; Postal System Pinyin: Kwantungchun; Pinyin: Guandongjun), more commonly known as the Kwantung Army or Guandong Army, was a unit of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA). ...


On August 8, 1945 the Soviet Union declared war on Japan in accordance with the agreement at the Yalta Conference, and invaded Manchukuo from outer Manchuria. This was called Operation August Storm. During the Soviet offensive the Army of Manchukuo, theoretically a two hundred-thousand-man force, well armed and trained along Japanese lines, performed poorly and whole units surrendered to the Soviets without firing a single shot; there were even cases of armed riots and mutinies against the Japanese forces. Emperor Kang De had hoped to escape to Japan to surrender to the Americans, but the Soviets captured him and eventually extradited him to the communist government in China, where the authorities had him imprisoned as a war criminal along with all other captured Manchukuo officials. is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Mengjiang Commanders Aleksandr Vasilevsky Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... A war crime is a punishable offense, under international (criminal) law, for violations of the law of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...


From 1945 to 1948, Manchuria (Inner Manchuria) served as a base area for the People's Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War against the Kuomintang (KMT). With Soviet encouragement, the Chinese Communists used Manchuria as a staging ground until the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949. Many Manchukuo army and Japanese Kantogun personnel served with the communist troops during the Chinese Civil War against the Nationalist forces. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... Combatants Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War...


Politics

Main article: Politics of Manchukuo
See also: Salt Rates Palace, National symbols of Manchukuo, and Imperial Japanese colonialism in Manchukuo

Historians generally consider Manchukuo a puppet state or colony of Imperial Japan[5] because of the Japanese military's strong presence and strict control of the government administration, in addition to Japan's wartime atrocities on the local population in Manchukuo. Chinese historians generally refer to the state as 'Wei Manzhouguo' ('false Manchukuo') to emphasise its alleged lack of legitimacy. Japan also expanded the industry and transportation system of Manchukuo to further develop it into a war base for military campaigns against China. In addition, some historians see Manchukuo as an effort at building an ideal Japanese state in Asia that failed due to the pressures of war.[6] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Salt Rates Palace or Manchu Imperial Palace was a temporary official Manchu government residence, provided by Japanese authorities for the Kangde Emperor and his cabinet in Hsinking, while a Japanese engineering company built an official palace. ... National symbols of Manchukuo were national signs in use during the administrative period of the Kangde Emperor (1932-1945) in Manchukuo Empire: Coloured five point Star badge (Manchu Army and national ww2 sign) Manchu National flag,Civil ensign and war jack Manchuria War Flag/Naval Ensign Manchu Marine Transport banner... A political project known as Manchukuo was created by the Imperial Japanese Army in northeastern China during the 1930s and 1940s. ... A historian is an individual who studies history and who writes on history. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism. ...


Administrative division of Manchukuo

See List of administrative divisions of Manchukuo for a complete list of prefecture-level divisions.

During its short-lived existence, Manchukuo was divided into between five (in 1932) and 19 (in 1941) provinces, one special ward of Peiman (Japanese:北満特別区) and two Special cities which were Hsinking (Japanese : 新京特別市) and Harbin (Japanese : 哈爾浜特別市). Each province was divided into between four (Hsingan-tung) and 24 (Fengtien) prefectures. Peiman lasted less than 3 years (July 1 1933 - January 1 1936) and Harbin was later incorporated into Binkiang province. Lungkiang also existed as a province in the 1932 before being divided into Heiho, Lungkiang and Sankiang in 1934. Antung and Chinchow provinces separated themselves from Fengtien while Binkiang and Chientao from Kirin separated themselves in the same year. Prefecture, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China. ... A province, in the context of China, is a translation of Sheng (Chinese: 省 ShÄ›ng), which is an administrative division of China. ... Special city refers to Special cities of Korea Special cities of Japan Special cities of China are now known as the municipalities of China Category: ... Location within China Changchun (Simplified Chinese: 长春; Traditional Chinese: 長春; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang-chun) is the capital of the Jilin province in northeastern China. ... Harbin on a map of China For other meanings of Harbin, see Harbin (disambiguation). ... Prefecture, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China. ...

Year
1932 1934 1937 1939 1941 1943
Lungkiang
龍江省
Heiho
Kokuga
黒河省
Heiho
Kokuga
黒河省
Heiho
Kokuga
黒河省
Heiho
Kokuga
黒河省
Heiho
Kokuga
黒河省
Sankiang
Sanko
三江省
Sankiang
Sanko
三江省
Sankiang
Sanko
三江省
Sankiang
Sanko
三江省
Sankiang
Sanko
三江省
Lungkiang
Ryuko
龍江省
Lungkiang
Ryuko
龍江省
Lungkiang
Ryuko
龍江省
Lungkiang
Ryuko
龍江省
Lungkiang
Ryuko
龍江省
Peian
Hokuan
北安省
Peian
Hokuan
北安省
Peian
Hokuan
北安省
Kirin
吉林省
Binkiang
Hinko
濱江省
Binkiang
Hinko
濱江省
Binkiang
Hinko
濱江省
Binkiang
Hinko
濱江省
Binkiang
Hinko
濱江省
Mudankiang
Botanko
牡丹江省
Mudankiang
Botanko
牡丹江省
Mudankiang
Botanko
牡丹江省
東満総省
Tungan
Toan
東安省
Tungan
Toan
東安省
Chientao
Kanto
Gando
間島省
Chientao
Kanto
Gando
間島省
Chientao
Kanto
Gando
間島省
Chientao
Kanto
Gando
間島省
Kirin
Kirin
吉林省
Kirin
Kirin
吉林省
Kirin
Kirin
吉林省
Kirin
Kirin
吉林省
Kirin
Kirin
吉林省
Fengtien
奉天省
Antung
Anto
安東省
Antung
Anto
安東省
Antung
Anto
安東省
Antung
Anto
安東省
Antung
Anto
安東省
Tunghua
Tsuka
通化省
Tunghua
Tsuka
通化省
Tunghua
Tsuka
通化省
Fengtien
Hoten
奉天省
Fengtien
Hoten
奉天省
Fengtien
Hoten
奉天省
Fengtien
Hoten
奉天省
Fengtien
Hoten
奉天省
Siping
Shihei
四平省
Siping
Shihei
四平省
Chinchow
Kinshu
錦州省
Chinchow
Kinshu
錦州省
Chinchow
Kinshu
錦州省
Chinchow
Kinshu
錦州省
Chinchow
Kinshu
錦州省
Hsingan
Koan
興安省
Hsingan
興安省
Hsingan
Koan
興安省
Hsingan-pei
Koan-Kita
興安北省
Hsingan-pei
Koan-Kita
興安北省
興安総省
Hsingan-tung
Koan-higashi
興安東省
Hsingan-tung
Koan-higashi
興安東省
Hsingan-nan
Koan-minami
興安南省
Hsingan-nan
Koan-minami
興安南省
Hsingan-si
Koan-nishi
興安西省
Hsingan-si
Koan-nishi
興安西省
Jehol
Netsuka
熱河省
Jehol
Netsuka
熱河省
Jehole
Netsuka
熱河省
Jehol
Netsuka
熱河省
Jehol
Netsuka
熱河省
Jehol
Netsuka
熱河省
Hsinking
Shinkyō
新京特別市
Hsinking
Shinkyō
新京特別市
Hsinking
Shinkyō
新京特別市
Hsinking
Shinkyō
新京特別市
Hsinking
Shinkyō
新京特別市
Hsinking
Shinkyō
新京特別市

A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Kirin may refer to: Kirin, the Japanese and Korean word for the Qilin, a mythical beast in Chinese culture and now the word for giraffe Kirin Brewery Company, Ltd. ... Kirin may refer to: Kirin, the Japanese and Korean word for the Qilin, a mythical beast in Chinese culture and now the word for giraffe Kirin Brewery Company, Ltd. ... Major districts of Shenyang. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liáoníng) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Siping is a process of cutting thin slits across a rubber surface to improve traction in wet or icy conditions. ... For the city in Hebei provonce, see Jinzhou, Hebei. ... Hsingan: these term if reffering to Japanese creation in West Heilung kiang and part of Northwest Liaoning the Autonomous Mongol Anto (province) of Hsingan,others several names used for these land are Tsingan or Burga. ... Rehe (热河 or 熱河 pinyin: Rèhé, lit. ... Location within China Changchun (Simplified Chinese: 长春; Traditional Chinese: 長春; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang-chun) is the capital of the Jilin province in northeastern China. ...

Demographics

In 1908 the number of residents was 15,834,000, which rose to 30,000,000 in 1931 and 43,000,000 for the Manchukuo state. The population balance remained 123 men to 100 women and the total number in 1941 was 50,000,000.


In early 1934 the total population of Manchukuo was estimated as 30,880,000, with 6.1 persons the average family, and 122 men for each 100 women. These numbers included 29,510,000 Chinese, 590,760 Japanese, 680,000 Koreans, and 98,431 other nationalities (Russians, Mongols, etc). Around 80% of the population was rural. Other statistics indicate that in Manchukuo the population rose by 18,000,000.


From Japanese sources come these numbers: in 1940 the total population in Manchukuo of Lungkiang, Jehol, Kirin, Liaoning (Fengtien) and Hsingan provinces at 43,233,954; or an Interior Ministry figure of 31,008,600. Another figure of the period evaluated the total population as 36,933,000 residents. Rehe (热河 or 熱河 pinyin: Rèhé, lit. ... Kirin may refer to: Kirin, the Japanese and Korean word for the Qilin, a mythical beast in Chinese culture and now the word for giraffe Kirin Brewery Company, Ltd. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liáoníng) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hsingan: these term if reffering to Japanese creation in West Heilung kiang and part of Northwest Liaoning the Autonomous Mongol Anto (province) of Hsingan,others several names used for these land are Tsingan or Burga. ...


Around the same time the Soviet Union was promoting the Siberian Jewish Autonomous Oblast across the Manchukuo-Soviet border, some Japanese officials promoted the Fugu Plan to attract Jewish refugees to Manchukuo as part of their colonisation efforts. The Japanese wanted to exploit the Jews' innate capability to generate wealth, or so they believed from naive readings of anti-Semitic propaganda. , Capital Birobidzhan Area - total - % water Ranked 61st - 36,000 km² - no data Population - Total - Density Ranked 80th - est. ... This article or section cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Jews. ...


Financing of the settlement was expected to come from rich Jews, but the German government preferred the Final Solution. In any case, Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union made such population transfer impossible, since the Axis powers did not control the necessary sea lanes. In the end, only a few Jews made it to Manchukuo.[citation needed] In a February 26, 1942, letter to German diplomat Martin Luther, Reinhard Heydrich follows up on the Wannsee Conference by asking Luther for administrative assistance in the implementation of the Endlösung der Judenfrage (Final Solution of the Jewish Question). ... Combatants Germany, Romania, Finland, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Maresal Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Gariboldi, ARMIR Joseph Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor...


Population of main cities

Yingkou (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city of Liaoning province, in northeastern China. ... This article is about a city. ... Changchun (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the capital and largest city of Jilin province, located at the northeast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Harbin on a map of China For other meanings of Harbin, see Harbin (disambiguation). ... Dalian (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Japanese: Dairen; Russian: Далянь, Dalian or Дальний, Dalny) is the governing sub-provincial city in the eastern Liaoning Province of Northeast China. ... statue in Dandong Dandong (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Dāndōng) is a city in the Liaoning province, China. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: Jílín; Wade-Giles: Chi-lin; Postal System Pinyin: Kirin; Manchu: Girin ula), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... Qiqihar ( Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Manchu: Cicigar hoton) is a major city in the Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China and has 895,000 inhabitants. ...

Japanese population

In 1931–2 there were 100,000 Japanese farmers; other sources mention 590,760 inhabitants of Japanese nationality. Other figures for Manchukuo speak of a Japanese population 240,000 strong, later growing to 837,000. In Hsinking they made up 25% of the population. The Japanese government had official plans projecting the emigration of 5 million Japanese to Manchukuo between 1936 and 1956. Between 1938 and 1942 a contingent of young farmers of 200,000 arrived in Manchukuo; joining this group after 1936 were 20,000 complete families. When Japan lost sea and air control of the Yellow Sea, this migration stopped.


When the Red Army invaded Manchukuo, they captured 850,000 Japanese settlers. With the exception of some civil servants and soldiers, these were repatriated to Japan in 1946–7. Many Japanese orphans in China were left behind in the confusion by then Japanese government and were adopted by Chinese families. Some of them were stigmatized as Japanese during the Cultural Revolution, and in the 1980s Japan began to organise a repatriation programme for them; however, returnees often faced rejection by their biological families and poor prospects in Japan due to their insufficient command of the Japanese language.[citation needed] For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Japanese orphans in China consist primarily of children left behind by Japanese families repatriating from Northeast China (then Manchukuo) to Japan in the aftermath of World War II. For the most part, they were taken in by Chinese families and raised with no knowledge of their Japanese ancestry. ... Not to be confused with the Javanese language. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Manchukuo

Manchukuo experienced rapid economic growth and progress in its social systems. Its industrial system was among the most advanced making it one of the industrial powerhouses in the region. Manchukuo's steel production surpassed Japan's in the late 1930s. Many Manchurian cities were modernised during Manchukuo era. // Official government control of economy The General Affairs State Council was the body that retained Japanese control of official economic policy. ...


See also:

Bank of Manchukuo 1Yuan(1932) The Central Bank of Manchou ), was the central bank of the Japan-sponsored state of Manchukuo. ... The Yuan of Manchukuo was a monetary unit created by Japanese economists and military thinkers in June 1932. ... Manshukoku Hikoki Seizo KK (Manchurian Aircraft Company) was the aircraft factory in Manchukuo for Nakajima Hikoki KK (Nakajima Aircraft Company) of Japan. ... Manchukuo National Airways (Manshukoku Koku KK) was the name of the national airline of Manchukuo, a Japanese creation. ... Showa Steel Works began as a Japanese government-sponsored industrial combine called the Anshan Iron & Steel Works. ...

Slave labor and mass graves

According to a joint study of historians Zhifen Ju, Mitsuyochi Himeta, Toru Kubo and Mark Peattie, more than 10 million Chinese civilians were mobilized by the Showa period army for slave work in Manchukuo under the supervision of the Koa-in. [7] The Shōwa period (Japanese: 昭和時代, Shōwa-jidai, period of enlightened peace) was the time in Japanese history when Emperor Hirohito reigned over the country, from December 25, 1926 to January 7, 1989. ...


The Chinese slave laborers often suffered illness due to high-intensity toil works. Some badly ill workers were directly pushed into Mass graves in order to avoid the medical expenditure [8]and the world most serious mine disaster Benxihu Colliery happened in Manchukuo. Image:Mass Grave Bergen Belsen May 1945. ... Mount Mulligan mine disaster in Australia 1921. ... Benxihu (Honkeiko) Colliery (本溪湖媒礦), located at Benxi, Liaoning, China, was first mined in 1905, under the control of Japanese. ...


Bacteriological weapons experiments

Bacteriological weapons were experimented on humans by the infamous unit 731 located near Harbin in Beinyinhe from 1932 to 1936 and to Pingfan until 1945. Victims, mostly Chinese, Russians and Koreans, were subjected to vivisection, sometimes without anesthesia. For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Body disposal at Unit 731 Unit 731 was a covert biological warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried... Etymologically, Vivisection refers to the dissection of, or any cutting or surgery upon, a living organism. ...


Transport

Manchukuo built an efficient and massive railway system that still functions well today.


Military

The Manchukuo Imperial Army was the armed force of Manchukuo the puppet state of the Empire of Japanin northeast China. ... The Manchukuo Imperial Guards were the elite unit of the corps of Manchukuoan defense forces. ... This is a list of the Navy Forces Units of the state of Manchukuo. ... The Manshukoku Hombu (Manchurian Air Force, literally State of Manchuria Headquarters) was the national Manchurian air force in WWII. In theory the unit was supposed to protect the country and provided cover to land forces; they were aligned with the Axis Powers alliance. ... List of manchukuo imperial forces weapons If reffer at the weapons in use by Manchukuo Imperial forces during 1932-1945 period: // Infantry Handguns This if a list of certain standard infantry handguns in use for Manchu Army forces in 1934-1945 times: Native Knife and Sword Pistol Mauser Type 1... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Education

Manchukuo developed an efficient public education system. They set up or founded many schools and technical colleges, 12,000 primary schools in Manchukuo, 200 middle schools, 140 normal schools (for preparing teachers), and 50 technical and professional schools. In total the system had 600,000 children and young pupils and 25,000 teachers. There were 1,600 private schools (with Japanese permits), 150 missionary schools and in Harbin 25 Russian schools.


Confucius's teachings also played an important role in Manchukuo's public school education. In rural areas, student were trained to practice modern agricultural techniques to improve production. Education focused on practical work training for boys and domestic work for girls, all based on adherence to the "Kingly Way" and stressing loyalty to the Emperor. The regime used numerous festivals, sport events, and ceremonies to foster loyalty of citizens[9]. Eventually, Japanese became the official language in addition to the Chinese language taught in Manchukuo schools.


Stamps and postal history

1935 Manchukuo postage stamp with image of Puyi, Emperor of Manchukuo
1935 Manchukuo postage stamp with image of Puyi, Emperor of Manchukuo

Manchukuo issued its first postage stamps on July 28, 1932. A number of denominations existed, with two designs: the pagoda at Liaoyang and a portrait of Puyi. Originally the inscription read (in Chinese) "Manchu State Postal Administration"; in 1934, a new issue read "Manchu Empire Postal Administration". An orchid crest design appeared in 1935, and a design featuring the Sacred White Mountains in 1936. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (500x601, 134 KB) Manchukuo 15-fen stamp of 1935, scanned January 2006 by User:Stan Shebs File links The following pages link to this file: Puyi Manchukuo User:Stan Shebs/Gallery/Philately Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (500x601, 134 KB) Manchukuo 15-fen stamp of 1935, scanned January 2006 by User:Stan Shebs File links The following pages link to this file: Puyi Manchukuo User:Stan Shebs/Gallery/Philately Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Pǔyí (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the Qing Dynasty... A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Liaoyang (Simplified Chinese: 辽阳; Traditional Chinese: 遼陽; Pinyin: Liáoyáng) is a city in China, Liaoning province, located in the middle of the beautiful and rich Liaodong Peninsula. ...


1936 also saw a new regular series featuring various scenes and surmounted by the orchid crest. Between 1937 and 1945, the government issued a variety of commemoratives: for anniversaries of its own existence, to note the passing of new laws, and to honor Japan in various ways, for instance, on the 2600th anniversary of the Japanese Empire in 1940. The last issue of Manchukuo came on May 2, 1945, commemorating the 10th anniversary of an edict. May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


After the dissolution of the government, successor postal authorities locally handstamped many of the remaining stamp stocks with "Republic of China" in Chinese and so forth. In addition, the Port Arthur and Dairen Postal Administration overprinted many Manchukuo stamps between 1946 and 1949. Location within China Lüshun city or Lüshunkou or (literally) Lüshun Port (Simplified Chinese: 旅顺口; Traditional Chinese: 旅順口; Pinyin: , formerly in historic references both Port Arthur and Ryojun, is a town in the southernmost administrative district of Dalian of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Dalian (Simplified Chinese: 大连; Traditional Chinese: 大連; pinyin: Dàlián; Wade-Giles: Ta-lien), formerly Lüda or Luta, is an ice-free seaport and a sub-provincial city in eastern Liaoning Province of the Northeastern Peoples Republic of China (Manchuria). ... An overprint is the addition of text (and sometimes graphics) to the face of a postage stamp after it has been printed. ...

See also: List of birds on stamps of Manchukuo
Manchukuo 1932–1945
Personal Names Period of Reigns era names (年號) and their corresponding range of years
All given names in bold.
Aixinjuelo Puyi 愛新覺羅溥儀 ai4 xin1 jue2 luo2 pu3 yi2 March 1932–August 1945 Datong (大同 da4 tong2) 1932
Kangde (康德 kang1 de2) 1934

Categories: ‪Manchukuo‬ | ‪Lists of birds appearing on stamps by country‬ ... A Chinese era name (traditional Chinese: 年號, simplified Chinese: 年号, pinyin nían hào) is the era name, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperors reign and naming certain Chinese rulers (see the conventions). ... Aisin-Gioro Puyi¹ (February 7, 1906 - October 17, 1967) was the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1912, and non-ruling emperor between 1912 and 1924), the tenth (and last) emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty to rule over...

References

  1. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica article on Manchukuo
  2. ^ Between World Wars
  3. ^ Japan profited as opium dealer wartime China, http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20070830f1.html
  4. ^ http://www.ibiblio.net/hyperwar/PTO/IMTFE/IMTFE-5.html
  5. ^ Columbia Encyclopedia article on Manchukuo
  6. ^ The Journal of Japanese Studies
  7. ^ Zhifen Ju, Japan's atrocities of conscripting and abusing north China draftees after the outbreak of the Pacific war, 2002.
  8. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=yEA5EJyy4CYC&pg=PT25&ots=wnzSo8hEse&dq=%22mass+grave%22+Liaoning&sig=POFcnbEp_C6Ydn-SiEbXHb4YCP4
  9. ^ Japan Focus.

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Combatants Soviet Union Mongolian Peoples Republic Empire of Japan Manchukuo Commanders Georgy Zhukov Michitaro Komatsubara Strength 57,000 30,000 (initially), 60,000 (as positions reinforced) Casualties Archival research 7,974 killed, 15,251 wounded[1] Japanese government claim 8,440 killed, 8,766 wounded Soviet claim 60,000... Combatants Soviet Union Empire of Japan Commanders Vasily Blyukher Nikolai Berzarin Kotoku Sato Strength 22,950 20,000+ Casualties 717 killed, 75 missing 525 killed, 913 wounded Soviet-Japanese Border Wars Lake Khasan – Khalkhin Gol The Battle of Lake Khasan ( July 29, 1938 – August 11, 1938) and also known as... The Collaborationist Chinese Army in the Second Sino-Japanese War went under different names at different times depending on what puppet regime it was organized under. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This is a list of some Asian leaders and politicians, with a commitment to the Japanese cause, in the Yen Block or Greater Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere Pan-Asian economic associations previous to and during the Pacific War period, between 1931-1945. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan Commanders Song Zheyuan Kanichiro Tashiro Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? The Marco Polo Bridge Incident (盧溝橋事變; also known as 七七事變, 七七盧溝橋事變 or the Lugouqiao Incident) was a battle between the Republic of Chinas National Revolutionary Army and the Empire of Japans... It has been suggested that Manchuria Incident be merged into this article or section. ... Nomonhan is a small village near the border between Mongolia and Manchuria, China south of the Chinese city of Manzhouli. ... Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Mengjiang Commanders Aleksandr Vasilevsky Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... A White Russian state had a short potential or virtual existence during the Pacific War, in Outer Manchuria. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... War crimes in Manchukuo are war crimes committed during the Japanese rule of Manchukuo, from 1931 to 1945. ...

External links

Imperial Japanese Army special research units
Unit 100 (Shenyang) | Unit 516 (Qiqihar) | Unit 543 (Hailar) | Unit 731 (Pingfang) / Unit 200 (Manchuria) / Unit 8604 or Nami Unit (Guangzhou) | Unit 773 (Songo) | Unit Ei 1644 (Nanjing) | Unit 1855 (Nanjing) | Unit 2646 or Unit 80 (Hailar) | Unit 9420 or Oka Unit (Singapore)

 
 

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