FACTOID # 17: Though Rhode Island is the smallest state in total area, it has the longest official name: The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Manchu" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Manchu
Manchu (Manju, Man)
满族
Total population

approx. 10.68 million (2000) [1]

Regions with significant populations
Flag of the People's Republic of China China (Heilongjiang · Jilin · Liaoning)
There may also be members in North Korea, Siberia of Russia, Canada, Japan and United States
Languages
Manchu (very small population),
Mandarin Chinese
Religion
Predominantly Buddhism and Shamanism. Minority Christianity, others
Related ethnic groups
Xibe, other Tungusic peoples

The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; simplified Chinese: 满族; traditional Chinese: 滿族; pinyin: Mǎnzú, Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (today's Northeastern China). During their rise in the seventeenth century, along with the help of Ming rebels (such as general Wu Sangui), they conquered the Ming Dynasty and founded the Qing Dynasty, which ruled China until its abolition in 1911 after the Xinhai Revolution, which established a republican government in its place. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Heilongjiang (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江省; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江省; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Heilungkiang) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... For the city, see Jilin City. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liáoníng) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... The Manchu language is a Tungusic language spoken by Manchus in Manchuria; it is the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. ... Buddhism, a Dharmic faith, is usually considered one of the worlds major religions, with between 230 to 500 million followers. ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Xibe ( Sibe; Chinese, 錫伯 XÄ«bó) are an ethnic group living mostly in northeast China and Xinjiang. ... The term Tungusic peoples is used to describe a peoples speaking a Tungusic languages. ... The Manchu language is a Tungusic language spoken by Manchus in Manchuria; it is the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... Image File history File links Manjui_gisun. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... The term Tungusic peoples is used to describe a peoples speaking a Tungusic languages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Wu Sangui (Chinese: 吳三桂; pinyin: Wú Sānguì; WG: Wu San-kuei) (1612 - October 2, 1678) was a Ming Chinese general who opened the gates of the Great Wall of China at Shanhai Pass to let Manchu soldiers into China proper. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Belligerents Qing Dynasty Chinese Revolutionary Alliance Commanders Feng Guozhang, Yuan Shikai, and local Qing governors. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...


The Manchu ethnicity have largely been assimilated with the Han Chinese. The Manchu language is almost extinct, now spoken only among a small number of elderly in remote rural areas of northeastern China and a few scholars; there are around ten thousand speakers of Sibe (Xibo), a Manchu dialect spoken in the Ili region of Xinjiang. In recent years, however, there has been a resurgence of interest in Manchu culture among both ethnic Manchus and Han. The number of Chinese today with some Manchu ancestry is quite large, and the adoption of favorable policies towards ethnic minorities (such as preferential university admission and government employment opportunities) has encouraged some people with mixed-Han and Manchu ancestry to re-identify themselves as Manchu. Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ... The Manchu language is a Tungusic language spoken by Manchus in Manchuria; it is the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... The Xibe ( Sibe; Chinese, 錫伯 XÄ«bó) are an ethnic group living mostly in northeast China and Xinjiang. ... Ili or Illi can refer to: Ili River Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ...


Much recent scholarship in ethnic identity emphasizes that ethnic categories are not static, objective category, but rather fluid, subjective ones. This applies to the notion of a Manchu ethnicity which much recent scholarship suggests was strengthened in the early 19th century to distinguish members of the Qing military elites from the peoples they ruled. [1]

Contents

Culture

Aspects of Manchu customs and traditions can be seen in local cuisines, language and customs in today's Manchuria as well as cities in that region. After the fall of the Ming Dynasty, Manchus also adopted many Han customs and traditions. For other uses, see Ming. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ...


They traditionally coiled their hair in high tufts on top of their heads and wore earrings, long gowns and embroidered shoes. The women with higher social standing wore silk and satin clothing while cotton clothing was worn by women of lower social standing. Variants of such vestments (including qi pao and ma gua, Mandarin dress) are still popular all over China. The man's clothing once consisted of a short and adjusted jacket over a long gown with a belt at the waist to facilitate horse-riding and hunting. Unlike the Han, the Manchu did not practice foot binding.[citation needed] Two women wear qipao in this 1930s Shanghai advertisement. ... Mandatin dress is a traditional Manchurian dress by the Manchu. ... Lotus Feet redirects here. ...

One of the Qianlong Emperor's Manchu First Grade Bodyguards, Baturu Zhanyinbao (1760).
One of the Qianlong Emperor's Manchu First Grade Bodyguards, Baturu Zhanyinbao (1760).

The traditional Manchu dwellings were made up of three quarters. In the center of the house was the kitchen while the wings contained the dormitory and the living room. The unique Manchu tradition did not allow people to die on nahan () to the west or north. Believing that doors were made for living souls, the Manchus allowed dead bodies to be taken out only through windows. Ground burial was the general practice. One of the Qianlong Emperors numerous Manchu bodyguards. ... One of the Qianlong Emperors numerous Manchu bodyguards. ... The Qianlong Emperor (born Hongli, September 25, 1711 – February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. ... A European sitting on the kang in his room in a Chinese inn. ...


The Manchu language is a member of the Tungusic language group, itself a member of the proposed Altaic language family. The Manchu language is a Tungusic language spoken by Manchus in Manchuria; it is the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... Tungusic languages (or Manchu-Tungus languages) are spoken in Eastern Siberia and Manchuria. ... Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families (families hereforth). ... Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ...


Origins

Ancestors of the Manchu were the peoples of the Mongolian steppes. The first ancestors of the Manchu were the Sushen, a people who lived during the second and first millennia BC. They were followed by the Yilou people, who were active from AD 202 to 220. The Wuji followed in the fifth century and the tribes of the Mohe in the sixth century. One of the tribes of the Mohe, the Heishui (Black Water) tribe, eventually became the ancestors of the Jurchens, from whom the Manchu originated.[2] Sushen (Chinese: 肅愼 su4 shen4) was an ancient ethnic group or something outside China. ... Sushen was an ancient ethnic group or people who dwelt outside China. ... The Mohe (靺鞨, Korean: Malgal, 말갈), were a Tungusic tribe in ancient Manchuria. ... The Amur River or Heilong Jiang (Russian: Амур; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , or Black Dragon River; Mongolian: , Khar Mörön or Black River; Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black River) is the worlds eighth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China. ...


The Jurchens under the Wanyan clan established the Jin Dynasty (literally Golden Dynasty) that ruled the northern half of China (1115–1234) and rivaled the Song Dynasty in southern China. The Jin were conquered by the Mongols under Genghis Khan. The Jurchens (Traditional Chinese: 女眞; Simplified Chinese: 女真; pinyin: nÇšzhÄ“n) were a Tungus people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the 17th century, when they became the Manchus. ... Jin may refer to: Jin Dynasty (265-420) Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) (Jinn) Jin, a state in China during the Spring and Autumn Period Later Jin Dynasty, founded in 1616 by Nurhaci Jin, a ruler of the Xia dynasty The Jin state of late Bronze Age Korea Jin, Chinese American... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... This article is about the person. ...


Before the seventeenth century, the ancestors of the Manchus were generally a pastoral people, hunting, fishing and engaging in limited agriculture and pig-farming. For other uses, see Pastoral (disambiguation). ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... For the computer security term, see Phishing. ... For other uses, see Pig (disambiguation). ...

Plaque at the Forbidden City in Beijing, China, in both Chinese (left) and Manchu (right).
Plaque at the Forbidden City in Beijing, China, in both Chinese (left) and Manchu (right).

Manchu-Chinese in the Forbidden City, by Andrew Lih File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Manchu-Chinese in the Forbidden City, by Andrew Lih File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Founding of the Qing Dynasty

In 1616 a Manchu leader, Nurhaci (1559-1626) broke away from the power of the decaying Ming Dynasty and established the Later Jin Dynasty (後金 Hòu Jīn) / Amaga Aisin Gurun ( ), domestically called the State of Manchu (manju gurun) ( ), and unified Manchu tribes, establishing (or at least expanding) the Manchu Banner system, a military structure which made their forces quite resilient in the face of superior Ming Dynasty numbers in the field. Nurhaci later conquered Mukden (modern-day Shenyang) and built it into the new capital in 1621. In 1636 Nurhaci's son Huang Taiji, reorganized the Manchus, including those Mongolians, Koreans and Hans who had joined them, changed the nation's name to Qing, and formally changed the name of the nationality to Manchu. Also known as Taizu Emperor, Nurhaci or Nuerhachi (Chinese: 努爾哈赤; Manchu: ) (1558-September 30, 1626; r. ... January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Image File history File links Amaga_aisin_gurun1. ... Image File history File links Manju_gurun. ... The Eight Banners (In Manchu: gūsa, In Chinese: 旗 qí) were administrative divisions into which all Manchu families were placed. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... This article is about a city. ... Huang Taiji (November 28, 1592 – September 21, 1643; reigned 1626 – 1643), also transliterated as Hung Taiji based on the Manchu language, was the first Emperor of the Qing Dynasty in China. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ...


The early significance of Manchu has not been established satisfactorily. It may have been an old term for the Jianzhou Jurchens. One theory claims that the name came from the Bodhisattva Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of Wisdom), of which Nurhaci claimed to be an incarnation. Another theory is that the Manchus, like a number of other Tungusic peoples, take their name from the common Tungusic word *mangu(n), 'a great river'. Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... Statue of Manjusri (Monju) at Senkoji in Onomichi, Japan MañjuÅ›rÄ« (Ch: 文殊 Wenshu or 文殊師利 Wenshushili; Jp: Monju; Tib: Jampelyang (Wylie jam dpal dbyangs)), also written Manjushri, is the bodhisattva of keen awareness in Buddhism. ... Tungus can mean several things: Tungus is an obsolete term for the Evenks of Russia. ...


When Beijing was captured by Li Zicheng's peasant rebels in 1644, the last Ming Emperor Chongzhen committed suicide. The Manchu then allied with Ming Dynasty general Wu Sangui and seized control of Beijing, which became the new capital of the new ruling Qing dynasty. Over the next two decades, the Manchu took command of all of China. Peking redirects here. ... Lǐ Zìchéng (李自成) (September 22, 1606 - 1644), born Li Hóngjī (鴻基), was a rebel in late Ming Dynasty China who proclaimed himself Chuǎng Wáng (闖王), or The Roaming King. Born in Mizhi District (米脂縣), Yanan Subprefecture (延安府), Shaanxi, Li grew up as a shepherd. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Wu Sangui (Chinese: 吳三桂; pinyin: Wú Sānguì; WG: Wu San-kuei) (1612 - October 2, 1678) was a Ming Chinese general who opened the gates of the Great Wall of China at Shanhai Pass to let Manchu soldiers into China proper. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ...


For political purposes, the early Manchurian emperors took wives descended from the Mongol Great Khans, so that their descendants (such as the Kangxi Emperor) would also be seen as legitimate heirs of the Mongolian Yuan dynasty. During the Qing Dynasty, the Manchu government made efforts to preserve Manchu culture and the language. These efforts were largely unsuccessful in that Manchus gradually adopted the customs and language of the surrounding Han Chinese and, by the nineteenth century, spoken Manchu was rarely used even in the Imperial court. Written Manchu, however, was still used for the keeping of records and communication between the emperor and the Banner officials until the collapse of the dynasty. The Qing dynasty also maintained a system of dual appointments in which all major imperial offices would have a Manchu and a Han Chinese member. Because of the small number of Manchus, this insured that a large fraction of them would be government officials. Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... This article needs cleanup, so as to conform to a higher standard. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Near the end of the Qing Dynasty, Manchus were portrayed as outside colonizers by Chinese nationalists such as Sun Yat-Sen, even though the Republican revolution he brought about was supported by many reform-minded Manchu officials and military officers. This portrayal quickly dissipated after the 1911 revolution as the new Republic of China now sought to include Manchus within its national identity. The May Fourth Movement in 1919 marked a turning point in the history of Chinese nationalism. ... Sun Yat-sen (Traditional Chinese: 孫中山; Pinyin: SÅ«n Zhōngshān; Simplified Chinese: 孙中山; Pinyin: SÅ«n Yìxiān) (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the Father of Modern China. ... The Xinhai Revolution (or Hsinhai Revolution, Chinese: 辛亥革命; pinyin: Xīnh ng), named for the Chinese year of Xinhai (1911), was the overthrow (October 10, 1911-February 12, 1912) of Chinas ruling Qing Dynasty and the establishment of the Republic of China. ... Zhonghua minzu (Chinese: 中華民族; Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínzú), literally Chinese ethnic group, refers to the modern notion of a Chinese nationality transcending ethnic divisions, with a central identity to China as a whole. ...


Manchukuo

In 1931, the Empire of Japan created a puppet state in Manchuria called Manchukuo. The new state was nominally ruled by Emperor Puyi. By this time the population of Manchuria was overwhelmingly Han Chinese, and though Manchukuo was intended to be a state for Manchus, the way its borders were drawn produced a state that had a majority Han population. Manchukuo was abolished at the end of World War II, with its territory incorporated back into China. Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... Puyi (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling as the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Autonomous Areas designated for Manchus

Province
(or equivalent)
prefecture-level city Name Chinese pinyin Designated minority Local name Capital
Hebei Chengde Fengning Manchu Autonomous County 豊寧滿族自治縣 (T)
丰宁满族自治县 (S)
Fēngníng Mǎnzú Zìzhìxiàn Manchu Fengning Manju Zijysiyan Daming
Kuancheng Manchu Autonomous County 寛城滿族自治縣 (T)
宽城满族自治县 (S)
Kuānchéng Mǎnzú Zìzhìxiàn Kuwanceng Manju Zijysiyan Kuancheng
Qinglong Manchu Autonomous County 青龍滿族自治縣 (T)
青龙满族自治县 (S)
Qīnglóng Mǎnzú Zìzhìxiàn Cinglung Manju Zijysiyan Qinglong
Qinhuangdao Weichang Manchu and Mongol Autonomous County 圍場滿族蒙古族自治縣 (T)
围场满族蒙古族自治县 (S)
Wéichǎng Mǎnzú Měnggǔzú Zìzhìxiàn Manchu and Mongol  ? Waichang Town
Jilin Siping Yitong Manchu Autonomous County 伊通滿族自治縣 (T)
伊通满族自治县 (S)
Yītōng Mǎnzú Zìzhìxiàn Manchu Itung Manju Zijysiyan Yitong Town
Liaoning Fushun Xinbin Manchu Autonomous County 新賓滿族自治縣 (T)
新宾满族自治县 (S)
Xīnbīn Mǎnzú Zìzhìxiàn Sinbin Manju Zijysiyan Xinbin Town
Qingyuan Manchu Autonomous County 清原滿族自治縣 (T)
清原满族自治县 (S)
Qīngyuán Mǎnzú Zìzhìxiàn Cingyuwan Manju Zijysiyan Qingyuan Town
Benxi Benxi Manchu Autonomous County 本溪滿族自治縣 (T)
本溪满族自治县 (S)
Běnxī Mǎnzú Zìzhìxiàn Xiaoshi Town
Huanren Manchu Autonomous County 桓仁滿族自治縣 (T)
桓仁满族自治县 (S)
Huánrén Mǎnzú Zìzhìxiàn Huwanren Manju Zijysiyan Huanren Town
Anshan Xiuyan Manchu Autonomous County 岫岩滿族自治縣 (T)
岫岩满族自治县 (S)
Xiùyán Mǎnzú Zìzhìxiàn  ? Xiuyan Town
Dandong Kuandian Manchu Autonomous County 寛甸滿族自治縣 (T)
宽甸满族自治县 (S)
Kuāndiàn Mǎnzú Zìzhìxiàn Kuwandiyan Manju Zijysiyan Kuandian Town

In a similar fashion to the former Soviet Unions titular nations, a number of areas associated with one or more ethnic minorities are designated as autonomous within the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... A province, in the context of China, is a translation of Sheng (Chinese: 省 ShÄ›ng), which is an administrative division of China. ... A prefecture-level city (地级市 Pinyin: dìjí shì, literally region-level city) or prefecture-level municipality is an administrative division of the Peoples Republic of China, ranking below a province and above a county in Chinas administrative structure. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... The Peoples Republic of China officially describes itself as a multinational unitary state and as such officially recognizes 56 nationalities or Mínzú (民族), within China: the Han being the majority (>92%), and the remaining 55 nationalities being the national minorities. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Putuo Zongcheng ticket to the summer resort (1984) Chengde (Chinese: ; pinyin: Chéngdé; Manchu: Erdemu be aliha fu) is a city approximately one hundred miles northeast of Beijing in northeastern Hebei province, situated near the Luan River. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Categories: China geography stubs | Cities in China ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ethnic Mongols in China (Chinese: 蒙古族) are citizens of the Peoples Republic of China who are ethnic Mongols. ... For the city, see Jilin City. ... Siping (Chinese: ; pinyin: Sìpíng), formerly Sipingjie (Chinese: ; pinyin: SìpíngjiÄ“), is a city in Jilin province in Northeast China. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liáoníng) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Location within China Fushun (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a city in Liaoning, China, about 45 km from Shenyang, with a population about 1. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Benxi (Chinese: 本溪; Hanyu Pinyin: BÄ›nxÄ«) is a prefecture-level city located in the Liaoning province of China, south-southeast of Shenyang. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Huanren Manchu autonomous county (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: Manchu : Huwanren Manju Zijysiyan Korean : 환인만족자치현) is located in Benxi of Liaoning province, It is also one of 11 Manchu autonomous counties and one of 117 autonomous counties in China. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Huanren (桓仁), Liaoning, China, a town about 80km southwest of Tonghua. ... Anshan (Chinese: ; pinyin: Ä€nshān; lit. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... statue in Dandong Dandong (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Dāndōng) is a city in the Liaoning province, China. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

See also

Han culturalist hanfu fan wearing Han Chinese clothing, on his hand is the picture of Manchukuo stamp he used to do target practice at a state shooting range in Elverson, PA. USA Sun Yat Sen (Sun Zhongshan/Sun Wen), the founder of Chinese republic who overthrew the Manchu Empire which... Any non clear-cut connection is denoted by a question mark (?) beside the equivalences. ... Kawashima Yoshiko (1907 - October 22, 1947) (川島芳子) was a Manchu princess brought up as a Japanese and executed as a Japanese spy by the Kuomintang after the Second Sino-Japanese War. ... This is a list of Manchu clans. ... The Manchu language is a Tungusic language spoken by Manchus in Manchuria; it is the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... The 9th Infantry Regiment is one of the oldest and most decorated active units in the United States Army. ... War crimes in Manchukuo are war crimes committed during the Japanese rule of Manchukuo, from 1931 to 1945. ... This article is about the fictional literature character. ... Pamela Kyle Crossley, a leading historian of modern China, is author of Orphan Warriors: Three Manchu Generations and the End of the Qing World (Princeton University Press, 1990); The Manchus (Blackwells Publishers, 1997); A Translucent Mirror: History and Identity in Qing Imperial Ideology (University of California Press, 1999). ...

Famous Manchu

Cao Xueqin (Chinese: ; pinyin: Cáo XuÄ›qín) (? 1715 - c. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Nalan Xingde (Na-lan Hsing-te) (Simplified Chinese: 纳兰性德; 1655-1685) was a Qing Dynasty poet most famous for his ci. ... A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Zhao Junzhe (born 19 April 1979 in Fushun) is a Chinese football player. ... For the Australian town, see Lang Lang, Victoria. ... Aisin-Gioro Puyi (February 7, 1906 - October 17, 1967) was the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1912, and non-ruling emperor between 1912 and 1924), the tenth (and last) emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty to rule over China. ... Lang Ping (simplified Chinese: 郎平), known as Jenny Lang Ping is one of the most famous and respected individuals in the history of volleyball. ... Lao She (老舍, Pinyin: LÇŽo ShÄ›), (February 3, 1899 – October 14, 1966) was a noted Chinese writer. ... Qigong (July 26, 1912 — June 30, 2005) (Simplified Chinese: 启功, Styled Yuanbai) was a renouned Chinese calligraphy artist and sinologist. ...

External links

  • [2]
  • Qiren.cn (Simplified Chinese)

Notes

  1. ^ Sinicization vs. Manchuness
  2. ^ Huang, P: "New Light on the origins of the Manchu.", page 239-282. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies,vol 50, no.1 1990 Retrieved from JSTOR database July 18, 2006
The following is a list of ethnic groups in China. ... The Achang (阿昌族), also known as the Ngacang (their own name) or Maingtha (Burmese name) are an ethnic group. ... Bamileke languages (ISO 639 alpha-3, bai) Bye - k thx bai Baccalaureus in Arte Ingeniaria Band Aid (band) BAI - Soviet early armoured car, predecessor of BA-6 Bai, a Chinese ethnic group, and their Bai language Banco Africano de Investimentos, in Angola BAI the official name of ferry company Brittany... The Blang village of Manpo, Xishuangbanna. ... The Bonan (also Baoan) people (保安族; pinyin: bÇŽoān zú) are an ethnic group living in Gansu and Qinghai provinces in northwestern China. ... Buyei minority Shitou village, west Guizhou The Buyei (also spelled Puyi, Bouyei and Buyi; self called: Buxqyaix, IPA: [], or Puzhong, Burao, Puman; Chinese: 布依族; Pinyin: BùyÄ«zú) are an ethnic group living in southern China. ... The Dai (or the Thai peoples of China) is the officially recognized name of an ethnic group living in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture and the Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture (both in southern Yunnan Province of China), and also in Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, and Myanmar. ... The Daur people (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; the former name Dahur is considered derogatory) are an ethnic group. ... The Deang (德昂族 : Déáng Zú) (also spelled Deang) people are an ethnic group. ... The Derung people (also spelled Drung or Dulong; own name in IPA: [tɯɹɯŋ]; Chinese: 独龙族, Pinyin: Dúlóngzú) are an ethnic group. ... Dong Minority Bridge, Chenyang, Guangxi, China. ... The Dongxiang people (autonym: Sarta or Santa (撒尔塔); Simplified Chinese: 东乡族 Traditional Chinese︰東鄉族; Pinyin: Dōngxiāngzú) are one of 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Evenks or Evenki (obsolete: Tungus or Tunguz, autonym: Эвэнки, Evenki) are a nomadic Tungusic people of Northern Asia. ... Total population 2006: 458,000 (CIP 2006) 2004: 454,600 (CIP 2004) Homelands in Taiwan Mountainous terrain running in five ranges from the northern to the southern tip of the island Narrow eastern plains Orchid Island (Lán YÇ”) Languages 14 living Formosan languages. ... The Gelao people (own name: Klau, Chinese: 仡佬族 Gēlǎozú) are an ethnic group. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ... Typical daily attire of ethnic Hani in China. ... The Nanai people (self name нани; tr. ... The Hui (回) ethnic group is unrelated to the Hui (å¾½) dialects. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The Jingpo or Kachin people (Chinese: 景颇族 Jǐngpōzú; own names: Jingpo, Tsaiva, Lechi) are an ethnic group who largely inhabit northern Myanmar (Kachin State). ... The Jino (also spelled Jinuo) people (Chinese: 基诺族 JÄ«nuòzú; own name: tÉ•yno or kino) are an ethnic group. ... Language(s) Kazakh, Russian (and/or languages in country of residence) Religion(s) Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар IPA: ; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... Lahu girls The Lahu people (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; own names: Ladhulsi or Kawzhawd; Vietnamese: La Hủ) are an ethnic group of Southeast Asia. ... Languages Lhoba, Tibetan Religions Animism Tibetan Buddhist (primarily in Tibet) An entry was temporarily removed here. ... Li (黎; pinyin Lí:李) or Hlai is a minority Chinese ethnic group. ... It has been suggested that Lisu Church be merged into this article or section. ... The Maonan (self name: Anan meaning local people) people are an ethnic group. ... The Hmong, also known as Miao (Chinese: 苗: Miáo; Vietnamese: Mẹo or Hmông; Thai: ม้ง (mong) or แม้ว (maew)), are an Asian ethnic group whose homeland is in the mountainous regions of southern China (especially Guizhou) that cross into northern Southeast Asia (northern Vietnam and Laos). ... The Monpa (Chinese: 门巴族, ménbàzú, Tibetan: མོན་པ།) are an ethnic group of Tibetan descent in the Indian territory of Arunachal Pradesh, with a population of 50,000, centered in the districts of Tawang and West Kameng. ... Ethnic Mongols in China (Chinese: 蒙古族) are citizens of the Peoples Republic of China who are ethnic Mongols. ... The Mulao (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; own name: Mulam) people are an ethnic group. ... The Nakhi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are an ethnic group inhabiting the foothills of the Himalayas in the northwestern part of Yunnan Province, as well as the southwestern part of Sichuan Province in China. ... The Nu people (Chinese: ; pinyin: Nùzú) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Oroqen people(鄂伦春族) are an ethnic group in northern China. ... The Pumi people (Chinese: 普米族 Pǔmǐzú, own name: /phʐẽmi/) are an ethnic group. ... The Qiang people (羌族; Pinyin: qiāng zú) are an ethnic group. ... The Salar people (Chinese: 撒拉族, Pinyin: Sālāzú) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The She (畲) people are an ethnic group. ... The Shui people (Chinese: ; pinyin: Shuǐzú) are an ethnic group living in the Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan areas of southwestern China. ... Tajiks in China (Chinese: 塔吉克族, Pinyin: ) are one of the 56 nationalities officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Chinese Tatars (塔塔尔族 TÇŽtÇŽÄ›rzú) form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Tibetan people are a people indigenous to Tibet and surrounding areas stretching from Central Asia in the West to Myanmar and China in the East. ... The Tu (土) people are an ethnic group. ... The Tujia (土家族) are an ethnic group numbering about 8 million, living in the Wuling Mountains of Chinas Hunan and Hubei provinces. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... The Va nationality (also spelled Wa; Chinese: 佤族 WÇŽzú; own names: Va, Ava, Parauk, i. ... The Xibe ( Sibe; Chinese, 錫伯 XÄ«bó) are an ethnic group living mostly in northeast China and Xinjiang. ... This article is about the Yao ethnic group in Asia. ... The Yi people (own name in the Liangshan dialect: ꆈꌠ, official transcription: Nuosu, IPA: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; the older name Lolo is now considered derogatory in China, though used officially in Vietnam as Lô Lô and in Thailand as Lolo) are a modern ethnic group in China, Vietnam, and Thailand. ... The Yugur people are an ethnic group. ... The Zhuang people (Traditional Chinese: 壯族, Simplified Chinese: 壮族, Hanyu Pinyin: Zhuàngzú; own name: Bouчcueŋь/Bouxcuengh) are an ethnic group of people who mostly live in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. ... Undistinguished ethnic groups in China (未识别民族: Wèi Shíbié Mínzú; sometimes translated as Undistinguished nationalities) are ethnic groups in the Peoples Republic of China that have not been officially recognised as individual ethnic groups. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Manchu alphabet and language (277 words)
The Manchu alphabet was commissioned in 1599 by the Manchu leader Nurhaci (1559-1626), the founder of the Manchu state.
By the mid 19th century many of the Manchus had adopted Chinese as their first language, however they continued to produce Manchu version of Chinese documents until the end of the dynasty and for sometime afterwards.
Manchu is written in vertical columns running from top to bottom and from left to right.
Fu Manchu, Free Books, and the Online Book Fairy (669 words)
FSB Associates asked me to contribute a blog post to their Love of Reading Book Fair so I thought I'd write a little bit about how I came to write book reviews for About.com because these are two of my favorite topics - books and me.
Rivaling the Frank and Joe Hardy mysteries for my attention were the endless paperbacks from the Fu Manchu series by Sax Rohmer.
With names like The Bride of Fu Manchu, The Hand of Fu Manchu, and The Insidious Dr. Fu Manchu, these early 20th century mysteries followed the actions of a sinister Chinese villain, "the yellow peril incarnate in one man," whose sole purpose, it seemed, was the demise of Western civilization.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m