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Encyclopedia > Management
Look up Management in
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Management comprises directing and controlling a group of one or more people or entities for the purpose of coordinating and harmonizing them towards accomplishing a goal. Management often encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources. Management can also refer to the person or people who perform the act(s) of management. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... This article is about human resources as it applies to business, labor, and economies. ... FINANCIAL is the weekly English-language newspaper with offices in Tbilisi, Georgia and Kiev, Ukraine. ... Technology (Gr. ...


The verb manage comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle — especially a horse), which in turn derives from the Latin manus (hand). The French word mesnagement (later ménagement) influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18th centuries.[1] For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Management functions

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Different levels of management

Top-level management

  • Top-level managers require an extensive knowledge of management roles and skills.
  • They have to be very aware of external factors such as markets.
  • Their decisions are generally of a long-term nature.
  • They are responsible for strategic decisions.
  • They have to chalk out the plan and see that plan may be effective in future.

Middle management

  • Mid-level managers have a specialised understanding of certain managerial tasks.
  • They are responsible for and carrying out the decisions made by top-level management.
  • They are responsible for tactical decisions.

Lower management

  • This level of management ensures that the decisions and plans taken by the other two are carried out.
  • Lower-level managers' decisions are generally short-term ones.

Formation of the business policy

  • The mission of the business is its most obvious purpose -- which may be, for example, to make soap.
  • The objective of the business refers to the ends or activity at which a certain task is aimed.
  • The business's policy is a guide that stipulates rules, regulations and objectives, and may be used in the managers' decision-making. It must be flexible and easily interpreted and understood by all employees.
  • The business's strategy refers to the plan of action that it is going to take, as well as the resources that it will be using, to achieve its mission and objectives. It is a guideline to managers, stipulating how they ought to use best the factors of production to the business's advantage. Initially, it could help the managers decide on what type of business they want to form.

How to implement policies and strategies

  • All policies and strategies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff.
  • Managers must understand where and how they can implement their policies and strategies.
  • A plan of action must be devised for each department.
  • Policies and strategies must be reviewed regularly.
  • Contingency plans must be devised in case the environment changes.
  • Assessments of progress ought to be carried out regularly by top-level managers.
  • A good environment is required within the business.

The development of policies and strategies

  • The missions, objectives, strengths and weaknesses of each department must be analysed to determine their roles in achieving the business's mission.
  • The forecasting method develops a reliable picture of the business's future environment.
  • A planning unit must be created to ensure that all plans are consistent and that policies and strategies are aimed at achieving the same mission and objectives.
  • Contingency plans must be developed, just in case.

All policies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff that is required in the execution of any departmental policy.


Where policies and strategies fit into the planning process

  • They give mid- and lower-level managers a good idea of the future plans for each department.
  • A framework is created whereby plans and decisions are made.
  • Mid- and lower-level management may add their own plans to the business's strategic ones.

Basic functions of management

Management operates through various functions, often classified as planning, organizing, leading/motivating and controlling.

  • Planning: deciding what needs to happen in the future (today, next week, next month, next year, over the next five years, etc.) and generating plans for action.
  • Organizing: making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans.
  • Leading/Motivating: exhibiting skills in these areas for getting others to play an effective part in achieving plans.
  • Controlling: monitoring -- checking progress against plans, which may need modification based on feedback.

For other meanings of this term, see plan (disambiguation) Informal or ad-hoc plans are created by individual humans in all of their pursuits. ...

Theoretical scope

Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933), who wrote on the topic in the early twentieth century, defined management as "the art of getting things done through people". [2] One can also think of management functionally, as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan; or as the actions taken to reach one's intended goal. This applies even in situations where planning does not take place. From this perspective, Frenchman Henri Fayol [3] considers management to consist of five functions: Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933) was a social worker, consultant, and author of books on democracy, human relations, and management. ... For other meanings of this term, see plan (disambiguation) Informal or ad-hoc plans are created by individual humans in all of their pursuits. ... Henri Fayol (born 1841 in Istanbul; died 1925 in Paris) was a French management theorist. ...

  1. planning
  2. organizing
  3. leading
  4. co-ordinating
  5. controlling

Some people, however, find this definition, while useful, far too narrow. The phrase "management is what managers do" occurs widely, suggesting the difficulty of defining management, the shifting nature of definitions, and the connection of managerial practices with the existence of a managerial cadre or class. For planning in AI, see automated planning and scheduling. ... For other uses, see Organising model and Union organizer. ... Leader redirects here. ... now. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Look up cadre in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ...


One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to "business administration", although this then excludes management in places outside commerce, as for example in charities and in the public sector. Nonetheless, many people refer to university departments which teach management as "business schools." Some institutions (such as the Harvard Business School) use that name while others (such as the Yale School of Management) employ the more inclusive term "management." This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about charitable organizations. ... < [[[[math>Insert formula here</math>The public sector is that part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the [[government </math></math></math></math> Direct administration funded through taxation; the delivering organisation generally has no specific requirement to meet commercial... A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in Business Administration. ... Harvard Business School, officially named the Harvard Business School: George F. Baker Foundation, and also known as HBS, is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ... The Yale School of Management (also known as Yale SOM) is the graduate business school of Yale University and is located on Hillhouse Avenue in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Yale SOM offers M.B.A. and Ph. ...


Speakers of English may also use the term "management" or "the management" as a collective word describing the managers of an organization, for example of a corporation. Historically this use of the term was often contrasted with the term "Labor" referring to those being managed. For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ...


Historical development

Difficulties arise in tracing the history of management. Some see it (by definition) as a late modern (in the sense of late modernity) conceptualization. On those terms it cannot have a pre-modern history, only harbingers (such as stewards). Others, however, detect management-like activities in the pre-modern past. Some writers[Who?] trace the development of management-thought back to Sumerian traders and to the builders of the pyramids of ancient Egypt. Slave-owners through the centuries faced the problems of exploiting/motivating a dependent but sometimes unenthusiastic or recalcitrant workforce, but many pre-industrial enterprises, given their small scale, did not feel compelled to face the issues of management systematically. However, innovations such as the spread of Hindu-Arabic numerals (5th to 15th centuries) and the codification of double-entry book-keeping (1494) provided tools for management assessment, planning and control. Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being related to modernism. ... The terms steward or stewardess can refer to a number of different professional roles. ... Sumeria may refer to: A back-formation from the adjective Sumerian, often used to mean the ancient civilisation more properly known as Sumer Sumeria, a disco artist best known for the 1978 hit Golden Tears 1970 Sumeria, an asteroid discovered in 1954 by Miguel Itzigsohn Donna Sumeria, a song on... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... For other uses, see Arabic numerals (disambiguation). ... In accountancy, the double-entry bookkeeping (or double-entry accounting) system is the basis of the standard system used by businesses and other organizations to record financial transactions. ...


Given the scale of most commercial operations and the lack of mechanized record-keeping and recording before the industrial revolution, it made sense for most owners of enterprises in those times to carry out management functions by and for themselves. But with growing size and complexity of organizations, the split between owners (individuals, industrial dynasties or groups of shareholders) and day-to-day managers (independent specialists in planning and control) gradually became more common. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A shareholder or stockholder is an individual or company (including a corporation) that legally owns one or more shares of stock in a joint stock company. ...


19th century

Some argue[citation needed] that modern management as a discipline began as an off-shoot of economics in the 19th century. Classical economists such as Adam Smith (1723 - 1790) and John Stuart Mill (1806 - 1873) provided a theoretical background to resource-allocation, production, and pricing issues. About the same time, innovators like Eli Whitney (1765 - 1825), James Watt (1736 - 1819), and Matthew Boulton (1728 - 1809) developed elements of technical production such as standardization, quality-control procedures, cost-accounting, interchangeability of parts, and work-planning. Many of these aspects of management existed in the pre-1861 slave-based sector of the US economy. That environment saw 4 million people, as the contemporary usages had it, "managed" in profitable quasi-mass production. Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... In strategic planning, a resource-allocation decision is a plan for using available resources, for example human resources, especially in the near term, to achieve goals for the future. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Eli Whitney Eli Whitney (b. ... For other persons named James Watt, see James Watt (disambiguation). ... Matthew Boulton. ... “Standard” redirects here. ... For the Jurassic 5 album, see Quality Control (album) In engineering and manufacturing, quality control and quality engineering are involved in developing systems to ensure products or services are designed and produced to meet or exceed customer requirements. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other meanings of this term, see plan (disambiguation) Informal or ad-hoc plans are created by individual humans in all of their pursuits. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ...


By the late 19th century, marginal economists Alfred Marshall (1842 - 1924) and Léon Walras (1834 - 1910) and others introduced a new layer of complexity to the theoretical underpinnings of management. Joseph Wharton offered the first tertiary-level course in management in 1881. The marginal theory of value asserts that the economic value of an object or service is set by the consumers marginal utility. ... Alfred Marshall Alfred Marshall (July 26, 1842–July 13, 1924), born in Bermondsey, London, England, became one of the most influential economists of his time. ... Marie-Ésprit-Léon Walras (December 16, 1834 in Évreux, France - January 5, 1910 in Clarens, near Montreux, Switzerland) was a French economist, considered by Joseph Schumpeter as the greatest of all economists. He was a mathematical economist associated with the creation of the general equilibrium theory. ... Joseph Wharton ( March 3, 1826 – January 11, 1909) founded the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania, and co-founded the Bethlehem Steel company. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


20th century

By about 1900 one finds managers trying to place their theories on what they regarded as a thoroughly scientific basis (see scientism for perceived limitations of this belief). Examples include Henry R. Towne's Science of management in the 1890s, Frederick Winslow Taylor's Scientific management (1911), Frank and Lillian Gilbreth's Applied motion study (1917), and Henry L. Gantt's charts (1910s). J. Duncan wrote the first college management textbook in 1911. In 1912 Yoichi Ueno introduced Taylorism to Japan and became first management consultant of the "Japanese-management style". His son Ichiro Ueno pioneered Japanese quality-assurance. Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Scientism is a term mainly used as a pejorative[1][2][3] to accuse someone of holding that science has primacy over all other interpretations of life such as religious, mythical, spiritual, or humanistic explanations. ... Henry Robinson Towne was an American mechanical engineer and businessman. ... Frederick Winslow Taylor Frederick Winslow Taylor (March 20, 1856 to March 21, 1915) was an American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. ... Scientific management, also called Taylorism or the Classical Perspective, is a method in management theory that determines changes to improve labour productivity. ... Frank Bunker Gilbreth (July 7, 1868-June 14, 1924), born in Fairfield, Maine, was a proponent of Taylorism and a pioneer of time-motion studies. ... Lillian Moller Gilbreth (1878-1972) in 1921 Lillian Moller Gilbreth, BA MA Ph. ... Henry Laurence Gantt (1861-1919) was a mechanical engineer and management consultant who is most famous for developing the Gantt chart in the 1910s. ... College (Latin collegium) is a term most often used today to denote an educational institution. ... Three textbooks. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Yoichi Ueno (1883-1957), founder of SANNO, a scholar in the fields of management science and industrial psychology. ... Taylorism or Scientific management is the name of the approach to management and Industrial/Organizational Psychology initiated by Frederick Winslow Taylor in his 1911 monograph The Principles of Scientific Management. ... Management consulting is the process of helping companies to improve or transform themselves. ... For the Talib Kweli album Quality (album) Quality can refer to a. ...



The first comprehensive theories of management appeared around 1920. The Harvard Business School invented the Master of Business Administration degree (MBA) in 1921. People like Henri Fayol (1841 - 1925) and Alexander Church described the various branches of management and their inter-relationships. In the early 20th century, people like Ordway Tead (1891 - 1973), Walter Scott and J. Mooney applied the principles of psychology to management, while other writers, such as Elton Mayo (1880 - 1949), Mary Parker Follett (1868 - 1933), Chester Barnard (1886 - 1961), Max Weber (1864 - 1920), Rensis Likert (1903 - 1981), and Chris Argyris (1923 - ) approached the phenomenon of management from a sociological perspective. Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Harvard Business School, officially named the Harvard Business School: George F. Baker Foundation, and also known as HBS, is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ... MBA redirects here. ... Henri Fayol (born 1841 in Istanbul; died 1925 in Paris) was a French management theorist. ... Alexander Hamilton Church ( ? - ? ) was an English efficiency engineer and author. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901&#8211;2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900&#8211;1999... Raeburns portrait of Sir Walter Scott in 1822. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... George Elton Mayo (born Adelaide, December 26, 1880; died September 7, 1949) was a psychologist and sociologist. ... Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933) worked as a management and political theorist, introducing such phrases as conflict resolution, authority and power, and the task of leadership. Mary Parker Follet made important contributions to the field of human resource management. ... Chester Irving Barnard (1886&#8211;1961) was a telecommunications executive and author of Functions of the Executive, an influential 20th century management book, in which Barnard presented a theory of organization and the functions of executives in organizations. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... American educator and organizational psychologist Rensis Likert is best known for his research on management styles. ... Chris Argyris (born July 16, 1923) is more commonly known for seminal work in the area of Learning Organizations which was later developed in the best selling The Fifth Discipline by Peter M. Senge. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous...



Peter Drucker (1909 – 2005) wrote one of the earliest books on applied management: Concept of the Corporation (published in 1946). It resulted from Alfred Sloan (chairman of General Motors until 1956) commissioning a study of the organisation. Drucker went on to write 39 books, many in the same vein. Peter Ferdinand Drucker (November 19, 1909–November 11, 2005) was a writer, management consultant and university professor. ... Alfred Pritchard Sloan, Jr. ... General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...



H. Dodge, Ronald Fisher (1890 - 1962), and Thornton C. Fry introduced statistical techniques into management-studies. In the 1940s, Patrick Blackett combined these statistical theories with microeconomic theory and gave birth to the science of operations research. Operations research, sometimes known as "management science" (but distinct from Taylor's scientific management), attempts to take a scientific approach to solving management problems, particularly in the areas of logistics and operations. Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, FRS (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962) was an English statistician, evolutionary biologist, and geneticist. ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett, Baron Blackett (November 18, 1897&#8212;July 13, 1974) was a British experimental physicist known for his work on cloud chambers, cosmic rays, and paleomagnetism. ... Microeconomics (or price theory) is a branch of economics that studies how individuals, households, and firms make decisions to allocate limited resources,[1] typically in markets where goods or services are being bought and sold. ... The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Operations Research or Operational Research (OR) is an interdisciplinary branch of mathematics which uses methods like mathematical modeling, statistics, and algorithms to arrive at optimal or good decisions in complex problems which are concerned with optimizing the maxima (profit, faster assembly line, greater crop yield, higher bandwidth, etc) or minima... Scientific management, also called Taylorism or the Classical Perspective, is a method in management theory that determines changes to improve labour productivity. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...



Some of the more recent developments include the Theory of Constraints, management by objectives, reengineering, and various information-technology-driven theories such as agile software development, as well as group management theories such as Cog's Ladder. 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Theory of Constraints (TOC) is an overall management philosophy that aims to continually achieve more of the goal of a system. ... Management by Objectives (MBO) is a process of agreeing upon objectives within an organization so that management and employees buy in to the objectives and understand what they are. ... This article is about reengineering business processes. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... Agile software development is a conceptual framework for software engineering that promotes development iterations throughout the life-cycle of the project. ... Cogs Ladder of group development is based on the work, Cogs Ladder: A Model of Group Growth, by George O. Charrier, an employee of Procter and Gamble, published in a company newsletter in 1972. ...



As the general recognition of managers as a class solidified during the 20th century and gave perceived practitioners of the art/science of management a certain amount of prestige, so the way opened for popularised systems of management ideas to peddle their wares. In this context many management fads may have had more to do with pop psychology than with scientific theories of management. A business philosophy or popular management theory is any of a range of accounting, marketing, public relations, operations, training, labor relations, time manent, investment, and corporate governance approaches claimed (by their proponents, and sometimes only by their proponents and selected clients) to improve business performance in some measurable or otherwise... A management fad is a derisive term use to characterize a change in philosophy or operations that sweeps through businesses and institutions, and then disappears when enthusiasm for it wanes. ... Popular psychology refers to concepts and theories about human mental life and behaviour that come from outside the technical study of psychology, but purport to go beyond everyday knowledge. ...



Towards the end of the 20th century, business management came to consist of six separate branches, namely:

This article is about human resources as it applies to business, labor, and economies. ... Operations management is an area of business that is concerned with the production of goods and services, and involves the responsibility of ensuring that business operations are efficient and effective. ... Strategic management is the art and science of formulating, implementing and evaluating cross-functional decisions that will enable an organization to achieve its objectives[1]. It is the process of specifying the organizations objectives, developing policies and plans to achieve these objectives, and allocating resources to implement the policies... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Marketing management is a business discipline focused on the practical application of marketing techniques and the management of a firms marketing resources and activities. ... Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses, and organizations raise, allocate, and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ... Information technology management (or IT management) is a combination of two branches of study, information technology and management. ... Management Information Systems (MIS), are information systems, typically computer based, that are used within an organization. ...

21st century

In the 21st century observers find it increasingly difficult to subdivide management into functional categories in this way. More and more processes simultaneously involve several categories. Instead, one tends to think in terms of the various processes, tasks, and objects subject to management. 20XX redirects here. ...


Branches of management theory also exist relating to nonprofits and to government: such as public administration, public management, and educational management. Further, management programs related to civil-society organizations have also spawned programs in nonprofit management and social entrepreneurship. A non-profit organization (abbreviated NPO, or non-profit or not-for-profit) is an organization whose primary objective is to support an issue or matter of private interest or public concern for non-commercial purposes, without concern for monetary profit. ... Public Administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of government policy. ... Public administration includes many routine concerns that are only distinct from private management in the goals advanced, the types of infrastructure used, and the scale. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ... Social entrepreneurship is the work of a social entrepreneur. ...


Note that many of the assumptions made by management have come under attack from business ethics viewpoints, critical management studies, and anti-corporate activism. Business ethics is a form of the art of applied ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business environment. ... Critical management studies (CMS) is a loose but rapidly growing grouping of politically left wing and theoretically innovative approaches to management, business and organisation. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Anti-corporate activists (see activism) believe that the rise of large business corporations is posing a threat to the legitimate authority of the public good. ...


As one consequence, workplace democracy has become both more common, and more advocated, in some places distributing all management functions among the workers, each of whom takes on a portion of the work. However, these models predate any current political issue, and may occur more naturally than does a command hierarchy. All management to some degree embraces democratic principles in that in the long term workers must give majority support to management; otherwise they leave to find other work, or go on strike. Hence management has started to become less based on the conceptualisation of classical military command-and-control, and more about facilitation and support of collaborative activity, utilizing principles such as those of human interaction management to deal with the complexities of human interaction. Indeed, the concept of Ubiquitous command-and-control posits such a transformation for 21st century military management. Workplace democracy is the application of democracy in all its forms (including voting systems, debates, democratic structuring, due process, adversarial process, systems of appeal, and so on) to the workplace. ... A command hierarchy is a group of people committed to carrying out orders from the top, that is, of authority. ... In organizational development (OD) and consensus decision-making, facilitation refers to the process of designing and running a successful meeting. ... Human Interaction Management is a name for the process used to support and monitor tasks while also permitting ongoing process development. ...


Nature of managerial work

In for-profit work, management has as its primary function the satisfaction of a range of stakeholders. This typically involves making a profit (for the shareholders), creating valued products at a reasonable cost (for customers), and providing rewarding employment opportunities (for employees). In nonprofit management, add the importance of keeping the faith of donors. In most models of management/governance, shareholders vote for the board of directors, and the board then hires senior management. Some organizations have experimented with other methods (such as employee-voting models) of selecting or reviewing managers; but this occurs only very rarely. Chairman of the Board redirects here. ...


In the public sector of countries constituted as representative democracies, voters elect politicians to public office. Such politicians hire many managers and administrators, and in some countries like the United States political appointees lose their jobs on the election of a new president/governor/mayor. Some 2500 people serve at the pleasure of the United States Chief Executive, including all of the top US government executives. < [[[[math>Insert formula here</math>The public sector is that part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the [[government </math></math></math></math> Direct administration funded through taxation; the delivering organisation generally has no specific requirement to meet commercial... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ...


Public, private, and voluntary sectors place different demands on managers, but all must retain the faith of those who select them (if they wish to retain their jobs), retain the faith of those people that fund the organization, and retain the faith of those who work for the organization. If they fail to convince employees of the advantages of staying rather than leaving, they may tip the organization into a downward spiral of hiring, training, firing, and recruiting. Management also has the task of innovating and of improving the functioning of organizations.

Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ...

Managerial levels/hierarchy

The management of a large organisation may have three levels:

  1. Senior management (or "top management" or "upper management")
  2. Middle management
  3. Low-level management, such as supervisors or team-leaders

Senior management is generally a team of individuals at the highest level of organizational management who have the day-to-day responsibilities of managing a corporation. ... Middle management is a layer of management in an organization whose primary job responsibility is to monitor activities of subordinates and to generate reports for upper management. ... This article is about the Atlas Supervisor computer program. ... Team - Leader Someone (or in certain cases there may be multiple team leaders) who provides guidance, instruction, direction, leadership to a group of other individuals for the purpose of achieving a key result or group of aligned results. ...

Areas and categories and implementations of management

Accounting (Administration) management: Accounting is often referred to as billing management. ... Agile Management takes the ideas from Agile Software Development and applies them to management in general. ... There are more than 25,000 national associations and 65,000 local, state or regional associations in the United States. ... Capability is the quality of being capable; to have the capacity or ability to do something, achieve specific effects or declared goals and objectives. ... Change management is a structured approach to change in individuals, teams, organizations and societies that enables the transition from a current state to a desired future state. ... Communication management is the systematic planning, implementing, monitoring, and revision of all the channels of communication within an organization and between organizations. ... Theory of constraints (TOC) is a body of knowledge on the effective management of (mainly business) organizations, as systems. ... Cost management is the process whereby companies use cost accounting to report or control the various costs of doing business. ... Crisis management is the systematic attempt to avoid organizational crises or to manage those crises events that do occur (Pearson & Clair, 1998). ... Critical management studies (CMS) is a loose but rapidly growing grouping of politically left wing and theoretically innovative approaches to management, business and organisation. ... Customer relationship management (CRM) is a broad term that covers concepts used by companies to manage their relationships with customers, including the capture, storage and analysis of customer, vendor, partner, and internal process information. ... Design management refers to an approach whereby organizations make design-relevant decisions in a market and customer-oriented way as well as optimizing design-relevant (enterprise-)processes. ... Disaster management means a continuous and integrated multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary process of planning and implementation of measures aimed at prevention and mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery in relation to natural and man-made disasters. ... Earned Value Management (commonly abbreviated and referred to just as EVM) is a project management technique that seeks to measure forward progress in an objective manner. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Peter Senge defined a learning organization as human beings cooperating in dynamical systems (as defined in systemics) that are in a state of continuous adaptation and improvement. ... Started at Winter Semester 1999/00, the main aim is to create a medium(see Fachhochschule Lübeck) for the next generation in Lübeck City to understand and explore the Environmental awareness in Environmental Protection and Environmental Management, and also to provide a strong education background and constructive knowledge... In business, facility management is the management of buildings and services. ... Corporate finance is the specific area of finance dealing with the financial decisions corporations make, and the tools and analysis used to make the decisions. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Information technology management (or IT management) is a combination of two branches of study, information technology and management. ... Interim Management Definition: The temporary provision of additional management resources and skills History of Interim Management: It first started during the 1970s in the Netherlands, where permanent employees were protected by long notice periods and Companies faced large costs if making managers redundant. ... In business management, inventory consists of a list of goods and materials held available in stock. ... Knowledge Management (KM) comprises a range of practices used by organisations to identify, create, represent, and distribute knowledge. ... Land management can be defined as the process of managing the use and development of land resources in a sustainable way. ... This article is about leadership management. ... == Logistics management is all about trade and commerce. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Marketing management is a business discipline focused on the practical application of marketing techniques and the management of a firms marketing resources and activities. ... Materials management is the branch of logistics that deals with the tangible components of a supply chain. ... Operations management is an area of business that is concerned with the production of goods and services, and involves the responsibility of ensuring that business operations are efficient and effective. ... Organization development is the process through which an organization develops the internal capacity to be the most effective it can be in its mission work and to sustain itself over the long term. ... Perception management is a term originated by the U. S. military. ... Program management is the process of managing multiple ongoing inter-dependent projects. ... Project Management is the discipline of organizing and managing resources (e. ... Process management is the ensemble of activities of planning and monitoring the performance of a process, especially in the sense of business process, often confused with reengineering. ... Performance management may mean: Performance measurement is the process of assessing progress toward achieving predetermined goals, while performance management is building on that process adding the relevant communication and action on the progress achieved against these predetermined goals (Bourne, M.,Franco, M. and Wilkes, J. (2003). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Public Administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of government policy. ... Public administration includes many routine concerns that are only distinct from private management in the goals advanced, the types of infrastructure used, and the scale. ... Quality management is a method for ensuring that all the activities necessary to design, develop and implement a product or service are effective and efficient with respect to the system and its performance. ... Records Management is the practice of identifying, classifying, archiving, preserving, and destroying records. ... This article is confusing for some readers, and needs to be edited for clarity. ... For non-business risks, see risk or the disambiguation page risk analysis. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Social entrepreneurship is the work of a social entrepreneur. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Strategic management is the art and science of formulating, implementing and evaluating cross-functional decisions that will enable an organization to achieve its objectives[1]. It is the process of specifying the organizations objectives, developing policies and plans to achieve these objectives, and allocating resources to implement the policies... A cluttered environment with too many tasks can lead to stress. ... Supply chain management (SCM) is the process of planning, implementing, and controlling the operations of the supply chain as efficiently as possible. ... Systems management refers to enterprise-wide administration of distributed computer systems. ... A talent manager, also known as a personal manager, is one who guides the career of artists in the entertainment business. ... Time management is straightforwardly defined as the management of time in order to make the most out of it. ...

References

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  2. ^ Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People by Richard Barrett - Business & Economics - 2003. - Page 51.
  3. ^ Administration industrielle et générale - prévoyance organisation - commandement, coordination – contrôle, Paris : Dunod, 1966

The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of...

See also

Adhocracy is a type of organization being an opposite of bureaucracy. ... This article is about business administration. ... The Certified Business Manager (CBM) is a professional credential created and administered by the Association of Professionals in Business Management (APBM). ... Collaboration is a process defined by the recursive interaction of knowledge[1] and mutual learning between two or more people working together[2] toward a common goal typically creative in nature. ... Collaborative methodologies are processes, behaviors and conversations that relate to collaboration between individuals. ... Corporate governance is the set of processes, customs, policies, laws and institutions affecting the way in which a corporation is directed, administered or controlled. ... Design management refers to an approach whereby organizations make design-relevant decisions in a market and customer-oriented way as well as optimizing design-relevant (enterprise-)processes. ... Engineering management is a field that bridges the gap between engineering and management. ... Evidence-based management is an emerging movement to explicitly use the current, best evidence in management decision-making. ... Future studies reflects on how today’s changes (or the lack thereof) become tomorrow’s reality. ... Knowledge Visualization is a sub discipline of Information Design and Instructional Message Design (pedagogy; didactics, pedagogical psychology). ... Leader redirects here. ... Management consultant redirects here. ... Control in one of the managerial functions like planning, organising, staffing and directing. ... Management Development is best described as the process from which managers learn and improve their skills not only to benefit themselves but also their employing organisations. ... A management fad is a derisive term use to characterize a change in philosophy or operations that sweeps through businesses and institutions, and then disappears when enthusiasm for it wanes. ... Various management styles can be employed dependent on the culture of the business, the nature of the task, the nature of the workforce and the personality and skills of the leaders. ... In the field of administration, observers can characterise as managerialism those systems where they perceive a preponderance or excess of managerial techniques, solutions and personnel. ... In business management, micromanagement is a management style where a manager closely observes or controls the work of their employees, generally used as a pejorative term. ... The term macromanagement (in this context, often abbreviated to simply macro) is used in strategy computer games to describe a facet of gameplay. ... Middle management is a layer of management in an organization whose primary job responsibility is to monitor activities of subordinates and to generate reports for upper management. ... Music management refers to the business of managing music acts. ... Organizational studies, organizational behaviour, and organizational theory are related terms for the academic study of organizations, examining them using the methods of economics, sociology, political science, anthropology, and psychology. ... Predictive analytics encompasses a variety of techniques from statistics and data mining that process current and historical data in order to make “predictions” about future events. ... Public Administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of government policy. ... Scientific management, also called Taylorism or the Classical Perspective, is a method in management theory that determines changes to improve labour productivity. ... Senior management is generally a team of individuals at the highest level of organizational management who have the day-to-day responsibilities of managing a corporation. ... Social entrepreneurship is the work of a social entrepreneur. ... Virtual management seeks to separate certain responsibilities of managers from the actual site of production, the workers and resources at that site. ... Peter Ferdinand Drucker (November 19, 1909–November 11, 2005) was a writer, management consultant and university professor. ... Management by Objectives (MBO) is a process of agreeing upon objectives within an organization so that management and employees buy in to the objectives and understand what they are. ... Eliyahu M. Goldratt (1948 - ) is an Israel-born physicist turned business consultant, the originator of the theory of constraints (abbreviation: TOC). ... Theory of Constraints (TOC) is an overall management philosophy that aims to continually achieve more of the goal of a system. ... The original Pointy-Haired Boss is the fictional manager in the Dilbert comic strip. ... Management is the art of getting things done through people. ... This is a list of articles on general management and strategic management topics. ... This is a list of over 200 articles on marketing topics. ... Organizational studies - an overview Organizational development Management development Mentoring Coaching Job rotation Professional development Upward feedback Executive education Supervisory training leadership development leadership talent identification and management individual development planning 360 degree feedback succession planning Skills management performance improvement process improvement job enrichment Training & Development managing change and also change... This aims to be a complete list of the articles on economics. ... Topics in finance include: // Finance an overview Arbitrage Capital (economics) Capital asset pricing model Cash flow Cash flow matching Debt Default Consumer debt Debt consolidation Debt settlement Credit counseling Bankruptcy Debt diet Debt-snowball method Discounted cash flow Financial capital Funding Financial modeling Entrepreneur Entrepreneurship Fixed income analysis Gap financing... Following is a list of accounting topics. ... Management information systems an overview E-business Intranet strategies Database management system Data warehousing Data mining Document warehousing Customer relationship management (CRM) Sales force management system Enterprise resource planning (ERP) Human Resource Management Systems (HRMS) Business performance management Project management software Integration management Middleware Groupware and collaborative systems RSA Computer... Manufacturing and manufacturing systems manufacturing factory Craft system English system of manufacturing American system of manufacturing Mass production Batch production Just in time manufacturing Toyota Production System Lean manufacturing Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) Mass customization Theories of production Taylorism Fordism Theory of constraints Productivity Productivity benchmarking cost accounting experience curve... This is a list of business law topics within the field of commercial law. ... See business ethics, political economy and Philosophy of business for an overview. ... This is an annotated list of important business theorists. ... This is an alphabetical list of notable economists, that is, experts in the social science of economics. ... List of corporate leaders: Joe Ackermann - Deutsche Bank William Maxwell Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook- newspaper magnate Arthur Andersen - Arthur Andersen Kunitake Ando - Sony John Jacob Astor - Fur trading and real estate Nitchell Baker - Mozilla Corporation Percy Barnevik - Investor Bernard Baruch - Financier, Investor, Presidential advisor Andy Bechtolsheim - Sun Microsystems Silvio Berlusconi... This is anotated timeline for issues chronologically related or influenced management Contents: Top - 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Ancient Sumerian traders ancient Egyptian pyramid builders Slave-owners...

External links

  • Association of Professionals in Business Management (APBM)
  • Management Courses at MIT Sloan, OpenCourseWare
  • Research on Organizations: Bibliography Database and Maps
  • (United States) Academy of Management: dedicated to the scholarship and practice of management
  • Institute of Certified Professional Managers

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