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Encyclopedia > Mana

Mana is a traditional term that refers to a concept among the speakers of Oceanic languages, including Melanesians, Polynesians, and Micronesians. It is an impersonal force or quality that resides in people, animals, and inanimate objects and that instills in the appreciative observer a sense of respect or wonder. In anthropological discourse, mana as a generalized concept has attained a significant amount of interest; often understood as a precursor to formal religion. It has commonly been interpreted as "the stuff of which magic is formed", as well as the substance of which souls are made. The Oceanic languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, containing approximately 450 languages. ... Map showing Melanesia. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... Anthropology is the study of the physical and social characteristics of humanity through the examination of historical and present geographical distribution, cultural history, acculturation, and cultural relationships. ... A belief in magic as a means of influencing the world seems to have been common in all cultures. ...


Modern fantasy fiction, computer and role-playing games, have adopted mana as a term for magic points—an expendable resource out of which magic users form their magical spells. Smaug in his lair: an illustration for the fantasy The Hobbit Fantasy is a genre of art that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, or setting. ... Magic points or mana points (MP) are units of magical power (mana) that are used in many role-playing, computer role-playing and similar games as an expendable resource that is needed to pay for magic spells. ... Magic: The Gathering. ...


Mana should not be confused with the Biblical manna (also spelled mana or mannah) which, according to the Bible (Exodus, chapter 16), provided sustenance for the Israelites. For other uses, see Mana (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Pharaoh of the Exodus be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

Mana in Oceanic culture

The concept is important in Polynesian religion and its modern use is a result of the popularization of the concept by anthropology and, to a great extent, by certain varieties of fantasy fiction (see Mana in fantasy, below). In Polynesian culture (for example, Hawaiian and Māori) mana is most similar to the English concept of respect; sharing elements of respect, authority, power and prestige; however, it shares aspects of responsibility, balance and purity as well. The word’s meaning is complex because mana is a basic and important foundation to the Hawaiian concept of spirituality, religion, society and the whole of reality. Polynesia (meaning many islands in Greek) is a triangular grouping of Central and South Pacific Ocean island archipelagos settled by seafaring voyagers from the original heartland in Tonga and Samoa. ... Anthropology is the study of the physical and social characteristics of humanity through the examination of historical and present geographical distribution, cultural history, acculturation, and cultural relationships. ... Polynesian culture refers to the aboriginal culture of the Polynesian-speaking peoples of Polynesia and the Polynesian outliers. ... In April of 1990, Daniel K. Akaka became the first native Hawaiian and Chinese American to serve in the United States Congress as a Senator from the State of Hawaii. ... Languages Māori, English Religions Māori religion, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Polynesian peoples, Austronesian peoples The word Māori refers to the indigenous people of New Zealand and their language. ... This page is about the attitude of acknowledgement, for other uses please see, Respect (disambiguation). ... Authority- is a very talented rocknroll band out of Columbia, S.C. This power rock trio has its roots in rock, funk, hardcore, and a dash of hip hop. ... Look up Power in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Prestige means good reputation or high esteem. ... The word responsibility means the obligation to answer for actions. ... For other meanings of the word balance, see: propaganda equilibrium (disambiguation page) sense of balance weighing scale analytical balance (a precise weighing scale) balance beam in gymnastics Balance (song) homeostasis, the biological balance within a human or other animals body When the weights on the plates of this balance... ...


To have mana is to have influence and authority. This property and essence-quality of mana is not limited to persons—peoples, governments, places and inanimate objects can possess mana. In Hawaiian, mana loa means great power or almighty though akua would more commonly be used to refer to God. The Hawaiian language is an Austronesian language that takes its name from that of the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


Mana in Melanesian culture

Melanesian mana is thought to be a sacred impersonal force existing in the universe. Mana can be in people, animals, plants and objects. Similar to the idea of efficacy, or sometimes better known as luck, the Melanesians thought all success was traced back to mana. One could acquire or manipulate this luck in different ways (for example through magic). Certain objects that have mana can change a person’s luck.


Examples of such objects would be charms or amulets. For instance if a very prosperous hunter used a charm that had mana and he gave it to another person then people believed that the prosperous hunter’s luck would transfer to the next holder of the charm. Mana also means pride, in New Zealand Māori. Look up charm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire An amulet (from Latin amuletum, meaning A means of protection) or a talisman (from Arabic tilasm, ultimately from Greek telesma or from the Greek word talein wich means to initiate into the mysteries. ... Pride refers to a strong sense of self-respect, a refusal to be humiliated as well as joy in the accomplishments of oneself or a person, group, or object that one identifies with. ... Languages Māori, English Religions Māori religion, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Polynesian peoples, Austronesian peoples The word Māori refers to the indigenous people of New Zealand and their language. ...


Universal archetype

The concept of mana has been in various other cultures the power of magic. However, it was not the only principle and others included the concept of sympathetic magic and of seeking the intervention of a specific supernatural being, whether deity, saint or deceased ancestor. Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... Magic (also called magick to distinguish it from stage magic) is a supposed way of influencing the world through supernatural, mystical, or paranormal means. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ... An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i. ...


The magic of mana was embedded into all talismans and fetishes, whether devoted to ancient Gods, Roman Catholic saint relics, the spirits of the ancestors or the underlying element that makes up the universe and all life within it. The concept of mana has been used in various cultures to justify human sacrifices because the living-force or blood of sacrificial victims might contain supernatural powers whose offering would please a deity. Talisman can refer to: An amulet sometimes believed to have mystical, and amazing powers The Talisman board game from Games Workshop Talisman - Sacred Cities, Secret Faith by Graham Hancock and Robert Bauval Talisman (band) - a hard rock band. ... A fetish (from French fétiche; from Portuguese feitiço; from Latin facticius, artificial and facere, to make) is an object believed to have supernatural powers, or in particular a man-made object that has power over others. ... For the span of recorded history starting roughly 5,000-5,500 years ago, see Ancient history. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ... A relic is an object, especially a piece of the body or a personal item of someone of religious significance, carefully preserved with an air of veneration as a tangible memorial, Relics are an important aspect of Buddhism, some denominations of Christianity, Hinduism, shamanism, and many other personal belief systems. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i. ... Universe is a word derived from the Old French univers, which in turn comes from the Latin roots unus (one) and versus (a form of vertere, to turn). Based on observations of the observable universe, physicists attempt to describe the whole of space-time, including all matter and energy and... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ...


Similar cultural concepts

The concept of a life-energy inherent in all living beings seems to be a fairly universal archetype, and appears in numerous ancient religions and systems of metaphysics.


Analogies to mana in other societies include:

Also related are the philosophical concepts of: Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... Numina (presence, singular numen) is a Latin term for deity and conveys the sense of immanence, of the sacred spirit that informs places and objects in Roman religion. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Maban is a magical substance in Australian Aboriginal mythology. ... Egyptian mythology or Egyptian religion is the succession of tentative beliefs held by the people of Egypt for over three thousand years, prior to major exposure to Christianity and Islam. ... In Egyptian mythology, the human soul is made up of seven parts: the Ren, Sekhem, the Akh, the Ba, the Ka, the Sheut, and the Sekhu. ... Finnish mythology has many features that it shares with other Finnic mythologies, like the Estonian mythology, and also elements similar with non-Finnic neighbours, especially the the Balts and the Scandinavians. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the telling of stories created by the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and their own cult and ritual practices. ... In Greek mythology, ichor (Greek ἰχώρ) is the mineral that is the Greek gods blood, sometimes said to have been present in ambrosia or nectar. ... Inuit mythology has many similarities to the religions of other polar regions. ... In Inuit mythology, Inua or Inuat refers to a sort of soul which exists in all people, animals, lakes, mountains and plants. ... In Inuit mythology, Silap Inua or Sila was, similar to mana or ether, the primary component of everything that exists; it is also the breath of life and the method of locomotion for any movement or change. ... The Lenape (also known as Lenni-Lenape, Leni-Lenape, Delaware Indians and Munsee) are a tribe of Native Americans. ... Manitou may refer to: Manitou, Oklahoma Manitou, Manitoba Manitou River (Ontario) Manitou, New York train station Manitou, the German-style board game This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Norse or Scandinavian mythology comprises the pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian people, including those who settled on Iceland, where the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... Seid (Old Norse: seiðr, sometimes anglicized as seidhr, seidh, seidr, seithr or seith) was a form of shamanism practised by pre-Christian Norse and arguably other Germanic cultures and continued in modern times by people who practice the reconstructionist beliefs of Ásatrú or heathenry. ... The mythology of the Yorùbá is sometimes claimed by its supporters to be one of the worlds oldest widely practised religions. ... In Yoruba mythology, Olodumare is a creative force that drove the establishment of existence and the entire universe. ... Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy, focusing on meditation as a path to self-knowledge and liberation. ... Kundalini ( ) is a Sanskrit word meaning either coiled up or coiling like a snake. ... Ancient Basque mythology is centered around the figure of the goddess Mari, and her consort Sugaar (also called Maju). ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ...

Yin Yang symbol and Ba gua paved in a clearing outside of Nanning City, Guangxi province, China. ... QI, standing for Quite Interesting and a play on IQ, is a comedy panel game television show hosted by Stephen Fry and shown on BBC Two and BBC Four. ... Taijitu This article is about the Chinese character and the philosophy it represents. ... A blend of Confucianism, neo-Confucianism, Buddhism, Shinto and Daoism Routledge encyclopedia Categories: Japan-related stubs ... Look up ki in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Ryukyu Islands (琉球列島 Ryūkyū-rettō) are an island group, the southern portion belonging to Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the northern part belonging to Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. ... This article is about the continent. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Look up aether, ether in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The word quintessence is used in different fields: In physics, quintessence is a hypothetical form of energy postulated to exist as a possible explanation of observations of an accelerating universe. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Prana (, IAST: ) is a Sanskrit word meaning breath and refers to a vital, life-sustaining force of living beings and vital energy in natural processes of the universe. ... Tibetan Buddhism (Simplified Chinese: 藏传佛教) is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... Bön has typically been described as the shamanistic religion in Tibet before the arrival of Buddhism in the 7th century C.E. With the recent exile of many Bönpo lamas to India, however, a more complex description of Bön is emerging and is now being considered by... The Chinese dragon (spelled Long, Loong or Lung in transliteration), is a mythical Chinese creature that also appears in other East Asian cultures, and is also sometimes called the Oriental (or Eastern) dragon. ... Respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ...

Mana in anthropological discourse

Mana came to the attention of the anthropological community with the English missionary Robert Henry Codrington's (1830-1922) work The Melanesians (1891). It has since been discussed by anthropologists such as Emile Durkheim (1912), Marcel Mauss (1924), Claude Lévi-Strauss (1950) and Roger Keesing (1984). Robert Henry Codrington (15 September 1830, Wroughton, Wiltshire – 11 September 1922) was an Anglican priest and anthropologist who made the first study of Melanesian society and culture. ... David Émile Durkheim (April 15, 1858 - November 15, 1917) is known as the founder of modern sociology. ... Marcel Mauss (May 10, 1872 – February 10, 1950) was a French sociologist best known for his role in elaborating on and securing the legacy of his uncle Émile Durkheim and the Année Sociologique. ... Claude Lévi-Strauss Claude Lévi-Strauss (IPA pronunciation ); born November 28, 1908) is a Jewish-French anthropologist who developed structuralism as a method of understanding human society and culture. ... Professor Roger Martin Keesing (16 May 1935 – 7 May 1993) was a linguist and anthropologist, noted for his fieldwork on the Kwaio people of Malaita in the Solomon Islands, and his writings on a wide range of topics including kinship, religion, politics, history, cognitive anthropology and language. ...


Mana in fantasy

Fantasy writer Larry Niven in his 1978 novella, The Magic Goes Away, describes "mana" as a natural resource which is used or channeled by wizards to cast magic spells. Mana is a limited resource in Niven's work, a fact which eventually will lead to the end of all magic in his antediluvian fantasy setting when all mana is depleted. Smaug in his lair: an illustration for the fantasy The Hobbit Fantasy is a genre of art that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, or setting. ... Laurence van Cott Niven (born April 30, 1938 Los Angeles, California) is a US science fiction author. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The Warlocks Era (The Magic Goes Away) The fictional setting of Larry Nivens logical (as opposed to high) fantasy series. ... The Enchanted Garden of Messer Ansaldo by Marie Spartali Stillman: a magician makes his garden bear fruit and flowers in winter. ... Magic: The Gathering. ... The spell is a magical act intended to cause an effect on reality using supernatural means of liturgical or ritual nature. ... According to the Bible, the only survivors from the antediluvian period were Noah and his family. ... A fantasy world is a type of fictional universe in which magic or other similar powers work. ...


Many subsequent fantasy settings (role-playing games in particular) have followed Niven in his use of mana. In the manga version of Archie ComicsSabrina the Teenage Witch, for example, the Mana Tree is the source of all mystical energy in the Magic Realm. Some of the first computer games to adopt mana as a term for magic points were the role-playing game Dungeon Master (1987), and the god game Populous (1989), where mana is the resource used by gods (such as the player) to make divine interventions. The regeneration rate of mana in this setting is proportional to the god's number of followers. Other later games to include mana as a source of magical power are Secret of Mana, EverQuest, Warcraft, LostMagic, and Diablo as well as their sequels. Mana is also a key resource in the card game Magic: The Gathering. A role-playing game (RPG, often roleplaying game) is a type of game in which the participants assume the roles of fictional characters and collaboratively create or follow stories. ... Manga )   (pl. ... Archie Comics is an American comic book publisher known for its many series featuring the fictional teenage Archie Andrews, Betty Cooper, Veronica Lodge, Reggie Mantle and Forsythe Jughead Jones characters created by Bob Montana. ... Sabrina, the Teenage Witch is a fictional comic book character, and more recently, a US sitcom. ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... Magic points or mana points (MP) are units of magical power (mana) that are used in many role-playing, computer role-playing and similar games as an expendable resource that is needed to pay for magic spells. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Role-playing game (video games). ... Dungeon Master was the first 3D realtime action computer role-playing game. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Divine intervention is another term for a miracle. ... Secret of Mana, known in Japan as Seiken Densetsu 2 , lit. ... EverQuest (EQ) is a 3d fantasy massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) that was released on March 16, 1999. ... Warcraft: Orcs & Humans is a real-time strategy computer game developed and published by Blizzard Entertainment in 1994. ... LOSTMAGIC , often spelled as Lost Magic) is a real-time strategy game for the Nintendo DS system. ... Diablo is a dark fantasy-themed hack and slash action role-playing game developed by Blizzard North and released by Blizzard Entertainment on January 2, 1997. ... Magic: The Gathering (colloq. ...


The article about magic points lists more games, and examples of the use of mana in games. Magic points or mana points (MP) are units of magical power (mana) that are used in many role-playing, computer role-playing and similar games as an expendable resource that is needed to pay for magic spells. ...


References

  • Codrington, Robert Henry. 1891. The Melanesians.
    • Relevant excerpt (PDF).
  • Keesing, Roger. 1984. Rethinking mana. Journal of Anthropological Research 40:137-156.
  • Lévi-Strauss, Claude. 1950. Introduction à l'œuvre de Marcel Mauss.
  • Lévi-Strauss, Claude; Baker, Felicity (translator). 1987. Introduction to the Work of Marcel Mauss. ISBN 0-415-15158-9
  • Mauss, Marcel. 1924. Essai sur le don.
    • Mauss, Marcel; Halls, W. D. (translator). 1990. The Gift. ISBN 0-393-32043-X

PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (794 words)
Mana is a traditional term and a concept among the speakers of Oceanic languages, including Melanesians, Polynesians and Micronesians.
Melanesian mana is thought to be a sacred impersonal force existing in the universe.
Mana is a limited resource in Niven's work, a fact which eventually will lead to the end of all magic in his antediluvian fantasy setting when all mana is depleted.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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