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Encyclopedia > Mammoth
Mammoth
Fossil range: Early Pliocene to Holocene
One-of-a-kind stuffed mammoth in The Museum of Zoology, St. Petersburg.
One-of-a-kind stuffed mammoth in The Museum of Zoology, St. Petersburg.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Proboscidea
Family: Elephantidae
Genus: Mammuthus
Brookes, 1828
Species

A mammoth is any species of the extinct genus Mammuthus. These proboscideans (elephants or their extinct relatives) were often equipped with long curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair. They lived from the Pliocene epoch from 4.8 million years ago to around 4,500 years ago.[1] [2] The word mammoth comes from the Russian мамонт mamont, probably in turn from the Vogul (Mansi) language.[3] Binomial name Blumenbach, 1799 For the rock band, see Wooly Mammoth (band). ... Mammoth may refer to one of the following: Mammoth, an extinct mammal, similar to the elephant Mammoth, Arizona, a town in Pinal County, Arizona Mammoth Cave National Park Mammoth Mountain, a volcano in the Sierra Nevada mountain range in California Mammoth Mountain Ski Area, a 3,500 acre ski area... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... In the geologic time scale, the Zanclean (also known as Tabianian, Dacian) is a stage which makes up the Early Pliocene or Lower Pliocene subepoch. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period, which began approximately 11,550 calendar years BP (about 9600 BC) and continues to the present. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (976x1296, 468 KB) Adams-Mammoth on display in Museum of Zoology in St Petersburg, one of its kind, found in River Berezovka. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Groups Jozaria (extinct) Anthracobunidae (extinct) Moeritheriidae (extinct) Euproboscidea Numidotheriidae (extinct) Barytheriidae (extinct) Deinotheriidae (extinct) Elephantiformes Phiomiidae (extinct) Palaeomastodontidae (extinct) Hemimastodontidae (extinct) Euelephantoidea Choerolophodontidae (extinct) Amebelodontidae (extinct) Gnathabelodontidae (extinct) Gomphotheriidae (extinct) Elephantidae Mammutidae (extinct) Proboscidea is an order containing only one family of living animals, Elephantidae, the elephants, with three species... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Proboscidea is an order including only one extant family, Elephantidae or the elephants, with three species: the Savannah Elephant and Forest Elephant (which were collectively known as the African Elephant), and the Asian Elephant (formerly known as the Indian... Joshua Brookes. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Binomial name The African Mammoth, Mammuthus africanavus, is among the oldest mammoth species, having first appeared around 4. ... The Columbian Mammoth (Mammuthus Columbi) is an extinct sub-species of elephant that inhabited the Great Plain of North America between 100,000 and 14,000 years ago. ... Binomial name Mammuthus exilis Maglio, 1970 Mammuthus exilis, pygmy mammoth, was a dwarfed descendant of full-sized mammoths, possibly Mammuthus columbi, the Columbian mammoth. ... Binomial name Mammuthus imperator (Leidy,1858) The Imperial Mammoth (Mammuthus imperator) was the largest known species of mammoth, reaching a height of 4. ... The Jeffersonian Mammoth (Mammuthus jeffersonii) is a North American species of mammoth. ... Binomial name Mammuthus trogontherii The steppe mammoth is an extinct species of elephant that ranged over most of northern Eurasia during the Ice Ages of the Pleistocene. ... Mammuthus meridionalis is an extinct species of elephant, a mammoth to be exact. ... ... Dwarf elephants are pre-historic members of the order Proboscidea, that, through the process of allopatric speciation, evolved to a fraction of the size of their modern relatives. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Groups Jozaria (extinct) Anthracobunidae (extinct) Moeritheriidae (extinct) Euproboscidea Numidotheriidae (extinct) Barytheriidae (extinct) Deinotheriidae (extinct) Elephantiformes Phiomiidae (extinct) Palaeomastodontidae (extinct) Hemimastodontidae (extinct) Euelephantoidea Choerolophodontidae (extinct) Amebelodontidae (extinct) Gnathabelodontidae (extinct) Gomphotheriidae (extinct) Elephantidae Mammutidae (extinct) Proboscidea is an order containing only one family of living animals, Elephantidae, the elephants, with three species... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... Pacific Walrus at Cape Peirce A tusk is an extremely long tooth of certain mammals that protrudes when the mouth is closed. ... For the 1968 stage production, see Hair (musical), for the 1979 film, see Hair (film). ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... A division of geologic time less than a period and greater than an age. ... The Mansi language (also known as Vogul, though this name is now old-fashioned and largely disused), is a language of the Mansi people. ...

Contents

Extinction

A display of a mammoth at a museum
A display of a mammoth at a museum

Most mammoths died out at the end of the last Ice Age. A definitive explanation for their mass extinction is yet to be agreed upon. A small population survived on St. Paul Island, Alaska, up until 6000 BC,[2] and the small mammoths of Wrangel Island became extinct only around 2000 BC[4] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 502 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1177 × 1404 pixel, file size: 330 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) w:Columbian Mammoth (Mammuthus columbi), w:College of Eastern Utah Prehistoric Museum. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 502 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1177 × 1404 pixel, file size: 330 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) w:Columbian Mammoth (Mammuthus columbi), w:College of Eastern Utah Prehistoric Museum. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... St Paul Island, Seal rookeries in foreground, St Paul Village in distance. ... This article is about the Russian island. ...


About 12,000 years ago, warmer, wetter weather was beginning to take hold. Rising sea levels swamped the coastal regions. Forests replaced open woodlands and grasslands across the continent.The Ice Age was ebbing. As their habitats disappeared, so did the bison and the mammoth.


Whether the general mammoth population died out for climatic reasons or due to overhunting by humans is controversial. Another theory suggests that mammoths may have fallen victim to an infectious disease. A combination of climate change and hunting by humans is the most likely explanation for their extinction.


New data derived from studies done on living elephants (see Levy 2006) suggests that though human hunting may not have been the primary cause toward the mammoth's final extinction, human hunting was likely a strong contributing factor. Homo erectus is known to have consumed mammoth meat as early as 1.8 million years ago (Levy 2006: 295). Binomial name (Dubois, 1892) Synonyms † Pithecanthropus erectus † Sinanthropus pekinensis † Javanthropus soloensis † Meganthropus paleojavanicus Homo erectus (Latin: upright man) is an extinct species of the genus Homo. ...


However, the American Institute of Biological Sciences also notes that bones of dead elephants, left on the ground and subsequently trampled by other elephants, tend to bear marks resembling butchery marks, which have previously been misinterpreted as such by archaeologists. The American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) is a nonprofit scientific association dedicated to advancing biological research and education. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ...


The survival of the dwarf mammoths on Russia's Wrangel Island was due to the fact that the island was very remote, and uninhabited in the early Holocene period. The actual island was not discovered by modern civilization until the 1820s by American whalers. A similar dwarfing occurred with the Pygmy Mammoth on the outer Channel Islands of California, but at an earlier period. Those animals were very likely killed by early Paleo-Native Americans, and habitat loss caused by a rising sea level that split the Santa Rosae into the outer Channel Islands. This article is about the Russian island. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period, which began approximately 11,550 calendar years BP (about 9600 BC) and continues to the present. ... Insular dwarfism is the process and condition of the reduction in size of large animals - almost always mammals - when their gene pool is limited to a very small environment, primarily islands. ... Binomial name Mammuthus exilis Maglio, 1970 The Pygmy Mammoth (Mammuthus exilis) was a dwarfed descendant of full-sized mammoths, possibly Mammuthus columbi, the Columbian Mammoth. ... The Channel Islands of California, also called the Santa Barbara Islands, are a chain of eight islands located in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Southern California along the Santa Barbara Channel in the United States of America. ... Santa Rosae was an ancient landmass off the coast of present-day southern California, near Ventura County and Santa Barbara County, of which the Channel Islands of California are remnants. ...


Thomas Jefferson, well-versed in the natural sciences, nevertheless suggested to Lewis and Clark that they might find mammoth during their explorations of the American West. Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... The Lewis and Clark expedition (1804-1806) was the first American overland expedition to the Pacific coast and back. ...


Size

A full size reconstruction of a mammoth species, the woolly mammoth, at Ipswich Museum, Ipswich, Suffolk
A full size reconstruction of a mammoth species, the woolly mammoth, at Ipswich Museum, Ipswich, Suffolk

It is a common misconception that mammoths were much larger than modern elephants, an error that has led to "mammoth" being used as an adjective meaning "very big". Certainly, the largest known species, the Imperial Mammoth of California, reached heights of at least 5 metres (16 feet) at the shoulder. Mammoths would probably normally weigh in the region of 6 to 8 tonnes, but exceptionally large males may have exceeded 12 tonnes. A 3.3 m. (11 ft.) long mammoth tusk was discovered north of Lincoln, Illinois in 2005.[5] However, most species of mammoth were only about as large as a modern Asian Elephant. Fossils of species of dwarf mammoth have been found on the Californian Channel Islands (Mammuthus exilis) and the Mediterranean island of Sardinia (Mammuthus lamarmorae). There was also a race of dwarf woolly mammoths on Wrangel Island, north of Siberia, within the Arctic Circle. Image File history File linksMetadata Mammoth2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mammoth2. ... Binomial name Blumenbach, 1799 For the rock band, see Wooly Mammoth (band). ... For other uses, see Ipswich (disambiguation). ... Suffolk (pronounced ) is a large historic and modern non-metropolitan county in East Anglia, England. ... Binomial name Mammuthus imperator (Leidy,1858) The Imperial Mammoth (Mammuthus imperator) was the largest known species of mammoth, reaching a height of 4. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet) is a non-SI unit of distance or length, measuring around a third of a metre. ... This article is about the metric tonne. ... Lincoln is a small city in Logan County, Illinois, United States. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Asian Elephant range The Asian or Asiatic Elephant (Elephas maximus), sometimes known by the name of its nominate subspecies (the Indian Elephant), is one of the three living species of elephant, and the only living species of the genus Elephas. ... Dwarf elephants are prehistoric members of the order Proboscidea, that, through the process of allopatric speciation, evolved to a fraction of the size of their modern relatives. ... Santa Rosae was an ancient landmass off the coast of present-day southern California, near Ventura County and Santa Barbara County, of which the Channel Islands of California are remnants. ... Binomial name Mammuthus exilis Maglio, 1970 Mammuthus exilis, pygmy mammoth, was a dwarfed descendant of full-sized mammoths, possibly Mammuthus columbi, the Columbian mammoth. ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ... Binomial name Blumenbach, 1799 For the rock band, see Wooly Mammoth (band). ... This article is about the Russian island. ...


Based on studies of their close relatives, the modern elephants, mammoths probably had a gestation period of 22 months, resulting in a single calf being born. Their social structure was probably the same as that of African and Asian elephants, with females living in herds headed by a matriarch, whilst bulls lived solitary lives or formed loose groups after sexual maturity.[citation needed] Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. ... Distribution of Loxodonta africana (2007) Species Loxodonta adaurora (extinct) Loxodonta africana Loxodonta cyclotis African elephants are the two species of elephants in the genus Loxodonta, one of the two existing genera in Elephantidae. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Asian Elephant range The Asian or Asiatic Elephant (Elephas maximus), sometimes known by the name of its nominate subspecies (the Indian Elephant), is one of the three living species of elephant, and the only living species of the genus Elephas. ...


Well-preserved specimens

In May of 2007, the carcass of a six-month-old female mammoth calf was discovered encased in a layer of permafrost near the Yuribei River in Russia where it had been buried for 37,000 years. Alexei Tikhonov, the Russian Academy of Science's Zoological Institute's deputy director has dismissed the prospect of cloning the animal, as the whole cells required for cloning would have burst under the freezing conditions. DNA is expected to be well-preserved enough to be useful for research on mammoth phylogeny and perhaps physiology however.[6][7] Well preserved baby mammoth Lyuba found frozen in Russia Lyuba (Люба) is a female mammoth calf which died ca 40,000 years ago at the age of six months. ... While these two men dig in Alaska to study soil, the hard permafrost requires the use of a jackhammer In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is soil at or below the freezing point of water (0 °C or 32 °F) for two or more years. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


See also

Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... This article is about the prehistoric elephant-like animal. ... Pleistocene park in Sakha region in northern Siberia is an attempt initiated by Russian researcher Sergey Zimov to reproduce the ecosystem that flurished during the last ice age, with hopes to back his theory that hunting, and not climate change, destroyed the wildlife. ... La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles Countys Miracle Mile District. ...

References

  • Capelli, Cristian; MacPhee, Ross D.E.; Roca, Alfred L.; Brisighelli, Francesca; Georgiadis, Nicholase; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Greenwood, Alex D. (2006): A nuclear DNA phylogeny of the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (2) 620–627. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.03.015 (HTML abstract). Supplemental data available to subscribers.
  • Levy, Sharon (2006): Clashing with Titans. BioScience 56(4): 292-298. DOI:10.1641/0006-3568(2006)56[292:CWT]2.0.CO;2 PDF fulltext
  • Lister, Adrian & Bahn, Paul (1994): Mammoths. MacMillan, London. ISBN 0-02-572985-3
  • Martin, Paul S. (2005): Twilight of the mammoths: Ice Age extinctions and the rewilding of America. University of California Press, Berkeley. ISBN 0-520-23141-4
  • Mercer, H.C. (1885): The Lenape Stone or The Indian and the Mammoth. DjVu fulltext PDF fulltext
  • Stone, Richard (2001): Mammoth: The resurrection of an Ice Age giant. Fourth Estate, London. ISBN 1-84115-518-7

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology is the science of life (from the Greek words bios = life and logos = word). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius). Academy of Natural Sciences. Retrieved on 2007-07-20.
  2. ^ a b Schirber, Michael. Surviving Extinction: Where Woolly Mammoths Endured. Live Science. Imaginova Cororporation. Retrieved on 2007-07-20.
  3. ^ Oxford English Dictionary:Mammoth (2000).
  4. ^ Vartanyan, S.L.; Kh. A. Arslanov; T. V. Tertychnaya; S. B. Chernov (1995). "Radiocarbon Dating Evidence for Mammoths on Wrangel Island, Arctic Ocean, until 2000 BC". Radiocarbon 37 (1): pp 1-6. Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona. Retrieved on 2008-01-10. 
  5. ^ Recently discovered 11-foot long Woolly Mammoth tusk on display at the Illinois State Museum Illinois Department of Natural Resources press release, August 14, 2006
  6. ^ Rincon, Paul. "Baby mammoth discovery unveiled", news.bbc.co.uk, The BBC, 2007-07-10. Retrieved on 2007-07-13. 
  7. ^ Solovyov, Dmitry. "Baby mammoth find promises breakthrough", reuters.com, Reuters, 2007-07-11. Retrieved on 2007-07-13. 

The Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia was founded in 1812 to expand knowledge of the natural world. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Imaginova Corporation is a U.S. conglomerate based in New York City and was founded in 1999 by CNN business anchor Lou Dobbs. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Mammuthus

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Historical museum located in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. ... Hot Springs is a city located in Fall River County, South Dakota. ...


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