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Encyclopedia > Malwa (Madhya Pradesh)
Malwa
Largest city Indore
22.42° N 75.54° E
Main languages Malvi, Hindi
Area 81,767 km² 
Population (2001) 18,889,000
Density 231/km²
Birth rate (2001) 31.6
Death rate (2001) 10.3
Infant mortality rate (2001) 93.8

Malwa (Malvi:माळवा, IAST: Māļavā) is a region in west-central northern India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state. This region had been a separate political unit from the time of the Aryan tribe of Malavas until 1947, when the British Malwa Agency was merged into Madhya Bharat. Although political borders have fluctuated throughout history, the region has developed its own distinct culture and language. Malwa (Madhya Pradesh), one of six historical regions that make up the modern state of Madhya Pradesh, India Malwa Plateau Malwa Agency Malwa Sultanate Punjab Malwa (Punjab), one of the three historical regions that make up Punjab (India) Category: ... Image File history File links Malwa_India_1823. ... population growth, from 443 million in 1960 to 1,004 million in 2000 Map showing the population density of each district in India Map showing the population growth over the past ten years of each distrct in India Map showing the literacy rate of each district in India Map showing... This article is about Indore city. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... RickK 07:03, May 22, 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Hindi (Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is one of the official languages of the Union government of India. ... Indian States See also: States and territories of India Categories: States and territories of India ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... RickK 07:03, May 22, 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... IAST, or International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is the academic standard for writing the Sanskrit language with the Latin alphabet and very similar to National Library at Calcutta romanization standard being used with many Indic scripts. ... What follows is a list of unofficial, or quasi-official regions of India. ... Image:NONE Monte Roraima In geology and earth science, a plateau, also called a high plateau or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat rural area. ... Madhya PradeÅ›   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... India is subdivided into twenty-eight states and seven union territories; the states and territories are themselves further subdivided. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... “Malwa” redirects here. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Malwa Agency was an administrative section of British Indias Central India Agency. ... Madhya Bharat is former state in west-central India. ...


The plateau that forms a large part of the region is named the Malwa Plateau, after the region. The average elevation of the Malwa plateau is 500 metres, and the landscape generally slopes towards the north. Most of the region is drained by the Chambal River and its tributaries; the western part is drained by the upper reaches of the Mahi River. Ujjain was the political, economic, and cultural capital of the region in ancient times, and Indore is presently the largest city and commercial centre. Overall, agriculture is the main occupation of the people of Malwa. The region has been one of the important producers of opium in the world. Cotton and soybeans are other important cash crops, and textiles are a major industry. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Mahi is a river in western India. ... Ujjain   (Hindi:उज्जैन) (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantikapuri) is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River. ... This article is about Indore city. ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ...


The region includes the Madhya Pradesh districts of Dewas, Dhar, Indore, Jhabua, Mandsaur, Neemuch, Rajgarh, Ratlam, Shajapur, Ujjain, and parts of Guna and Sehore, and the Rajasthan districts of Jhalawar and parts of Banswara and Chittorgarh. Politically and administratively, the definition of Malwa is sometimes extended to include the Nimar region south of the Vindhyas. Geologically, the Malwa Plateau generally refers to the volcanic upland south of the Vindhyas, which includes the Malwa region and extends east to include the upper basin of the Betwa and the headwaters of the Dhasan and Ken rivers. The region has a tropical climate with dry deciduous forests that are home to a number of tribes, most important of them being the Bhils. The culture of the region has had influences from Gujarati, Rajasthani and Marathi cultures. Malvi is the most commonly used language, especially in rural areas, while Hindi is widely understood in cities. Major places of tourist interest include Ujjain, Mandu, Maheshwar and Indore. Dewas District is a district of Madhya Pradesh state in central India. ... Dhar District is a district of Madhya Pradesh state in central India. ... Indore District is a district of Madhya Pradesh state in central India. ... Jhabua District is a district of Madhya Pradesh state in central India. ... Mandsaur District is a District of Madhya Pradesh state in central India. ... Neemuch District is one of the districts of Madhya Pradesh state in central India. ... Rajgarh District is a district of Madhya Pradesh state in central India. ... Ratlam District is a district of Madhya Pradesh state in central India. ... Shajapur District is a district of Madhya Pradesh state of central India. ... Ujjain District is a district of Madhya Pradesh state in central India. ... Guna is a district of Madhya Pradesh, India. ... Sehore District is a district of Madhya Pradesh state in central India. ... Jhalawar(Hindi:झालावाड़) is a city in southeastern Rajasthan. ... Banswara is a city and district in south Rajasthan in India. ... Chittorgarh District is a district of Rajasthan state in western India. ... Nimar is the southwestern region of Madhya Pradesh state in west-central India. ... The Vindhya Range is a range of hills in central India, which geographically separates The Indian subcontinent into northern India and Southern India. ... The Betwa (Vetravati) is a river in Northern India, and a tributary of the Yamuna. ... The Dhasan River is a tributary of the Betwa River. ... The Ken River is one the major rivers passing through the Banda district of Bundelkahnd, India. ... Bhils are a tribal people of central India. ... Hindi (Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is one of the official languages of the Union government of India. ... Mandu, or Mandogarh, is a ruined city in the Dhar District in the Malwa region of western Madhya Pradesh state, central India. ... Maheshwar is a town in Khargone district of Madhya Pradesh state, in central India. ...


The first significant kingdom in the region was Avanti, an important power in western India by around 500 BC, when it was annexed by the Maurya Empire. The 5th-century Gupta period was a golden age in the history of Malwa. The dynasties of the Parmaras, the Malwa sultans, and the Marathas have ruled Malwa at various times. The region has given the world prominent leaders in the arts and sciences, including the poet and dramatist Kalidasa, the author Bhartrihari, the mathematicians and astronomers Varahamihira and Brahmagupta, and the polymath king Bhoj. A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BC. It is the emblem of India. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Silver coin of the Gupta King Kumara Gupta I (414-455). ... Parmara was a medieval Kingdom in Northern India. ... The Marāthās (Marathi: मराठा)is a collective term referring to an Indo Aryan group of Hindu warriors and peasants hailing mostly from the present-day state of Maharashtra, who created a substantial empire, covering a major part of India, in the late 17th and 18th centuries AD. The Marathas... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Bhartrihari (c 450–510) was an Indian author of Wikipedia and early figure in Indic linguistic theory. ... Varahamihira (505 – 587) was an Indian astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer born in Ujjain. ... Brahmagupta (ब्रह्मगुप्त) (598-668) was an Indian mathematician and astronomer. ... Leonardo da Vinci is seen as an epitome of the Renaissance man or polymath A polymath (Greek polymathēs, πολυμαθής, meaning knowing, understanding, or having learnt in quantity, compounded from πολυ- much, many, and the root μαθ-, meaning learning, understanding[1]) is a person well educated in a wide variety of subjects or... Bhoj was a great philosopher king and polymath of medieval India. ...

Contents

History

Coin showing Karttikeya and Lakshmi (Ujjain, circa 150–75 BC)

The name Malwa is derived from the ancient Aryan tribe of Malavas, about whom very little is known apart from the fact that they founded the Vikrama Samvat; this is a calendar dating from 57 BC that is widely used in India and that is popularly associated with the king Chandragupta Vikramaditya. The name Malava is derived from the Sanskrit term Malav, and means “part of the abode of Lakshmi”.[1] The location of the Malwa or Moholo, mentioned by the 7th century Chinese traveller Xuanzang, is plausibly identified with present-day Gujarat.[2] The region is cited as Malibah in Arabic records, such as Kamilu-t Tawarikh by Ibn Asir.[3] Licensed under GNU Free Documentation License. ... Licensed under GNU Free Documentation License. ... In Hinduism, Kartikeya (also Murugan, Subrahmanya, Skanda, Kumaran, Swaminanda) is a deity born out of a magical spark created by Shiva. ... Lakshmi (Sanskrit: लक्ष्मी ) is the Hindu goddess of wealth, light, wisdom, the lotus flower and fortune, and secondarily of luck, beauty, courage and fertility. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... Malava kingdom was one among the many kingdoms ruled by the Yadava kings in the central and western India. ... Bikram Sambat (abbreviated B.S.) is the official calendar of Nepal. ... Coins of Chandragupta II. The period of prominence of the Gupta dynasty is very often referred to as the Golden Age of India. ... Lakshmi (Sanskrit: लक्ष्मी ) is the Hindu goddess of wealth, light, wisdom, the lotus flower and fortune, and secondarily of luck, beauty, courage and fertility. ... A portrait of Xuanzang Xuanzang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsüan-tsang; CantoneseIPA: jyn4tsɔŋ1; CantoneseJyutping: jyun4zong1) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler and translator that brought up the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period. ... , Gujarāt (GujarātÄ«: , IPA:  ) is a state in the Republic of India. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ...


Ujjain, also known historically as Ujjaiyini and Avanti, emerged as the first major centre in the Malwa region during India's second wave of urbanisation in the 7th century BC (the first wave was the Indus Valley Civilization). Around 600 BC an earthen rampart was built around Ujjain, enclosing a city of considerable size. Avanti was one of the prominent mahajanapadas of the Indo-Aryans. In the post-Mahabharata period—around 500 BC—Avanti was an important kingdom in western India; it was ruled by the Haihayas, a people who were possibly of mixed Indo-Aryan and aboriginal descent, who were responsible for the destruction of Naga power in western India.[4] The region was conquered by the Maurya empire in the mid-4th century BC. Ashoka, who was later a Mauryan emperor, was governor of Ujjain in his youth. After the death of Ashoka in 232 BC, the Maurya Empire began to collapse. Although evidence is sparse, Malwa was probably ruled by the Kushanas and the Shakas during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. Ownership of the region was the subject of dispute between the Western Kshatrapas and the Satavahanas during the first three centuries AD. Ujjain emerged a major trading centre during the 1st century AD. The city of Los Angeles is an example of urbanization Urbanization is the increase over time in the population of cities in relation to the regions rural population. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... Buddhist texts like Anguttara Nikaya and Culla-Niddesa frequently mention sixteen great nations (solasa Mahajanapadas), which existed before the time of the Buddha. ... The Indo-Aryans make up 74% of the population of India and are the creators of the concept of the Aryan race. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Haihayas were the ancient clans who claimed their common ancestry from Yadu. ... A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BC. It is the emblem of India. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-Iranian Sakas (Scythians), who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. The first... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... Approximate territory of the Western Kshatrapas ( 35- 405 CE). ... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted...

Rani Rupmati Pavilion at Mandu, built by Miyan Bayezid Baz Bahadur (1555–62)

Malwa became part of the Gupta Empire during the reign of Chandragupta II (375–413), also known as Vikramaditya, who conquered the region, driving out the Western Kshatrapas. The Gupta period is widely regarded as a golden age in the history of Malwa, when Ujjain served as the empire's western capital. Kalidasa, Aryabhata and Varahamihira were all based in Ujjain, which emerged as a major centre of learning, especially in astronomy and mathematics. Around 500, Malwa re-emerged from the dissolving Gupta empire as a separate kingdom; in 528, Yasodharman of Malwa defeated the Hunas, who had invaded India from the north-west. During the seventh century, the region became part of Harsha's empire, and he disputed the region with the Chalukya king Pulakesin II of Badami in the Deccan. In 786 the region was captured by the Rashtrakuta kings of the Deccan, and was disputed between the Rashtrakutas and the Pratihara kings of Kannauj until the early part of the tenth century. From the mid-tenth century, Malwa was ruled by the Paramara clan of Rajputs, who established a capital at Dhar. King Bhoj, who ruled from about 1010 to 1060, was known as the great polymath philosopher-king of medieval India; his extensive writings cover philosophy, poetry, medicine, veterinary science, phonetics, yoga, and archery. Under his rule Malwa became an intellectual centre of India. Bhoj also founded the city of Bhopal to secure the eastern part of his kingdom. His successors ruled until about 1200, when Malwa was conquered by the Delhi Sultanate. Image File history File links Rani_Rupmati_pavilion. ... Image File history File links Rani_Rupmati_pavilion. ... Miyan Bayezid Baz Bahadur was a sultan of Malwa from 1555 to 1562. ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... Coins of Chandragupta II. The period of prominence of the Gupta dynasty is very often referred to as the Golden Age of India. ... Approximate territory of the Western Kshatrapas (35-405 CE). ... Statue of Aryabhata on the grounds of IUCAA, Pune. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy is the science of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as auroras and cosmic background radiation). ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... Gupta (Sanskrit: Goptri meaning military governor) is one of the most common surnames in northern India. ... Yasodharman was the king of Malwa, in central India, during the early part of the 6th century. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ... Harsha or Harshavardhana (606-648) was an Indian emperor who ruled northern India as paramount monarch for over forty years. ... The Chalukya dynasty (Kannada: ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು) was a powerful Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th century C.E. They began to assert their independence at the decline of the Satavahana empire and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of... Pulakesi II (c. ... Badami Cave Temple No 3. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... Jain cave in Ellora The Rastrakutas (Sanskrit/Maharashtri Prakrit [1]/Marathi[2][3]:राष्ट्रकूट, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) were a dynasty which ruled the southern and the central parts or the Deccan, India during the 8th - 10th century. ... The Pratiharas (Hindi परतिहार pratihāra, also known as Parihars) ruled a large kingdom in northern India from the 6th to the 11th centuries. ... Kannauj (Hindi कन्नौज), sometimes improperly spelt Kanauj, is an ancient city lying in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Rajput (from the Sanskrit tatpurusha compound , son of a king) is a Caste among Hindus in India, Pakistan and Nepal. ... Dhar is a town in the Malwa region of western Madhya Pradesh state in central India. ... Bhoj was a great philosopher king and polymath of medieval India. ... Leonardo da Vinci is seen as an epitome of the Renaissance man or polymath A polymath (Greek polymathÄ“s, πολυμαθής, meaning knowing, understanding, or having learnt in quantity, compounded from πολυ- much, many, and the root μαθ-, meaning learning, understanding[1]) is a person well educated in a wide variety of subjects or... For other uses, see Bhopal (disambiguation). ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ...


Dilawar Khan, previously Malwa's governor under the rule of the Delhi sultanate, declared himself sultan of Malwa in 1401 after the Mongol conqueror Timur attacked Delhi, causing the break-up of the sultanate into smaller states. Khan started the Malwa Sultanate and established a capital at Mandu, high in the Vindhya Range overlooking the Narmada River valley. His son and successor, Hoshang Shah (1405–35), embellished Mandu. Hoshang Shah's son, Ghazni Khan, ruled for only a year and was succeeded by Sultan Mahmud Khalji (1436–69), the first of the Khalji sultans of Malwa, who expanded the state to include parts of Gujarat, Rajasthan, and the Deccan. The Muslim sultans invited the Rajputs to settle in the country. In the early 16th century, the sultan sought the aid of the sultans of Gujarat to counter the growing power of the Rajputs, while the Rajputs sought the support of the Sesodia Rajput kings of Mewar. Gujarat stormed Mandu in 1518 and 1531, and shortly after that, the Malwa sultanate collapsed. The Mughal emperor Akbar captured Malwa in 1562 and made it a province of his empire. Mandu was abandoned by the 17th century. Dilawar Khan Ghauri was governor of the Malwa province of central India during the decline of the Delhi Sultanate. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan TÄ«mÅ«r bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - TÄ“mōr, iron) (1336 – February 1405) was a 14th-century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent[1][2][3][4], conqueror of much of Western and central Asia, and founder of the Timurid Empire (1370–1405... Malwa was a sultanate in Malwa region. ... Mandu, or Mandogarh, is a ruined city in the Dhar District in the Malwa region of western Madhya Pradesh state, central India. ... The Vindhya Range is a range of hills in central India, which geographically separates The Indian subcontinent into northern India and Southern India. ... The Narmada or Nerbudda is a river in central India. ... Hoshang Shah was the sultan of Malwa from 1405 to 1435. ... The Khilji or Khalji were a dynasty of Indian rulers. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... The Sisodia, Sesodia (or Sisodya) are a Rajput clan who ruled the kingdom of Mewar in Rajasthan. ... Mewar is a region of south-central Rajasthan state in western India. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... For other uses, see Akbar (disambiguation). ...

Sculpture of a Holkar courtier from Fort Ahilya

As the Mughal state weakened after 1700, the Marathas raided Malwa. Malhar Rao Holkar (1694–1766) became leader of Maratha armies in Malwa in 1724, and in 1733 the Maratha Peshwa granted him control of most of the region, which was formally ceded by the Mughals in 1738. Another Maratha general, Anand Rao Panwar, established himself as the raja of Dhar in 1742, and the two Panwar brothers became rajas of Dewas. At the end of the 18th century, Malwa became the venue of fighting between the rival Maratha powers and the headquarters of the Pindaris, who were irregular plunderers. The Pindaris were rooted out in a campaign by the British general Lord Hastings, and further order was established under Sir John Malcolm.[2] The Holkar dynasty ruled Malwa from Indore and Maheshwar on the Narmada until 1818, when the Marathas were defeated by the British in the Third Anglo-Maratha War, and the Holkars of Indore became a princely state of the British Raj. After 1818 the British organised the numerous princely states of central India into the Central India Agency; the Malwa Agency was a division of Central India, with an area of 23,100 km² (8,919 square miles) and a population of 1,054,753 in 1901. It comprised the states of Dewas (senior and junior branch), Jaora, Ratlam, Sitamau and Sailana, together with a large part of Gwalior, parts of Indore and Tonk, and about 35 small estates and holdings. Political power was exercised from Neemuch.[2] Upon Indian independence in 1947, the Holkars and other princely rulers acceded to India, and most of Malwa became part of the new state of Madhya Bharat, which was merged into Madhya Pradesh in 1956. Image File history File linksMetadata Holkar_courtian_coolspark. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Holkar_courtian_coolspark. ... Jaswant Rao Holkar 1798-1811 AD Holkar of Indore Silver, Nazrana Rupee Minted at Indore in 1807 AD (1222 AH) Weight: 14. ... The Maratha Empire at its peak in 1760 Statue of the great Baji Rao, near Shaniwar Wada, Pune The Peshwa (also known in Marathi as Peshwe) were Brahmin Prime Ministers to the Maratha Chattrapatis (Kings), who began commanding Maratha armies and later became the hereditary rulers of the Maratha empire... The Ponwar (also Panwar or Pawar) are a Maratha clan that ruled the states of Chhatarpur, Dewas, Dhar, and Rajgarh in central India. ... Dewas is a city in western Madhya Pradesh state of central India. ... Pindari is a word of uncertain origin, applied to the irregular horsemen who accompanied the Maratha armies in central India during the 18th century when the Mughal Empire was breaking up. ... The title Baron Hastings is an ancient one in the Peerage of England. ... Sir John Malcolm (1769‑1833) was a Scottish soldier, statesman, and historian, born at Burnfoot, Dumfriesshire. ... Maheshwar is a town in Khargone district of Madhya Pradesh state, in central India. ... The Narmada or Nerbudda is a river in central India. ... The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817 - 1818) was a final and decisive conflict between Britain and the Maratha empire in India, which left Britain in control of most of India. ... A princely state is any state under the reign of a prince and is thus a principality taken in the broad sense. ... The flag of British India British India, circa 1860 The British Raj (Raj in Hindi meaning Rule; from Sanskrit Rajya) was the British rule between 1858 and 1947 of the Indian Subcontinent, which included the present-day India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Burma (Myanmar), whereby these lands were under the colonial... The Central India Agency was a political unit of British India, which covered the northern half of present-day Madhya Pradesh state. ... Jaora is a town in Ratlam district of Malwa, which had been a princely state before independence. ... Ratlam (or Rijtlam), is a city and district in the Malwa region in Madhya Pradesh state of central India. ... Sitamau is a town in the Mandsaur district of Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh. ... Sailana is a town in the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh. ... Gwalior   is a city in Madhya Pradesh in India. ... Look up Tonk in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Indian independence movement incorporated the efforts by Indians to liberate the region from British rule and form the nation-state of India. ... Madhya Bharat is former state in west-central India. ... Madhya PradeÅ›   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ...


See also: Rulers of Malwa, History of India Following is a list of rulers of Malwa since the Kshatrapas: Kshatrapa Empire Nahapana (119-124 CE) Castanafl (c 120) Rudradaman I (c 130-150) Damajadasri I (170-175) Jivadaman (175 d 199) Rudrasimha I (175-188 d 197) Isvaradatta (188-191) Rudrasimha I (restored)]] (191-197) Jivadaman (restored)]] (197... The archaeological record in India (encompassing the territory of the modern nations of the Republic of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) shows first traces of Homo sapiens from ca. ...


Geography

Malwa and neighbourhood according to the historical map of India by Fielding Lucas Jr. (1823).

The Malwa region occupies a plateau in western Madhya Pradesh and south-eastern Rajasthan (between 21°10′N, 73°45′E and 25°10′N, 79°14′E),[4] with Gujarat in the west. To the south and east is the Vindhya Range and to the north is the Bundelkhand upland. The plateau is an extension of the Deccan Traps, formed between 60 and 68 million years ago[5][6] at the end of the Cretaceous period. In this region the main classes of soil are black, brown and bhatori (stony) soil. The volcanic, clay-like soil of the region owes its black colour to the high iron content of the basalt from which it formed. The soil requires less irrigation because of its high capacity for moisture retention. The other two soil types are lighter and have a higher proportion of sand. Image File history File links Malwa_India_closeup_1823. ... Image File history File links Malwa_India_closeup_1823. ... History is often used as a generic term for information about the past, such as in geologic history of the Earth. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of human societies. ... City plan of Baltimore by Lucas, Fielding Jr. ... Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... , Gujarāt (GujarātÄ«: , IPA:  ) is a state in the Republic of India. ... The Vindhya Range is a range of hills in central India, which geographically separates The Indian subcontinent into northern India and Southern India. ... Bundelkhand is a geographic region of central India. ... The Deccan Traps is a large igneous province located in west-central India and is one of the largest volcanic features on Earth. ... The geologic time scale is used by geologists and other scientists to describe the timing and relationships between events that have occurred during the history of the Earth. ... The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... In geology, a period or age is a time span of many millions of years that are assumed to have had similar characteristics. ... Chernozem, or Black Earth (from Russian: ), is a kind of soil. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Basalt Basalt (IPA: ) is a common gray to black volcanic rock. ...


The average elevation of the plateau is 500 m. Some of the peaks over 800 m high are at Sigar (881 m), Janapav (854 m) and Ghajari (810 m). The plateau generally slopes towards the north. The western part of the region is drained by the Mahi River, while the Chambal River drains the central part, and the Betwa River and the headwaters of the Dhasan and Ken rivers drain the east. The Shipra River is of historical importance because of the Simhasth mela, held every 12 years. Other notable rivers are Parbati, Gambhir and Choti Kali Sindh. Malwa's elevation gives it a mild, pleasant climate; a cool morning wind, the karaman, and an evening breeze, the Shab-e-Malwa, make the summers less harsh. The Mahi is a river in western India. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Betwa (Vetravati) is a river in Northern India, and a tributary of the Yamuna. ... The Dhasan River is a tributary of the Betwa River. ... The Ken River is one the major rivers passing through the Banda district of Bundelkahnd, India. ... The Shipra, also known as the Kshipra, is a river in Madhya Pradesh state of central India. ... The 2001 Kumbh Mela. ... Parbati River is a river in Madhya Pradesh, India that flows into the Chambal River. ... River Gambhir originates in the hills near Karauli village in Sawai Madhopur District. ... Kali Sindh is a river in the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh, that joins the Chambal River at downstream of Sawai Madhopur in Rajasthan. ... The dusk time of Malwa region is refered to as Shab - e - malwa. ...

The Vindhya Range marks the southern boundary of the plateau, and is the source of many rivers of the region.

The year is popularly divided into three seasons: summer, the rains, and winter. Summers extends over the months of Chaitra to Jyestha (mid-March to mid-May). The average daily temperature during the summer months is 35 °C, which typically rises to around 40 °C on a few days. The rainy season starts with the first showers of Aashaadha (mid-June) and extends to the middle of Ashvin (September). Most of the rain falls during the southwest monsoon spell, and ranges from about 100 cm in the west to about 165 cm in the east. Indore and the immediately surrounding areas receive an average of 140 cm of rainfall a year. The growing period lasts from 90 to 150 days, during which the average daily temperature is below 30 °C, but seldom falls below 20 °C. Winter is the longest of the three seasons, extending for about five months (mid-Ashvin to Phalgun, i.e., October to mid-March). The average daily temperature ranges from 15 °C to 20 °C, though on some nights it can fall as low as 7 °C. Some cultivators believe that an occasional winter shower during the months of Pausha and Maagha—known as Mawta—is helpful to the early summer wheat and germ crops.[4] Image File history File links Mhow2_coolspark. ... Image File history File links Mhow2_coolspark. ... The Vindhya Range is a range of hills in central India, which geographically separates The Indian subcontinent into northern India and Southern India. ... Chaitra (Hindi: चैत cait or चैत्र caitr) is a month of the Hindu calendar. ... Jyestha (Hindi: जेठ jeá¹­ or ज्येष्ठ jyeṣṭ) is a month of the Hindu calendar, also known as Jeth or Iethe. ... Aashaadha is the fourth month of the Hindu calendar. ... Ashvin (Hindi: क्वार kvaar, Bangla: আশ্বিন Ashshin), also known as Aswayuja, is a month of the Hindu and Bengali calendars. ... Monsoon in the Vindhya mountain range, central India A monsoon is a heavy rainy season which lasts for several months and has lasting climatic effects. ... Ashvin (Hindi: क्वार kvaar, Bangla: আশ্বিন Ashshin), also known as Aswayuja, is a month of the Hindu and Bengali calendars. ... Phalguna (Hindi: फागुन phaagun or फाल्गुन phaalgun) is a month of the Hindu calendar. ... Pausha is the tenth month of the Hindu calendar also know as Poush or Pushya. ... Maagha is the eleventh month of the Hindu calendar. ...

The Sambhar is one of the most common wild animals found in the region.

The region is part of the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests ecoregion. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 432 KB) Sambar deer in Vandalur zoo, Chennai, India. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 432 KB) Sambar deer in Vandalur zoo, Chennai, India. ... The Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests are a tropical dry broadleaf forest ecoregion of western India. ... An ecoregion, sometimes called a bioregion, is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ...


Vegetation: The natural vegetation is tropical dry forest, with scattered teak (Tectona grandis) forests. The main trees are Butea, Bombax, Anogeissus, Acacia, Buchanania and Boswellia. The shrubs or small trees include species of Grewia, Ziziphus mauritiana, Casearia, Prosopis, Capparis, Woodfordia, Phyllanthus, and Carissa. Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover provided by plants, and is, by far, the most abundant biotic element of the biosphere. ... The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest biome is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. ... Species Tectona grandis Tectona hamiltoniana Tectona philippinensis Teak (Tectona), also called jati, is a genus of tropical hardwood trees in the family Verbenaceae, native to the south and southeast of Asia, and is commonly found as a component of monsoon forest vegetation. ... Species See text Butea is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the pea family, Fabaceae. ... Species Bombax buonopozense Bombax ceiba And six other species Silk cotton trees comprise eight species in the genus Bombax, native to tropical southern Asia, northern Australia and tropical Africa. ... species Anogeissus is a genus of trees native to South Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, and Africa, belonging to family Combretaceae. ... Species About 1,300; see List of Acacia species Acacia tree in the Serengeti, Tanzania Acacia is a genus of shrubs and trees of Gondwanian origin belonging to the subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae, first described from Africa by Linnaeus in 1773. ... Species Boswellia sacra (aka or )Boswellia frereana Boswellia papyrifera Boswellia serrata Boswellia is a genus of trees known for their fragrant resin which has many pharmacological uses particularly as anti-inflamatories. ... Grewioideae is a subfamily of the Malvaceae family. ... Binomial name Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. ... Species See text. ... Species see text The genus of Phyllanthus, belonging to the family Phyllanthaceae, comprises trees, bushes, and annual or biennial herbs distributed in all tropical and subtropical regions on Earth. ... Species See text. ...


Wildlife: Sambhar (Cervus unicolor), Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), and Chinkara (Gazella bennettii) are some common ungulates.[7] During the last century, deforestation has happened at a fast rate, leading to environmental problems such as acute water scarcity and the danger that the region is being desertified. Image:FRANKIE COBB.jpg Various species of deer are commonly seen wildlife across the Americas and Eurasia. ... Binomial name Cervus unicolor (Kerr, 1792) Sambar Sambar, common name for several large dark brown and maned Asian deer, particularly for the Indian species, which attains a height of 102 to 160 cm (40 to 63 in) at the shoulder and may weigh as much as 272 kg (600 lb). ... Binomial name Antilope cervicapra (Linnaeus, 1758) The Black Buck (Antilope cervicapra) or Indian Black Buck antelope, is a small antelope native to Northern India, Pakistan and Nepal. ... Binomial name Gazella bennettii (Sykes, 1831) The Chinkara is a species of gazelle found in South Asia. ... Llamas such as this, which have two toes, are artiodactylas -- even toed ungulates Ungulates (meaning roughly hoofed or hoofed animal) make up several orders of mammals, of which six to eight survive. ...


See also: Geography of India The geography of India is extremely diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, rainforests, hills and plateaus. ...


Demographics

A girl from the Gadia Lohars nomadic tribe of Marwar, cooking on the outskirts of a village in Ratlam district

The population of the Malwa region was about 18.9 million in 2001, with a population density of a moderate 231/km². The annual birth rate in the region was 31.6 per 1000, and the death rate 10.3. The infant mortality rate was 93.8, slightly higher than the overall rate for the Madhya Pradesh state. There are numerous tribes in the region, such as the Bhils—and their allied groups, the Bhilalas, Barelas and Patelias—and the Meenas, who all differ to a remarkable degree from the regional population in their dialects and social life. They encompass a variety of languages and cultures. Some tribes of the region, notably the Kanjars, were notified in the 19th century for their criminal activities, but have since then been denotified. A nomadic tribe from the Marwar region of Rajasthan, the Gadia Lohars—who work as lohars (blacksmiths)—visit the region at the start of the agricultural season to repair and sell agricultural tools and implements, stopping temporarily on the outskirts of villages and towns and residing in their ornate metal carts. The Kalbelias are another nomadic tribe from Rajasthan that regularly visits the region.[8] Image File history File links Gaduliya. ... Image File history File links Gaduliya. ... Gadia Lohar is a nomadic community of Rajasthan, India . ... Marwar (मारवाड़) is a region of southwestern Rajasthan state in western India. ... Ratlam (or Rijtlam), is a city and district in the Malwa region in Madhya Pradesh state of central India. ... Bhils are a tribal people of central India. ... The Bhilala are located in several states in western central India but mainly in the districts of Dhar, Jhabua, and West Nimar of Madhya Pradesh. ... Barela is a town and a nagar panchayat in Jabalpur district in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. ... Meenas, or Meena, is a tribal community mainly found in Rajasthan, India. ... Notified tribes are the tribes that were originally listed under the Criminal Tribes Act in 1871, as addicted to the systematic commission of non-bailable offences. ... Denotified tribes are the tribes that were originally listed under the Criminal Tribes Act in 1871, as addicted to the systematic commission of non-bailable offences. ... Marwar (मारवाड़) is a region of southwestern Rajasthan state in western India. ... Gadia Lohar is a nomadic community of Rajasthan, India . ... Indian folk and tribal dances are simple dances, and are performed to express joy. ...


Malwa has a significant number of Dawoodi Bohras, a subsect of Shia Muslims from Gujarat, who are mostly businessmen by profession. Besides speaking the local languages, the Bohras have their own language, Lisan al-Dawat. The Patidars, who probably originated from the Kurmis of Punjab, are mostly rural farmers who settled in Gujarat around 1400. Periods of sultanate and Maratha rule led to the growth of sizeable Muslim and Marathi communities. A significant number of Jats and Rajputs also live in the region. The Sindhis, who settled in the region after the partition of India, are an important part of the business community. Like neighbouring Gujarat and southern Rajasthan, the region has a significant number of Jains, who are mostly traders and business people. The region is home to smaller numbers of Parsis or Zoroastrians, Goan Catholics, Anglo-Indians, and Punjabis. The Parsis are intimately connected with the growth and evolution of Mhow, which has a Parsi fire temple and a Tower of Silence. Dawoodi Bohras are the main branch of the Bohras, a MustaˤlÄ« subsect of IsmāīlÄ« Shīˤa Islām, and are based in India. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Patel. ... Kurmi/Kunbi, which is the name of one of the Jātis (castes) of the Hindus, is an ancient name for several castes and sub-castes of people who call themselves as Kurmi Kshatriya it is a kshatriya name similar to ancient Kurus. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ... Jats are now preeminently a farming community. ... Rajput (from the Sanskrit tatpurusha compound , son of a king) is a Caste among Hindus in India, Pakistan and Nepal. ... Sindhis (सिन्धी, سنڌي) are an Indo-Aryan language speaking socio-ethnic group of people originating in Sindh which is part of present day Pakistan. ... Caution! This Article Is Under Construction This article or section is currently in the middle of an expansion or major revamping. ... , Gujarāt (GujarātÄ«: , IPA:  ) is a state in the Republic of India. ... Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Goa   (Konkani: गोंय goṃya; Marathi: गोवा govā; Portuguese: Goa) is Indias smallest state in terms of area and the fourth smallest in terms of population (after Sikkim, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh). ... Anglo-Indians are persons who have descended from a mix of British and Indian parentage. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... Mhow is a small cantonment town in the Indore District of the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh state, India. ... One of the two Towers of Silence no longer in use on the outskirts of the city of Yazd, Iran. ...


Economy

Children in an opium field in Malwa

The region is one of the world's major opium producers. It was this crop that resulted in close connections between the economies of Malwa, the western Indian ports and China, bringing international capital to the region in the 18th and 19th centuries. Malwa opium was a challenge to the monopoly of the East India Company, which was supplying Bengal opium to China. This led the British company to impose many restrictions on the production and trade of the drug; eventually, opium trading was pushed underground. When smuggling became rife, the British eased the restrictions. Today, the region is still one of the largest producers of legal opium in the world. There is a central, government-owned opium and alkaloid factory in the city of Neemuch. Nevertheless, there is a still a significant amount of illicit opium production, which is channelled into the black market. The headquarters of India's Central Bureau of Narcotics is in Gwalior. Download high resolution version (1165x739, 72 KB)Licensed under GNU Free Documentation License. ... Download high resolution version (1165x739, 72 KB)Licensed under GNU Free Documentation License. ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ... In economics, a monopoly (from the Latin word monopolium - Greek language monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a product or service. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Gwalior   is a city in Madhya Pradesh in India. ...


The region is predominantly agricultural. The black, volcanic soil is ideal for the cultivation of cotton, and textile manufacture is an important industry. Large centres of textile production include Indore, Ujjain and Nagda. Maheshwar is known for its fine Maheshwari saris, and Mandsaur for its coarse woollen blankets. Handicrafts are an important source of income for the tribal population. Coloured lacquerware from Ratlam, rag dolls from Indore, and papier-mâché articles from Indore, Ujjain and several other centres are well known. The brown soil in parts of the region is particularly suitable for the cultivation of such unalu (early summer) crops as wheat, gram (Cicer arietinum) and til (Sesamum indicum). Relatively poor soil is used for the cultivation of syalu such (early winter) crops as millet (Andropogon sorghum), maize (Zea mays), mung bean (Vigna radiata), urad (Vigna mungo), batla (Pisum sativum) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea). Overall, the main crops are jowar, rice, wheat, coarse millet, peanuts and pulses, soya bean, cotton, linseed, sesame and sugarcane. Sugar mills are located in numerous small towns. Mandsaur district is the sole producer in India of white- and red-coloured slate, used in the district's 110 slate pencil factories. There is a cement factory in . Apart from this, the region lacks mineral resources. The region's industries mainly produce consumer goods—but there are now many centres of large- and medium-scale industries, including Indore, Nagda, and Ujjain. Indore has a large-scale factory that produces diesel engines. Pithampur, an industrial town 25 km from Indore, is known as the Detroit of India for its heavy concentration of automotive industry. Indore is recognised as the commercial capital of Madhya Pradesh, and is the main centre for trade in textiles and agro-based products. It has one of the six Indian Institutes of Management. Binomial name Cicer arietinum L. The chickpea, chick pea, garbanzo bean, ceci bean, bengal gram (Cicer arietinum), or chana is an edible pulse of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae. ... Binomial name Sesamum indicum L. Sesame is a plant grown primarily for its oil-rich seeds. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of about 30 species of grasses raised for grain, native to tropical and subtropical regions of Eastern Africa, with one species native to Mexico. ... species ssp. ... Binomial name Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek Synonyms Phaeolus aureus Roxb. ... Binomial name Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek Synonyms Phaeolus aureus Roxb. ... Binomial name Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper White lentils Urad, also referred to as the urd bean, urd, urid, black gram, black lentil or white lentil (Vigna mungo) is a bean grown in southern Asia. ... Binomial name Pisum sativum A pea (Pisum sativum) is the small, edible round green seed which grows in a pod on a leguminous vine, hence why it is called a legume. ... Binomial name Arachis hypogaea L. The peanut, or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) is a species in the legume family Fabaceae native to South America. ... Slate Thick slate fragment Slate roof Slate is a fine-grained, homogeneous, metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low grade regional metamorphism. ... Pithampur is an industrial estate eight kilometres from Mhow, which falls in the adjoining Dhar district. ... Indian Institute of Management Indore set up in 1996, is the youngest of the IIMs. ...


Culture

A Maratha-styled sculpture from Maheshwar

The culture of Malwa has been significantly influenced by Gujarati and Rajasthani culture, because of their geographic proximity. Marathi influence is also visible, because Malwa was the recent rule by the Marathas. The main language of Malwa is Malvi, although Hindi is widely spoken in the cities. This Indo-European language is subclassified as Indo-Aryan. The language is sometimes referred to as Malavi or Ujjaini. Malvi is part of the Rajasthani branch of languages; Nimadi is spoken in the Nimar region of Madhya Pradesh and in Rajasthan. The dialects of Malvi are, in alphabetical order, Bachadi, Bhoyari, Dholewari, Hoshangabadi, Jamral, Katiyai, Malvi Proper, Patvi, Rangari, Rangri and Sondwari. A survey in 2001 found only four dialects: Ujjaini (in the districts of Ujjain, Indore, Dewas and Sehore), Rajawari (Ratlam, Mandsaur and Neemuch), Umadwari (Rajgarh) and Sondhwari (Jhalawar, in Rajasthan). About 55% of the population of Malwa can converse in and about 40% of the population is literate in Hindi, the official language of the Madhya Pradesh state.[9] Image File history File links Maheshwar_coolspark. ... Image File history File links Maheshwar_coolspark. ... Maheshwar is a town in Khargone district of Madhya Pradesh state, in central India. ... , Gujarāt (GujarātÄ«: , IPA:  ) is a state in the Republic of India. ... Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... RickK 07:03, May 22, 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Hindi (Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is one of the official languages of the Union government of India. ... // Introduction Rajasthani is one of the prominent members of Indo-Aryan languages family. ... Nimar is the southwestern region of Madhya Pradesh state in west-central India. ... Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ...


Traditional Malwa food has elements of both Gujarati and Rajasthani cuisine. Traditionally, jowar was the staple cereal, but after the green revolution in India, wheat has replaced jowar as the most important food crop; many are vegetarians. Since the climate is mostly dry throughout the year, most people rely on stored foods such as pulses, and green vegetables are rare. A typical snack of Malwa is the bhutta ri kees (made with grated corn roasted in ghee and later cooked in milk with spices). Chakki ri shaak is made of wheat dough, which is washed under running water, steamed and then used in a gravy of curd. The traditional bread of Malwa is called baati/bafla, which is essentially a small, round ball of wheat flour, roasted over dung cakes, in the traditional way. Baati is typically eaten with dal (pulses), while baflas are dripping with ghee and soaked with dal. The amli ri kadhi is kadhi made with tamarind instead of yogurt. Sweet cakes, made of a variety of wheat called tapu, are prepared during religious festivities. Sweet cereal called thulli is also typically eaten with milk or yoghurt. Traditional desserts include mawa-bati (milk-based sweet similar to Gulab jamun), khoprapak (coconut-based sweet), shreekhand (yogurt based) and malpua. Gujarati cuisine refers to the cuisine of the people from the state of Gujarat in the West region of India. ... Rajasthani cuisine is predominantly vegetarian and dazzling in its variety. ... Jowar - also known as jwari - is a staple grain in large parts of central India. ... The Green Revolution is a term used to describe the transformation of agriculture in many developing nations that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ... Ghee in a jar Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Ghee Ghee (Hindi घी from Sanskrit ghṛta घृत sprinkled ) is a type of clarified butter important in Indian cuisine. ... Baati is a hard, unleavened bread cooked in desert areas of Rajasthan, Malwa and Gujarat in North India. ... Gulab jamun (gul-aab jaa-mun) is a popular Indian sweet dish comprised of fried dough in a sweet syrup flavoured with cardamom seeds and rosewater or saffron. ... Shrikhand is a dessert made of strained yogurt. ...


Lavani is a widely practised form of folk music in southern Malwa, which came through the Marathas. The Nirguni Lavani (philosophical) and the Shringari Lavani (erotic) are the two of the main genres. The Bhils have their own folk songs, which are always accompanied by dance. The folk musical modes of Malwa are of four or five notes, and in rare cases six. The devotional music of the Nirguni cult is popular throughout Malwa. Legends of Raja Bhoj and Bijori, the Kanjar girl, and the tale of Balabau are popular themes for folk songs. Insertions known as stobha are commonly used in Malwa music; this can occur in four ways: the matra stobha (syllable insertion), varna stobha (letter insertion), shabda stobha (word insertion) and vakya stobha (sentence insertion).[10] Lavani is a form of music popular in Maharashtra and southern Madhya Pradesh, India. ...

Typical countryside near Mhow during the monsoon season

Malwa was the centre of Sanskrit literature during and after the Gupta period. The region's most famous playwright, Kalidasa, is considered to be the greatest Indian writer ever. His first surviving play is Malavikagnimitra (Malavika and Agnimitra). Kalidasa's second play, his masterpiece, is the Abhijñānaśākuntalam, which tells the story of king Dushyanta, who falls in love with a girl of lowly birth, the lovely Shakuntala. The last of Kalidasa's surviving plays is Vikramuurvashiiya ("Urvashi conquered by valour"). Kalidasa also wrote the epic poems Raghuvamsha ("Dynasty of Raghu"), Ritusamhāra and Kumarasambhava ("Birth of the war god"), as well as the lyric Meghaduuta ("The cloud messenger"). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 262 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Malwa User:Deeptrivia/Album Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 262 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Malwa User:Deeptrivia/Album Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Monsoon in the Vindhya mountain range, central India A monsoon is a heavy rainy season which lasts for several months and has lasting climatic effects. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Shakuntala. ... The play is about the love story between Pururava and Urvashi. ... Kalidasas Raghuvamsha tells of the family of Rama and his descendents, including the conqueror Raghu. ... Ritu Samhaaram is a short epic in Sanskrit by Mahakavi Kalidasa. ... The Meghaduuta (which translates literally as cloud-messenger) is a lyrical poem written by Kalidasa, considered to be one of the greatest Sanskrit poets. ...


Swang is a popular dance form in Malwa; its roots go back to the origins of the Indian theatre tradition in the first millennium BC. Since women did not participate in the dance-drama form, men enacted their roles. Swang incorporates suitable theatrics and mimicry, accompanied alternatately by song and dialogue. The genre is dialogue-oriented rather than movement-oriented.[11] Swang is a popular folk dance drama form in the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh. ...


Mandana (literally painting) wall and floor paintings are the best-known painting traditions of Malwa. White drawings stand out in contrast to the base material consisting of a mixture of red clay and cow dung. Peacocks, cats, lions, goojari, bawari, the swastika and chowk are some motifs of this style. Sanjhya is a ritual wall painting done by young girls during the annual period when Hindus remember and offer ritual oblation to their ancestors. Malwa miniature paintings are well known for their intricate brushwork.[12] In the 17th century, an offshoot of the Rajasthani school of miniature painting, known as Malwa painting, was centred largely in Malwa and Bundelkhand. The school has preserved the style of the earliest examples, such as the Rasikapriya series dated 1636 (after a poem analysing the love sentiment) and the Amaru Sataka (a 17th-century Sanskrit poem). The paintings from this school are flat compositions on black and chocolate-brown backgrounds, with figures shown against a solid colour patch, and architecture painted in vibrant colours.[13] A right-facing Swastika in a decorative Hindu form The swastika (from Sanskrit ) is an equilateral cross with its arms bent at right angles, in either right-facing () or left-facing () forms. ...

Women making offerings on the banks of the river Shipra, Ujjain

The biggest festival of Malwa is the Simhastha mela, held every 12 years, in which more than a million pilgrims take a holy dip in river Shipra. The festival of Gana-gour is celebrated in honour of Shiva and Parvati. The history of the festival goes back to Rano Bai, whose parental home was in Malwa, but who was married in Rajasthan. Rano Bai was strongly attached to Malwa, and did not want to stay in Rajasthan. After marriage, she was allowed to visit Malwa only once a year; Gana-gour symbolises these annual return visits. The festival is observed by the women in the region once in the month of Chaitra (mid-March) and Bhadra (mid-August). The Ghadlya (earthen pot) festival is celebrated by the girls of the region, who gather to visit every house in their village in the evenings, carrying earthen pots with holes for the light from oil lamps inside to escape. In front of every house, the girls recite songs connected with the Ghadlya and receive food or money in return. The Gordhan festival is celebrated on the 16th day in the month of Kartika. The Bhils of the region sing Heeda anectodal songs to the cattle, while the women sing the Chandrawali song, associated with Krishna's romance.<ref>Festivals of Madhya Pradesh</ref> Image File history File linksMetadata Ujjainshipra. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ujjainshipra. ... Shipra River is a river in Madhya Pradesh. ... This article is about the deity Shiva. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Bhils are a tribal people of central India. ... Krishna with Radha, 18th C Rajasthani painting Krishna (कृष्ण in Devanagari, in IAST ) is a deity worshipped across many traditions of Hinduism. ...


The most popular fairs are held in the months of Phalguna, Chaitra, Bhadra, Ashvin and Kartik. The Chaitra fair, held at Biaora, and the Gal yatras, held at more than two dozen villages in Malwa are remarkable. Many fairs are held in the tenth day of the month of Bhadra to mark the birth of Tejaji. The Triveni mela is held at Ratlam, and other fairs take place in Kartika at Ujjain, Mandhata (Nimad), Nayagaon, among others.[14] In the Belisarius series, by David Drake and Eric Flint, the people of Malwa are chosen by malicious beings from the future to change the course of history. The Byzantine general Belisarius is set against them by a creature sent by a benevolent group of future beings. Phalguna is the twelfth month of the Hindu calendar. ... Chaitra (Hindi: चैत cait or चैत्र caitr) is a month of the Hindu calendar. ... In Hinduism, Bhadra is a goddess of the hunt and one of Shivas servants. ... Ashvin (Hindi: क्वार kvaar, Bangla: আশ্বিন Ashshin), also known as Aswayuja, is a month of the Hindu and Bengali calendars. ... Kaartika ( Hindi: &#2325;&#2366;&#2340;&#2367;&#2325; kaatik or &#2325;&#2366;&#2352;&#2381;&#2340;&#2367;&#2325; kaartik) is a month of the Hindu calendar. ... Veer Teja (1074- 1103) was a Jat folk-deity who lived in the state of Rajasthan in India. ... Ratlam (or Rijtlam), is a city and district in the Malwa region in Madhya Pradesh state of central India. ... The Belisarius Series is a collection of novels written by David Drake and Eric Flint and published by Baen Books. ... David Drake (born September 24, 1945) is a successful author of science fiction and fantasy literature. ... Eric Flint (born California, USA, 1947) is an American science fiction, alternate history, and fantasy author and editor. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Belisarius is thought to be the figure to the right of Emperor Justinian I in the mosaic in the Church of San Vitale Ravenna that celebrates the reconquest of Italy, performed by the Byzantine army under the skillful leadership of Belisarius himself. ...


Tourism

The main tourist destinations in Malwa are places of historical or religious significance. The river Shipra and the city of Ujjain have been regarded as sacred for thousands of years. The Mahakal Temple of Ujjain is one of the 12 jyotirlingas. Ujjain has over 100 other ancient temples, including Harsidhhi, Chintaman Ganesh, Gadh Kalika, Kaal Bhairava and Mangalnath. The Kalideh Palace, on the outskirts of the city, is a fine example of ancient Indian architecture. The Bhartrihari caves are associated with interesting legends. Since the fourth century BC, Ujjain has enjoyed the reputation of being India's Greenwich,[15] as the first meridian of longitude of the Hindu geographers. The observatory built by Jai Singh II is one of the four such observatories in India and features ancient astronomical devices. The Simhastha mela, celebrated every 12 years, starts on the full moon day in Chaitra (April) and continues into Vaishakha (May) until the next full moon day. This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A Jyotirling or Jyotirlinga or Jyotirlingam is a shrine where the Hindu God Shiva is worshipped in the form of a Jyotirlingam or Linga of light. ... This article is about the Hindu goddess Kali. ... Bhairava (&#2349;&#2376;&#2352;&#2357;) is a name of the fearsome aspect of the god Shiva. ... Bhartrihari (c 450–510) was an Indian author of Wikipedia and early figure in Indic linguistic theory. ... Greenwich (pronounced grenn-itch or by some grinn-itch ) is a town, now part of the south eastern urban sprawl of London, on the south bank of the River Thames in the London Borough of Greenwich. ... Location of the Prime Meridian Prime Meridian in Greenwich The Prime Meridian, also known as the International Meridian or Greenwich Meridian, is the meridian (line of longitude) passing through the Royal Greenwich Observatory, Greenwich, England — it is the meridian at which longitude is 0 degrees. ... Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh (November 3, 1688-September 21, 1743) was ruler of the kingdom of Amber (later called Jaipur. ...

Mandu Valley

Mandu was originally the fort capital of the Parmar rulers. Towards the end of the 13th century, it came under the sway of the Sultans of Malwa, the first of whom named it Shadiabad (city of joy). It remained as the capital, and in it the sultans built exquisite palaces like the Jahaz Mahal and Hindola Mahal, ornamental canals, baths and pavilions. The massive Jami Masjid and Hoshang Shah's tomb provided inspiration to the designers of the Taj Mahal centuries later. Baz Bahadur built a huge palace in Mandu in the 16th century. Other notable historical monuments are Rewa Kund, Rupmati's Pavillion, Nilkanth Mahal, Hathi Mahal, Darya Khan's Tomb, Dai ka Mahal, Malik Mughit's Mosque and Jali Mahal. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 164 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Malwa Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 164 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Malwa Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Mandu, or Mandogarh, is a ruined city in the Dhar District in the Malwa region of western Madhya Pradesh state, central India. ... Mandu, or Mandogarh, is a ruined city in the Dhar District in the Malwa region of western Madhya Pradesh state, central India. ... The Taj Mahal, viewed from the Northern bank of the Yamuna river. ... Miyan Bayezid Baz Bahadur was a sultan of Malwa from 1555 to 1562. ... Rani Rupmati, also spelt Roopmati, was a Hindu singer of Malwa. ...

Fort Ahilya in Maheshwar

Close to Mandu is Maheshwar, a town on the northern bank of Narmada River that served as the capital of the Indore state under Rajmata Ahilya Devi Holkar. The Maratha rajwada (fort) is the main attraction. A life-size statue of Rani Ahilya sits on a throne within the fort complex. Dhar was the capital of Malwa before Mandu became the capital in 1405. There, the fort is in ruins but offers a panoramic view. The Bhojashala Mosque (built in 1400) is still used as a place of worship on Fridays. The abandoned Lat Masjid (1405) and the tomb of Kamal Maula (early 15th century), a Muslim saint, are other places of interest. Image File history File linksMetadata Fort_ahilya_coolspark. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Fort_ahilya_coolspark. ... Maheshwar is a town in Khargone district of Madhya Pradesh state, in central India. ... The Narmada or Nerbudda is a river in central India. ... ...


Modern Indore was planned and built by Rajmata Ahilya Devi Holkar. The grand Lal Baag Palace is one of its grandest monuments. The Bada Ganpati temple houses what is possibly the largest Ganesh idol in the world, measuring 7.6 m from crown to foot. The Kanch Mandir is a Jain temple entirely inlaid with glass. The Town Hall was made in 1904 in indo-gothic style; originally named King Edward Hall, it was renamed Mahatma Gandhi Hall in 1948. The chhatris are the tombs or cenotaphs erected in memory of dead Holkar rulers and their family members. Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth Realms, and the Emperor of India. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhÄ«, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948), was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. ...


The shrine of Hussain Tekri, built by the Nawab of Jaora, Mohammad Iftikhar Ali Khan Bahadur, in the 19th century, is on the outskirts of Jaora in the Ratlam district. Mohammad Iftikhar Ali Khan Bahadur was buried in the same graveyard where Hussain Tekri was buried. During the month of Moharram, thousands of people from all over the world visit the shrine of Hazrat Imam Hussain there, which is a replica of the Iraqi original. The place is famous for the rituals called Hajri to cure mental illness. The shrine of Hussain Tekri was built by the Nawab of Jaora, Mohammad Iftikhar Ali Khan Bahadur, in the 19th century. ... Jaora is a town in Ratlam district of Malwa, which had been a princely state before independence. ... Muharram is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


See also

     Geography of South Asia     
Himalaya | Western Ghats | Eastern Ghats | Aravalli Range | The Nilgiris | Vindhya Range | Satpura Range | Garo Hills | Shivalik Hills | Khasi Hills | Annamalai Hills | Cardamom Hills | Sulaiman Mountains | Karakoram | Hindu Kush | Chittagong Hill Tracts | Deccan Plateau | Thar Desert | Makran | Chota Nagpur | Naga Hills | Mysore Plateau | Ladakh Plateau
Indo-Gangetic plain | Indus River Delta | Ganga basin | Ganges Delta | Atolls of Maldives | Coromandel Coast | Konkan | Lakshadweep | Andaman and Nicobar Islands | Sundarbans | Rann of Kutch | Protected areas of Tamil Nadu |
Main India | Pakistan | Nepal | Bhutan | Sri Lanka | Bangladesh | The Maldives | Portal:Himalaya region

Madhya PradeÅ›   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... Historical Kalidasa (c 100? BC - c 400? AD) Sanskrit playwright Chandragupta Vikramaditya (375 - 415 ) Legendary King Varahamihira (505 - 587) Astronomer and Mathematician Siddhasena Bhartrihari (570-651?) Brahmagupta (598 - 668) Mathematician Bhoj (1010 - 1060) King Bhaskara (1114 -1185) Mathematician Dhanvantari Rajmata Ahilya Devi Holkar Modern Dr. B. R. Ambedkar (1891 - 1956... Rajasthani cuisine is predominantly vegetarian and dazzling in its variety. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3042x2933, 2736 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about the geopolitical region in Asia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x958, 167 KB) India This is a NASA World Wind screenshot. ... Download high resolution version (1000x662, 258 KB)The Himalayan mountain range with Mount Everest as seen from the International Space Station looking south-south-east over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... The Agasthiyamalai range of the Western Ghats The Western Ghats are a mountain range in India. ... The Eastern Ghats are a discontinuous range of mountains, eroded and cut through by the four major rivers of southern India, the Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, and Kaveri. ... The Aravali Range The Aravali Range is a range of mountains in western India running approximately 300 miles northeast-southwest across Rajasthan state. ... Map of The Nilgiris district The Nilgiris or Blue Mountains, often called The Queen of Hills are a range of mountains and a district in the south-Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. ... The Vindhya Range is a range of hills in central India, which geographically separates The Indian subcontinent into northern India and Southern India. ... The Satpura Range is a range of hills in central India. ... The Garo Hills are part of the Garo-Khasi range in Meghalaya, India. ... The Siwalik Hills (sometimes spelled Shiwalik, Shivalik, or Sivalik) are a sub-Himalayan mountain range running 1,600 km long from the Tista River, Sikkim, through Nepal and India, into northern Pakistan. ... The Khasi Hills are part of the Garo-Khasi range in Meghalaya, India. ... Anaimalai hills are a trekking destination in the Western Ghats located in the southern indian state of Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore district, and is known for its abundant wildlife. ... The Cardamom Hills are elevated regions in Kerala, India. ... sorry guys it is unavailable and happens to be deleted--212. ... Located in the mountainous regions of Gilgit, Ladakh & Baltistan, Gilgit and Baltistan are in Pakistan, the Karakoram is one of the great Himalayan mountain ranges, with many of the highest and most daunting peaks of the world. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (&#1607;&#1606;&#1583;&#1608;&#1705;&#1588; in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Deccan Plateau // Main article: Geography of India The Deccan Plateau (Marathi: डेक्कन), also known as The Great Country, is a vast elevated tableland area with widely varying terrain features making up the majority of the southern India located between three ranges and extending over eight states. ... A NASA satellite image of the Thar Desert, with the India-Pakistan border superimposed is found in canada, united states. ... Makran is the southern region of Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. ... The Chota Nagpur Plateau (also Chhota Nagpur) is a plateau in eastern India, which covers much of Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Orissa, Bihar, and Chhattisgarh. ... Naga hills, reaching a height of around 3825 meters, lie on the border of India and Myanmar. ... The Mysore Plateau, also known as the South Karnataka Plateau, is one of the four geographically unique regions of the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Karakoram mountain range to the north and the Himalayas to the south. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1023x505, 196 KB) Summary Dabhol beach as seen from the ferry when crossing over from Guhaghar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Indus River Delta The Indus River Delta occurs where the Indus River flows into the Arabian Sea in Pakistan. ... The Ganga basin is a part of the composite Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin, which drains an area of 1,086,000 square kilometres. ... Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India The Ganges Delta (or the Bengal Delta) is a river delta in the South Asia region of Bengal, consisting of Bangladesh and the state of West Bengal, India. ... Each administrative atoll is marked, along with the thaana letter used to identify the atoll. ... The Coromandel Coast is the name given to the southeastern coast of the Indian peninsula. ... A typical view of the Konkan, consisting of white-sand beaches and palm trees (mostly coconut and betel nut). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Andaman Islands. ... Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India The Sundarbans delta is the largest mangrove forest in the world. ... Rann of Kutch on the Top Left. ... // Tamil Nadu, India Tamil Nadu State in South India covers an area of 130,058 km 2 (50,215 mi2). ... Maldives is a country of South Asia, situated in the Indian Ocean, south-southwest of India. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Malwa plateau on Britannica
  2. ^ a b c Malwa in Encyclopedia Britannica 1911 Edition
  3. ^ Panhwar, M.H., Sindh: The Archaeological Museum of the world.
  4. ^ a b c Ahmad, S. H., Anthropometric measurements and ethnic affinities of the Bhil and their allied groups of Malwa area., Anthropological Survey of India,1991, ISBN 81-85579-07-5
  5. ^ Geochronological Study of the Deccan Volcanism by the 40Ar-39Ar Method
  6. ^ The Deccan beyond the plume hypothesis
  7. ^ Dewas district
  8. ^ Kalbeliya nomads
  9. ^ Ethnologue
  10. ^ Folk music of Madhya Pradesh
  11. ^ 'Swang' – The Folk Dance of Malwa
  12. ^ Paintings of Mewar and Malwa
  13. ^ Malwa painting on Encyclopedia Britannica
  14. ^ Fairs of Madhya Pradesh
  15. ^ Ujjain district official portal

References

  • Malcolm, Sir John, A Memoir of Central India including Malwa and Adjoining Provinces. Calcutta, Spink, 1880, 2 Volumes, 1129 p., ISBN 81-7305-199-2.
  • Chakrabarti, Manika, Malwa in Post-Maurya period: a critical study with special emphasis on numismatic evidences. Calcutta. Punthi Pustak, 1981.
  • Day, Upendra Nath, Medieval Malwa: a political and cultural history 1401–1562., New Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1965.
  • Jain, Kailash Chand, Malwa through the ages from the earliest times to 1305 A.D., Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, 1972.
  • Khare, M.D. Splendour of Malwa paintings., New Delhi, Cosmo Publications, 1983., ASIN B0006EHSUU
  • Joshi, Ramchandra Vinayak, Stone age cultures of Central India., Poona, Deccan College, 1978.
  • Seth, K.N., The growth of the Paramara power in Malwa., Bhopal, Progress Publishers, 1978.
  • Sharma, R.K., ed., Art of the Paramaras of Malwa., Delhi, Agam Kala Prakashan, 1979.
  • Sircar, D.C. Ancient Malwa and the Vikramaditya tradition., New Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1969., ISBN 81-215-0348-5
  • Singh, Raghubir, Malwa in transition, Laurier Books, 1993, ISBN 81-206-0750-3
  • Srivastava, K, The revolt of 1857 in Central India-Malwa, Allied Publishers, ASIN B0007IURKI
  • Ahmad, S. H., Anthropometric measurements and ethnic affinities of the Bhil and their allied groups of Malwa area., Anthropological Survey of India,1991, ISBN 81-85579-07-5
  • Farooqui, Amar, Smuggling as subversion: colonialism, Indian merchants, and the politics of opium, 1790-1843, Lexington Books, 2005, ISBN 0-7391-0886-7
  • Mathur, Kripa Shanker, Caste and ritual in a Malwa village, Asia Pub. House, 1964.

Sir John Malcolm (1769‑1833) was a Scottish soldier, statesman, and historian, born at Burnfoot, Dumfriesshire on the 2nd of May, 1769. ...

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