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Encyclopedia > Maltese language
Maltese
Malti
Spoken in: Flag of Australia Australia
Flag of Gibraltar Gibraltar
Flag of Malta Malta
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of Canada Canada
Flag of the United States United States
Total speakers: ca 500,000
Language family: Afro-Asiatic
 Semitic
  Central Semitic
   South Central Semitic
    Arabic
     Maltese 
Official status
Official language in: Flag of Europe European Union
Flag of Malta Malta
Regulated by: Il-Kunsill Nazzjonali ta' l-Ilsien Malti
Language codes
ISO 639-1: mt
ISO 639-2: mlt
ISO 639-3: mlt

Maltese is the national language of Malta[1], and an official language of the European Union. It is descended from Maghrebi Arabic [2][3]. It is the only Semitic language written in the Latin alphabet in its standard form. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Gibraltar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family (Languages of Africa) with about 375 languages (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout North Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and Southwest Asia (including some 200 million speakers of Arabic). ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... 12th century Hebrew Bible script The Semitic languages are a family of languages spoken by more than 250 million people across much of the Middle East, where they originated, and North and East Africa. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta. ... Il-Kunsill Nazzjonali ta l-Ilsien Malti (The National Council for the Maltese Language) was founded on April 2005 after the passage of a Bill in the Maltese Parliament. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Chameleon, a symbol of the multilingualism of the European Union. ... Maghrebi Arabic is a cover term for the dialects of Arabic spoken in the Maghreb, including Western Sahara, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, and Libya. ... The Semitic languages are the northeastern subfamily of the Afro-Asiatic languages, and the only family of this group spoken in Asia. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ...


Apart from its phonology, Maltese bears considerable similarity to urban varieties of Tunisian Arabic and other North African Arabic dialects. In the course of history, the language has adopted numerous loanwords, phonetic and phonological features, and even morphological and syntactic patterns from Sicilian and Italian, while many words (some with their plural forms) are also borrowed from English. Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... Tunisian Arabic is a Maghrebi dialect of the Arabic language, spoken by some 9 million people. ... Maghrebi Arabic is a cover term for the dialects of Arabic spoken in the Maghreb, including Western Sahara, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, and Libya. ... Malta has been inhabited since around 5200 BC and a significant pre-historic civilisation existed on the islands before the arrival of the Phoenicians who named the main island Malat, meaning safe haven . // Further information: Timeline of Maltese history about 5200 BCE: Earliest settlers arrive on Malta. ... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... Look up plural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Maltese became an official language of Malta in 1936, alongside English [citation needed]. Today, there are an estimated 500,000 Maltese speakers, of whom 400,000 reside in Malta. Thousands of Maltese emigrants in Australia, the United States, Canada and Gibraltar (can) still speak the language. In 2007 it was reported that Maltese is still spoken by Maltese descendants in Tunisia.[4] An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The oldest known document in Maltese is "Il Cantilena," a poem from the 15th century written by Pietro Caxaro.[5] For centuries, Maltese was nearly exclusively a spoken language, with writing being done in Arabic, or later, Italian [citation needed]. Il Cantilena is the oldest known literary text in the Maltese language. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...

Contents

Grammar

Maltese grammar is fundamentally derived from Arabic, although Romance and Anglo-Saxon patterns are also used. The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ...


Semitic grammatical structure

Adjectives follow nouns, there are no separately formed native adverbs, and word order is fairly flexible. As in Arabic and Hebrew, both nouns and adjectives of Semitic origin take the definite article (for example It-tifel il-kbir, lit. "The boy the elder=The elder boy"; cf. Arabic at-tifl-u l-kabi:r, Hebrew ha-na`ar ha-gadol). This rule does not apply to adjectives of Romance origin. In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... “Adverbs” redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Look up Cf. ...


Nouns are pluralized and also have a dual marker (rare among modern European languages, others including Slovene and Sorbian, as well as Serbian and Czech, which have preserved a somewhat vestigial dual form for certain body parts and nouns, but common among Semitic languages). Dual is the grammatical number used for two referents. ... This article or section should be merged with List of Sorbian languages The Sorbian languages are members of the West Slavic branch of languages spoken in eastern Germany. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ...


Semitic plurals are complex; if they are regular, they are marked by -iet/-ijiet, e.g., art, artijiet "lands (territorial possessions or property)" (cf. Arabic -at and Hebrew -ot) or -in (cf. Arabic -īn and Hebrew -im). If irregular, they fall in the pluralis fractus category, in which a word is pluralized by internal vowel changes: ktieb, kotba "books", raġel, irġiel "men".


Verbs still show a triliteral Semitic pattern, in which a verb is conjugated with prefixes, suffixes, and infixes (for example ktibna, Arabic katabna, Hebrew katavnu "we wrote"). There are two tenses: present and perfect. In the terminology used to discuss the grammar of the Semitic and some other Afro-Asiatic languages, a triliteral (Arabic: جذر ثلاثي, ǧaḏr thalathi) is a root containing a sequence of three consonants (so also known as a triconsonantal root). ... In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (regular alteration according to rules of grammar). ... In linguistics, a prefix is a type of affix that precedes the morphemes to which it can attach. ... It has been suggested that Ending (linguistics) be merged into this article or section. ... An infix is an affix inserted inside an existing word. ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ...


Romance grammatical structure

The Romance pattern is generally simpler. Words of Romance origin are usually pluralized in two manners: addition of -i or -jiet (for example lingwa, lingwi "languages", from Sicilian lingua, lingui.)


The Maltese verb system incorporates Romance verbs and adds Arabic suffixes and prefixes to them (for example iddeċidejna "we decided" < (i)ddeċieda 'Romance verb' + -ejna 'Arabic first person plural perfect marker'). Arabic only rarely does this, although several Arabic dialects like Tunisian do. The Arabic language is classified as a Semitic language. ...


English grammatical structure

The English pattern is similar to the Romance pattern, in that words of English origin are pluralized by adding either an "-s" or "-jiet", for example tojlit, tojlits from the English toilet, toilets and friġġ, friġis from the word fridge. Some words can actually adopt either of the suffixes to denote the plural. More curious still, a few words loaned from English in Maltese can amalgamate both suffixes together, like brikksa from the English brick, which can adopt either collective form brikks or the plural form brikksiet.


Vocabulary

Maltese vocabulary is a hybrid based on a foundation of Arabic Semitic roots with a heavy borrowing of Sicilian, Italian, and English loanwords. In this respect it is similar to English (a Germanic language heavily influenced by French, particularly the Norman variety rather than the standard language). The result of this highly uneven distribution of loanwords throughout the language is that a speaker of the loanword-source language (in this case Romance or English language speakers) can understand, for instance, the main page of the Maltese Wikipedia or comprehend the subject of a newspaper article, but cannot understand even such basic Maltese sentences such as Ir-raġel qiegħed fid-dar (The man is in the house). This situation resembles that of a monolingual English speaker, who will often be able to guess the content of something in French if it is formal academic writing, but not understand much simpler sentences. Arabic redirects here. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Quranic Arabic roots

Żammit found that 40% of a sample of 1,820 Quranic Arabic roots were found in Maltese, a lower percentage than found in Moroccan (58%) and Syrian Arabic (72%).[6] An analysis of the etymology of the 41,000 words in Aquilina's Maltese-English Dictionary shows that 32% of the Maltese vocabulary is of Arabic origin [7], although another source claims 40%[8]. Usually, words expressing basic concepts and ideas, such as raġel man, mara woman, tifel boy, dar house, xemx sun, sajf summer, are of Arabic origin. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Syrian Arabic is the variety of Arabic spoken in Syria, classified as a Levantine dialect. ...


The Maltese language has merged many of the original Arabic consonants together, in particular the emphatic consonants, with others that are common in European languages. So, original Arabic dal, dhal, and dad all merged into Maltese "d". The vowels, however, separated from the three in Arabic (a, i, u) to the five in Maltese and most other European languages, or, in the case of some unstressed short vowels, disappeared. The common Arabic greeting as-salāmu 'alaykum would look like is-sliem għalikom in Maltese. Emphatic consonant is a somewhat imprecise term commonly used in Semitic linguistics to describe pharyngealized or velarized, and ejective consonants, or consonants that historically had one of these properties. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ...


Words of Romance origin

An analysis of the etymology of the 41,000 words in Aquilina's Maltese-English Dictionary shows that words of Romance origin make up 52% of the Maltese vocabulary [9], although another source claims 40%[10]. These are generally more 'learned' words, having to do with new ideas, objects, government, law, education, art, literature, and general learning. They are mostly derived from Sicilian and thus exhibit Sicilian phonetic characteristics, such as 'u' in place of 'o' and 'i' in place of 'e' (e.g. tiatru not teatro and fidi not fede). Also, as with Old Sicilian, /ʃ/ (English 'sh') is written 'x' and this produces interesting spellings: ambaxxata /ambaʃːaːta/ is 'embassy', xena /ʃeːna/ is 'scene' (cf. Italian ambasciata, scena). Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ...


Below are just a few examples (Arabic is included for comparison): Arabic redirects here. ...

Maltese Sicilian Italian English Arabic
Skola Scola Scuola School مدرسة (madrassah)
Gvern Cuvernu Governo Government حكومة (ḥukūmah)
Repubblika Ripùbblica Repubblica Republic جمهورية (ǧummhūriyyah)
Re Re Re King ملك (malik)
Natura Natura Natura Nature طبيعة (ṭabīʿah)
Pulizija Pulizzìa Polizia Police شرطة (shurta)
Ċentru Centru Centro Centre مركز (markaz)
Teatru Tiatru Teatro Theatre مسرح (masraḥ)

Siculo-Arabic Similarities

There are also strong similarities between Maltese and Sicilian words of Arabic origin, on account of the comparable cultural situation. between the two countries. Siculo-Arabic was a dialect of Arabic spoken in Sicily between the ninth and the fourteenth centuries. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...

Siculo-Arabic Maltese English
Babbaluciu Bebbuxu Snail
Caponata Kapunata Caponata
Cassata Qassata Sicilian cake
Gebbia Ġiebja Cistern
Giuggiulena Ġunġlien Sesame seed
Saia Saqqajja Canal
Tanura Kenur Oven
Zaffarana Żaffran Saffron
Zagara Zahar Blossom
Zibbibbu Żbib Raisins
Zuccu Zokk Tree trunk

Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron (IPA: ) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ...

English loan words

It is estimated that English loanwords, which are becoming more commonplace, make up 20% of the Maltese vocabulary [11], although other sources claim it's only 6%. This percentage discrepancy is due to the fact that a number of new English loanwords are sometimes not officially considered part of the Maltese vocabulary, hence they're not included in certain dictionaries [12]. English loanwords are generally transliterated, although standard English pronunciation is virtually always retained. Below are just a few examples:

Maltese English
Futbol Football
Baskitbol Basketball
Mowbajl Mobile [Phone]
Lift Lift/Elevator
Friġġ Fridge
Friżer Freezer
Wejter Waiter
Biljard Billiard
Strajk Strike
Plejer Player
Frejm Frame
Bliċ Bleach
Fowlder Folder
Kompjuter Computer
Spikers Speakers
Televixin Television
Tojlit Toilet

Semitic form vs Romance form

Maltese can be spoken using either the Semitic or the Romance forms. A case in point is the English sentence The temple is situated opposite the village plaza:

  • Romance form: It-tempju sitwat oppost il-pjazza tal-villaġġ.
(Italian: Il tempio è situato davanti (opposto) alla piazza del villaggio.)
  • Semitic form: Il-maqdes jinsab biswit il-misraħ tar-raħal.

Both sentences are in Maltese and have exactly the same meaning. Generally though, no one form is ever spoken exclusively, and sentences are usually made up of words from both influences.


It is interesting to note that Church-related language during church services, mass and liturgies is heavily Semitic, and many words are not used in every-day common speech amongst the native Maltese-speaking population. [citation needed]


On the other hand, academic language frequently adopts a large number of Romance words, which is becoming the norm, a trend which is making the Maltese language more Europeanized, as opposed to poetry and literature which tend to utilize a lot of Semitic words which are not usually used in everyday speech. [citation needed] Europeanisation (or Europeanization) refers to a number of related phenomena and patterns of change. ...


Written Maltese

Since Maltese evolved after the Normans ended the Arab rule of the islands, there was little interest in developing a written form of the language for a long time after the Arabs' expulsion in the eleventh century. This was caused by the clergy's preference of Latin or Italian vernacular over the local tongue, and since the clergy was the educated class of Maltese society, their preference of foreign tongues undermined the early development of Maltese in literature and prose. Furthermore, as the islands were almost[13] always under foreign rule, those in power preferred the advancement of their own mother language over the native tongue. Throughout the centuries, the use of the Maltese language was often discouraged with varying degrees of enthusiasm and success, ostensibly in the hope that supplanting it would strengthen ties with the country which held possession of Malta at that particular point in time, a concept which has continuously surfaced in the islands and is also present to a certain extent in the present day. Under the rule of the Order of the Knights of Malta both French and an embryonic version of Italian were used for official documents and correspondence. During the British colonial period the use of English was encouraged through education, while Italian was regarded as the next most important language. It was not until 1936 that Maltese was even recognised as an official language, more as a British coup to offset Italian influence from that increasingly belligerent country than as a genuine belief in the importance of Maltese in the islands' administration. Uniquely, no other European country lacked a standardised written form of its language until the nineteenth century, when philologists and academics such as Mikiel Anton Vassalli made a concerted effort to transcribe spoken Maltese in a comprehensive written form. One would hence have to note that the lack of an established written tradition effected Maltese culture and fueled apathy towards the Maltese language in certain segments of the nation. Norman conquests in red. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Baron Vassiliev, a 19th-century Knight Commander The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta) was an organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080... Malta has been inhabited since around 5200 BC and a significant pre-historic civilisation existed on the islands before the arrival of the Phoenicians who named the main island Malat, meaning safe haven . // Further information: Timeline of Maltese history about 5200 BCE: Earliest settlers arrive on Malta. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Mikiel Anton Vassalli (March 1764 in Żebbuġ, Malta - January 12, 1829) was a Maltese writer and linguist. ... Maltese literature refers, generally speaking, to written or literary works produced in the Maltese language, particularly by citizens of Malta. ...


Sample

From the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe:

English Maltese

The Union is founded on the values of respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities. These values are common to the Member States in a society in which pluralism, non-discrimination, tolerance, justice, solidarity and equality between women and men prevail.

L-Unjoni hija mibnija fuq il-valuri ta' rispett għad-dinjità tal-bniedem, ta' libertà, ta' demokrazija, ta' ugwaljanza, ta' l-istat tad-dritt u tar-rispett għad-drittijiet tal-bniedem, inklużi d-drittijiet ta' persuni li jagħmlu parti minn minoranzi. Dawn il-valuri huma komuni għall-Istati Membri f'soċjetà karatterizzata mill-pluraliżmu, in-non-diskriminazzjoni, it-tolleranza, il-ġustizzja, is-solidarjetà u l-ugwaljanza bejn in-nisa u l-irġiel.

Alphabet

Below is the Maltese alphabet, with IPA symbols and approximate English pronunciation: The Maltese alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet with the addition of some letters with diacritic marks and digraphs. ...

Letter Name IPA Arabic Approximate English pronunciation
A a a (for anġlu (angel)) a ـَ ، ـَا similar to 'a' in father
B b be (for ballun (ball)) b ب bar, but at the end of a word it is pronounced as [p].
Ċ ċ ċe (for ċavetta (key)) ʧ (چ) church (note: dotless C has been replaced by K.)
D d de (for dar (home)) d د day, but at the end of a word it is pronounced as [t].
E e e (for envelopp (envelope) ɛ (ـَ ، ـَي) end
F f effe (for fjura (flower)) f ف far
Ġ ġ ġe (for ġelat (ice-cream)) ʤ ج jump, but at the end of a word it is pronounced as [tʃ].
G g ge (for gallettina (biscuit)) ɡ (ج ، گ) game, but at the end of a word it is pronounced as [k].
GĦ għ ajn (for għasfur (bird)) ˤ:, ħ: ع ، ح has the effect of lengthening and pharyngealizing associated vowels. When found at the end of a word or immediately before 'h' it has the sound of a double 'ħ' (see below).
H h akka (for hu (he))   ه ، ة not pronounced unless it is at the end of a word, in which case it has the sound of 'ħ'.
Ħ ħ ħe (for ħanżir (pig)) ħ ح no English equivalent; sounds like a whispered "ah" with the tongue pressed as far back as possible.
I i i (for ikel (food)) i ـِ seat
IE ie ie (for ieqaf (stop)) , ـِي yet, feet
J j je (for jott (yacht)) j ي yard
K k ke (for kelb (dog)) k ك cave
L l elle (for libsa (dress)) l ل line
M m emme (for mara (woman)) m م march
N n enne (for nanna (granny)) n ن next
O o o (for ors (bear)) o (ـُ ، ـَو) like 'aw' in law, but shorter.
P p pe (for paġna (page)) p (پ) part
Q q qe (for qattus (cat)) ʔ ء ، ق glottal stop, found in the Cockney English pronunciation of "bottle" or the phrase "(ʔ)uh-(ʔ)oh".
R r erre (for reġina (queen)) r ر road
S s esse (for salib (cross)) s س sand
T t te (for tieqa (window)) t ت tired
U u u (for uviera (egg-cup)) u ـُ ، ـُو food
V v ve (for vjola (violet) v (ڤ) vast, but at the end of a word it is pronounced as [f].
W w we (for widna (ear)) w و west
X x exxe (for xadina (monkey)) ʃ / ʒ ش shade, sometimes as measure; when doubled the sound is elongated, as in "Cash shin" vs. "Cash in."
Ż ż że (for żarbun (shoes)) z ز maze, but at the end of a word it is pronounced as [s].
Z z ze (for zalza (sauce)) ʦ / ʣ (تْس) pizza; when doubled may change to gods

Final vowels with grave accents (à, è, ì, ò, ù) are also found in Maltese in words of Italian origin, such as libertà freedom, sigurtà security, or soċjetà society. or Ayin is the sixteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order). ... Pharyngealisation is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx is constricted during the articulation of the sound. ...


Dictionaries

Orthography Rules

The official rules governing the structure of the Maltese language are found in the official guidebook issued by the Akkademja tal-Malti, the Academy of the Maltese language, which is named Tagħrif fuq il-Kitba Maltija, that is, Knowledge on Writing in Maltese. The first edition of this book was printed in 1924 by the Maltese government's printing press. The rules were further expanded in the 1984 book, iż-Żieda mat-Tagħrif, which focused mainly on the increasing influence of Romance and Anglo-Saxon words. In 1992 the Academy issued the Aġġornament tat-Tagħrif fuq il-Kitba Maltija, which updated the previous works. All these works were included in a revised and expanded guidebook published in 1996. For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... This article is about the year. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


Nowadays, the National Council for the Maltese Language (KNM) is the main regulator of the Maltese language (see Maltese Language Act, below) and not the Akkademja tal-Malti anymore. However, these orthography rules are still valid and official.


See also

  • Maltenglish
  • Order of St. John's legacy to the Maltese language
  • Maltese Italians

Maltenglish - also called Minglish, Maltese English, Mixed Maltese English, or Maltingliż, refers to the phenomenon of code switching between Maltese and English. ... The Maltese Italian Enrico Mizzi (1885-1950), former leader of the Nationalist Party and Prime Minister of Malta Maltese Italians are the people of Malta who wanted the unification to Italy of the Maltese islands, following the Italian Irredentism ideals. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Maltese language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Laws of Malta on Maltese as the only national language of Malta
Organisations
Technology and Maltese
  • Enabling the Maltese Language in Windows XPPDF (176 KiB)
  • Unicode for Maltese
  • XML for Maltese
  • Maltese Spellchecker
  • YahooGroup Kelmet - The Maltese language online forum
Broadcasting in Maltese
Literature and Linguistics
Translations into Maltese
  • Technical Documentation for Europe: Malta
Glossaries and Resources of the Maltese Language (Keep on adding your stuff here)
  • Rimarju Malti
  • Kappelli Maltin
  • L-ewro
  • Il-Lingwa tas-Sinjali Maltija
  • Ikteb l-inviti tat-tieġ bil-Malti

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

Notes

  1. ^ Constitution of Malta, I.5.(1)
  2. ^ Ethnologue entry for Maltese
  3. ^ Borg and Azzopardi-Alexander (1997:xiii) 'The immediate source for the Arabic vernacular spoken in Malta was Muslim Sicily, but its ultimate origin appears to have been Tunisia. In fact Maltese displays some areal traits typical of Maghrebine Arabic, although during the past eight hundred years of independent evolution it has drifted apart from Tunisian Arabic'.
  4. ^ Times of Malta, 11 February 2007
  5. ^ The 'Cantilena'. Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
  6. ^ Żammit, Martin (2000). "Arabic and Maltese Cognate Roots", in Manwel Mifsud: Proceedings of the Third International Conference of Aida, 241-245. ISBN 99932-0-044-1. 
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ [2]
  9. ^ [3]
  10. ^ [4]
  11. ^ [5]
  12. ^ [6]
  13. ^ Except for a period of roughly one hundred years of nominal Spanish rule over the island, while the government lay in the hands of the Maltese Kunsill Popolari, Malta was continuously in foreign hands up until independence in 1964. This period was termed Żmien l-Ispanjoli.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ...

References

Azzopardi, C. (2007) Gwida għall-Ortografija. Malta, Klabb Kotba Maltin.


Borg, A. J. & Azzopardi-Alexander, M. (1997) Maltese. Routledge, ISBN 0415022436


Mifsud, M. & Borg, A. J. (1997) Fuq l-għatba tal-Malti. Strasbourg, Council of Europe.

  • http://www.macmillandictionary.com/MED-magazine/February2005/27-LI-Maltese.htm

  Results from FactBites:
 
Maltese language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1073 words)
Maltese is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family.
It is the national language of Malta, and an official language of the European Union.
Maltese vocabulary is a hybrid based on a foundation of Arabic Semitic roots with a heavy borrowing of Sicilian (rather than Tuscan Italian) loanwords.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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