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Encyclopedia > Malls


A shopping mall (or simply mall), shopping center, or shopping arcade is a building or set of buildings that contain stores and have interconnecting walkways that make it easy for people to walk from store to store. The walkways might be enclosed. In the United Kingdom and Australia these are also called shopping centres, shopping arcades as well as shopping malls . In North America the term "mall" is preferred. A store is an enclosure for holding articles. ... A skyway is a path that is traversed without touching the ground. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


Strip malls are a recent development, corresponding to the rise of the suburbs after World War II in the United States. As such, the strip mall development has been the subject of the same criticisms leveled against suburbanization and suburban sprawl in general. In the United Kingdom these are called retail parks or out-of-town shopping centres. Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... Suburbanisation is a term used by many to describe the current social urban dynamic operating within many parts of the developed world and is related to the phenomenon of urban sprawl. ... Sprawl; please see: urban sprawl (also called suburban sprawl) For the metropolitan region stretching from Boston to Atlanta in William Gibsons fiction, see The Sprawl. ...

Contents


History

Indoor multi-vendor shopping is not a recent innovation. Isfahan's Grand Bazaar, which is largely covered, dates from the 10th century A.D. The 10 kilometer long covered Tehran's Grand Bazaar also has a very old history. The Burlington Arcade in London was opened in 1819. The Arcade in Providence, Rhode Island introduced the concept to the United States in 1828. The Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, Italy followed in the 1860s and is closer to large modern malls in spaciousness. Many other large cities created arcades and shopping centers in the late 19th century and early 20th century, including the Cleveland Arcade and GUM in Moscow in 1890. Early shopping centers designed for the automobile include Market Square, Lake Forest, Illinois (1916) and Country Club Plaza, Kansas City, (1924). Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Tehrans 10 km long covered bazaar is an old and magnificent bazaar and still forms the heart of the bazaar activities in Iran. ... The Burlington Arcade is a covered shopping arcade off of Piccadilly in London. ... Nickname: Beehive of Industry, The Renaissance City Official website: http://www. ... Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II, Piazza del Duomo entrance The Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II is a covered arcade situated on the northern side of the Piazza del Duomo in Milan, connecting to the Piazza della Scala. ... Milan (Italian: Milano; Milanese -dialect of Lombard-: Milán) is the main city of northern Italy, and is located in the plains of Lombardy, the most populated and developed region in Italy. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... The Cleveland Arcade in downtown Cleveland (late 1960s) The Arcade in Cleveland, Ohio was built in 1890 and is a unique architectural treasure of 19th century urban America. ... The GUM facade faces Red Square. ... Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA: ) is the capital of Russia and the countrys principal political, economic, financial, educational and transportation center, located on the river Moskva. ... Kansas Citys Country Club Plaza The Country Club Plaza (often referred to as The Plaza) is an historic and highly upscale shopping district and neighborhood centered around 55 acres (223,000 m²) in Kansas City, Missouri, USA. It is located approximately six miles south of downtown, between 45th street... Kansas City may refer to: Places: Kansas City Metropolitan Area Kansas City, Missouri, Missouri North Kansas City, Missouri, Missouri Kansas City, Kansas, Kansas Kansas City, Oregon Kansas City, Tennessee Or: Kansas City standard, in computing refers to a standard for storage of data on audio cassettes Deuce-to-seven low...

An example of the mid-19th-century shopping mall: The Passage in St Petersburg.
Enlarge
An example of the mid-19th-century shopping mall: The Passage in St Petersburg.

In the mid-20th century, with the rise of the suburb and automobile culture in the United States, a new style of shopping center was created away from city centers. The concept was pioneered by the Austrian-born architect Victor Gruen. The new generation called malls included Northgate Mall, built in north Seattle, Washington, USA in 1950, Gruen's Northland Shopping Center, built near Detroit, Michigan, USA in 1954, and the Southdale Center, the first fully enclosed mall, which opened in the Twin Cities suburb of Edina, Minnesota, USA in 1956. In the UK, Chrisp Street Market was the first pedestrian shopping area built with a road at the shop fronts. The interior of the old Passage in the 1850s. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Housing subdivision near Union, Kentucky, a suburb of Cincinnati, Ohio. ... An automobile is a wheeled vehicle that carries its own motor. ... Victor Gruen was an Austrian-born commercial architect who emigrated to the United States. ... For the Suquamish chief, see Chief Seattle. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Northland Center is a shopping mall located at 8 Mile and Greenfield Road in Southfield, Michigan, USA, a suburb of Detroit. ... Nickname: Motor City, Motown, Hockey Town Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (Latin for, We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes) Official website: www. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Inside the Southdale Center Southdale Center, commonly known as just Southdale, was the first fully-enclosed and completely climate-controlled shopping mall in the United States. ... Twin cities are two towns or cities that are geographically close to each other and may seem to form a single unit, often referred to collectively. ... Edina is a first-ring suburb situated immediately southwest of Minneapolis located in Hennepin County, Minnesota. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chrisp Street Tower Chrisp Street Market was designed and built as part of the Festival of Britain in 1951. ...


A very large shopping mall is sometimes called a megamall. The title of the largest enclosed shopping mall was held by the West Edmonton Mall in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada for 20 years. One of the world's largest shopping complex at one location is the two-mall agglomeration of the Plaza at King of Prussia and the Court at King of Prussia in the Philadelphia suburb of King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, USA. Comparable in size is Europe's largest shopping center, the MetroCentre in Gateshead, England. The most visited shopping mall in the world and largest mall in the United States is the Mall of America, located near the Twin Cities in Bloomington, Minnesota, USA. However, several Asian malls are advertised as having more visitors, including Berjaya Times Square. West Edmonton Mall (WEM), located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada is one of the largest shopping malls in the world, and as such is one of western Canadas major tourist attractions. ... Edmonton is the capital of the Canadian province of Alberta, situated in the north central region of the province, an area with some of the most fertile farm land on the prairies. ... The Plaza at King of Prussia is part of what is popularly referred to as the King of Prussia Mall, a huge shopping complex in King of Prussia, which is located in Upper Merion Township, Pennsylvania, in the United States. ... The Court at King of Prussia is part of the massive King of Prussia Mall complex in King of Prussia, an area in Upper Merion Township, Pennsylvania. ... Philadelphia is a village located in Jefferson County, New York. ... King of Prussia is an unincorporated community located in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. ... MetroCentre is the largest shopping and leisure centre in Europe. ... Map sources for Gateshead at grid reference NZ2460 Gateshead Millennium Bridge Gateshead is a town in Tyne and Wear in north-east England on the south side of the River Tyne opposite Newcastle upon Tyne which covers the North Bank. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the British Isles Languages None official English de facto Capital None official London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001... Mall of America (also MOA, MoA, or the Megamall) is a shopping mall located in the Twin Cities suburb of Bloomington, Minnesota. ... Twin cities are two towns or cities that are geographically close to each other and may seem to form a single unit, often referred to collectively. ... Bloomington is a city located in Hennepin County, Minnesota, a suburb south of Minneapolis. ... Berjaya Times Square KL is a building containing a huge shopping centre and two five star hotels located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ...


The race is on to build the largest mall. Beijing's Golden Resources Shopping Mall, opened in October 2004, is the world's largest, at 600,000 m² (approximately 6 million square feet). Berjaya Times Square in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, is advertised at 700,000 m². The Mall of Arabia inside Dubai Land in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, which will open in 2006, will become the largest mall in the world, at 929,000 square meters (10 million sq. feet). Jin Yuan Mall or Golden Resources Mall located in Beijing is reportedly the world’s largest shopping mall – visible from space - and as impressive as the Great Wall of China. Embracing the multi-level look rather than the sprawling two level style common in the U.S., China’s biggest... Berjaya Times Square KL is a building containing a huge shopping centre and two five star hotels located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ... Kuala Lumpurs landmark, the PETRONAS Twin Towers Kuala Lumpur (Jawi:كوالا لمبور) is the largest city in Malaysia and the capital of the federation. ... When it is completed, the Mall of Arabia is expected to be the largest shopping mall in the world. ... Dubai Land is an entertainment complex under development in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. ... The Burj al-Arab hotel has become an architectural icon of Dubai. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

"Pitt Street Mall" of Sydney is Australia's busiest shopping precinct. This mall has eight retail centres and more than 600 speciality stores, within two city blocks.
"Pitt Street Mall" of Sydney is Australia's busiest shopping precinct. This mall has eight retail centres and more than 600 speciality stores, within two city blocks.

Mall can refer to a shopping mall, which is a place where a collection of shops all adjoin a pedestrian area, or an exclusively pedestrian street, that allows shoppers to walk without interference from vehicle traffic. Mall is generally used in North America and Australasia to refer to large shopping areas, while the term arcade is more often used, especially in Britain, to refer to a narrow pedestrian-only street, often covered or between closely spaced buildings. A larger, often only partly covered but exclusively pedestrian shopping area is in Britain also termed a shopping precinct or pedestrian precinct. The majority of British shopping centers are in town centers, usually inserted into old shopping districts, and surrounding by subsidiary open air shopping streets. A number of large out-of-town "regional malls" such as Meadowhall were built in the 1980s and 1990s, but there are only ten of them or so and current planning regulations prohibit the construction of any more. Out-of-town shopping developments in the UK are now focused on retail parks, which consist of groups of warehouse style shops with individual entrances from outdoors. Planning policy prioritizes the development of existing town centres, although with patchy success. ImageMetadata File history File links Pitt_Street_Mall_Sydney. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Pitt_Street_Mall_Sydney. ... Pitt Street Mall is the pedestrianised section of Pitt Street in the CBD of Sydney, Australia. ... Look up shop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A shop is an enclosed location where a specific activity is carried out. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Oceania. ... Meadowhall is a large shopping centre located three miles northeast of central Sheffield, England. ...


Regional mall

A regional mall is a shopping mall which is designed to service a larger area than a conventional shopping mall. As such, it is typically larger, and offers a wider selection of stores. Given its wider service area, these malls tend to have higher-end stores that need a larger area in order for their services to be profitable. Regional malls are also found as tourist attractions in vacation areas.


Super-regional malls are usually shopping centers with over 1 million square feet of retail space and serves as the dominant shopping venue for the region that it serves.


Strip mall

A strip mall is a shopping center where the stores are arranged in a row, with a sidewalk in front. Strip malls are typically developed as a unit and have large parking lots in front. They face major traffic arterials and tend to be self-contained with few pedestrian connections to surrounding neighborhoods. A sidewalk (North American English), or pavement or footpath (Commonwealth English), is a path, usually constructed of concrete (particularly in the United States, and Canada), asphalt, brick (particularly in Europe) or stone, designed for pedestrian traffic and often running alongside a road. ... Parking lot showing diagonal parking pattern designed for one-way traffic. ... An arterial road is a high-capacity road which is just below a highway level of service. ...


In the U.S., strip malls usually come in two sizes. The smaller variety is more common, and often located at the intersection of major streets in residential areas; they cater to a small residential area. This type of strip mall is found in nearly every city or town in the U.S. They are service-oriented and will often contain a grocery store, video rental store, dry cleaner, small restaurant, and other similar stores. In the past, pharmacies were often located next to the grocery stores, but, now, the drug store is often free-standing in the parking lot. Sometimes, gas stations, banks, and other businesses will also have their own free-standing buildings in the parking lot of the strip center. A shop that sells food, either a Supermarket or a much smaller place. ... Pharmacy (from the Greek φάρμακον = drug) is the profession of compounding and dispensing medication. ...


The other variety of strip mall in the U.S. has large, big box retailers as the anchors, such as Wal-Mart or Target. They are sometimes referred to as power centers, in the real estate development industry, because they attract and cater to residents of an entire population area. The type of retailers may vary widely--from electronics to bookstores to home improvement stores. There are typically only a few of these type of strip malls in a city, compared to the grocery store-anchored strip mall. Some of these strip centers may only have three of four of these large retailers in them, while others may have a dozen or more major retailers. A big box is a box that is big. ... Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ... Target Corporation (NYSE: TGT) was founded in Minneapolis, Minnesota in 1962. ...


Some strip malls are a hybrid of both of these types.


Strip malls vary widely in architecture. Older strip malls tend to have plain architecture with the stores arranged in a straight row; in some cases there are vacant stores. Newer strip malls are often built with elaborate architecture to blend in with the neighborhood or be more attractive. In some cases, strips malls are broken up into smaller buildings to encourage walking. Sometimes the buildings will wrap around the parking lot to hide the parking from the road or residential areas.


Due to land use issues, strip malls in the United Kingdom are typically found on the edges of cities on greenfield sites, and are known as out of town shopping centres. Ones in more urban areas (often brownfield redeveloped sites) are more typically known as retail parks.


The first shopping center (strip mall) in the United States was the Roland Park Shopping Center in Baltimore, Maryland (1896). This article is about the city in the US state of Maryland. ... Official language(s) None Capital Largest city Annapolis Baltimore Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 42nd 12,417 sq mi  32,160 km² 90 miles  145 km 249 miles  400 km 21 37°53N to 39°43N 75°4W to 79°33W Population  - Total... 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Dead malls and new trends

Main article: Dead mall

In the U.S, in recent times, as more modern facilities are built, many early malls have become largely abandoned, due to decreased traffic and tenancy. These deteriorating "dead malls" have failed to attract new business and often sit unused for many years until restored or demolished. Interesting examples of architecture and urban design, these structures often attract people who explore and photograph them. Until the mid-1990s, the trend was to build enclosed malls and to renovate older outdoor malls into enclosed ones. Such malls had advantages such as temperature control. Since then, the trend has turned. It is once again fashionable to build open-air malls, and some enclosed malls have been opened up, such as the Sherman Oaks Galleria. In addition, some malls, when replacing an empty anchor location, have replaced the former anchor store building with the more modern outdoor design, leaving the remainder of the indoor mall intact. A dead mall is a shopping mall with a high vacancy rate, low consumer traffic level, or is dated or deteriorating in some manner. ... The Parthenon on top of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, αρχιτεκτων, a master builder, from αρχι- chief, leader and τεκτων, builder, carpenter) is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... Urban design is related to urban planning, but focuses on the physical design of places through place making. ... Sherman Oaks Galleria is a shopping mall located in Sherman Oaks, California, which is situated in the San Fernando Valley portion of the City of Los Angeles. ...


In parts of Canada, it is now rare for new shopping malls to be built, as outdoor outlet malls or big box shopping areas known as power centres are now favored, although the traditional enclosed shopping mall is still much in demand by those seeking weather-protected, all-under-one-roof shopping. In addition the underground interconnections between downtown multi story shopping malls continue to grow in the Underground city of Montreal and the PATH system of Toronto, reaching a total of 32 km of shop-lined pedestrian passages in Montreal and 27 km in Toronto. The numbers do not include the passages inside the many subway stations which also interconnect with the commercial areas. The Nebraska Crossing Outlet Mall An outlet mall (or outlet centre) is a type of shopping mall, in which manufacturers sell their products directly to the public through their own branded stores. ... A big box is a box that is big. ... A Power Centre is an unenclosed shopping centre that usually contains three or more big box retailers and various smaller retailers (usually located in plazas) with a common parking area shared among all the retailers. ... Montreals Underground City (French: La ville souterraine) is the set of well-known underground city complexes in and around downtown Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... City motto: Concordia Salus (Latin: Well-being through harmony) Province Quebec Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area  - % water 366. ... PATH is a 27 kilometre long network of pedestrian tunnels beneath the office towers of downtown Toronto, Canada. ...


Legal issues

One controversial aspect of malls has been their effective displacement of traditional main streets. Many consumers prefer malls, with their spacious parking garages, well-maintained walkways, and private security guards, over public streets, which often suffer from limited parking, poor maintenance, and limited police coverage. Main Street or Main Street America is an almost fanciful, dated reference to the main region of small town/suburban America, since it really no longer exists. ... A security guard is a private person who is employed to protect property and people. ...

The Mall, an out-of-town shopping centre at Patchway, near Bristol, England. Escalators connect the upper and lower levels.
The Mall, an out-of-town shopping centre at Patchway, near Bristol, England. Escalators connect the upper and lower levels.

In response, a few jurisdictions, notably California, have expanded the right of freedom of speech to ensure that speakers will be able to reach consumers who prefer to shop within the boundaries of privately owned malls. See Pruneyard Shopping Center. An out-of-town shopping centre: The Mall, Patchway, Bristol, England. ... An out-of-town shopping centre: The Mall, Patchway, Bristol, England. ... Official language(s) English Capital Largest city Sacramento Los Angeles Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 3rd 158,302 sq mi  410,000 km² 250 miles  400 km 770 miles  1,240 km 4. ... A public demonstration Freedom of speech is often regarded as an integral concept in modern liberal democracies, where it is understood to outlaw censorship. ... Typical roadside sign The PruneYard Shopping Center is a sprawling 250,000 square foot (23,000 m²) shopping center located in Campbell, California at the intersection of Campbell Ave. ...


See also

This is a list of notable shopping malls worldwide, sorted by country, region, and municipality. ... // The following is a list of defunct shopping malls that are no longer open to the public, or have been converted for other uses. ... This is a list of shopping malls converted to an outdoor format, i. ... This page lists important shopping streets or districts by city. ... Victor Gruen was an Austrian-born commercial architect who emigrated to the United States. ... Rouse on the August 24, 1981 cover of TIME. James Wilson Rouse (April 26, 1914 - April 9, 1996) was a pioneering real estate developer civic activist, and later, free enterprise-based philanthropist. ...

Types of Shopping Facilities

The Nebraska Crossing Outlet Mall An outlet mall (or outlet centre) is a type of shopping mall, in which manufacturers sell their products directly to the public through their own branded stores. ... Plaza is a Spanish word related to field which describes an open urban public space, such as a city square. ... A physical marketplace in Portugal enables buyers and sellers of produce to do business with each other. ... Main Street or Main Street America is an almost fanciful, dated reference to the main region of small town/suburban America, since it really no longer exists. ... Ilfracombe High Street, Devon, England High Street, or the High Street is the generic name (and frequently the official name) of the business street of towns or cities in the United Kingdom . ... A town square is an open area commonly found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings. ... A Power Centre is an unenclosed shopping centre that usually contains three or more big box retailers and various smaller retailers (usually located in plazas) with a common parking area shared among all the retailers. ...

Components of Shopping Facilities

Interior of a typical Macys department store. ... In retail, an anchor store, or draw tenant, is one of the larger stores in a shopping mall, usually a department store in a major retail chain, such as Macys or JCPenney. ... Food court at the Fashion Centre at Pentagon City in Arlington, Virginia. ... The Jet dEau fountain in Lake Geneva in Geneva A traditional fountain is an arrangement where water issues from a source (Latin fons), fills a basin of some kind, and is drained away. ... Looking up inside the 32-story atrium of the Shanghai Grand Hyatt, part of the Jin Mao Building. ...

Shopping Property Management Firms

Premium outlets are large shopping centers located in remote areas; e. ... The Westfield Group ASX: WDC is an Australian-owned company that owns shopping centres in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. ... General Growth Properties NYSE: GGP is a publicly-traded real estate investment trust in the United States. ... Melvin Simon and Associates, better known as the Simon Company or Simon Property Group (NYSE: SPG), headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, is one of the largest developers of shopping malls in the United States. ... The Pyramid Company was formed in 1970 in Syracuse, New York by Robert J. Congel. ... Jones Lang LaSalle is a leading global provider of integrated real estate and money management services. ...

Planning Concepts

Public art in a public space in Lille, France One definition of public space or a public place is a place where anyone has a right to come without being excluded because economic or social conditions (fees, paying an entrance, being poor, ...). Malls are examples of private space with the... In shopping mall design, the Gruen transfer refers to the moment when consumers respond to scripted disorientation cues in the environment. ...

References

  • M. Jeffrey Hartwick, Mall Maker: Victor Gruen, Architect of an American Dream, 2004, University of Pennsylvania Press, ISBN 0812237625

External links

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National Mall - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (841 words)
The National Mall refers specifically to the land stretching from the grounds of the Washington Monument to the United States Capitol directly to the east.
However, the term commonly includes the areas that are officially part of West Potomac Park and Constitution Gardens to the west, and often is taken to refer to the entire area between the Lincoln Memorial and the Capitol, with the Washington Monument providing a division slightly west of the center.
The National Mall is accessible via Washington Metro, with the Smithsonian station located on the south side of the mall, near the Washington Monument.
The Mall (London) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (300 words)
The Mall (pronounced 'mal', not 'maul') in London is the road running from Buckingham Palace at its western end to Admiralty Arch and on to Trafalgar Square at its eastern end.
Running off The Mall at the eastern end is Horse Guards Parade, where the ceremony of the Trooping of the Colour occurs.
The Mall was created as a ceremonial route in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, matching the creation of similar ceremonial routes in other cities, such as Washington DC, St.Petersburg, Paris, Berlin and Vienna.
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