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Encyclopedia > Mallard
Mallard
Mallard female (front) and male (rear)
Mallard female (front) and male (rear)
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Anseriformes
Family: Anatidae
Subfamily: Anatinae
Genus: Anas
Species: A. platyrhynchos
Binomial name
Anas platyrhynchos
Linnaeus, 1758
Subspecies

See Mexican Duck, Anas and below Mallard may refer to: Mallard, a common type of duck Mallard (band) LNER 4468 Mallard, a famous steam locomotive Mallard, Iowa, a town This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 572 pixelsFull resolution (1976 × 1413 pixel, file size: 1. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Families Anhimidae Anseranatidae Anatidae †Dromornithidae †Presbyornithidae The order Anseriformes contains about 150 species of birds in three families: the Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the Magpie-goose), and the Anatidae, which includes over 140 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Thalassorninae Anserinae Stictonettinae Plectropterinae Tadorninae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Oxyurinae and see text Anatidae is the biological family that includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swan. ... The Anatinae is one of the subfamilies of the family Anatidae, which includes the swans, geese and ducks. ... Species Some 40-50; see text. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the zoological term. ... Binomial name Anas diazi (Ridgway, 1886) The Mexican Duck (Anas diazi) is a dabbling duck in the genus Anas which breeds in Mexico and the southern USA. Most of the population is resident, but some northern birds migrate south to Mexico in winter. ... Species Some 40-50; see text. ...

The Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos[1]), the archetypal "wild duck", is a dabbling duck which breeds throughout the temperate and sub-tropical areas of North America, Europe, Asia, New Zealand, and Australia. Probably the best-known and most recognizable of all ducks. Almost all of the varieties of domesticated ducks are descended from the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), apart from the Muscovy Duck[2][3]. For other uses, see Archetype (disambiguation). ... Genera Pteronetta Cairina Aix Nettapus Anas Callonetta Chenonetta Amazonetta See also Diving duck The dabbling ducks are a group of eight genera and about 55 species of ducks, including some of the most familiar Northern Hemisphere species. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Muscovy Duck, Cairina moschata, is a large duck which is native to Mexico, Central and South America. ...


It is strongly migratory in the northern parts of its breeding range, and winters farther south. For example, in North America it winters south to Mexico, but also regularly strays into Central America and the Caribbean between September and May[4]. The Mallard is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies. Introduced into Australia and New Zealand, it is now the most common duck species in the latter country. Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys of varying distances undertaken by many species of birds. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... “West Indian” redirects here. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Contents

Description

Mallard drake in midflight
Mallard drake in midflight
Female Mallard landing
Female Mallard landing

The dabbling duck is 56–65 cm length, with an 81–98 cm wingspan, and weighs 750–1,000 g. The breeding male is unmistakable with a green head, black rear end and a yellow bill with a black tip (as opposed to the dark brown bill in females). The female Mallard is light brown, like most female dabbling ducks; however, both the female and male Mallards have distinct blue speculum edged with white, prominent in flight or at rest (though temporarily shedded during the annual summer molt). In non-breeding (eclipse) plumage, the drake becomes drab, looking more like the female, but still distinguishable by its bill, which remains yellow and its breast is more reddish. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1440x960, 205 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Flight Mallard User talk:Fir0002 Wikipedia:Featured pictures thumbs 06 User:Fir0002/Natures pics Nature photography Wikipedia:Featured... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1440x960, 205 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Flight Mallard User talk:Fir0002 Wikipedia:Featured pictures thumbs 06 User:Fir0002/Natures pics Nature photography Wikipedia:Featured... Download high resolution version (1178x844, 401 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1178x844, 401 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... A mallard hen. ...


The Mallard is a rare example of both Allen's Rule and Bergmann's Rule in birds. Bergmann's Rule, which states that polar forms tend to be larger than related ones from warmer climates, has numerous examples in birds. Allen's Rule says that appendages like ears tend to be smaller in polar forms to minimize heat loss, and larger in tropical and desert equivalents to facilitate heat diffusion, and that the polar taxa are stockier overall. Examples of this rule in birds are rare, as they lack external ears. However, the bill of ducks is very well supplied with blood vessels and is vulnerable to cold. Allens rule is a biological rule posited by Joel Asaph Allen in 1877. ... The large size of a polar bear allows it to radiate less heat in a cold climate. ...


The size of the Mallard varies clinally, and birds from Greenland, although larger than birds further south, have smaller bills and are stockier. It is sometimes separated as subspecies Greenland Mallard (A. p. conboschas). This article is about the zoological term. ...


In captivity, domestic ducks come in wild-type plumages, white, and other colours. Most of these colour variants are also known in domestic mallards[5]; there they are rare but increasing in availability. Domesticated ducks // Domesticated ducks are kept for meat, eggs and down. ...


A noisy species, the male has a nasal call, the female the "quack" always associated with ducks. [6] For the supervillain, see Onomatopoeia (comics). ...


Ecology

The Mallard inhabits most wetlands, including parks, small ponds and rivers, and usually feeds by dabbling for plant food or grazing; there are reports of it eating frogs.[2] It usually nests on a river bank, but not always near water. It is highly gregarious outside of the breeding season and will form large flocks. A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Two people reflected in a fish pond A pond is typically a man made body of water smaller than a lake. ... Distribution of frogs (in black) Suborders Archaeobatrachia Mesobatrachia Neobatrachia - List of Anuran families The frogness babe is an amphibian in the order Anura (meaning tail-less from Greek an-, without + oura, tail), formerly referred to as Salientia (Latin saltare, to jump). ... Categories: Animal stubs | Animal behaviour | Social psychology ...


A 29-year-old Mallard has been recorded.[citation needed]


Breeding behaviour

An adult female with a brood of ducklings
An adult female with a brood of ducklings
A trio of ducklings
A trio of ducklings
The new hatched ducklings are hiding under their mother.
The new hatched ducklings are hiding under their mother.
A turtle and a brood of ducklings sharing microhabitat
A turtle and a brood of ducklings sharing microhabitat
A male Mallard resting on a log.

Mallards form pairs only until the female lays eggs, at which time she is left by the male. The clutch is 8–13 eggs, which are incubated for 27–28 days to hatching with 50–60 days to fledging. The ducklings are precocial, and can swim and feed themselves on insects as soon as they hatch, although they stay near the female for protection. Young ducklings are not naturally waterproof and rely on the mother to provide waterproofing. Mallards also have rates of male-male sexual activity that are unusually high for birds. In some cases, as many as 19% of pairs in a Mallard population are male-male homosexual[7]. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1440x960, 495 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nature Mother Mallard Wikipedia:Featured pictures visible User talk:Fir0002 Wikipedia:Wikipedia Signpost/Tools/Single Wikipedia... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1440x960, 495 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nature Mother Mallard Wikipedia:Featured pictures visible User talk:Fir0002 Wikipedia:Wikipedia Signpost/Tools/Single Wikipedia... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 1296 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 1296 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 1296 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 1296 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 1296 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 1296 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation). ... A habitat (from the Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular organism usually lives or grows. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 560 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1318 × 1410 pixel, file size: 311 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 560 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1318 × 1410 pixel, file size: 311 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... In biology, precocial species are those that are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of birth or hatching. ...


When they pair off with mating partners, often one or several drakes will end up "left out". This group will sometimes target an isolated female duck — chasing, pestering and pecking at her until she weakens (a phenomenon referred to by researchers as rape flight), at which point each male will take turns copulating with the female. Male Mallards will also occasionally chase other males in the same way. (In one documented case, a male Mallard copulated with another male he was chasing after it had been killed when it flew into a glass window[8].


Ancestor of almost all Domestic Ducks

Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is the ancestor of almost all of the varieties of domestic ducks. Domestic duck belong to the subfamily Anatinae of the waterfowl family Anatidae. The wild mallard and Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) are believed to be the ancestors of all domestic ducks[9][10]. Domesticated ducks // Domesticated ducks are kept for meat, eggs and down. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Muscovy Duck, Cairina moschata, is a large duck which is native to Mexico, Central and South America. ...


Genetic pollution, hybridization and systematics

Release of feral Mallard Ducks worldwide is creating havoc on indigenous waterfowl, these don't migrate and stay back in the local breeding season and interbreed with indigenous rare wild ducks devastating local populations of closely related species through genetic pollution by producing fertile offspring. Complete hybridization of various species of rare wild duck gene pools could result in the extinction of many indigenous waterfowl. Wild Mallard itself is the ancestor of most domestic ducks and their naturally evolved wild gene pool gets genetically polluted in turn by the domestic and feral populations[11][12][13][14][15]. A feral horse (an American mustang) in Wyoming A feral animal or plant is one that has escaped from domestication and returned, partly or wholly, to its wild state. ... Falcated Duck at Slimbridge Wildfowl and Wetlands centre, Gloucestershire, England Wildfowl or waterfowl, also waterbirds, is the collective term for the approximately 147 species of swans, geese and ducks, classified in the order Anseriformes, family Anatidae. ... Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys of varying distances undertaken by many species of birds. ... Reproduction is the creation of one thing as a copy of, product of, or replacement for a similar thing, e. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Domesticated ducks // Domesticated ducks are kept for meat, eggs and down. ...


Mallards frequently interbreed with their closest relatives in the genus Anas, such as the American Black Duck, and also with species more distantly related, for example the Northern Pintail, leading to various hybrids that may be fully fertile. This is quite unusual among different species, and apparently has its reasons in the fact that the Mallard evolved very rapidly and not too long ago, during the Late Pleistocene only. The distinct lineages of this radiation are usually kept separate due to non-overlapping ranges and behavioral cues, but are still not fully genetically incompatible. Mallards and their domesticated conspecifics are, of course, also fully interfertile. For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Species Some 40-50; see text. ... Binomial name Anas rubripes Brewster, 1902 The American Black Duck (Anas rubripes) is a large-sized dabbling duck. ... Binomial name Anas acuta Linnaeus, 1758 The Pintail or Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) is a common and widespread duck which breeds in the northern areas of Europe and Asia and across most of Canada, Alaska and the mid-western United States. ... // This article is about a biological term. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Late Pleistocene (also known as Upper Pleistocene or the Tarantian) is a stage of the Pleistocene Epoch. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Conspecificity is a concept in biology. ...


The Mallard is considered an invasive species in New Zealand. There, and elsewhere, Mallards are spreading with increasing urbanization and hybridizing with local relatives[16]. Over time, a continuum of hybrids ranging between almost typical examples of either species will develop; the speciation process beginning to reverse itself[17]. This has created conservation concerns for relatives of the Mallard, such as the Hawaiian Duck[18], the New Zealand Grey Duck[19], the American Black Duck[20], the Florida Duck[21], Meller's Duck[22], the Yellow-billed Duck[17], and the Mexican Duck[23], in the latter case even leading to a dispute whether these birds should be considered a species[24] (and thus entitled to more conservation research and funding) or included in the mallard. Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ... Conservation biology, or conservation ecology, is the science of analyzing and protecting Earths biological diversity. ... Binomial name Anas wyvilliana Sclater, 1878 The Hawaiian Duck (Anas wyvilliana) is a species of the genus Anas. ... Binomial name Anas rubripes Brewster, 1902 The American Black Duck (Anas rubripes) is a large-sized dabbling duck. ... Binomial name Anas fulvigula Ridgway, 1874 Subspecies Ridgway, 1874 Florida Duck Sennett, 1889 Mottled Duck The Mottled Duck (Anas fulvigula[1]) or Mottled Mallard is a medium-sized dabbling duck. ... Binomial name Anas melleri Sclater, 1865 The Mellers Duck (Anas melleri) is a species of the genus Anas. ... Binomial name Anas undulata Dubois,CF, 1839 The Yellow-billed Duck, Anas undulata, is a dabbling duck which is an abundant resident breeder in southern and eastern Africa. ... Binomial name Anas diazi (Ridgway, 1886) The Mexican Duck (Anas diazi) is a dabbling duck in the genus Anas which breeds in Mexico and the southern USA. Most of the population is resident, but some northern birds migrate south to Mexico in winter. ...


Like elsewhere worldwide the invasive alien mallard ducks are also causing severe “genetic pollution” of South Africa’s biodiversity by breeding with endemic ducks. The hybrids of mallard ducks and the Yellow billed duck are fertile and can produce more hybrid offspring. If this continues, only hybrids will occur and in the long term this will result in the extinction of various indigenous waterfowl worldwide like the yellow billed duck of South Africa. The mallard duck can cross breed with 45 other species and is posing a severe threat to the genetic integrity of indigenous waterfowls. Mallard ducks and their hybrids compete with indigenous birds for resources such as food, nest sites and roosting sites. The drakes (males) also kill the offspring of other waterfowl species by attacking and drowning them[25]. Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ...

Drake, domestic duck × mallard, Akureyri (Iceland); note stocky body shape.
Drake, domestic duck × mallard, Akureyri (Iceland); note stocky body shape.

On the other hand, the Chinese Spotbill is currently introgressing into the mallard populations of the Primorsky Krai, possibly due to habitat changes from global warming[26]. The Mariana Mallard was a resident allopatric population - in most respects a good species - apparently initially derived from Mallard × Pacific Black Duck hybrids[27]; unfortunately, it became extinct in the 1980s. In addition, feral domestic ducks interbreeding with Mallards have led to a size increase - especially in drakes - in most Mallards in urban areas. Rape flights between normal-sized females and such stronger males are liable to end with the female being drowned by the males' combined weight. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 627 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) February 26, 2005 saw some unique snow formations in Akureyri, Iceland. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 627 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) February 26, 2005 saw some unique snow formations in Akureyri, Iceland. ... Nickname: Location of Akureyri in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Northeast Area  - City 125 km²  (48. ... Binomial name Anas poecilorhyncha Forster, 1781 The Spotbill, Anas poecilorhyncha, is a dabbling duck which breeds in tropical and eastern Asia. ... Administrative center Vladivostok Area - total - % water Ranked 26th - 165,900 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 26th - est. ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... Global mean surface temperatures 1850 to 2006 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected... Binomial name Anas oustaleti Salvadori, 1894 Former distribution of the Mariana Mallard (marked in dark grey, click to enlarge). ... Allopatric speciation (also known as Allopatry) is speciation by geographical isolation. ... Binomial name Anas superciliosa (Gmelin, 1789) The Pacific Black Duck, Anas superciliosa, is a dabbling duck found in much of Indonesia, New Guinea, Australia, and New Zealand. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ...


It was generally assumed that as the spectacular nuptial plumage of Mallard drakes is obviously the result of sexual selection - most species in the mallard group being sexually monomorphic -, hybrid matings would preferentially take place between females of monomorphic relatives and Mallard drakes instead of the other way around. But this generalization was found to be incorrect.[28] Illustration from The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by Charles Darwin showing the Tufted Coquette Lophornis ornatus, female on left, ornamented male on right. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ...


Note that it is not the hybridization itself that causes most conservation concerns. The Laysan Duck is an insular relative of the mallard with a very small and fluctuating population. Mallards sometimes arrive on its island home during migration, and can be expected to occasionally have remained and hybridized with Laysan Ducks as long as these species exist. But these hybrids are less well adapted to the peculiar ecological conditions of Laysan Island than the local ducks, and thus have lower fitness, and furthermore, there were - apart from a brief time in the early 20th century when the Laysan Duck was almost extinct - always much more Laysan Ducks than stray Mallards. Thus, in this case, the hybrid lineages would rapidly fail. Binomial name Rothschild, 1892 The Laysan Duck (Anas laysanensis), also known as the Laysan Teal because of its small size, is an endangered dabbling duck endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago. ... Laysan, located at N25° 42 14 W171° 44 04, is one of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. ... Fitness (often denoted in population genetics models) is a central concept in evolutionary theory. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...

The last male Mariana Mallard. This extinct population probably evolved in part from mallards.

In the cases mentioned above, however, ecological changes and hunting have led to a decline of local species; for example, the New Zealand Gray Duck's population declined drastically due to overhunting in the mid-20th century (Williams & Basse 2006). In the Hawaiian Duck, it seems that hybrid offspring are less well-adapted to native habitat and that utilizing them in reintroduction projects makes these less than successful[29]. In conclusion, the crucial point underlying the problems of Mallards "hybridizing away" relatives is far less a consequence of Mallards spreading, but of local ducks declining; allopatric speciation and isolating behavior have produced today's diversity of Mallard-like ducks despite the fact that in most if not all of these populations, hybridization must always have occurred to some extent. Given time and a population of sufficient size exists, natural selection ought to suppress harmful allele combinations to a negligible level. Image File history File links Anas_oustaleti_last_male. ... Image File history File links Anas_oustaleti_last_male. ... Binomial name Anas oustaleti Salvadori, 1894 Former distribution of the Mariana Mallard (marked in dark grey, click to enlarge). ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... This article is about biological evolution. ... Allopatric speciation, also known as geographic speciation, occurs when populations physically isolated by an extrinsic barrier evolve intrinsic (genetic) reproductive isolation such that if the barrier between the populations breaks down, individuals of the two populations can no longer interbreed. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... For the hard rock band, see Allele (band). ...


The aforementioned confounds analysis of the evolution considerably. Analyses of good samples of mtDNA sequences give the confusing picture[30] one expects from a wide-ranging species that has evolved probably not much earlier than the Plio-/Pleistocene boundary, around 2 mya. Mallards appear to be closer to their Indo-Pacific relatives than to their American ones judging from biogeography. Considering mtDNA D-loop sequence data[31], they may have evolved more probably than not in the general area of Siberia; mallard bones rather abruptly appear in food remains of ancient humans and other deposits of fossil bones in Europe, without a good candidate for a local predecessor species. The large ice age paleosubspecies which made up at least the European and W Asian populations during the Pleistocene has been named Anas platyrhynchos palaeoboschas. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ... part of a DNA sequence A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... For other uses of mya, see mya (disambiguation). ... The Indo-Pacific is the aggregate of the Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and the minor seas between the two in the general area of Indonesia. ... Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ... D-loop replication is a process by which chloroplasts and mitochondria replicate their genetic material. ... part of a DNA sequence A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine... “Siberian” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... A chronospecies is a species which changes physically, morphologically, genetically, and/or behaviorally over time on an evolutionary scale such that the originating species and the species it becomes could not be classified as the same species had they existed at the same point in time. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ...


As expected, haplotypes typical of American mallard relatives and Spotbills can be found in Mallards around the Bering Sea[32]. Interestingly, the Aleutian Islands turned out to hold a population of Mallards that appear to be evolving towards a good subspecies as gene flow with other populations is very limited[33]. This unexpected result suggests that reevaluation of the Greenland, Iceland, and NE Canada populations according to molecular and morphological characters is warranted. A haplotype, a contraction of the phrase haploid genotype, is the genetic constitution of an individual chromosome. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Sea Bering Sea and the North Pacific Ocean Bearing Sea with Kamchatka Peninsula and Alaska The Bering (or Imarpik) Sea is a body of water north of, and separated from, the north Pacific Ocean by the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands. ... Aleutians seen from space The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900... In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration) is the transfer of alleles of genes from one population to another. ...


Notes and sources

Footnotes

  1. ^ Etymology: Ancient Greek for "flat-billed duck" [1]
  2. ^ Anas platyrhynchos, Domestic Duck; DigiMorph Staff - The University of Texas at Austin
  3. ^ Mallard; Encyclopædia Britannica
  4. ^ Herrera et al. (2006)
  5. ^ I.e., not bred as livestock, but kept as pets, aviary birds, etc.
  6. ^ Rogers (2001)
  7. ^ Bagemihl (1999)
  8. ^ Moeliker (2001). This paper was awarded with an Ig Nobel Prize in 2003 (MacLeod 2005).
  9. ^ Anas platyrhynchos, Domestic Duck; DigiMorph Staff - The University of Texas at Austin
  10. ^ Mallard; Encyclopædia Britannica
  11. ^ Mottled Ducks : The Problem – Hybridization; Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, MyFWC.com
  12. ^ ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR CONTROL OF FREE-RANGING RESIDENT MALLARDS IN FLORIDA, MAY 2002, Contact: Frank Bowers, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
  13. ^ Invasive Alien Bird Species Pose A Threat, Kruger National Park, Siyabona Africa Travel (Pty) Ltd - South Africa Safari Travel Specialist
  14. ^ Anas platyrhynchos, Domestic Duck; DigiMorph Staff - The University of Texas at Austin
  15. ^ Mallard; Encyclopædia Britannica
  16. ^ Rhymer & Simberloff (1996)
  17. ^ a b Rhymer (2006)
  18. ^ Griffin et al. (1989), Rhymer & Simberloff (1996)
  19. ^ Gillespie (1985), Rhymer et al. (1994), Rhymer & Simberloff (1996), Williams & Basse (2006).
  20. ^ Johnsgard (1967), Avise et al. (1990), Rhymer & Simberloff (1996), Mank et al. (2004).
  21. ^ Mazourek & Gray (1994), Rhymer & Simberloff (1996), McCracken et al. (2001).
  22. ^ Young & Rhymer (1998)
  23. ^ Rhymer & Simberloff (1996), McCracken et al. (2001)
  24. ^ See AOU (1983)
  25. ^ Invasive Alien Bird Species Pose A Threat, Kruger National Park, Siyabona Africa Travel (Pty) Ltd - South Africa Safari Travel Specialist
  26. ^ Kulikova et al. (2004)
  27. ^ Yamashina (1948)
  28. ^ Rhymer et al. (1994), Kulikova et al. (2004)
  29. ^ Rhymer & Simberloff (1996), see also Kirby et al. (2004)
  30. ^ See for example Johnson & Sorenson (1999) for a phylogeny suggesting Mallard paraphyly, almost certainly because one of the mere 2 Mallards successfully sampled had an American Black Duck maternal ancestor. Contrary to Avise et al. (1990), the question whether the American haplotypes are an original Mallard lineage is far from resolved[verification needed].
  31. ^ Kulikova et al. (2005)
  32. ^ Kulikova et al. (2004, 2005)
  33. ^ Kulikova et al. (2005)

Not to be confused with Entomology, the scientific study of insects. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... An aviary is a large enclosure for confining birds. ... Flying frog. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In phylogenetics, a grouping of organisms is said to be paraphyletic (Greek para = near and phyle = race) if all the members of the group have a common ancestor, but the group does not include all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor of all group members. ...

References

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU) (1983): Check-list of North American Birds (6th edition). American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC.
  • Avise, John C.; Ankney, C. Davison & Nelson, William S. (1990): Mitochondrial Gene Trees and the Evolutionary Relationship of Mallard and Black Ducks. Evolution 44(4): 1109-1119. doi:10.2307/2409570 (HTML abstract and first page image)
  • Bagemihl, Bruce (1999): Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity: 479-481. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0312192398
  • BirdLife International (2004). Anas platyrhynchos. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 11 May 2006. Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern
  • Gillespie, Grant D. (1985): Hybridization, introgression, and morphometric differentiation between Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Grey Duck (Anas superciliosa) in Otago, New Zealand. Auk 102 (3): 459-469. PDF fulltext
  • Griffin, C.R.; Shallenberger, F.J. & Fefer, S.I. (1989): Hawaii's endangered waterbirds: a resource management challenge. In: Sharitz, R.R. & Gibbons, I.W. (eds.): Proceedings of Freshwater Wetlands and Wildlife Symposium: 155-169. Savannah River Ecology Lab, Aiken, South Carolina.
  • Herrera, Néstor; Rivera, Roberto; Ibarra Portillo, Ricardo & Rodríguez, Wilfredo (2006): Nuevos registros para la avifauna de El Salvador. ["New records for the avifauna of El Salvador"]. Boletín de la Sociedad Antioqueña de Ornitología 16(2): 1-19. [Spanish with English abstract] PDF fulltext
  • Johnsgard, Paul A. (1967): Sympatry Changes and Hybridization Incidence in Mallards and Black Ducks. American Midland Naturalist 77(1): 51-63. doi:10.2307/2423425 (HTML abstract and first page image)
  • Johnson, Kevin P. & Sorenson, Michael D. (1999): Phylogeny and biogeography of dabbling ducks (genus Anas): a comparison of molecular and morphological evidence. Auk 116 (3): 792–805. PDF fulltext
  • Kirby, Ronald E.; Sargeant, Glen A. & Shutler, Dave (2004): Haldane's rule and American black duck × mallard hybridization. Canadian Journal of Zoology 82(11): 1827–1831. doi:10.1139/z04-169 (HTML abstract)
  • Kulikova, Irina V.; Zhuravlev, Yury N. & McCracken, Kevin G. (2004): Asymmetric hybridization and sex-biased gene flow between Eastern Spot-billed Ducks (Anas zonorhyncha) and Mallards (A. platyrhynchos) in the Russian Far East. Auk 121 (3): 930-949. [English with Russian abstract] DOI: 10.1642/0004-8038(2004)121[0930:AHASGF]2.0.CO;2 PDF fulltext
  • Kulikova, Irina V.; Drovetski, S.V.; Gibson, D.D.; Harrigan, R.J.; Rohwer, S.; Sorenson, Michael D.; Winker, K.; Zhuravlev, Yury N. & McCracken, Kevin G. (2005): Phylogeography of the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos): Hybridization, dispersal, and lineage sorting contribute to complex geographic structure. Auk 122 (3): 949-965. [English with Russian abstract] DOI: 10.1642/0004-8038(2005)122[0949:POTMAP]2.0.CO;2 PDF fulltext. Erratum: Auk 122 (4): 1309. DOI: 10.1642/0004-8038(2005)122[0949:POTMAP]2.0.CO;2
  • MacLeod, Donald (2005): Necrophilia among ducks ruffles research feathers. Education Guardian (March 8). Retrieved 2006-DEC-09.
  • Mank, Judith E.; Carlson, John E. & Brittingham, Margaret C. (2004): A century of hybridization: Decreasing genetic distance between American black ducks and mallards. Conservation Genetics 5(3): 395–403. doi:10.1023/B:COGE.0000031139.55389.b1 (HTML abstract)
  • Mazourek, J.C. & Gray, P.N. (1994): The Florida duck or the mallard? Florida Wildlife 48 (3): 29-31. DOC fulltext
  • McCracken, Kevin G.; Johnson, William P. & Sheldon, Frederick H. (2001): Molecular population genetics, phylogeography, and conservation biology of the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula). Conservation Genetics 2 (2): 87–102. doi:10.1023/A:1011858312115 PDF fulltext
  • Moeliker, C. W. "Kees" (2001): The first case of homosexual necrophilia in the Mallard Anas platyrhynchos (Aves: Anatidae). Deinsea 8: 243-247. PDF fulltext
  • Rhymer, Judith M. (2006): Extinction by hybridization and introgression in anatine ducks. Acta Zoologica Sinica 52(Supplement): 583–585. PDF fulltext
  • Rhymer, Judith M. & Simberloff, Daniel (1996): Extinction by hybridization and introgression. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 27: 83-109. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.27.1.83 (HTML abstract)
  • Rhymer, Judith M.; Williams, Murray J. & Braun, Michael J (1994). Mitochondrial analysis of gene flow between New Zealand Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and Grey Ducks (A. superciliosa). Auk 111 (4): 970–978. PDF fulltext
  • Rogers, D. (2001): Animal Diversity Web: Anas platyrhynchos. Retrieved 2006-DEC-08.
  • Williams, Murray & Basse, Britta (2006): Indigenous gray ducks, Anas superciliosa, and introduced mallards, A. platyrhynchos, in New Zealand: processes and outcome of a deliberate encounter. Acta Zoologica Sinica 52(Supplement): 579–582. PDF fulltext
  • Yamashina, Y. (1948): Notes on the Marianas mallard. Pacific Science 2: 121-124.
  • Young, H. Glyn & Rhymer, Judith M. (1998): Meller's duck: A threatened species receives recognition at last. Biodiversity and Conservation 7: 1313-1323. doi:10.1023/A:1008843815676

The American Ornithologists Union (AOU) an ornithological organization in the USA. Unlike the National Audubon Society, its members are primarily professional ornithologists rather than amateur birders. ... Evolution, the International Journal of Organic Evolution, is a bimonthly scientific journal that publishes significant new results of empirical or theoretical investigations concerning facts, processes, mechanics, or concepts of evolutionary phenomena and events. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... The Auk is a quarterly journal and the official publication of the American Ornithologists Union, having been continuously published by that body since 1884. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Auk is a quarterly journal and the official publication of the American Ornithologists Union, having been continuously published by that body since 1884. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Auk is a quarterly journal and the official publication of the American Ornithologists Union, having been continuously published by that body since 1884. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Auk is a quarterly journal and the official publication of the American Ornithologists Union, having been continuously published by that body since 1884. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... This is the article on the publisher Annual Reviews whose titles are invariably called Annual review of . ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Auk is a quarterly journal and the official publication of the American Ornithologists Union, having been continuously published by that body since 1884. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

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All About Birds: Mallard (390 words)
The Mallard is the ancestor of nearly all domestic duck breeds (everything except the Muscovy Duck).
The widespread Mallard has given rise to a number of populations around the world that have changed enough that they could be considered separate species.
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Mallard - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (776 words)
The Mallard is one of the rare examples of both Allen's Rule and Bergmann's Rule in birds.
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Mallards form pairs only until the female lays eggs, at which time she is left by the male.
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