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Encyclopedia > Male pregnancy

Male pregnancy refers to the incubation one or more embryos or fetuses by the male of any species. Almost all pregnancies in the animal kingdom are carried by female organisms. In all heterogamous species, the males produce the spermatozoa and rarely, if ever, host the zygote.[1] The term Couvade is derived from the early French word (Couver to hatch) and custom where the father, during or immediately after the birth of a child, takes to bed, complains of having labour pains, and is accorded the treatment usually shown women during pregnancy or after childbirth. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... Fetus at eight weeks A fetus (alternatively foetus or fœtus) is an embryo in later stages of development, from the third month of pregnancy until birth in humans. ... This article is about the Male sex. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... See Animal. ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ... Heterogamous describes a species in which gametes show sexual dimorphism (that is, sperm and egg). ... Schematic diagram of a sperm cell, showing the (1) acrosome, (2) cell membrane, (3) nucleus, (4) mitochondria, and (5) flagellum (tail) A sperm cell, or spermatozoon ( spermatozoa) (in Greek: sperm = semen and zoon = alive), is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. ... For other meanings see Zygote (disambiguation). ...

Contents

In humans

Poster released by the Family Planning Association of Victoria (Australia) from the 1970's.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x886, 54 KB) This image is of a historical political poster, button, flier or banner, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the creator of the poster or the artist who produced the poster/button/flier/banner... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x886, 54 KB) This image is of a historical political poster, button, flier or banner, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the creator of the poster or the artist who produced the poster/button/flier/banner... The Family Planning Association, also known as fpa, is a UK registered charity (number 250187) working to promote sexual health. ...

Possible science of a human male pregnancy

Since men lack a womb, alternative measures would have to be made for an abdominal ectopic pregnancy. Fertilization would likely be done in vitro by implantation into the abdominal cavity—with the placenta attached to an internal organ such as the bowel, and starting the process would require the father to take female hormones—blurring the line between the sexes, from some viewpoints. Delivery would be done by caesarean section. Photograph of a nude man by Wilhelm von Gloeden, ca. ... The womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ... An ectopic pregnancy is a complication of pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum is implanted in any tissue other than the uterine wall. ... In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a technique in which egg cells are fertilized outside the mothers body in cases where conception is difficult or impossible through normal intercourse. ... The abdominal cavity is the cavity of the human body (and other animal bodies) that holds the bulk of the viscera and which is located below (or inferior to) the thoracic cavity, and above the pelvic cavity. ... The placenta (Latin for cake, referencing its appearance in humans) is an ephemeral organ present in placental vertebrates, such as eutherial mammals and sharks during gestation (pregnancy). ... In biology, an organ is a group of tissues which perform some function. ... The intestine is the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ... A caesarean section (AE cesarean section), or c-section, is a form of childbirth in which a surgical incision is made through a mothers abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more babies. ...


Oral doses of female hormones would be administered to the man to make him receptive to the pregnancy. In vitro fertilization techniques would be used to induce an ectopic pregnancy by implanting an embryo and placenta into the abdominal cavity, just under or into the peritoneum.[citation needed] In women, such pregnancies have 5% viability rate.Once implantation was complete, the man would stop taking hormones, because the pregnancy itself would take over. The embryo would secrete sufficient hormones to maintain its own growth and development.[citation needed] For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... In vitro (Latin: within the glass) refers to the technique of performing a given experiment in a test tube, or, generally, in a controlled environment outside a living organism. ... Categories: Biology stubs ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... The placenta (Latin for cake, referencing its appearance in humans) is an ephemeral organ present in placental vertebrates, such as eutherial mammals and sharks during gestation (pregnancy). ... The abdomen (from the Latin word meaning belly) is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. ... In higher vertebrates, the peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity - it covers most of the intra-abdominal organs. ... Implantation is a phenomenon in prenatal development, i. ...


The delivery would require open surgery (Cesarean section) to remove the baby and the placenta. The latter would be the real danger because it forms such intimate connections with surrounding blood vessels that a massive hemorrhage would be likely. Implantation might also involve other structures in the abdomen, including the bowel, and it is possible that parts of other organs might have to be removed. Several physicians who were well-accustomed to advanced and dangerous forms of ectopic pregnancies would have be on-hand to handle any complications.[citation needed] A caesarean section (cesarean section AE), is a surgical incision through a mothers abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more fetuses. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The real problem with a male pregnancy of this type is not its plausibility, but if the man could survive it. In women, ectopic pregnancies are generally removed as soon as possible. The fetus would also be in danger of complications because it would be deprived of the protection of a uterus.


An alternative to simple induction of an ectopic pregnancy is the use of a womb transplant from a donor, or an artificial one. The first uterine transplant was performed in Saudi Arabia in 2000, from one woman to another. This advance drew speculation about the possibility of a male receiving a womb transplant, and bearing a child from the transplanted womb. Womb transplants to males have been successfully performed in animals.[2][3][4] History For many years, organ transplantation has been a medical and surgical challenge. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Pregnancy among intersex and transgender people

Some intersex people with XY chromosomes develop entirely female bodies and, if the individual has a uterus, can gestate an embryo conceived in the lab.[5] The typical karyotype for a male is XY, so in this case the pregnant person has a Y chromosome. An intersexual is a person (or individual of any unisexual species) who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes. ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. ... Karyogram of human male using Giemsa staining. ... The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ...


Some transmen (female-to-male transgender people) who interrupt hormone treatments can become pregnant, while still identifying and living as male—this is possible for individuals who still have functioning ovaries.[6] For example, Matt Rice bore a child in 1999 by artificial insemination during his relationship with writer Patrick Califia.[7] Thomas Beatie, who chose to become pregnant because his wife was infertile, wrote an article about his pregnancy in The Advocate, and is due to give birth in July 2008.[8] The Washington Post further broadened the story on March 25 when blogger Emil Steiner called it the first "legally male" pregnancy on record.[9] This was in reference to the state of Oregon recognizing Beatie as a man, which California never did for Rice.[citation needed] Although these individuals are genetically and physiologically female, from an identity standpoint they may be considered "pregnant men". Transmen or trans men are transgender or transsexual people who were assigned female at birth based on genital appearance (or, in cases of intersexuality, were later assigned to the female gender) and who feel that this is not an accurate or complete description of themselves. ... A transwoman with XY written on her hand, at a protest in Paris, October 1, 2005. ... Growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone secreted by the pituitary gland which stimulates growth and cell reproduction. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... AIH redirects here. ... Patrick Califia (formerly known as Pat Califia; born 1954 near Corpus Christi, Texas) is a writer about sexuality and of erotic fiction, nonfiction essays, and poetry. ... The Advocate (ISSN 0001-8996) is a US-based LGBT-related biweekly news magazine. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The term Blogger may refer to: A blogger, someone who maintains a weblog. ... Emil Gregory Steiner (born November 30, 1978) is an American novelist, short-story writer and journalist who currently writes the OFF/beat blog for The Washington Post. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Identity politics is the political activity of various social movements for self-determination. ...


Fetus in fetu

Main article: Fetus in fetu

An extremely rare condition in which a fetus can grow inside a male (or female) body is called "fetus in fetu". This is a developmental abnormality in which a fertilised egg splits as if to form identical twins, but one half gets enveloped by the other, and an entire living organ system with torso and limbs can develop inside the host.[10] The abnormality occurs in 1 in 500,000 live births.[11] A parasitic twin is the result of a situation related to the process that results in teratomas, vanishing twin, and conjoined twins – two unique embryos begin developing in utero, but something goes wrong. ... A parasitic twin is the result of a situation related to the process that results in teratomas, vanishing twin, and conjoined twins – two unique embryos begin developing in utero, but something goes wrong. ... Fraternal twin boys in the tub The term twin most notably refers to two individuals (or one of two individuals) who have shared the same uterus (womb) and usually, but not necessarily, born on the same day. ...


The case of Sanju Bhagat, a man from Nagpur, India, attracted attention in 1999 for the length of time (36 years) he had carried his parasitic "twin" inside his body, and the size of the growth. Since Bhagat had no placenta, the growth had connected directly to his blood supply. [12] , Nāgpur   (Marathi: नागपुर) Third largest city in the western Indian state of Maharashtra after Mumbai and Pune with a population of 2. ...


In fiction

Mythology

Various mythologies feature male characters giving birth, but such events typically take place in an entirely different fashion than an ordinary female pregnancy, such as Athena springing fully-formed from Zeus's forehead, or Dionysus being born from his thigh. In Hindu mythology, Lord Vishnu gives birth to Lord Brahma thus: a lotus emerges from his navel, like an external placenta and womb, carrying Brahma within. Male mythological figures may become pregnant when rendered female in some way, such as the shapeshifter Loki turning into a mare to distract a stallion and ending up giving birth to Sleipnir. Mythologies is the title of a book by Roland Barthes (ISBN 0374521506), published in 1957. ... This is the Greek name of the capital of the Hellenic Republic (Greece). ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... For other meanings, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... Brahma is a very important Hindu God. ... Look up lotus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The placenta (Latin for cake, referencing its appearance in humans) is an ephemeral organ present in placental vertebrates, such as eutherial mammals and sharks during gestation (pregnancy). ... The womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ... For other uses, see Shapeshifting (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Loki (disambiguation). ... 13 year old Peruvian Paso mare A broodmare and foal In English, a mare (an old Germanic word) is a female horse; the word is also an etymological root of marshal (originally marescalcus horse servant). Mares are considered easier to handle than males, which are called stallions or after castration... A stallion A stallion is a male horse that has not been castrated. ... The Tängvide image stone is thought to show Odin entering Valhalla riding on Sleipnir Sleipnir is also a Japanese web browser. ...


In popular culture

See also: Pregnancy in science fiction

Thematically, pregnancy can be related to the issues of parasitism and gender. Some science fiction writers have picked up on these issues, in "cross-gender" themes — e.g., Octavia E. Butler's Bloodchild. Ursula K. Le Guin's award-winning The Left Hand of Darkness, which contains the sentence "The king was pregnant", explores a society in which pregnancy can be experienced by anyone, since gender is variable within each person's lifetime. Lois McMaster Bujold's Ethan of Athos features an all-male society in which men use artificial wombs, but experience many of the psychological effects of pregnancy (anticipation, anxiety, etc.). In Marge Piercy's feminist utopian novel Woman on the Edge of Time, neither men nor women get pregnant, leaving that to artificial wombs, but both sexes may lactate and nurse the infant; the specifically female experiences of pregnancy and nursing were opened to men in the cause of gender equality.[13] Sheri S. Tepper uses male pregnancy as a form of political commentary in The Fresco, when intergalactic peace officers take politicians at their word that all life is sacred. Numerous science fiction, utopian and dystopian novels revolve around sexual reproduction, pregnancy and infertility. ... This article is about a relationship between organisms. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Octavia Estelle Butler (June 22, 1947 — February 24, 2006) was an American science fiction writer, one of very few African-American women in the field. ... Ursula Kroeber Le Guin [ˌɜɹsÉ™lÉ™ ËŒkɹobɜɹ ləˈgWɪn] (born October 21, 1929) is an American author. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Lois McMaster Bujold (November 2, 1949, Columbus, Ohio) is an American author of science fiction and fantasy works. ... The term Couvade is derived from the early French word (Couver to hatch) and custom where the father, during or immediately after the birth of a child, takes to bed, complains of having labour pains, and is accorded the treatment usually shown women during pregnancy or after childbirth. ... Marge Piercy (born March 31, 1936) is an American poet, novelist, and social activist. ... For other uses, see Utopia (disambiguation). ... Marge Piercys novel Woman on the Edge of Time (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1976) is a utopian fantasy set in a framework that contrasts present-day (1970s) New York City with the village of Mattapoisett in 2137. ... Suckling redirects here. ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... Sheri Stewart Tepper (born July 16, 1929) is a prolific American author of science fiction, horror and mystery novels; she is particularly known as a feminist science fiction writer, often with an ecofeminist slant. ...


Male pregnancy has featured on television. In season 4 of the popular machinima series Red vs. Blue, a Covenant Elite impregnated Tucker with a parasitic embryo. At the end of the season Tucker gave birth to a miniature alien off-screen; it was named Blargity-Blarg Tucker, and is also called Junior or Abomination. A scene from the popular machinima series Red vs. ... For divisions in United States politics, see Red states and blue states. ... A Covenant Elite from Halo: Combat Evolved. ... Green people redirects here. ...


Two comedy films centered around male pregnancy: Rabbit Test (1978) and Junior (1994). The latter's attempts are somewhat scientifically feasible; the former does not address the matter. Rabbit Test is a 1978 comedy motion picture about the worlds first pregnant man. ... Junior, released in 1994, is Arnold Schwarzeneggers third comedy film, which features him teamed up with Danny DeVito, following their previous collaboration, Twins and director Ivan Reitman, who also directed Schwarzenegger in that film and Kindergarten Cop. ...


Virgil Wong, a performance artist, created a hoax site claiming to detail his pregnancy[14] featuring a fictitious male pregnancy.[15] This article is about Performance art. ...


References

  1. ^ Male pregnancy. ScienceDirect (2003-10-14).
  2. ^ www.popsci.com Dr Robert Winston, a pioneer of in-vitro fertilization, bioethicist Glenn McGee
  3. ^ english.pravda.ru professor Mats Brannstrom
  4. ^ Babies borne by men 'possible'. The Independent (1999-02-22).
  5. ^ Khadilkar, Vaman. "Intersex Disorders", Pediatrician On Call web site
  6. ^ Faster than Life
  7. ^ Califia-Rice, Patrick (2000-06-20). Two Dads With a Difference — Neither of Us Was Born Male. Village Voice. Retrieved on 2008-03-22.
  8. ^ Labor of Love. The Advocate (2008-03-26). Retrieved on 2008-03-27.
  9. ^ [1] washingtonpost.com OFF/beat blog March 25th, 2008
  10. ^ Chua, JHY; Chui CH, Sai Prasad TR et al. (2005). "Fetus-in-fetu in the pelvis". Annals of the Academy of Medicine Singapore 34: 646-649. 
  11. ^ Grant P, Pearn JH Foetus-in-foetu. Med J Aust. 1969; 1:1016-1020 — source not consulted; cited here following Hoeffel CC, Nguyen KQ, Phan HT, Truong NH, Nguyen TS, Tran TT, Fornes P. Fetus in fetu: a case report and literature review. Pediatrics. 2000 Jun;105(6):1335-44. PubMed free full text
  12. ^ ABC News: A Pregnant Man?. i.abcnews.com. Retrieved on 2008-03-27.
  13. ^ Piercy, Marge (1985-11-12). Woman on the Edge of Time. Fawcett. ISBN 0-449-21082-0. 
  14. ^ Virgil Wong website. Retrieved on 2008-03-31.
  15. ^ Hoax website: POP! The First Human Male Pregnancy. Retrieved on 2008-03-27.
Elseviers logo. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Patrick Califia (formerly known as Pat Califia; born 1954 near Corpus Christi, Texas) is a writer about sexuality and of erotic fiction, nonfiction essays, and poetry. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Village Voice is a New York City-based weekly newspaper featuring investigative articles, analysis of current affairs and culture, arts reviews and events listings for New York City. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Advocate (ISSN 0001-8996) is a US-based LGBT-related biweekly news magazine. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest and oldest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Marge Piercy (born March 31, 1936) is an American poet, novelist, and social activist. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

 
 

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