FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
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Encyclopedia > Male
The shield and spear of the Roman god Mars, which is also the alchemical symbol for iron, represents the male sex.
The shield and spear of the Roman god Mars, which is also the alchemical symbol for iron, represents the male sex.

Male (♂) refers to the sex of an organism, or part of an organism, which produces small mobile gametes, called spermatozoa. Each spermatozoon can fuse with a larger female gamete or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male cannot reproduce sexually without access to at least one ovum from a female, but some organisms can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Malé (Dhivehi: މާލެ), (pronounced: Maa-lay) population 81,647 (2004), is the capital of the Republic of Maldives located at the southern edge of North Male Atoll Kaafu Atoll. ... Look up male in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Male. ... Image File history File links Male. ... Mars was the Roman god of war, the son of Juno and either Jupiter or a magical flower. ... Alchemical symbols, originally devised as part of the protoscience of alchemy, were used to denote some elements and some compounds until the 18th century. ... A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετης; translated gamete = wife, gametes = husband) is a cell that fuses with another gamete during fertilization (conception) in organisms that reproduce sexually. ... A spermatozoon or spermatozoan ( spermatozoa), from the ancient Greek σπέρμα (seed) and (living being) and more commonly known as a sperm cell, is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ... A human ovum Sperm cells attempting to fertilize an ovum An ovum (plural ova) is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete. ... Categories: Biology stubs ... Sexual reproduction is a union that results in increasing genetic diversity of the offspring. ...


Not all species share a common sex-determination system. In humans and most animals, sex is determined genetically but in other species it can be determined due to social, environmental, or other factors. The existence of two sexes seems to have been selected independently across different evolutionary lineages (see Convergent Evolution). Accordingly, sex is defined operationally across species by the type of gametes produced (ie: spermatozoa vs. ova) and differences between males and females in one lineage are not always predictive of differences in another. A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... An evolutionary lineage (also called a clade) is composed of species, taxa, or individuals that are related by descent from a common ancestor. ... In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. ... An operational definition is a showing of something—such as a variable, term, or object—in terms of the specific process or set of validation tests used to determine its presence and quantity. ...


Male/Female dimorphism between organisms or reproductive organs of different sexes is not limited to animals; male gametes are produced by chytrids, diatoms and land plants, among others. In land plants, female and male designate not only the female and male gamete-producing organisms and structures but also the structures of the sporophytes that give rise to male and female plants. For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... Orders Chytridiales Spizellomycetales Blastocladiales Monoblepharidales Neocallimasticales Chytridiomycota is a division of the Fungi kingdom and contains only one class, Chytridiomycetes. ... Orders Centrales Pennales Diatoms (Greek: (dia) = through + (temnein) = to cut, i. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Young sporophytes of the common moss Tortula muralis. ...

Contents

Anatomy

All males, regardless of independent origin, kingdom, or other phylogenetic subdivision, share at least the anatomy to produce male gametes. Some have sophisticated organs and organ systems designed to produce, dispense, and deliver the gamete to a location suitable for ovum fertilization. A phylogeny (or phylogenesis) is the origin and evolution of a set of organisms, usually of a species. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... In biology, an organ is a group of tissues which perform some function. ...


Even where structures and cell types have arisen independently, "sperm" is ordinarily used to refer to the male gamete. Among animals that undergo internal fertilization, "penis" is often used to refer to an organ inserted into the female for insemination. This process is called reproduction sex. For other uses, see Sperm (disambiguation). ... Internal fertilization is a form of animal fertilization of an ovum by spermatozoon within the body of an inseminated animal, whether female or hermaphroditic. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... Insemination is the introduction of semen into the genital tract of a female. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Symbol

A common symbol used to represent the male gender is the Mars symbol, (Unicode: U+2642 Alt codes: Alt+11)—a circle with an arrow pointing northeast. This is often called a stylized representation of the Roman god Mars' shield and spear; it could also be said to be a stylized representation of the penis and scrotum. Also, this symbol is found on the logo of the popular automobile manufacturer Volvo. Mars symbol The Mars symbol (♂) may refer to: In biology, the male sex In mythology, the Roman god Mars or the Greek god Ares In astronomy, the planet Mars In alchemy, iron The old scriptures draw the Mars symbol as a Venus symbol rotated 140 degrees. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... The term Alt codes is used to refer to a number of Unicode input methods that allow characters to be entered by typing a characters code point in concert with the Alt key. ... Ordinal directions are the four compass directions: northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest, located halfway between the cardinal directions. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... Mars was the Roman god of war, the son of Juno and either Jupiter or a magical flower. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... In some male mammals, the scrotum is a protuberance of skin and muscle containing the testicles. ... Volvo Cars is the luxury car maker using the Volvo Trademark. ...


Sex determination

The sex of a particular organism may be determined by a number of factors. These may be genetic or environmental, or may naturally change during the course of an organism's life. Although most species with male and female sexes have individuals that are either male or female, hermaphroditic animals have both male and female reproductive organs. A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism. ... For other uses, see Hermaphrodite (disambiguation). ...


Genetic determination

Most mammals, including humans, are genetically determined as such by the XY sex-determination system where males have an XY (as opposed to XX) sex chromosome. During reproduction, a male can give either an X sperm or a Y sperm, while a female can only give an X egg. A Y sperm and an X egg produce a boy, while an X sperm and an X egg produce a girl. The ZW sex-determination system, where males have a ZZ (as opposed to ZW) sex chromosome may be found in birds and some insects (mostly butterflies and moths) and other organisms. Members of Hymenoptera, such as ants and bees, are determined by haplodiploidy, where most males are haploid and females and some sterile males are diploid. Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... This article is about modern humans. ... The XY sex-determination system is the sex-determination system found in humans, most other mammals, some insects (Drosophila) and some plants (Ginkgo). ... A scheme of a condensed (metaphase) chromosome. ... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... For other uses, see Boy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Girl (disambiguation). ... The ZW sex-determination system is a system that birds, some fishes, and some insects (including butterflies and moths) use to determine the sex of their offspring. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Suborders Apocrita Symphyta Hymenoptera is one of the larger orders of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants. ... For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... A haplodiploid species is one in which one of the sexes has haploid cells (cells containing one copy of each chromosome) and the other has diploid cells (cells containing two copies of each chromosome). ... Haploid (meaning simple in Greek) cells have only one copy of each chromosome. ... Diploid (meaning double in Greek) cells have two copies (homologs) of each chromosome (both sex- and non-sex determining chromosomes), usually one from the mother and one from the father. ...


Environmental determination

In some species of reptiles, including alligators, sex is determined by the temperature at which the egg is incubated. Other species, such as some snails, practise sex change: adults start out male, then become female. In tropical clown fish, the dominant individual in a group becomes female while the other ones are male. For other uses, see Alligator (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Snail (disambiguation). ... Species Twenty-seven, including: Amphiprion allardi - Allards Clownfish Amphiprion melanopus - Cinnamon Clownfish Amphiprion clarkii - Clarks Anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris - Ocellaris Clownfish Amphiprion percula - Percula Clownfish Amphiprion perideraion - Pink Skunk Clownfish Amphiprion polymnus - Saddleback Clownfish Amphiprion sebae - Sebae Clownfish Amphiprion tricinctus - Three-Band Anemonefish Amphiprion ephippium - Tomato Clownfish Amphiprion frenatus...


In some arthropods, sex is determined by infection. Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia alter their sexuality; some species consist entirely of ZZ individuals, with sex determined by the presence of Wolbachia. Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Wolbachia is a genus of inherited bacterium that infects arthropod species, including a high proportion of all insects. ...


Secondary sex characteristics

In those species with two sexes, males may differ from females in ways other than production of spermatozoa. Males are generally smaller than females in seed plants (the pollen grain is the male plant) and many fishes and birds, but larger in many mammals, including humans. In birds, the male often exhibits a colorful plumage that attracts females. A peacock displays his long, colored feathers, an example of his secondary sexual characteristics. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ...


See also

Look up Male in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Photograph of a nude man by Wilhelm von Gloeden, ca. ... For other uses, see Boy (disambiguation). ... This article is about pregnancy in male organisms. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ...

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