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Encyclopedia > Malcolm X
Malcolm X
Born May 19, 1925
Omaha, Nebraska, United States
Died February 21, 1965
Harlem, Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States

Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. He was also founder of the Muslim Mosque, Inc. and the Organization of Afro-American Unity. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2191x3000, 572 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Malcolm X User:Davepape/Images ... May 19 is the 139th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (140th in leap years). ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... Nickname: Gateway to the West Location in Nebraska Coordinates: Country United States State Nebraska County Douglas Founded 1854 Incorporated 1857 Mayor Michael Fahey Area    - City 307. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Harlem is a neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City, long known as a major black cultural and business center. ... The Borough of Manhattan, highlighted in yellow, lies between the East River and the Hudson River. ... Nickname: Big Apple, City that never Sleeps Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... Malik (Arabic: ملك ) is a word that means king in Arabic, also adopted in various other oriental languages, also in derived meanings. ... Shabazz a name used by El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (aka Malcolm X) based on the teachings of Elijah Muhammad. ... Nickname: Gateway to the West Location in Nebraska Coordinates: Country United States State Nebraska County Douglas Founded 1854 Incorporated 1857 Mayor Michael Fahey Area    - City 307. ... May 19 is the 139th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (140th in leap years). ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Nickname: Big Apple, City that never Sleeps Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Muslim Mosque, Inc. ... The Organization of Afro-American Unity was formed by Malcolm X on June 28, 1964. ...


During his life, Malcolm went from being a drug dealer and burglar[1] to one of the most prominent black nationalist leaders in the United States; he was considered by some as a martyr of Islam and a champion of equality. As a militant leader, Malcolm X advocated black pride, economic self-reliance, and identity politics. He ultimately rose to become a world-renowned African American/Pan-Africanist and human rights activist. Black nationalism is a political and social movement arising in the 1960s and early 70s mostly among African Americans in the United States. ... The word militant has come to refer to any individual or party engaged in aggressive physical or verbal combat, normally for a cause. ... Black pride is a slogan used interchangeably to depict both the movement of and concept within politically active black communities, especially African Americans in the United States. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Identity politics is the political activity of various social movements for self-determination. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


Following a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1964, Malcolm converted to orthodox Islam. Less than a year later he was assassinated in Washington Heights on the first day of National Brotherhood Week. Although three members of the Nation of Islam were convicted of his assassination (one of whom confessed), there are several conspiracy theories positing the involvement of elements of the United States Government. Mecca IPA: or Makkah IPA: (in full: Makkah al-Mukarramah; Arabic: ‎, Turkish: Mekke) is the capital city of Saudi Arabias Makkah province, in the historic Hejaz region. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... Washington Heights is a New York City neighborhood in Upper Manhattan. ... The National Conference for Community and Justice (NCCJ) formerly known as the National Conference of Christians and Jews, is a national non-profit organization in the United States. ... A conspiracy theory attempts to explain the ultimate cause of an event (usually a political, social, or historical event) as a secret, and often deceptive, plot by a covert alliance of powerful people or organizations rather than as an overt activity or as natural occurrence. ...

Contents

Early years

The young Malcolm X
Enlarge
The young Malcolm X

Malcolm Little was born in Omaha, Nebraska to Earl Little and Louise Little (née Norton). His father was an outspoken Baptist lay preacher and supporter of Marcus Garvey, as well as a member of the Universal Negro Improvement Association. Malcolm described his father as a big black man who had lost one eye. According to Malcolm, three of Earl Little's brothers died violently at the hands of white men, and one of his uncles had been lynched. It is also thought that Malcolm Little's family was affiliated with the Seventh-day Adventist Church. In the autobiography, there are several references to associations with Seventh-day Adventists in Michigan and many of his lieutenants in the Nation of Islam were converts from the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Malcolm X mentions that the Seventh-day Adventist were the only kind white people he recalled from his childhood, in his autobiography. Malcolm X. Found at http://lcweb. ... Malcolm X. Found at http://lcweb. ... Marcus Garvey (far right) in parade Marcus Mosiah Garvey, national hero of Jamaica, (August 17, 1887– June 10, 1940) was a publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, Black nationalist crusader, and founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL). ... The Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA) is, according to its 1929 constitution, a social, friendly, humanitarian, charitable, educational, institutional, constructive and expansive society, and is founded by persons desiring to the utmost to work for the general uplift of the people of African ancestry of the... Lynching is murder (mostly by hanging) conceived by its perpetrators as extra-legal execution. ... The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Christian denomination which, as its name suggests, is best-known for its teaching that Saturday, the seventh day of the week, is the Sabbath and that the second advent of Jesus Christ is imminent. ...


Earl Little had three children (Ella, Mary, and Earl, Jr.) by a previous marriage before he married Malcolm's mother. From his second marriage he had eight children, of whom Malcolm was the fourth. (Earl and Louise Little's children's names were, in order, Wilfred, Hilda, Philbert, Malcolm, Reginald, Wesley, Yvonne, and Robert.)


Louise Little was born in Grenada and, according to Malcolm, she looked more like a white woman. Her father was a white man of whom Malcolm knew nothing except his mother's shame. Malcolm got his light complexion from him. Initially he felt it was a status symbol to be light-skinned but later he would say that he “hated every drop of that white rapist's blood that is in me.” As Malcolm was the lightest child in the family, he felt that his father favored him; however, his mother gave him more hell for the same reason.[1]


According to Malcolm X's autobiography, his mother had been threatened by Ku Klux Klansmen while she was pregnant with him in December of 1924; his mother recalled that the family was warned to leave Omaha, because his father's involvement with UNIA was, according to the Klansmen, "stirring up trouble".[2] Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... Omaha is the name of some places in the United States: *Omaha, Nebraska (the most familiar one) Omaha, Georgia Omaha, Illinois Omaha, Texas It is also the name of a Native American tribe, after which the city in Nebraska is named; see Omaha (tribe). ... The Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA) is, according to its 1929 constitution, a social, friendly, humanitarian, charitable, educational, institutional, constructive and expansive society, and is founded by persons desiring to the utmost to work for the general uplift of the people of African ancestry of the...


After Malcolm was born, the family relocated to Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1926, and then to Lansing, Michigan shortly thereafter. In 1931, his father was found dead having been run over by a streetcar in Michigan. Authorities ruled his death suicide[3]. This cause of death was disputed by the African American community at the time, and later by Malcolm himself, as Malcolm's family had frequently found themselves the target of harassment by the white-supremacist Black Legion, which had already culminated in the burning down of their home in 1929.[4] Malcolm wondered how his father could bash himself in the head and then lay down across street tracks to get run over.[2] Nickname: Cream City, Mil Town, Brew City, The City of Festivals Location of Milwaukee in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin Coordinates: County Milwaukee Mayor Tom Barrett Area    - City 251. ... Michigan State Capitol Flag Seal Location Location in Ingham County, Michigan1 Coordinates: , Government Country State County United States Michigan Ingham, Eaton, Clinton Mayor Virg Bernero (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 35. ... The Black Legion was an offshoot organization of the Ku Klux Klan and operated in the midwestern United States in the 1930s. ...


Though Malcolm’s father had two life insurance policies, his mother received death benefits solely from the smaller policy. The insurance company that had issued the larger policy claimed that Earl Little's death had been a suicide, and accordingly refused to pay.[3] The financial and emotional stress of raising eight children on her own caused Louise Little to succumb to a mental breakdown, and she was declared legally insane in December 1938. Malcolm and his siblings were split up and sent to different foster homes. Louise Little was formally committed to the State Mental Hospital at Kalamazoo, Michigan, and remained there until Malcolm and his brothers and sisters were able to get her released twenty-six years later. Inmates at Bedlam Asylum, as portrayed by William Hogarth Insanity, or madness, is a general term for a semi-permanent, severe mental disorder. ... Foster care is a system by which adults care for orphans or other children who are not living with their biological parents, for example due to child abuse. ... Nickname: The Mall City Location of Kalamazoo within Michigan Coordinates: Counties Kalamazoo County Mayor Hannah McKinney Area    - City 25. ...


The Autobiography of Malcolm X and local folklore hold that, following the death of his father, Little lived as a boy on Charles Street in downtown East Lansing. However, the 1930 U.S. Census (released in 2002) shows him living on a completely different Charles Street, in the low-income Urbandale neighborhood in Lansing Township, between Lansing and East Lansing. Later, at the time he was in high school, he lived in Mason, an almost all-white small town twelve miles to the south. The Autobiography of Malcolm X cover The Autobiography of Malcolm X (ISBN 0-345-35068-5) was written by Alex Haley between 1964 and 1965, based on interviews conducted shortly before Malcolm Xs death (and with an epilogue for after it), and was published in 1965. ... Flag Seal Location Location in Michigan Coordinates , Government Country State County United States Michigan Ingham & Clinton Counties Mayor Samir Singh Geographical characteristics Area     City 11. ... The U.S. Census is mandated by the United States Constitution. ... Lansing Charter Township is a charter township in Ingham County in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Mason is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ...


Malcolm X graduated from junior high school at the top of his class, but dropped out soon after an admired teacher told him that his aspirations of being a lawyer were "no realistic goal for a nigger".[4] After enduring a series of foster homes, Malcolm was first sent to a detention center and then later moved to Boston to live with his older half-sister, Ella Little Collins. Middle school and junior high school cover a period of education that straddles primary education and secondary education and serve as a bridge between them. ... English barrister 16th century painting of a civil law notary, by Flemish painter Quentin Massys. ... Nigger is a term used to refer to dark-skinned peoples, especially Africans or Negroids. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe) (The State House, according to Oliver Wendell Holmes, is the hub of the Solar System), Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino...


Middle years

Malcolm found work as a shoe-shiner at a Lindy Hop nightclub; in his autobiography, he says that he once shined the shoes of Duke Ellington and other notable black musicians. He was also employed for a time by New Haven Railroad, a job he would retain when he relocated to New York City in 1943.[5] After some time, in Harlem, he became involved in drug dealing, gambling, racketeering, and robbery (all of which Malcolm collectively referred to as "hustling"). Dancing the Lindy hop at the Sacramento Jazz Jubilee, Sacramento, California, USA (2006) Lindy hop is an African American vernacular dance that evolved in New York City in the late 1920s and early 1930s. ... Clubbing, also known as a disco A nightclub (often shortened to club) is an entertainment venue which does its primary business after dark. ... Cover of An autobiography, from the Greek auton, self, bios, life and graphein, write, is a biography written by the subject or composed conjointly with a collaborative writer (styled as told to or with). The term dates from the late eighteenth century, but the form is much older. ... Duke Ellington Edward Kennedy Duke Ellington (April 29, 1899 – May 24, 1974), also known simply as Duke (see Jazz royalty), was an American jazz composer, pianist, and bandleader. ... A musician is a person who plays or composes music. ... The New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad (AAR reporting mark: NH) was a railroad that operated in the northeast United States. ... Nickname: Big Apple, City that never Sleeps Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... Harlem is a neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City, long known as a major black cultural and business center. ... These lollipops were found to contain heroin when inspected by the US DEA The illegal drug trade is a global black market activity consisting of production, distribution, packaging and sale of illegal psychoactive substances // In jurisdictions where legislation restricts or prohibits the sale of certain popular drugs and it is... Gambling has had many different meanings depending on the cultural and historical context in which it is used. ... Organized crime is crime carried out systematically by formal criminal organizations. ...


When Malcolm was examined for the World War II draft, military physicians classified him to be "mentally disqualified for military service." He explains in his autobiography that he put on a display to avoid the draft by telling the examining officer that he couldn't wait to organize with other black soldiers and get his hands on a gun so he could "kill some crackers". His approach worked, and he was given a classification that ensured he would not be drafted. Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Conscript redirects here, to artificial script. ... White cracker or more often just cracker was originally a pejorative term for a white person, mainly used in the Southern United States. ...


In early 1946, he was arrested for a burglary after trying to sell some goods to a pawnshop. This burglary he had committed together with another black man and two white women, a fact which was considered particularly sensitive. The women blamed the two black youths for forcing them into the crime, but refused to accuse them of rape. Malcolm received a sentence of ten years in prison. While incarcerated, Malcolm, encouraged by an older fellow inmate who recognized his talent, started to read voraciously and developed astigmatism. During this time, he received correspondence from his brother Reginald telling him about the Nation of Islam, to which Malcolm subsequently converted. He was in regular contact with Elijah Muhammad during his incarceration; upon being paroled, he would go to work for the Nation of Islam. Little also belonged to a prison debating team that competed against teams from Harvard and MIT. He started to gain fame among prisoners, but also remained under the keen eye of the authorities, who recognized in him a force that could potentially foment trouble, did not grant him the expected early release after five years. Little was officially considered too dangerous to be released early. In ophthalmology, astigmatism is a refractive error of the eye in which there is a difference in degree of refraction in different meridians. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or MIT, is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. MIT is organized into five schools and one college, containing 34 academic departments and 53 interdisciplinary laboratories, centers and programs. ...


Later years

Nation of Islam

Malcolm with Elijah Muhammad at Savior's Day
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Malcolm with Elijah Muhammad at Savior's Day

In 1952, after his release from prison, Malcolm went to meet Elijah Muhammad in Chicago. It was soon after this that he changed his surname to "X". Malcolm explained the name by saying, The "X" is meant to symbolize the rejection of "slave-names" and the absence of an inherited African name to take its place. The "X" is also the brand that many slaves received on their upper arm. This rationale led many members of the Nation of Islam to change their surnames to X. Image File history File links Savioursday041. ... Image File history File links Savioursday041. ... Saviors Day is a holiday of the Nation of Islam (NOI). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Africa (disambiguation). ...


In March 1953, the Federal Bureau of Investigation opened a file on Malcolm, supposedly in response to an allegation that he had described himself as a Communist; according to the Church Committee, the FBI had long been used to monitor, disrupt, and repress radicals like Malcolm. Included in the file were two letters wherein Malcolm uses the alias "Malachi Shabazz". In "Message To The Black Man In America", Elijah Muhammad explained the name Shabazz as belonging to descendants of an "Asian Black nation". // At present, the FBI has investigative jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes and is second to only the United States Marshal Service in terms of law enforcement jurisdiction (although the USMS by practice relegates itself to judicial duties, making the FBI the de-facto lead... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... The Church Committee is the common term referring to the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a Senate committee chaired by Senator Frank Church (D-ID) in 1975. ... Shabazz a name used by El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (aka Malcolm X) based on the teachings of Elijah Muhammad. ...


In May 1953, the FBI concluded that Malcolm X had an "asocial personality with paranoid trends (pre-psychotic paranoid schizophrenia)", and had, in fact, sought treatment for his disorder. This was further supported by a letter intercepted by the FBI, dated June 29, 1950. The letter said, in reference to his 4-F classification and rejection by the military, "Everyone has always said ... Malcolm is crazy, so it isn't hard to convince people that I am."[5] June 29 is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 185 days remaining. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Later that year, Malcolm left his half-sister Ella in Boston to stay with Elijah Muhammad in Chicago. He soon returned to Boston and became the Minister of the Nation of Islam's Temple Number Eleven. In 1954, Malcolm X was selected to lead the Nation of Islam's mosque #7 on Lenox Avenue (co-named "Malcolm X Boulevard" in 1987, from 110th Street/Central Park North to 147th Street) in Harlem and he rapidly expanded its membership. Malcolm X had great energy; he was able to work day after day with just four hours of sleep or less, he read a lot and once he believed in a cause he devoted himself to it completely[citation needed]. He was a compelling public speaker, and he became known to a wider audience after a local television broadcast in NYC about the Nation of Islam, which was quite an obscure organization until then, in 1959. Malcolm realized the importance of this wider publicity, while Elijah Muhammad was very reluctant to agree to this broadcast. After that, Malcolm was frequently sought after for quotations by the print media, radio, and television programs from the US and later around the world. This was the time in which many African nations were gaining freedom from colonialism and his speeches resonated in this wider context. Malcolm was aware that his fame was a cause of considerable jealousy in NOI, and he was careful in his public appearances not to incite them further. In the years between his adoption of the Nation of Islam, in 1952, and his split with the organization in 1964, he always espoused the Nation's teachings, including referring to whites as "devils" who had been created in a misguided breeding program by a black scientist, and predicting the inevitable (and imminent) return of blacks to their natural place at the top of the social order. Nickname: The Windy City, The Second City, Chi Town Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in Chicagoland and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook Incorporated March 4, 1837 Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area    - City 606. ... Lenox Avenue runs north-south in Upper Manhattan. ... A Central Park landscape Central Park ( ) is a large public, urban park (843 acres or 3. ... Harlem is a neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City, long known as a major black cultural and business center. ... According to the Nation of Islam (NOI), Yakub (also spelled Yacub), was an evil scientist responsible for creating the white race — a race of devils, in their view. ...


Malcolm X was soon seen as the second most influential leader of the movement, after Elijah Muhammad himself. He opened additional temples, including one in Philadelphia, and was largely credited with increasing membership in the NOI from 500 in 1952 to 30,000 in 1963. He inspired the boxer Cassius Clay to join the Nation of Islam and change his name to Muhammad Ali. (Like Malcolm X, Ali later left the NOI and joined mainstream Islam.) Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... Muhammad Ali-Haj (born January 17, 1942 as Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ...


Marriage

In 1958, Malcolm married Betty X (née Sanders) in Lansing, Michigan. They had six daughters together, all of whom carried the surname of Shabazz. Their names were Attallah (also spelled Attillah), born in 1958; Qubilah, born in 1960; Ilyasah, born in 1962; Gamilah (also spelled Gumilah), born in 1964; and twins, Malaak and Malikah, born after Malcolm's death in 1965. Hajj Bahiyah Betty Shabazz (born Betty Jean Sanders) (May 28, 1936 – June 23, 1997), also known as Betty X, she was the wife of the late Malcolm X. // Background There is an air of uncertainty about Betty Shabazzs background and early life. ... Michigan State Capitol Flag Seal Location Location in Ingham County, Michigan1 Coordinates: , Government Country State County United States Michigan Ingham, Eaton, Clinton Mayor Virg Bernero (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 35. ... Qubilah Shabazz (born 1960) is the daughter of Malcolm X and Betty Shabazz. ...


Meeting Castro

In September 1960 Fidel Castro traveled to the United States to address the United Nations General Assembly. Castro did not receive a warm welcome from the U.S. government during his visit to New York City in 1960. The Cuban delegation relocated from the Shelburne Hotel to the Hotel Teresa in Harlem due to complaints from Castro that he had been asked to pay in advance.[6] Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations. ... Harlem is a neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City, long known as a major black cultural and business center. ...


Malcolm X met with Castro as a prominent member of a welcoming committee that had been set up in Harlem several weeks earlier. The purpose of this group, which included a wide range of Black community leaders, was to greet heads of state, particularly from African countries, who would be in New York to address the UN General Assembly. Sixteen African countries were admitted to membership in the UN at that session.


Tensions

In the early 1960s, Malcolm was increasingly exposed to rumors of Elijah Muhammad's extramarital affairs with young secretaries. Adultery is condemned in the teachings of the Nation of Islam. At first, Malcolm brushed these rumors aside. Later, he spoke with Elijah Muhammad's son and the women making the accusations and believed them. In 1963, Elijah Muhammad himself confirmed to Malcolm that the rumors were true and claimed that this activity was undertaken to follow a pattern established by biblical prophets. Despite being unsatisfied with this explanation, and being disenchanted by other ministers using Nation of Islam funds to line their own pockets[citation needed], Malcolm's faith in Elijah Muhammad did not waver. Adultery is generally defined as consensual sexual intercourse by a married person with someone other than his or her lawful spouse. ...


By the summer of 1963, tension in the Nation of Islam reached a boiling point. Malcolm believed that Elijah Muhammad was jealous of his popularity (as were several senior ministers). Malcolm viewed the March on Washington critically, unable to understand why black people were excited over a demonstration "run by whites in front of a statue of a president who has been dead for a hundred years and who didn't like us when he was alive." Later in the year, following the John F. Kennedy assassination, Malcolm delivered a speech as he regularly would. However, when asked to comment upon the assassination, he replied that it was a case of "chickens coming home to roost" — that the culture of violence sanctioned by white society had come around to claim the life of its leader. Most explosively, he then added that with his country origins, "Chickens coming home to roost never made me sad. It only made me glad." This comment led to widespread public outcry and led to the Nation of Islam's publicly censuring Malcolm X. Although retaining his post and rank as minister, he was banned from public speaking for ninety days by Elijah Muhammad himself. Malcolm obeyed and kept silent. Demonstrator at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was a political rally that took place on August 28, 1963. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1969 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... President Kennedy, with his wife, Jacqueline Kennedy, and Texas Governor John Connally in the Presidential limousine shortly before the assassination. ...


In the spring of 1963, Malcolm started collaborating on The Autobiography of Malcolm X with Alex Haley. He also publicly announced his break from the Nation of Islam on March 8, 1964 and the founding of the Muslim Mosque, Inc. on March 12, 1964. At this point, Malcolm mostly adhered to the teachings of the Nation of Islam, but began modifying them, explicitly advocating political and economic black nationalism as opposed to the NOI's exclusivist religious nationalism. In March and April, he made the series of famous speeches called "The Ballot or the Bullet" [[6]]. Malcolm was in contact with several orthodox Muslims, who encouraged him to learn about orthodox Islam. He soon converted to orthodox Islam, and as a result decided to make his Hajj. The Autobiography of Malcolm X cover The Autobiography of Malcolm X (ISBN 0-345-35068-5) was written by Alex Haley between 1964 and 1965, based on interviews conducted shortly before Malcolm Xs death (and with an epilogue for after it), and was published in 1965. ... Alexander Palmer Haley (August 11, 1921 – February 10, 1992) was an African American writer (though he was also proud of his Irish and Cherokee ancestry). ... March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (68th in Leap years). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Muslim Mosque, Inc. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (72nd in leap years). ... Malcolm X (pronounced Malkolm Eks, May 19, 1925–February 21, 1965 – also: Malcolm Little, El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, and Omowale) was a spokesman for the Nation of Islam, and a founder of both the Muslim Mosque, Inc. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... Arabic pronunciation The Hajj ( translit: ), (Turkish:Hac), (Malay:Haji) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ...


Hajj

On April 13, 1964, Malcolm departed JFK Airport, New York for Cairo by way of Frankfurt. It was the second time Malcolm had been to Africa. Malcolm left Cairo arriving in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia at about three in the morning. He was automatically suspect due to his inability to speak Arabic and his United States passport. He was separated from the group he came with and was isolated. He spent about 20 hours wearing the ihram, a two-piece garment comprised of two white unhemmed sheets--the first of which is worn draped over the torso and the second of which (the bottom) is secured by a belt. April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... John F. Kennedy International Airport (IATA: JFK, ICAO: KJFK) is an international airport located in Jamaica, Queens, in south-eastern New York City. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... Cairos location in Egypt Coordinates: Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area    - City 210 km²  - Metro 1,492 km² Population    - City (2005) 7,438,376  - Density 35,420/km²  - Urban 10,834,495  - Metro 15,200,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) Cairo (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), It comes... Main Station Frankfurt Frankfurt International Airport For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Cairos location in Egypt Coordinates: Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area    - City 210 km²  - Metro 1,492 km² Population    - City (2005) 7,438,376  - Density 35,420/km²  - Urban 10,834,495  - Metro 15,200,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) Cairo (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), It comes... This article is about the Saudi Arabian city. ... The Arabic language ( ), or simply Arabic ( ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic and Aramaic. ... Ihram (إحرام) is an Arabic word that denotes a sacred state in which a Muslim must enter in order to perform the major pilgrimage, hajj or the minor pilgrimage, umrah. ...


It was at this time he remembered the book The Eternal Message of Muhammad by Abdul Rahman Hassan Azzam and which Dr. Mahmoud Yousseff Sharwabi had presented to him with his visa approval. He called Azzam's son who arranged for his release. At the younger Azzam's home he met Azzam Pasha who gave Malcolm his suite at the Jeddah Palace Hotel. The next morning Muhammad Faisal, the son of Prince Faisal, visited and informed him that he was to be a state guest. The deputy chief of protocol accompanied Malcolm to the Hajj Court. Abdul Rahman Hassan Azzam (1893 - 1976) was an Egyptian diplomat, with family origins in Libya (Nisan, 2002). ... Faisal bin Abdelaziz Al Saud (1903 or 1906—March 25, 1975) (Arabic: فيصل بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1964 to 1975. ...


It therefore was a mere formality for Sheikh Muhammad Harkon to allow Malcolm to make his Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca). On April 19, he completed the Umrah, making the seven circuits around the Kaaba, drinking from the well of Zamzam and running between the hills of Safah and Marwah seven times. The trip proved to be life-altering. Malcolm met many devout Muslims of a number of different races, whose faith and practice of Islam he came to respect. He believed that racial barriers could potentially be overcome, and that Islam was the one religion that conceivably could erase all racial problems. Arabic pronunciation The Hajj ( translit: ), (Turkish:Hac), (Malay:Haji) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ... Mecca IPA: or Makkah IPA: (in full: Makkah al-Mukarramah; Arabic: ‎, Turkish: Mekke) is the capital city of Saudi Arabias Makkah province, in the historic Hejaz region. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... The Umrah or (Arabic: عمرة ) is a pilgrimage to Mecca performed by Muslims that can be undertaken at any time of the year. ... Masjid al Haram in Mecca, with the Kaaba in the centre. ... The Well of Zamzam (or the Zamzam Well, or just Zamzam; Arabic: زمزم) is a well located within the Masjid al Haram in Mecca, near the Kaaba, the holiest place in Islam. ... Al-Safa and Al-Marwah (Safa and Marwah) (Arabic: الصفا AÅŸ-Åžafā ; المروة Al-Marwah) are two small hills located in the Masjid al Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia between which Muslims travel back and forth seven times during the ritual pilgrimages of Hajj and Umrah. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ...


Africa

Malcolm X visited Africa on three separate occasions, once in 1959 and twice in 1964. During his visits, he met officials, as well as spoke on television and radio in: Cairo, Egypt; Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Dar Es Salaam, Tanganyika (now Tanzania); Lagos and Ibadan, Nigeria; Accra, Winneba, and Legon, Ghana; Conakry, Guinea; Algiers, Algeria; and Casablanca, Morocco. Cairos location in Egypt Coordinates: Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area    - City 210 km²  - Metro 1,492 km² Population    - City (2005) 7,438,376  - Density 35,420/km²  - Urban 10,834,495  - Metro 15,200,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) Cairo (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), It comes... Map of Ethiopia highlighting Addis Ababa (in red). ... Dar es Salaam (دار السلام), formerly Mzizima, is the largest city (pop. ... Flag of Tanganyika Tanganyika was an East African republic within the Commonwealth of Nations, named after Lake Tanganyika, which formed its western border. ... Lagos is the largest city in Nigeria. ... Ibadan ( Èbá-Ọdàn), reputed to be the largest indigenous city in Africa, south of the Sahara, is the capital of Ọyọ State. ... Accra, population 1,970,400 (2005), is the capital of Ghana. ... Winneba is the capital of Awutu Efutu Senya, Ghana, lying on the south coast of, west of Accra. ... Legon is a suburb of Accra, the capital of Ghana, where the University of Ghana is located. ... Conakry (also Konakry, Malinké KÉ”nakiri), population 2,000,000 (2002), is the capital of Guinea. ... Nickname: al-Bahjah Location of Algiers within Algeria Algiers 944 A.D. Area    - City 273 km² Population    - City (2003) around 2. ... Mosquée Hassan II à Casablanca Satellite image of Casablanca Casablanca (Spanish for white house ; Standard Arabic: الدار البيضاء transliterated ; Moroccan Arabic: dar beïda) is a city in western Morocco, located on the Atlantic Ocean. ...


Malcolm first went to Africa in summer of 1959. He traveled to Egypt (United Arab Republic), Sudan, Nigeria and Ghana to arrange a tour for Elijah Muhammad, which occurred in December 1959. The first of Malcolm's two trips to Africa in 1964 lasted from April 13 until May 21. On May 8, following his speech at Trenchard Hall on the campus of the University of Ibadan in Nigeria, he attended a reception in the Students' Union Hall held for him by the Muslim Students' Society. During this reception the students bestowed upon him the name "Omowale" meaning "the son returns home" in the Yoruba language. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (142nd in leap years). ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... The University of Ibadan is Nigerias oldest university, and is located five miles (8 kilometres) from the centre of the major city of Ibadan in Western Nigeria. ... Yoruba (native name ede Yorùbá, the Yoruba language) is a dialect continuum of West Africa with over 22 million speakers. ...


Malcolm returned to New York from Africa via Paris, France, on May 21, 1964. On July 9, he again left the United States for Africa, spending a total of 18 weeks abroad. On July 17, 1964, Malcolm addressed the Organization of African Unity's first ordinary assembly of heads of state and governments in Cairo as a representative of the OAAU. On August 21, 1964, he made a press statement on behalf of the OAAU regarding the second African summit conference of the OAU. In it, he explained how a strong and independent "United States of Africa" is a victory for the awakening of African Americans. By the time he returned to the United States on November 24, 1964, Malcolm had established an international connection between Africans on the continent and those in the diaspora. City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land... May 21 is the 141st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (142nd in leap years). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 167 days remaining. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Flag of the Organisation of African Unity, later also used by the African Union. ... The Organization of Afro-American Unity was formed by Malcolm X on June 28, 1964. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... The Organization of Afro-American Unity was formed by Malcolm X on June 28, 1964. ... Flag of the Organisation of African Unity, later also used by the African Union. ... The United States of Africa is a name sometimes given to one version of the possible future unification of Africa as a national and sovereign federation of states similar in formation to the United States of America, mirroring the idea of the United States of Europe. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Look up Diaspora in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Malcolm held to the view that African-Americans were right in defending themselves from aggressors. On June 28, 1964 at the founding rally of the OAAU he said,

"The time for you and me to allow ourselves to be brutalized nonviolently has passed. Be nonviolent only with those who are nonviolent to you. And when you can bring me a nonviolent racist, bring me a nonviolent segregationist, then I'll get nonviolent. But don't teach me to be nonviolent until you teach some of those crackers to be nonviolent." (http://www.panafricanperspective.com/mxoaaufounding.html)

Increasingly though he did come to regret his involvement within the Nation of Islam and its tendency to promote racism as a blacks versus whites issue. In an interview with Gordon Parks in 1965 he revealed:
Gordon Parks at Civil Rights March on Washington, 1963. ...

"I realized racism isn't just a black and white problem. It's brought bloodbaths to about every nation on earth at one time or another."

He stopped and remained silent for a few moments, then stated,

"Brother, remember the time that white college girl came into the restaurant -- the one who wanted to help the Muslims and the whites get together -- and I told her there wasn't a ghost of a chance and she went away crying?"

He also later reflected:

"Well, I've lived to regret that incident. In many parts of the African continent I saw white students helping black people. Something like this kills a lot of argument. I did many things as a [black] Muslim that I'm sorry for now. I was a zombie then -- like all [black] Muslims -- I was hypnotized, pointed in a certain direction and told to march. Well, I guess a man's entitled to make a fool of himself if he's ready to pay the cost. It cost me twelve years."
"That was a bad scene, brother. The sickness and madness of those days -- I'm glad to be free of them."

Visiting France and UK

In late 1964, Malcolm visited France together with Jamaican officials and spoke in Paris at Salle Pleyel where there were discussions and debates on the subject of the Rastafarian ideas (return of African-Americans to Africa, Ethiopia in particular) espoused by both the Jamaicans present and Malcom X at that time. He also visited the UK where, by that time, he was a well-known world figure and was honored with an invitation to participate in a classic debate at Oxford Union. The debate took place on December 3, 1964. [7] 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Haile Selassie Ras Tafari was the title used by Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia during his time as tenure Regent and Crown Prince (1916-1928). ... Oxford Union The Oxford Union Society, commonly referred to simply as the Oxford Union, is a private debating society in the city of Oxford, whose membership is drawn primarily but not exclusively from the University of Oxford. ...


On 12 February 1965 Malcolm X visited Smethwick, near Birmingham, which had become a byword for racial division after the 1964 general election when the Conservative Party won the parliamentary seat using the slogan, amongst others, "If you want a nigger for your neighbour, vote Labour".[7] He visited a pub with a non-coloured policy, and purposely visited a street where the local council would buy houses and sell them to white families, to avoid black families moving in. February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Smethwick (pronounced Smethick) is a town adjacent to Birmingham and West Bromwich in England. ... The city from above Centenary Square. ... The United Kingdom general election of 1964 result was a very slim majority for the Labour Party, of 4, and led to their first government since 1951. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative & Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), and the largest in terms of public membership. ... The Labour Party has been, since its founding in the early 20th century, the main democratic socialist[1] political party in the United Kingdom. ...


Death and afterwards

Assassination

Malcolm X holding an M1 Carbine and pulling back the curtains to peer out of a window. This photograph is a popular image on T-shirts and often appears with the slogan "By Any Means Necessary."
Malcolm X holding an M1 Carbine and pulling back the curtains to peer out of a window. This photograph is a popular image on T-shirts and often appears with the slogan "By Any Means Necessary."

On March 20, 1964, Life magazine published a famous photograph of Malcolm X holding an M1 Carbine and pulling back the curtains to peer out of a window. The photo was taken in connection with Malcolm's declaration that he would defend himself from the daily death threats which he and his family were receiving. Undercover FBI informants warned officials that Malcolm X had been marked for assassination. Image File history File links Malcomxm1carbine3gr. ... Image File history File links Malcomxm1carbine3gr. ... The M1 Carbine (formally the United States Carbine, Caliber . ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in Leap years). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... A cover of Life Magazine from 1911 Life has been the name of two notable magazines published in the United States. ... The M1 Carbine (formally the United States Carbine, Caliber . ...


Tensions increased between Malcolm and the Nation of Islam. It was alleged that orders were given by leaders of the Nation of Islam to "destroy" Malcolm; in The Autobiography of Malcolm X, he says that as early as 1963, a member of the Seventh Temple confessed to him having received orders from the Nation of Islam to kill him. The NOI sued to reclaim Malcolm's home in Queens, which they claimed to have paid for, and won. He appealed, and was angry at the thought that his family might soon have no place to live. Then, on the night of February 14, 1965, the house was firebombed. Malcolm and his family survived, and no one was charged in the crime. Queens Borough in New York City, in yellow Queens is one of the five boroughs of New York City. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Molotov cocktail is the generic name for a variety of crude incendiary weapons. ...


A week later on February 21 in Manhattan's Audubon Ballroom, Malcolm had just begun delivering a speech when a disturbance broke out in the crowd of 400. A man yelled, "Get your hand outta my pocket! Don't be messin' with my pockets!" As Malcolm's bodyguards rushed forward to attend to the disturbance and Malcolm appealed for peace, a man rushed forward and shot Malcolm in the chest with a sawed-off shotgun. Two other men quickly charged towards the stage and fired handguns at Malcolm, who was shot 16 times. Angry onlookers in the crowd caught and beat the assassins as they attempted to flee the ballroom. The 39-year-old Malcolm was pronounced dead on arrival at New York's Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. He was killed by the shotgun blasting through him, the other bullets having been directed into his legs. The Audubon Ballroom is most notoriously known as where Malcolm X was assassinated. ... A Sawed-off double-barreled 12 gauge shotgun A sawed-off shotgun (U.S.) or sawn-off shotgun (UK) is a type of shotgun with a shorter gun barrel and often a shorter or deleted stock, compared to a standard shotgun. ... New York-Presbyterian Hospital is a prominent university hospital in New York City, composed of two medical centers, Columbia University Medical Center and New York Weill Cornell Medical Center, each affiliated with an Ivy League University. ...


Although a police report once existed stating that two men were detained in connection with the shooting, that report disappeared, and the investigation was inconclusive.[citation needed] Two suspects were named by witnesses — Norman 3X Butler and Thomas 15X Johnson — however both were known as Nation of Islam agents and would have had difficulty entering the ballroom on that evening. This article needs cleanup. ... Thomas 15X Johnson was one of the convicted assassins of Malcolm X. Talmadge Hayer, also a convicted assassin, claimed Johnson was innocent of the crime. ...


Three men were eventually charged in the case. Talmadge Hayer confessed to having fired shots into Malcolm's body, but he testified that Butler and Johnson were not present and were not involved in the shooting. All three were convicted. Talmadge Hayer was one of the convicted assassins of Malcolm X. He was 22 years old at the time of the killing. ...


A complete examination of the assassination and investigation is available in The Smoking Gun: The Malcolm X Files, a collection of primary sources relating to the assassination.


Funeral

Sixteen hundred people attended Malcolm's funeral in Harlem on February 27, 1965 at the Faith Temple Church of God in Christ (now Child's Memorial Temple Church of God in Christ). Ossie Davis, alongside Ahmed Osman, delivered a stirring eulogy, describing Malcolm as "Our shining black prince". Malcolm X was buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York. At the gravesite after the ceremony, friends took the shovels away from the waiting gravediggers and buried Malcolm themselves. Later that month, actress Ruby Dee and Sidney Poitier became co-chairs of the New York affiliate of the Educational Fund for the Children of Malcolm X Shabazz. Civil rights leader and surgeon, T.R.M. Howard, was the chair of the Chicago affiliate of the Fund. February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Ossie Davis in The Green Pastures, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1951 Ossie Davis (December 18, 1917 – February 4, 2005) was an African-American actor, film director and activist. ... Ahmed Osman (born 1934) is an Egyptian-born author, most noted for literally identifying the Hebrew liberator Moses with the Egyptian monotheist pharaoh Akhenaten. ... Founded in 1903, the non-sectarian Ferncliff Cemetery and Mausoleum is located on Secor Road in the hamlet of Hartsdale, Westchester County, New York, about 25 miles north of New York City. ... Hartsdale is an unincorporated census-designated place (CDP) located in the town of Greenburgh, Westchester County, New York. ... Actress Ruby Dee September 25, 1962 photographed by Carl Van Vechten Ruby Dee (born October 27, 1924) is an African American actress and activist. ... Sidney Poitier (left) on the 1963 Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C., with Harry Belafonte and Charlton Heston Sidney Poitier KBE (pronounced PWA-tee-AY) (born February 20, 1927), is a Bahamian American Academy Award-winning actor (film and stage), film director, and activist. ... Theodore Roosevelt Mason Howard (T.R.M. Howard) (March 4, 1908 —- May 1, 1976) was an African American civil rights leader, fraternal organization leader, surgeon, and entrepreneur. ...


Biographies and speeches

The Swedish translation of the autobiography of Malcolm X. Printed by Ordfront in 2003. The title reads: Malcolm X autobiography in collaboration with Alex Haley.

The Autobiography of Malcolm X was written by Alex Haley between 1964 and 1965, based on interviews conducted shortly before Malcolm's assassination (with an epilogue written after it), and was published in 1965. The book was named by Time magazine as one of the 10 most important nonfiction books of the 20th century. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (642x1041, 95 KB)The Swedish translation of the self-biography of Malcolm X, soft-cover version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (642x1041, 95 KB)The Swedish translation of the self-biography of Malcolm X, soft-cover version. ... The Autobiography of Malcolm X cover The Autobiography of Malcolm X (ISBN 0-345-35068-5) was written by Alex Haley between 1964 and 1965, based on interviews conducted shortly before Malcolm Xs death (and with an epilogue for after it), and was published in 1965. ... Alexander Palmer Haley (August 11, 1921 – February 10, 1992) was an African American writer (though he was also proud of his Irish and Cherokee ancestry). ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ...


Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements ISBN 0-8021-3213-8 edited by George Breitman. These speeches made during the last eight months of Malcolm's life indicate the power of his newly refined ideas.


"Malcolm X: The Man and His Times" edited with an introduction and commentary by John Henrik Clarke. An anthology of writings, speeches and manifestos along with writings about Malcolm X by an international group of African and African American scholars and activists.


"Malcolm X: The FBI File" Commentary by Clayborne Carson with an introduction by Spike Lee and edited by David Gallen. A source of information documenting the FBI's file on Malcolm beginning with his prison release in March 1953 and culminating with a 1980 request that the FBI investigate Malcolm's assassination. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a Federal police force which is the principal investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ...


The film Malcolm X was released in 1992, directed by Spike Lee. Based on the autobiography, it starred Denzel Washington as Malcolm with Angela Bassett as Betty and Al Freeman Jr. as Elijah Muhammad. Both Roger Ebert and Martin Scorsese named the film as one of the ten best of the decade. Malcolm X is a 1992 dramatic movie directed by Spike Lee about the African-American activist and Black nationalist Malcolm X. The story is based on The Autobiography of Malcolm X as told to Alex Haley. ... Shelton Jackson Lee (born March 20, 1957 in Atlanta, Georgia), better known as Spike Lee, is an American film director, producer, writer, and actor noted for his films dealing with social and political issues. ... Denzel Jermaine Washington, Jr. ... Angela Bassett Angela Bassett (born August 16, 1958 in New York City) is an African-American film actress. ... Hajj Bahiyah Betty Shabazz (born Betty Jean Sanders) (May 28, 1936 – June 23, 1997), also known as Betty X, she was the wife of the late Malcolm X. // Background There is an air of uncertainty about Betty Shabazzs background and early life. ... Al Freeman, Jr. ... Roger Ebert (right) with Russ Meyer, 1970 Roger Joseph Ebert (born June 18, 1942) is an Emmy Award-nominated American television personality, author, and film critic who began writing for the Chicago Sun-Times, every week since 1967. ... Martin Luciano Scorsese (born November 17, 1942) is an acclaimed American film director. ...


The 2001 film Ali, about boxer Muhammad Ali, played by Will Smith, also features Malcolm X, as played by Mario Van Peebles. Ali is a 2001 biographical film which tells the story of boxer Muhammad Ali. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Willard Christopher Smith, Jr. ... Mario Van Peebles (b. ...


References

  1. ^ p. 2-3, The Autobiography of Malcolm X.
  2. ^ p. 11, The Autobiography of Malcolm X.
  3. ^ p. 11, The Autobiography of Malcolm X.
  4. ^ p. 36, The Autobiography of Malcolm X. The full quote is:
    Malcolm, one of life's first needs is for us to be realistic. Don't misunderstand me, now. We all like you here, you know that. But you've got to be realistic about being a nigger. A lawyer— that's no realistic goal for a nigger. You need to think about something you can be.
  5. ^ Malcolm X Little, Part 01 of 24, FBI file, "II. Communist Party Activities," p. 3
  6. ^ Cuba a new History: Richard Gott p185
  7. ^ http://intranet1.sutcol.ac.uk:888/NEC/MATERIAL/PDFS/GOV_POL/A2GOV_PO/08U4_T4.PDF (PDF)

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Malcolm X
Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Malcolm X
  • Video collection of Malcolm X
  • The Official Web Site of Malcolm X
  • Full audio of Malcolm X speeches
  • Text and Audio of Ballot or Bullet Speech from AmericanRhetoric.com
  • Text of a letter written following his Hajj is given at Wikisource.
  • Interview with UC Berkeley sociologist Herman Blake, 1963 (video)
  • Minister Louis Farrakhan on the murder of Malcolm X, Malcolm X College, 1990 (video)
  • Ancestry of Malcolm X
  • Malcolm X (El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz) United States Postage Stamp
  • Malcolm X Gravesite
  • Malcolm X Reloaded: Who Really Assassinated Malcolm X
  • Malcolm X on City Desk

Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

Research sites

  • Malcolm X : A Research Site Abdul Alkalimat, ed. Launched May 19, 1999. University of Toledo and Twenty-first Century Books.
  • malcolm-x.org. seeks to present Malcolm X within an Islamic context. Retrieved May 19, 2005.
  • Malcolm X: Make It Plain. Documentary
  • Malcolm X Reference Archive. Sound files of speeches The Ballot or the Bullet, Democrats are Dixiecrats, et al. Marxist Internet Archive. Retrieved May 19, 2005.
  • Malcolm X Project. Project of the Center for Contemporary Black History at Columbia University. Retrieved May 19, 2005.
  • Malcolm X's FBI file
  • Malcolm X - An Islamic Perspective
  • Malcolm X : A Profile by Det Danske Koranselskab

The University of Toledo is a public university situated in Toledo, Ohio. ... Columbia University is a private university whose main campus lies in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of the Borough of Manhattan in New York City. ...

Articles and reports

  • Frazier, Martin. Harlem celebrates Malcolm X birthday. People's Weekly World. May 26, 2005.
  • Democracy Now!. Malcolm X: Make it Plain transcript. Excerpts of the documentary, "Malcolm X: Make it Plain". Segment available via streaming Real Audio, 128k streaming Real Video, or via MP3 download from Archive.org. 37:23 minutes. Hosted by Amy Goodman. Broadcast May 19, 2005.
  • Waldron, Clarence. Minister Louis Farrakhan Sets The Record Straight About His Relationship With Malcolm X. Jet Magazine. Interview, June 5, 2000. Retrieved May 19, 2005.
  • M, Yahyá. The name Shabazz: Where did it come from?. Revised from 'Islamic Studies vol. 32 no.1, Spring 1993. p. 73-76. Retrieved May 19, 2005.

The Peoples Weekly World (PWW) is the newspaper of the Communist Party USA, and is the direct descendant of the Daily Worker. ... Democracy Now! logo. ...

Further reading

Articles

  • Parks, Gordon. The White Devil's Day is Almost Over. Life, May 31, 1963.
  • Speakman, Lynn. Who Killed Malcolm X? The Valley Advocate, November 26, 1992, pp. 3-6.
  • Vincent, Theodore. The Garveyite Parents of Malcolm X. The Black Scholar, vol. 20, #2, April, 1989.
  • Handler ,M.S.Malcolm X cites role in U.N. Fight. New York Times, Jan 2, 1965; pg. 6, 1.
  • Montgomery, Paul L. Malcolm X a Harlem Idol on Eve of Murder Trial. New York Times, Dec 6, 1965; pg. 46, 1
  • Bigart, Homer. Malcolm X-ism Feared by Rustin. New York Times, Mar 4, 1965; pg. 15, 1
  • Arnold, Martin. Harlem is Quiet as Crowds Watch Malcolm X Rites. New York Times, Feb 28, 1965; pg. 1, 2
  • Loomis, James. Death of Malcolm X. New York Times. Feb 27, 1965; pg. 24, 1
  • n/a. Malcolm X and Muslims. New York Times, Feb 21, 1965; pg. E10, 1
  • n/a. Malcolm X. New York Times, Feb 22, 1965; pg. 20, 1
  • n/a. Malcolm X Reports He Now Represents Muslim World Unit. New York Times, Oct 11, 1964; pg. 13, 1
  • Lelyveld, Joseph. Elijah Muhammad Rallies His Followers in Harlem. New York Times, Jun 29, 1964; pg. 1, 2
  • n/a. Malcolm X Woos 2 Rights Leaders. New York Times, May 19, 1964; pg. 28, 1
  • n/a. 1,000 In Harlem Cheer Malcolm X. New York Times, Mar 23, 1964; pg. 18, 1
  • Handler, M.S. Malcolm X Sees Rise in Violence. New York Times, Mar 13, 1964; pg. 20, 1
  • n/a. Malcolm X Disputes Nonviolence Policy. New York Times, Jun 5, 1963; pg. 29, 1
  • Apple, R.W. Malcolm X Silenced for Remarks On Assassination of Kennedy. New York Times, Dec 5, 1963; pg. 22, 1
  • Ronan, Thomas P. Malcolm X Tells Rally In Harlem Kennedy Fails to Help Negroes. New York Times, Jun 30, 1963; pg. 45, 1
  • n/a. 4 Are Indicted Here in Malcolm X Case. New York Times, Mar 11, 1965; pg. 66, 1
  • Handler, M.S. Malcolm X Seeks U.N. Negro Debate. Special to The New York Times; New York Times, Aug 13, 1964; pg. 22, 1

Books

  • Autobiography of Malcolm X (by author Alex Haley) ISBN 0-8124-1953-7
  • Acuna, Rodolfo. Occupied America: A History of Chicanos. New York: Harper & Row, 1981.
  • Alkalimat, Abdul. Malcolm X for Beginners. New York: Writers and Readers, 1990.
  • Als, Hilton. "The Women." (a chapter on Malcolm's mother)
  • Asante, Molefi K. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero: and Other Afrocentric Essays. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1993.
  • Baldwin, James. One Day, When I Was Lost: A Scenario Based On Alex Haley's "The Autobiography Of Malcolm X". New York: Dell, 1992.
  • Breitman, George, ed. Malcolm X Speaks. New York: Merit, 1965.
  • Breitman, George. The Last Year of Malcolm X: The Evolution of a Revolutionary. New York: Pathfinder, 1967.
  • Breitman, George and Herman Porter. The Assassination of Malcolm X. New York: Pathfinder, 1976.
  • Brisbane, Robert. Black Activism. Valley Forge, Pennsylvania: Judson Press, 1974.
  • Carson, Claybourne. Malcolm X: The FBI File. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1991.
  • Carson, Claybourne, et al. The Eyes on the Prize Civil Rights Reader. New York: Penguin, 1991.
  • Clarke, John Henrik, ed. Malcolm X; the Man and His Times. New York: Macmillan, 1969.
  • Cleage, Albert B. and George Breitman. Myths About Malcolm X: Two Views. New York: Merit, 1968.
  • Collins, Rodney P. The Seventh Child. New York: Dafina; London: Turnaround, 2002.
  • Cone, James H. Martin & Malcolm & America: A Dream or A Nightmare. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1991.
  • Davis, Thulani. Malcolm X: The Great Photographs. New York: Stewart, Tabon and Chang, 1992.
  • DeCaro, Louis A. On The Side of My People: A Religious Life of Malcolm X. New York: New York University, 1996.
  • DeCaro, Louis A. Malcolm and the Cross: The Nation of Islam, Malcolm X, and Christianity. New York: New York University, 1998.
  • Doctor, Bernard Aquina. Malcolm X for Beginners. New York: Writers and Readers, 1992.
  • Dyson, Michael Eric. Making Malcolm: The Myth and Meaning of Malcolm X. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  • Essien-Udom, E. U. Black Nationalism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962.
  • Evanzz, Karl. The Judas Factor: The Plot to Kill Malcolm X. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1992.
  • Franklin, Robert Michael. Liberating Visions: Human Fulfillment And Social Justice In African-American Thought. Minneapolis, MN : Fortress Press, 1990.
  • Friedly, Michael. The Assassination of Malcolm X. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1992.
  • Gallen, David, ed. Malcolm A to Z: The Man and His Ideas. New York: Carroll and Graf, 1992.
  • Garrow, David. Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. New York: Vintage, 1988.
  • Goldman, Peter. The Death and Life of Malcolm X. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1979.
  • Hampton, Henry and Steve Fayer. Voices of Freedom: Oral Histories from the Civil Rights Movement from the 1950s Through the 1980s. New York: Bantam, 1990.
  • Harding, Vincent, Robin D. G. Kelley and Earl Lewis. We Changed the World: African Americans, 1945-1970. The Young Oxford History of African Americans, v. 9. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
  • Hill, Robert A. Marcus Garvey: Life and Lessons. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1987.
  • Jamal, Hakim A. From The Dead Level: Malcolm X and Me. New York: Random House, 1972.
  • Jenkins, Robert L. The Malcolm X Encyclopedia. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002.
  • Karim, Benjamin with Peter Skutches and David Gallen. Remembering Malcolm. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1992.
  • Kly, Yussuf Naim, ed. The Black Book: The True Political Philosophy of Malcolm X (El Hajj Malik El Shabazz). Atlanta: Clarity Press, 1986.
  • Leader, Edward Roland. Understanding Malcolm X: The Controversial Changes in His Political Philosophy. New York: Vantage Press, 1993.
  • Lee, Spike with Ralph Wiley. By Any Means Necessary: The Trials and Tribulations of The Making Of Malcolm X. New York, N.Y.: Hyperion, 1992.
  • Lincoln, C. Eric. The Black Muslims in America. Boston, Beacon. 1961.
  • Lomax, Louis. When the Word is Given. Cleveland: World, 1963.
  • Maglangbayan, Shawna. Garvey, Lumumba, and Malcolm: National-Separatists. Chicago, Third World Press 1972.
  • Marable, Manning. On Malcolm X: His Message & Meaning. Westfield, N.J.: Open Media, 1992.
  • Martin, Tony. Race First. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1976.
  • Myers, Walter Dean. Malcolm X By Any Means Necessary. New York: Scholastic, 1993.
  • Perry, Bruce. Malcolm: The Life of A Man Who Changed Black America. New York: Station Hill, 1991.
  • Randall, Dudley and Margaret G. Burroughs, ed. For Malcolm; Poems on The Life and The Death of Malcolm X. Preface and Eulogy By Ossie Davis. Detroit: Broadside Press, 1967.
  • Sales, William W. From Civil Rights To Black Liberation: Malcolm X And The Organization Of Afro-American Unity. Boston, MA: South End Press, 1994.
  • Shabazz, Ilyasah. Growing Up X. New York: One World, 2002.
  • Strickland, William, et al. Malcolm X: Make It Plain. Penquin Books, 1994.
  • Terrill, Robert. Malcolm X: Inventing Radical Judgment. Michigan State University Press, 2004.
  • T'Shaka, Oba. The Political Legacy of Malcolm X. Richmond, Calif.: Pan Afrikan Publications, 1983.
  • Tuttle, William. Race Riot: Chicago, The Red Summer of 1919. New York: Atheneum, 1970.
  • Vincent, Theodore. Black Power and the Garvey Movement. San Francisco: Ramparts, 1972.
  • Wood, Joe, ed. Malcolm X: In Our Own Image. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992.
  • Woodward, C. Vann. Origins of the New South. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1967.
Nation of Islam
Famous Leaders: Wallace Fard Muhammad · Elijah Muhammad · Malcolm X · Warith Deen Muhammad · Louis Farrakhan

History and Theology: History of the Nation of Islam · Beliefs and theology of the Nation of Islam · Nation of Islam and anti-Semitism · Yakub · Million Man March · Faradian Islam · Savior's Day Alexander Palmer Haley (August 11, 1921 – February 10, 1992) was an African American writer (though he was also proud of his Irish and Cherokee ancestry). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Wallace Fard Muhammad (1877-1893? – 1934) was a preacher and founder of the Black-nationalist movement the Nation of Islam (NOI), establishing its first mosque in Detroit. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Warith Deen Muhammad Warith Deen Muhammad was born Wallace D. Mohammed on October 30, 1933. ... Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan. ... This article outlines the history of the Nation of Islam. ... The main belief of The Nation of Islam and its followers is that there is no God but Allah. ... A number of Jewish organizations, Christian organizations, Muslim organizations and academics consider the Nation of Islam to be anti-Semitic. ... According to the Nation of Islam (NOI), Yakub (also spelled Yacub), was an evil scientist responsible for creating the white race — a race of devils, in their view. ... The Million Man March was a Black march of protest and unity convened by Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan in Washington, DC on October 16, 1995. ... Faradian Islam is a African-American social and religious movement based on teaching elements from W.D. Fard, Elijah Muhammad, Nation of Islam and The Nation of Gods and Earths. ... Saviors Day is a holiday of the Nation of Islam (NOI). ...


Publications: Message to the Blackman in America · How To Eat To Live · Muhammad Speaks · The Final Call Message To The Blackman In America is a book published by Nation of Islam leader Elijah Muhammad in 1965, and reprinted several times since. ... How To Eat To Live is a series of books published by Nation of Islam leader Elijah Muhammad in the 1960s. ... Muhammad Speaks is a newspaper/newsletter originally published by Nation of Islam leader Elijah Muhammad sometime in the 1960s and continues to be published by current leader Louis Farrakhan to this date. ... The Final Call is a newspaper published in Chicago. ...


Subsidiaries and Offshoots: Fruit of Islam · The Nation of Gods and Earths The Fruit of Islam (FOI) is the security wing of the Nation of Islam, a paramilitary group of Black guards who protect and serve the Nation, its ministers, and its events. ... The Five Percenter Universal Flag (Seven, Sun, Moon, and Star). ...


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