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Encyclopedia > Malcolm III of Scotland
Máel Coluim (III) mac Donnchada
King of Scots
Image:MalcolmIII.jpg
Reign 1058–1093
Born 1030x1038[1]
Scotland
Died 13 November 1093
Alnwick, Northumberland, England
Buried Dunfermline Abbey
Consort Ingebjorg
Margaret
Father Donnchad mac Crínáin
Mother Suthen

Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (anglicised Malcolm III) (1030x1038–13 November 1093) was King of Scots. He was the eldest son of Donnchad mac Crínáin. While often known as Malcolm Canmore, the earliest epithet used for him is Long-Neck.[2] It appears that the real Malcolm Canmore was this Máel Coluim's great-grandson Máel Coluim IV.[3] This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... Image File history File links MalcolmIII.jpg Summary Rampant Scotland, http://www. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I 843  Area    - Total 78... November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... // Events Donald III of Scotland comes to the throne of Scotland. ... For the parish in New Brunswick, see Alnwick, New Brunswick Alnwick (pronounced ) is a small market town in north Northumberland, in the north-east of England. ... Northumberland is a traditional, ceremonial and administrative county in northern England. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi   - Water (%) Population... Dunfermline Abbey and Church - illustration from Cassells History of England circa 1902 Dunfermline Abbey is the remains of a great Benedictine abbey founded in 1070 by Queen Margaret, wife of Malcolm Canmore and granddaughter of Edmund Ironside, King of England. ... Ingebjorg Finnsdotter (Finns-Daughter) was the first wife of King Malcolm III (Canmore) of Scotland. ... Saint Margaret of Scotland (circa 1045 - November 16, 1093), Edgar Athelings sister, married King Malcolm Canmore. ... Duncan I (Donnchad mac Crínáin) (1001 - August 15, 1040) was a son of Crinan the Thane de Mormaer, lay abbot of Dunkeld, and Princess Bethoc of Scotland. ... Anglicized refers to foreign words, often surnames, that are changed from a foreign language into English. ... November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... // Events Donald III of Scotland comes to the throne of Scotland. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... Duncan I (Donnchad mac Crínáin) (1001 - August 15, 1040) was a son of Crinan the Thane de Mormaer, lay abbot of Dunkeld, and Princess Bethoc of Scotland. ... An epithet (Greek - επιθετον and Latin - epitheton; literally meaning imposed) is a descriptive word or phrase. ... Image of the young Máel Coluim IV, called Cenn Mór in the Gaelic annals of Ireland. ...


Máel Coluim's long reign, spanning five decades, did not mark the beginning of the Scoto-Norman age, nor can Máel Coluim's reign be seen as extending the authority of Alba's kings over the Scandinavian, Norse-Gael and Gaelic north and west of Scotland. The areas under the control of the Kings of Scots did not advance much beyond the limits set by Máel Coluim mac Cináeda until the 12th century and 13th century. Máel Coluim's main achievement is often thought to match that of Cináed mac Ailpín, in continuing a line which would rule Scotland for many years,[4] although his role as "founder of a dynasty" has more to do with the propaganda of his youngest son David, and his descendants, than with any historical reality.[5] The term Scoto-Norman (also Scotto-Norman, Franco-Scottish or Franco-Gaelic) is used to described people, families, institutions and archaeological artifacts that were of Norman, Anglo-Norman, French or even Flemish origin, but came to be associated with Scotland in the Middle Ages. ... Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe named after the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... The Norse-Gaels were a people who dominated much of the Irish Sea region and western Scotland for a large part of the Middle Ages, whose aristocracy were mainly of Scandinavian origin, but as a whole exhibited a great deal of Gaelic and Norse cultural syncretism. ... The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, whose language is one that is Gaelic (Goidelic), a division of Insular Celtic languages. ... Malcolm II of Scotland (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda) (c. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Kenneth MacAlpin (c. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I 843  Area    - Total 78... King David I (or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim; also known as Saint David I or David I the Saint) (1084 – May 24, 1153), was King of Scotland from 1124 until his death, and the youngest son of Malcolm Canmore and of Saint Margaret (sister of Edgar Ætheling). ...

Contents


Young Máel Coluim

Máel Coluim's father was killed by Mac Bethad mac Findláich, near Elgin, on 15 August 1040. Although William Shakespeare's Macbeth presents Máel Coluim as a grown man and his father as an old one, it appears that Donnchad was still young,[6] and Máel Coluim and his brother Domnall Bán were children.[7] Máel Coluim's family did attempt to overthrow Mac Bethad in 1045, but Máel Coluim's grandfather Crínán was killed in the attempt.[8] Macbeth and the witches by Henry Fuseli (Johann Heinrich Füssli) (1741-1825) Mac Bethad mac Findláich, known in English as Macbeth c. ... Elgin is a town in Moray the North of Scotland. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... Events March War of Independence of Western Xia occurred. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Scene from Macbeth, depicting the witches conjuring of an apparition in Act IV, Scene I. Painting by William Rimmer This article is on the play Macbeth by William Shakespeare. ... Donald III of Scotland (c. ... Crínán of Dunkeld (died 1045) was the lay abbot of the diocese of Dunkeld, and perhaps the Mormaer of Atholl. ...


John of Fordun's account, which is the original source of part at least of Shakespeare's version, claims that Donnchad was married to a niece of Siward, Earl of Northumbria,[9] but an earlier king-list gives her the Gaelic name Suthen.[10] Based on Fordun's account, it was assumed that Máel Coluim passed most of Mac Bethad's seventeen year reign in the Kingdom of England at the court of Edward the Confessor.[11] If Máel Coluim's mother took her sons into exile, either in 1040 or in 1045, she is likely to have gone north, to the court of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Earl of Orkney, an enemy of Mac Bethad's family, the Mormaers of Moray, and perhaps Donnchad's kinsman by marriage.[12] John of Fordun (d. ... Sigurd the Dane, also known as Siward, was an English nobleman in the Eleventh Century, and the Earl of Northumbria. ... Earl of Northumbria was a title in the Anglo-Danish, late Anglo-Saxon, and early Anglo-Norman period in England. ... The Flag of England The Kingdom of England was a kingdom located in Western Europe, in the southern part of the island of Great Britain. ... Edward the Confessor or Eadweard III (c. ... Thorfinn Sigurdsson (c. ... Earl of Orkney - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Mormaerdom or Kingdom of Moray (Middle Irish: Muireb or Moreb; Medieval Latin: Muref or Moravia; Modern Gaelic:Moireabh) was a lordship in High Medieval Scotland that was destroyed by King David I of Scotland in 1130. ...


Mac Bethad's reign was troubled by an English invasion in 1046, without result, and again in 1054. The 1054 campaign, led by Siward, had as its goal the installation of Máel Coluim, "son of the King of the Cumbrians (i.e. of Strathclyde)". This Máel Coluim, who disappears from history after this brief mention, was confused with Máel Coluim mac Donnchada. However, Mac Bethad was not killed by the English in 1054, but by the Scots themselves, and three years later.[13] Strathclyde (Welsh: Ystrad Clud) was one of the kingdoms of ancient Scotland in the post-Roman period. ...


Máel Coluim reappears in 1057, when various chroniclers report the death of Mac Bethad at Máel Coluim's hand, probably on 15 August 1057, at Lumphanan, between Aboyne and Banchory.[14] Mac Bethad was succeeded by his step-son Lulach mac Gille Coemgáin, who was crowned at Scone, probably on 8 September 1057. Lulach was killed by Máel Coluim, "by treachery", near Huntly on 23 April 1058. After this, Máel Coluim became king, perhaps being inaugurated on 25 April 1058, although only Marianus Scotus reports this.[15] August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... Events King Macbeth I of Scotland is killed in battle against Malcolm Canmore. ... Aboyne (Scottish Gaelic: Abèidh) is a village in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, on the River Dee approximately 48 km (30 miles) west of Aberdeen. ... Banchory is a burgh in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, where the Feugh River meets the River Dee The name is derived from Scottish Gaelic for horned or forked and also relates to by the bends, the bends in question being those of the River Dee. ... Lulach (Lulach mac Gilla Comgain) (c. ... Scone is a large village, a mile north of Perth, Scotland. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... Events King Macbeth I of Scotland is killed in battle against Malcolm Canmore. ... Huntly is a town in Aberdeenshire in Scotland, formerly known as Milton of Strathbogie. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... Events March 17 - King Lulach I of Scotland is killed in battle against his cousin and rival Malcolm Canmore, who later becomes King of Scotland as Malcolm III of Scotland. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ... Events March 17 - King Lulach I of Scotland is killed in battle against his cousin and rival Malcolm Canmore, who later becomes King of Scotland as Malcolm III of Scotland. ... Marianus Scotus (1028-1082 or 1083), chronicler (who must be distinguished from his namesake Marianus Scotus, d. ...


Máel Coluim and Ingibiorg

The kingdom of Alba which Máel Coluim ruled had been created over the previous century and a half, largely by the efforts of three kings, Causantín mac Áeda (900–943), Cináed mac Maíl Coluim (971–995) and Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (1005–1034), who had ruled the kingdom for almost a century.[16] By this time, one competing segment of the royal lineage, that of Causantín mac Áeda, appears to have been wiped out and a second segment, descended from Dub, brother of Cináed mac Maíl Coluim, appears to have given the struggle for the throne and accepted the Mormaerdom of Fife in compensation. The work of his predecessors ensured that Máel Coluim came to the throne with few rivals.[17] Perhaps only Lulach's son Máel Snechtai, King or Mormaer of Moray, combined royal blood and real power. The Kingdom of Alba for the purposes of this article pertains to the Kingdom of Scotland between the death of Domnall II in 900, and the death of Alexander III in 1286 which then led indirectly to the Scottish Wars of Independence. ... Constantine II (874?–952) was king of Scotland from 900 to 942 or 943. ... Kenneth II (Cináed mac Maíl Coluim), son of Malcolm I, king of Scotland, succeeded Culen, son of Indulf, who had been slain by the Britons of Strathclyde in 971 in Lothian. ... Malcolm II of Scotland (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda) (c. ... King Duff (Dub mac Maíl Coluim), was king of Scotland from 962 to 967. ... The Mormaer or Mormaerdom of Fife refers to the Gaelic lordship of Fife which existed in Scotland until 1371, and continued as a non-Gaelic Earldom/County thereafter. ... Máel Snechtai of Moray, or Máel Snechtai mac Lulaich, was the ruler of Moray, and, as his name suggests, the son of Lulach, King of Scotland. ... The Mormaerdom or Kingdom of Moray (Middle Irish: Muireb or Moreb; Medieval Latin: Muref or Moravia; Modern Gaelic:Moireabh) was a lordship in High Medieval Scotland that was destroyed by King David I of Scotland in 1130. ...


If Orderic Vitalis is to be relied upon, one of Máel Coluim's earliest actions as king may have been to visit the court of Edward the Confessor to arrange a marriage with the English king's grand-niece Margaret.[18] If such an agreement was made in 1059, it was not kept, and this may explain the Scots invasion of Northumbria in 1061 when Lindisfarne was plundered.[19] Equally, Máel Coluim's raids in Northumbria may have been related to the disputed "kingdom of the Cumbrians", where the kingdom of Strathclyde reestablished by Earl Siward in 1054 was reconquered by the Scots before 1070.[20] Orderic Vitalis (1075 – c. ... Stained glass window image of Saint Margaret of Scotland in the small chapel at Edinburgh Castle Saint Margaret of Scotland, also known by her Anglo-Saxon name Margaret Ætheling (c. ... Lindisfarne Castle Lindisfarne (Grid reference NU125421, , ), also called Holy Island (variant spelling, Lindesfarne), is a tidal island off the north-east coast of England, which is connected to the mainland of Northumberland by a causeway and is cut off twice a day by tides — something well described by Sir Walter...


The Orkneyinga saga reports that Máel Coluim married the widow of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Ingibiorg a daughter of Finn Arnesson.[21] Although Ingibiorg is generally assumed to have died before 1070, it is possible that she died around 1058, and was thus never Queen.[22] The Orkneyinga Saga tells us that Máel Coluim and Ingibiorg produced at least one son, Donnchad.[23] Some Medieval commentators, following William of Malmesbury, assumed Donnchad was illegitimate, which is no more than propaganda, probably reflecting the need of Máel Coluim's descendants by Margaret to undermine the claims of Donnchad's descendants, the Meic Uilleim.[24] Máel Coluim's son Domnall, although not mentioned by the author of the Orkneyinga Saga, is assumed to have been born to Ingibiorg.[25] The Orkneyinga saga (also called the History of the Earls of Orkney) is an unique historical narrative of the history of the Orkney Islands from their capture by the Norwegian king in the 9th century onwards until about 1200 AD. The saga was written around 1200 AD by an unknown... Ingibiorg Finnsdottir (Standard Old Norse: Ingibjörg Finnsdóttir) was a daughter of Earl Finn Arnesson and Bergljot Halvdansdottir, a niece of Kings of Norway Olaf Haraldsson (Saint Olaf) and Harald Sigurdsson (Harald Hardraade). ... Finn Arnesson (died c. ... Duncan II (1060?- November 12, 1094) was king of Scotland and a son of Malcolm III and his first wife Ingibiorg and therefore a grandson of Duncan I. For a time he lived as a hostage in England and became king of the Scots after driving out his uncle, Donald... William of Malmesbury (c. ... The Meic Uilleim (MacWilliams) were the Gaelic descendants of William fitz Duncan, grandson of Máel Coluim mac Donnchada, king of Scots. ...


Máel Coluim's marriage to Ingibiorg may have secured him peace in the north.[26] The Heimskringla tells us that her father Finn had been an adviser to Harald Hardraade and, after falling out with Harald, was then made an earl by Sweyn Estridsson, King of Denmark, which may have been another recommendation for the match.[27] As a result, perhaps, he enjoyed a peaceful relationship with the Earldom of Orkney, ruled jointly by his step-sons, the Thorfinnssons Paul and Erlend. The Orkneyinga Saga reports strife with Norway but this is probably misplaced as it associates it with Magnus Bareleg, who became king in 1093, the year of Máel Coluim's death.[28] Heimskringla is the Old Norse name of a collection of sagas recorded in Iceland around 1225 by the poet and historian Snorri Sturluson (1179-1242). ... Harald III Sigurdsson (1015 – September 25, 1066), later surnamed Harald HardrÃ¥da (Norse: Harald Harðráði, roughly translated as Harald stern council or hard ruler) was the king of Norway from 1046 until 1066. ... Sweyn II Estridsson Ulfsson. ... This is a list of Danish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queen of Denmark, including Regents of the Kalmar Union. ... The Orkney Isles, along with the Shetland Isles to their immediate north, lie off the northernmost tip of Caithness Scotland. ... Paul Thorfinnsson was joint Earl of Orkney 1064–1098 Categories: | ... Erland Thorfinnsson was joint Earl of Orkney 1064–1098. ... Magnus Barefoot (1073-1103), son of Olaf Kyrre, was king of Norway from 1093 until 1103 and King of the Isle of Man from 1095-1102. ...


Máel Coluim and Margaret

Although he had given sanctuary to Tostig Godwinsson when the Northumbrians drove him out, Máel Coluim was not involved in the ill-fated invasion of England by Harald Hardraade and Tostig in 1066, which ended in defeat and death at Stamford Bridge. In 1068, he granted asylum to a group of English exiles fleeing from William of Normandy, among them Edward the Confessor's grand-nephew, and would-be king, Edgar Ætheling, Cospatrick of Northumbria and Edgar's mother Agatha and sisters Margaret and Cristina. The exiles were to be disappointed if they had expected immediate assistance from the Scots.[29] Combatants Norwegians, Northumbrian rebels, small numbers of Scots Anglo-Saxon England Commanders Harald HardrÃ¥de† Harold Godwinson Strength 300 ships, 5000 men Unknown Casualties 276 ships, 4500 men Unknown The Battle of Stamford Bridge in England is generally considered to mark the end of the Viking era. ... William I ( 1027 – September 9, 1087), was King of England from 1066 to 1087. ... Edgar Ætheling or Eadgar II (c. ... It has been suggested that Gospatric of Northumberland be merged into this article or section. ... Agatha of Bulgaria was the daughter of Gavril Radomir, Tsar of Bulgaria and Hercegnõ Magyarország. ... Cristina, daughter of Edward the Exile and Agatha, was the sister of Edgar Ætheling and Saint Margaret of Scotland, born in the 1040s. ...


In 1069 the exiles returned to England, to join a spreading revolt in the north. Even though Cospatrick and Siward's son Waltheof submitted by the end of the year, the arrival of a Danish army under Sweyn Estridsson ensured that William's position remained weak. Máel Coluim decided on war, and took his army south into Cumbria and across the Pennines, wasting Teesdale and Cleveland then marching north, loaded with loot, to Wearmouth. There Máel Coluim met Edgar and his family, who were invited to return with him, but did not. As Sweyn had by now been bought off with a large Danegeld, Máel Coluim took his army home. In reprisal, William sent Cospatrick to raid Scotland through Cumbria. In return, the Scots fleet raided the Northumbrian coast where Cospatrick's possession were concentrated.[30] Late in the year, perhaps shipwrecked on their way to a European exile, Edgar and his family again arrived in Scotland, this time to remain. By the end of 1070, Máel Coluim had married Edgar's sister Margaret, the future Saint Margaret.[31] Waltheof, 1st Earl of Northampton (d. ... Cumbria is a county in the North West region of England. ... Typical Pennine scenery. ... Teesdale is a dale, or valley, of the east side of the Pennines in England. ... Status: Non-metropolitan county Admin. ... This is about the city of Sunderland in England. ... The Danegeld was an English tribute raised to pay off Viking raiders (usually led by the Danish king) to save the land from being ravaged by the raiders. ...


The naming of their children represented a break with the traditional king names such as Máel Coluim, Cináed and Áed. The point of naming Margaret's sons, Edward after her father Edward the Exile, Edmund for her grandfather Edmund Ironside, Ethelred for her great-grandfather Ethelred the Unready and Edgar for her great-great-grandfather Edgar the Peaceable was unlikely to be missed in England, where William of Normandy's grasp on power was far from secure.[32] Whether the adoption of the classical Alexander (for Pope Alexander II or Alexander the Great) and the biblical David represented a recognition that William of Normandy would not be easily removed, or was due to the repetition of West Saxon king names, another Edmund preceded Edgar, is not known.[33] Margaret also gave Máel Coluim two daughters, Edith, who married Henry I of England, and Mary, who married Eustace III of Boulogne. Edward the Exile (1016- February 1057), son of King Edmund Ironside and of Ealdgyth, gained the name of Exile from his life spent mostly far from the England of his forefathers. ... Edmund of Scotland (Etmond mac Maíl Choluim) was king of Scotland between 1094 and 1097, in a joint rule with his uncle Donald III. He was the son of Malcolm III and his second wife St Margaret. ... Edmund II or Eadmund II (c. ... Ethelred was the son of King Máel Coluim III and his wife Margaret, the third oldest of the latter and the probable sixth oldest of the former. ... Ethelred the Unready (c. ... Edgar of Scotland (Etgair mac Maíl Coluim) (1074 – January 8, 1107 ), was king of Scotland from 1097 to 1107. ... King Edgar or Eadgar I ( 942 – July 8, 975) was the younger son of King Edmund I of England. ... Alexander I (Alasdair mac Maíl Coluim) (c. ... Alexander II, né Anselmo Baggio (d. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: Μέγας Αλέξανδρος[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC — June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), is considered one of the most successful military commanders in history, conquering most of his known world before his death. ... King David I (or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim; also known as Saint David I or David I the Saint) (1084 – May 24, 1153), was King of Scotland from 1124 until his death, and the youngest son of Malcolm Canmore and of Saint Margaret (sister of Edgar Ætheling). ... Edith of Scotland, (c. ... Henry I of England (c. ... Eustace III, was a count of Boulogne, successor to his father Count Eustace II of Boulogne. ...


In 1072, with the Harrying of the North completed and his position again secure, William of Normandy came north with an army and a fleet. Máel Coluim met William at Abernethy and, in the words of the English chroniclers "became his man" and handed over his eldest son Donnchad as a hostage and arranged peace between William and Edgar.[34] Accepting the overlordship of the king of the English was no novelty, previous kings had done so without result. The same was true of Máel Coluim; his agreement with the English king was followed by further raids into Northumbria, which led to further trouble in the earldom and the killing of William Walcher at Gateshead. In 1080, William sent his son Robert Curthose north with an army while his brother Odo punished the Northumbrians. Máel Coluim again made peace, and this time kept it for over a decade.[35] The Harrying (or Harrowing) of the North was a series of campaigns waged by William the Conqueror, king of England, in the winter of 1069–1070 in order to subjugate the north of his newfound English kingdom (primarily Northumbria and the Midlands). ... Abernethy is a village in Perthshire, Scotland, situated eight miles south east of Perth. ... William Walcher (d. ... Map sources for Gateshead at grid reference NZ2460 Gateshead is a town in Tyne and Wear in north-east England on the south side of the River Tyne opposite Newcastle upon Tyne which covers the North Bank. ... Robert II (called Curthose for his short squat appearance) (c. ... Odo cheers up the troops of William during the battle of Hastings as shown on the Bayeux Tapestry Odo of Bayeux (c. ...


Máel Coluim was fortunate that he appears to have faced little internal opposition. However, he does appear to have been in conflict, as might be anticipated, with Máel Snechtai mac Lulaich, the King or Mormaer of Moray. In a surprising entry, for the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle contains little on Scotland, it is said in the entry for 1078: The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals narrating the history of the English and their settlement in Britain. ...

In this year Malcholom [Máel Coluim] seized the mother of Mælslæhtan [Máel Snechtai] ...and all his treasures, and his cattle; and he himself escaped [only] with difficulty. [... is missing in the original]

Whatever provoked this, Máel Snechtai himself survived until 1085, when his death is reported.[36] The same year, and in the following entry, Máel Coluim's son Domnall is said to have died "unhappily", that is to say, by violence.


Máel Coluim and William Rufus

When William Rufus became king of England after his father's death, Máel Coluim did not intervene in the rebellions by supporters of Robert Curthose which followed. In 1091, however, William Rufus confiscated Edgar Ætheling's lands in England, and Edgar fled north to Scotland. In May, Máel Coluim marched south, not to raid and take slaves and plunder, but to besiege Newcastle, built by Robert Curthose in 1080. This appears to have been an attempt to advance the frontier south from the River Tweed to the River Tees. The threat was enough to bring the English king back from Normandy, were he had been fighting Robert Curthose. In September, learning of William Rufus's approaching army, Máel Coluim withdrew north and the English followed. Unlike in 1072, Máel Coluim was prepared to fight, but a peace was arranged by Edgar Ætheling and Robert Curthose whereby Máel Coluim again acknowledged the overlordship of the English king.[37] William II (called Rufus, perhaps because of his red-faced appearance, or maybe his bloody reign) (c. ... This article is about a city in the United Kingdom. ... There are other rivers with this name: see Tweed River The River Tweed at Abbotsford, near Melrose The River Tweed at Coldstream The River Tweed (156 kilometres or 97 miles long) flows primarily through the Borders region of Scotland. ... The Tees is an English river which rises on the eastward slope of Cross Fell in the Pennine Chain and flows eastwards for about 87 miles (137 km) before emptying into the North Sea between Hartlepool and Redcar. ... Mont Saint Michel, one of the famous symbols of Normandy. ...


In 1092, the peace began to break down. Based on the supposition that the Scots controlled much of modern Cumbria, it had been supposed that William Rufus's new castle at Carlisle, and his settlement of English peasants in the surrounds, was the cause. However, it is unlikely that Máel Coluim did control Cumbria, and the dispute instead concerned the estates granted to Máel Coluim by William Rufus's father in 1072 for his maintenance when visiting England. Máel Coluim sent messengers to discuss the question and William Rufus agreed to a meeting. Máel Coluim travelled south to Gloucester, stopping at Wilton Abbey to visit his daughter Edith and sister-in-law Cristina. Máel Coluim arrived there on 24 August 1093 to find that William Rufus refused to negotiate, insisting that the dispute be judged by the English barons. This Máel Coluim refused to do, and returned immediately to Scotland.[38] Cumbria is a county in the North West region of England. ... Carlisle is a city in the extreme northwest of England, some 16 km from the border with Scotland. ... Gloucester (pronounced ) is a city and district in south-west England, close to the Welsh border. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Wilton Abbey Wilton Abbey is a Benedictine convent in Wiltshire, England, three miles from Salisbury. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... // Events Donald III of Scotland comes to the throne of Scotland. ...


It does not appear that William Rufus intended to provoke a war,[39] but, as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports, war came:

For this reason therefore they parted with great dissatisfaction, and the King Malcolm returned to Scotland. And soon after he came home, he gathered his army, and came harrowing into England with more hostility than behoved him ...

Máel Coluim was accompanied by Edward, his eldest son by Margaret and probable heir-designate (or tánaiste).[40] Even by the standards of the time, the ravaging of Northumbria by the Scots was seen as harsh. While marching north again, Máel Coluim was ambushed by Robert de Mowbray, Earl of Northumbria, whose lands he had devastated, near Alnwick on 13 November 1093. There he was killed by his god-sib Arkil Morel, steward of Bamburgh Castle.[41] Edward died in the same fight. Margaret, we are told, died soon after receiving the news of their deaths.[42] The Annals of Ulster say: Robert de Mowbray was the earl of Northumbria from 1086 when Aubrey de Coucys lands and titles were finally redistributed and held that post until 1095 when he was deposed for rebelling against William Rufus, king of England. ... For the parish in New Brunswick, see Alnwick, New Brunswick Alnwick (pronounced ) is a small market town in north Northumberland, in the north-east of England. ... November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... // Events Donald III of Scotland comes to the throne of Scotland. ... Bamburgh Castle Bamburgh Castle is an imposing castle located on the coast at Bamburgh in Northumberland, England. ...

Mael Coluim son of Donnchad, over-king of Scotland, and Edward his son, were killed by the French i.e. in Inber Alda in England. His queen, Margaret, moreover, died of sorrow for him within nine days.[43]

Depictions in fiction

Malcolm's accession to the throne, as modified by tradition, is the climax of Macbeth by William Shakespeare. Scene from Macbeth, depicting the witches conjuring of an apparition in Act IV, Scene I. Painting by William Rimmer This article is on the play Macbeth by William Shakespeare. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Duncan, p. 42, takes Máel Coluim to be "at least two, possible as much as ten, years old" in 1040.
  2. ^ Orkneyinga Saga, c. 33.
  3. ^ Duncan, pp. 51–52, 74–75; Oram, David I, p. 17, note 1. Cenn Mór certainly means "great chief" rather "big head", as sometimes thought.
  4. ^ The question of what to call this family is an open one. "House of Dunkeld" is all but unknown; "Canmore kings" and "Canmore dynasty" are not universally accepted, nor are Richard Oram's recent coinage "meic Maíl Coluim" or Michael Lynch's "MacMalcolm". For discussions and examples: Duncan, pp. 53–54; McDonald, Outlaws, p. 3; Barrow, Kingship and Unity, Appendix C; Reid. Broun discusses the question of identity at length.
  5. ^ Hammond, p. 21; the first genealogy known which traces descent from Máel Coluim, rather than from Cináed mac Ailpín or Fergus Mór, is dated to the reign of Alexander II, see Broun, pp. 195–200.
  6. ^ The notice of Donnchad's death in the Annals of Tigernach, s.a. 1040, says he was "slain... at an immature age"; Duncan, p.33.
  7. ^ Duncan, p. 33; Oram, David I, p. 18. There may have been a third brother if Máel Muire of Atholl was indeed a son of Donnchad. Oram, David I, p. 97, note 26, rejects the identification.
  8. ^ Duncan, p. 41; Annals of Ulster, s.a. 1045 ; Annals of Tigernach, s.a. 1045.
  9. ^ Fordun, IV, xliv.
  10. ^ Duncan, p. 37.
  11. ^ Barrell, p. 13; Barrow, Kingship and Unity,p. 25.
  12. ^ As will be seen, Máel Coluim developed ties to Orkney in later life. Thorfinn may have been a grandson of Máel Coluim mac Cináeda. For Orkney as the place of Máel Coluim's exile: Duncan, p. 42; Oram, David I, pp. 18–20.
  13. ^ Duncan, pp. 37–41; Oram, David I, pp.18–20.
  14. ^ The Prophecy of Berchán dissents, and has Mac Bethad wounded in battle and places his death at Scone.
  15. ^ Duncan, pp.50–51 discusses the dating. Anderson, ESSH reproduces the relevant chronicles; of the Irish annals, Tigernach and the Chronicon Scotorum report both deaths.
  16. ^ These kings were the successful or lucky ones, half of the kings between 858 and 1058 reigned for five years or less; McDonald, Kingdom of the Isles, p. 50.
  17. ^ The same had been true when his father became king; Duncan, pp. 33–34.
  18. ^ Duncan, p. 43.
  19. ^ Duncan, p. 43; Oram, David I, p. 21.
  20. ^ Oram, David I, p. 21.
  21. ^ Orkneyinga Saga, c. 33, Duncan, pp. 42–43.
  22. ^ Barrow, Kingship and Unity, p.29, writes that Máel Coluim was "evidently a widower" when he considered marriage to Margaret; see also Duncan, p. 42–43, possibly dating Ingibiorg's death to 1058 (c. 1085 at the top of p. 43 is evidently an error).
  23. ^ Orkneyinga Saga, c. 33.
  24. ^ Duncan, pp. 54–55; Broun, p. 196.
  25. ^ Duncan, p.55; Oram, David I, p. 23. Domnall's death is reported in the Annals of Ulster, s.a. 1085: "... Domnall son of Máel Coluim, king of Scotland, ... ended [his] life unhappily."
  26. ^ Oram, David I, pp. 22–23.
  27. ^ Saga of Harald Sigurðson, cc. 45ff; Saga of Magnus Erlingsson, c. 30.
  28. ^ Orkneyinga Saga, cc. 39–41.
  29. ^ Oram, David I, p. 23.
  30. ^ Duncan, pp. 44–45; Oram, David I, pp. 23–24.
  31. ^ Oram, David I, p. 24; Clancy, "St. Margaret", dates the marriage to 1072.
  32. ^ Máel Coluim's sons by Ingebjorg were probably expected to succeed to the kingdom of the Scots, Oram, David I, p.26.
  33. ^ Oram, p. 26.
  34. ^ Oram, pp. 30–31.
  35. ^ Oram, David I, p. 33.
  36. ^ It is reported amongst clerics and described as "happily", usually, but not certainly, a sign that the deceased had entered religion.
  37. ^ Oram, David I, p. 34–35.
  38. ^ Duncan, pp. 47–48; Oram, David I, pp. 35–36.
  39. ^ Oram, David I, pp.36–37.
  40. ^ Duncan, p. 54; Oram, David I, p. 42.
  41. ^ The Annals of Innisfallen say he "was slain with his son in an unguarded moment in battle".
  42. ^ Oram, pp.37–38.
  43. ^ The notice in the Annals of Innisfallen ends "and Margaréta his wife, died of grief for him."

The House of Dunkeld or Canmore was a dynasty of Scottish kings that ruled Scotland from 1058 to 1290. ... Richard Oram is a Scottish historian and freelance author. ... Fergus Mór mac Eirc (Scottish Gaelic: Fergus Mòr Mac Earca) was a legendary king of Dál Riata. ... Alexander II (August 24, 1198 – July 6, 1249), king of Scotland, son of William I, the Lion, and of Ermengarde of Beaumont, was born at Haddington, East Lothian, in 1198, and succeeded to the kingdom on the death of his father on 4 December 1214. ... The Annals of Tigernach (abbr. ... Máel Muire of Atholl was Mormaer of Atholl at the beginning of the 12th century, until sometime perhaps in the 1130s. ... The Prophecy of Berchán, is a relatively large historical poem written in the Middle Irish language. ... An number of Irish annals were compiled up to and shortly after the end of Gaelic Ireland in the 17th century. ... Chronicon Scotorum is an Irish chronicle. ... The Annals of Inisfallen are a chronicle of the medieval history of Ireland. ...

References

  • Anderson, Alan Orr, Early Sources of Scottish History A.D 500–1286, volume 1. Reprinted with corrections. Paul Watkins, Stamford, 1990. ISBN 1-871615-03-8
  • Anon., Orkneyinga Saga: The History of the Earls of Orkney, tr. Hermann Pálsson and Paul Edwards. Penguin, London, 1978. ISBN 0-140-44383-5
  • Barrell, A.D.M. Medieval Scotland. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000. ISBN 0-521-58602-X
  • Clancy, Thomas Owen, "St. Margaret" in Michael Lynch (ed.), The Oxford Companion to Scottish History. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2002. ISBN 0-19-211696-7
  • Barrow, G.W.S., Kingship and Unity: Scotland, 1000–1306. Reprinted, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 1989. ISBN 0-7486-0104-X
  • Barrow, G.W.S., The Kingdom of the Scots. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2003. ISBN 0-7486-1803-1
  • Broun, Dauvit, The Irish Identity of the Kingdom of the Scots in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries. Boydell, Woodbridge, 1999. ISBN 0-85115-375-5
  • Duncan, A.A.M., The Kingship of the Scots 842–1292: Succession and Independence. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2002. ISBN 0-7486-1626-8
  • John of Fordun, Chronicle of the Scottish Nation, ed. William Forbes Skene, tr. Felix J.H. Skene, 2 vols. Reprinted, Llanerch Press, Lampeter, 1993. ISBN 1-897853-05-X
  • Hammond, Matthew H., "Ethnicity and Writing of Medieval Scottish History", in The Scottish Historical Review, Vol. 85, April, 2006, pp. 1-27
  • Reid, Norman, "Kings and Kingship: Canmore Dynasty" in Michael Lynch (ed.), op. cit.
  • Oram, Richard, David I: The King Who Made Scotland. Tempus, Stroud, 2004. ISBN 0-7524-2825-X
  • McDonald, R. Andrew, The Kingdom of the Isles: Scotland's Western Seaboard, c. 1100–c.1336. Tuckwell Press, East Linton, 1997. ISBN 1-898410-85-2
  • McDonald, R. Andrew, Outlaws of Medieval Scotland: Challenges to the Canmore Kings, 1058–1266. Tuckwell Press, East Linton, 2003. ISBN 1-86232-236-8
  • Snorri Sturluson, Heimskringla: History of the Kings of Norway, tr. Lee M. Hollander. Reprinted University of Texas Press, Austin, 1992. ISBN 0-292-73061-6

Alan Orr Anderson (1879-1958) was a Scottish historian and compiler. ... Dr. Thomas Owen Clancy is an American academic and historian who specializes in the literature of the Celtic Dark Ages, especially that of Scotland. ... Geoffrey W.S. Barrow DLitt FBA FRSE is an English-born Scottish historian and academic, born at Headingley in Leeds. ... Dauvit Broun (David Brown) is a Scottish historian based at the University of Glasgow, and one of the most prominent and influential scholars in the field of medieval Scottish or Celtic studies. ... John of Fordun (d. ... William Forbes Skene (1809–1892), Scottish historian and antiquary, was the second son of Sir Walter Scotts friend, James Skene (1775–1864), of Rubislaw, near Aberdeen, and was born on June 7 1809. ... Richard Oram is a Scottish historian and freelance author. ... Snorri Sturluson (1178 – September 23, 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet and politician. ...

External links

  • CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts at University College Cork includes the Annals of Ulster, Tigernach and Innisfallen, the Lebor Bretnach and the Chronicon Scotorum among others. Most are translated or translations are in progress.
  • Heimskringla at World Wide School
  • Orkneyinga Saga at Northvegr
Preceded by:
Lulach
King of Scots
1058–1093
Succeeded by:
Domnall Bán

  Results from FactBites:
 
Malcolm III Canmore Feature Page on Undiscovered Scotland (661 words)
Malcolm was the first King of the House of Dunkeld, or House of Canmore, that was tor ule Scotland for the next 250 years.
Malcolm was the son of Duncan I. At the time of the his father's death at the hands of his uncles Macbeth and Thorfinn, Malcolm was just nine.
In 1070 Malcolm married Margaret, the great-niece of Edward the Confessor.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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