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Encyclopedia > Malcolm Fraser
Rt Hon Malcolm Fraser


22nd Prime Minister of Australia
Elections: 1975, 1977, 1980, 1983
In office
11 November 1975 – 11 March 1983
Preceded by Gough Whitlam
Succeeded by Bob Hawke
Constituency Wannon

Born May 21, 1930 (1930-05-21) (age 77)
Melbourne, Victoria
Political party Liberal Party of Australia
Spouse Tamara "Tamie" Fraser
This article is about the former prime minister of Australia; for the Western Australian public servant, see Malcolm Fraser (surveyor).

John Malcolm Fraser, AC, CH (born 21 May 1930), is an Australian politician who was the 22nd Prime Minister of Australia. He came to power in the 1975 elections following the dismissal of the Whitlam Labor government, in which he played a key role and, like its immediate predecessor, the term of the Fraser Coalition government was one of the most controversial periods in Australian political history. After three election victories and many legislative achievements, he was defeated by Bob Hawke in 1983, and ended his career alienated from his own party. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on 13 December 1975. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on 10 December 1977. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on 18 October 1980. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on 5 March 1983. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC (born 11 July 1916), known as Gough Whitlam (, pronounced Goff), is an Australian former politician and 21st Prime Minister of Australia. ... Robert James Lee (Bob) Hawke, AC (born 9 December 1929) was the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia after previously being an Australian trade union leader. ... The Division of Wannon is an Australian Electoral Division in the state of Victoria. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre. ... “VIC” redirects here. ... The Liberal Party of Australia is an Australian political party. ... Sir Malcolm Fraser (1834–17 August 1900) CMG, KCMG was an important public servant in colonial Western Australia in the 1870s and 1880s. ... Insignia of a Companion of the Order of Australia. ... The Order of the Companions of Honour is a British and Commonwealth Order (decoration). ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on 13 December 1975. ... The secretary of the Governor-General, David Smith, announcing the dissolution of Parliament on November 11th, 1975. ... Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC (born 11 July 1916), known as Gough Whitlam (, pronounced Goff), is an Australian former politician and 21st Prime Minister of Australia. ... Robert James Lee (Bob) Hawke, AC (born 9 December 1929) was the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia after previously being an Australian trade union leader. ...


i have a son called Nigel who is gay however i am still very proud of him.

Contents

Rise to Leadership

Fraser developed an early reputation as a right-winger, and he had a long wait for ministerial preferment. He was finally appointed Minister for the Army by Harold Holt in 1966, in which he presided over the controversial Vietnam war conscription . Under John Gorton he became Minister for Education, The Arts and Science, and in 1968 he was made Minister for Defence: a challenging post at the height of Australia's involvement in the Vietnam War and the protests against it. Harold Edward Holt CH (5 August 1908 – presumed dead 17 December 1967) was an Australian politician who became the 17th Prime Minister of Australia in 1966. ... Conscription in Australia, or mandatory military service also known as National Service, has a controversial history dating back to the first years of nationhood. ... Sir John Grey Gorton GCMG AC CH (9 September 1911 – 19 May 2002), Australian politician, was the 19th Prime Minister of Australia. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


In March 1971 Fraser resigned abruptly in protest at what he said was Gorton's interference in his ministerial responsibilities. This led to the downfall of Gorton and his replacement by William McMahon. Under McMahon, Fraser once again became Minister for Education and Science. When the Liberals were defeated at the 1972 elections by the Labor Party under Gough Whitlam, he became a member of the opposition front bench under Billy Snedden's leadership. Sir William McMahon, GCMG, CH (23 February 1908 – 31 March 1988), Australian politician and 20th Prime Minister of Australia, was born in Sydney, New South Wales, where his father was a lawyer. ... ALP redirects here. ... Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC (born 11 July 1916), known as Gough Whitlam (, pronounced Goff), is an Australian former politician and 21st Prime Minister of Australia. ... Rt Hon Billy Snedden Sir Billy Mackie Snedden (31 December 1926 _ 27 June 1987), Australian Liberal politician, was born in Perth, Western Australia, the son of a stonemason. ...


Role in "the dismissal"

Malcolm Fraser during the dismissal of Gough Whitlam

Fraser responded to Snedden's defeat at the 1974 elections by successfully challenging for the opposition leadership. In 1975, in the context of a series of ministerial scandals that were rocking the Whitlam government, Fraser opted to use the Coalition opposition Senate numbers to delay the government's budget bills with the objective of achieving an early election (see Australian constitutional crisis of 1975). After several months of deadlock, during which the government secretly explored methods of obtaining supply funding outside the Parliament[1] Governor-General Sir John Kerr intervened and revoked Whitlam’s commission on 11 November 1975. Fraser was immediately sworn in as caretaker prime minister under a strict stipulation to give the Governor-General immediate advice to issue writs for an election of both Houses. This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... Gough Whitlam speaking on the steps of Parliament House, Canberra, following his dismissal. ... Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC (born 11 July 1916), known as Gough Whitlam (, pronounced Goff), is an Australian former politician and 21st Prime Minister of Australia. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on 18 May 1974. ... The secretary of the Governor-General, David Smith, announcing the dissolution of Parliament on November 11th, 1975. ... Sir John Robert Kerr, AK, GCMG, GCVO (24 September 1914 – 24 March 1991), 13th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of New South Wales and 18th Governor-General of Australia, dismissed the Labor government of Gough Whitlam on 11 November 1975, marking the climax of one of the most significant... A caretaker is a term mainly used in the United Kingdom, meaning a concierge or janitor. ...


Malcolm Fraser was rancorously branded by Whitlam and his followers as one who had shamefully connived in the overthrow of a popular and democratically elected government, and his role in "the dismissal" remains one of the most passionately-debated subjects in Australian political history. On the other hand, much of the electorate welcomed Fraser’s appointment pending the 13 December election. Federal elections were held in Australia on 13 December 1975. ...


Prime Minister

The Liberal-Country Party coalition won a landslide victory with the support of media, notably the Murdoch press, which had previously supported the ALP. The Coalition won a second term nearly as easily in 1977. Fraser quickly dismantled some of the programs of the Labor government, such as the Ministry for the Media, and he made major changes to the universal health insurance system Medibank. He initially maintained Whitlam's real level of tax and spending, but real per-person tax and spending soon began to increase. He did manage to rein-in inflation which had soared under Whitlam. Keith Rupert Murdoch AC, KCSG (born 11 March 1931) is an Australian born United States citizen who is a global media executive and is the controlling shareholder, chairman and managing director of News Corporation, based in New York. ... Medicare is Australias publicly-funded, universal health scheme, providing affordable treatment by doctors and in public hospitals for all citizens and permanent residents (as well as visitors from countries which have reciprocal arrangements with Australia). ...


Although his so-called "Razor Gang"[2] implemented stringent budget cuts across many areas of the Commonwealth Public Sector, including the ABC, the Fraser government did not carry out the radically conservative program that his political enemies had predicted, and that some of his followers wanted. He in fact proved surprisingly moderate in office, to the frustration of his Treasurer (finance minister), John Howard and other pro-Thatcherite ministers, who were strong adherents of monetarism. Fraser's economic record was marred by rising unemployment, which reached record levels under his administration, caused in part by the ongoing effects of the global oil crisis that had begun in 1973. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ... Margaret Thatcher Thatcherism is the system of political thought attributed to the governments of Margaret Thatcher, British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990. ... Monetarism is a set of views concerning the determination of national income and monetary economics. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Oil crisis may refer to: 1973 oil crisis 1979 energy crisis 1990 spike in the price of oil Oil price increases of 2004 and 2005 Hubbert peak theory Energy crisis This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...

Malcolm Fraser with wife Tamara in 1975.

Fraser was active in foreign policy. He supported the Commonwealth in campaigning to abolish apartheid in South Africa and white minority rule in Rhodesia. During the 1979 Commonwealth Conference, Fraser, together with his Nigerian counterpart, convinced newly-elected British PM Margaret Thatcher to withhold recognition of the internal settlement Zimbabwe Rhodesia government (Thatcher had earlier promised to recognise it). Subsequently, the Lancaster House talks were held and Robert Mugabe was elected leader of an independent Zimbabwe in 1980. Under his government, Australia also recognised Indonesia's annexation of East Timor, although many East Timorese refugees were granted asylum in Australia. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 419 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 859 pixel, file size: 42 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 419 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 859 pixel, file size: 42 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ... Zimbabwe Rhodesia was the (largely unrecognised) name of Zimbabwe during 1979, adopted by Rhodesia soon after an Internal Settlement between the white minority Rhodesian Government led by Ian Smith and small, moderate African nationalist parties not involved in the war that had been raging in the country since 1977. ... The Lancaster House Agreement was the independence agreement for Rhodesia, now known as Zimbabwe. ... Mugabe redirects here. ...


Fraser was a strong supporter of the United States and supported the boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. But, although he persuaded some sporting bodies not to compete, Fraser did not try to the prevent the Australian Olympic Committee sending a team to the Moscow games. Badge, released in the USSR The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad, were held in Moscow in the Soviet Union. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... The Australian Olympic Committee (AOC) is the national Olympic committee in Australia for the Olympic Games movement. ...


In immigration policy Fraser also surprised his critics. He expanded immigration from Asian countries and allowed more refugees to enter Australia. He supported multiculturalism and established a government-funded multilingual radio and television network, the Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), a Whitlam initiative. The term multiculturalism is used to describe the recognition of cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... The Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) is one of two government funded Australian public broadcasting radio and television networks, the other being the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC). ...


Despite his support for SBS, the Fraser government imposed stringent budget cuts on the national broadcaster, the ABC, which came under repeated attack from the Coalition for its supposed left-wing bias and for allegedly "unfair" or critical coverage on TV programs including This Day Tonight and Four Corners, and on the ABC's new youth-oriented radio station Double Jay (2JJ). One of the results of the cuts was the plan to establish a national youth radio network -- in which Double Jay was the first station -- was delayed for many years, and did not come to fruition until the 1990s. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... This Day Tonight is a long running ABC (Australia) current affairs program of the of late 1960s early 1970s which was rivived in the mid 1980s as the 7. ... Four Corners may refer to one of the following: Four Corners, a region of the United States the Four Corners Monument at that location Four Corners, a point in Canada Four Corners, an Australian news program Four Corners, a movie by James Benning four corners offense, a style of basketball... Triple J (JJJ) is a nationally-networked, government-funded Australian radio station (a division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation), mainly aimed at youth (defined as those between 12 and 25). ...


Fraser also legislated to give Indigenous Australians control of their traditional lands in the Northern Territory, but would not impose land rights laws on the conservative governments in the states. Languages Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religions Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group names Indigenous... Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $10,418 (8th)  - Product...


Decline and fall

At the 1980 elections, Fraser saw his majority sharply reduced and his coalition lost control of the Senate. Fraser was convinced, however, that he had the measure of the Labor leader, Bill Hayden. But in 1982 the economy experienced a sharp recession; and also a protracted scandal over tax-avoidance schemes run by prominent Liberals plagued the government. A popular minister, Andrew Peacock, resigned from Cabinet and challenged Fraser's leadership. Although Fraser won, these events left him politically weakened. Federal elections were held in Australia on 18 October 1980. ... William George Hayden AC (born 23 January 1933), Australian politician and 21st Governor-General of Australia, was born in Brisbane, Queensland, the son of an American-born sailor of Irish descent. ... Andrew Sharp Peacock AC (born 13 February 1939), Australian Liberal politician, was born in Melbourne, Victoria, the son of a wealthy company director. ...


By the end of 1982 it was obvious that the popular former trade union leader Bob Hawke was going to replace Hayden as Labor leader. Fraser wanted to call a snap election to defeat Hayden before Hawke could replace him, but he was prevented by the tax-evasion scandal and by an attack of ill-health. When Fraser acted, he had left his run too late. On the day Fraser called the election for 5 March, Hawke replaced Hayden as leader of the ALP and Leader of the Opposition. Fraser was heavily defeated by Hawke in the 1983 elections. Robert James Lee (Bob) Hawke, AC (born 9 December 1929) was the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia after previously being an Australian trade union leader. ... This article is about the day. ... ALP redirects here. ... In the Australian House of Representatives, the Leader of the Opposition sits at the front table to the left of the Speakers Chair (on the right-hand side in this photo). ... Federal elections were held in Australia on 5 March 1983. ...


Fraser immediately resigned from Parliament. Over the 13 years that the Liberals then spent in opposition until 1996, they tended to blame the "wasted opportunities" of the Fraser years for their problems, and Fraser grew resentful of this and distanced himself from his old party. The Hawke Government supported his unsuccessful bid to become Secretary-General of the Commonwealth of Nations. The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total...


Retirement

In retirement Fraser served as Chairman of the United Nations Panel of Eminent Persons on the Role of Transnational Corporations in South Africa 1985, as Co-Chairman of the Commonwealth Group of Eminent Persons on South Africa in 1985-86, and as Chairman of the UN Secretary-General's Expert Group on African Commodity Issues in 1989-90. Fraser became president of the foreign aid group Care International in 1991, and worked with a number of other charitable organisations. UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


Memphis trousers affair

On 14 October 1986, Fraser, then the Chairman of the Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group, was found in the foyer of the Admiral Benbow Inn, a seedy Memphis hotel wearing nothing but a towel and confused as to where his trousers were. The hotel was an establishment popular with prostitutes and drug dealers. Though it was rumoured at the time that the former Prime Minister had been with a prostitute, his wife believes it more likely that he was the victim of a practical joke by his fellow delegates. Fraser himself refuses to comment on the matter.[3] is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ...


The mysterious loss of his trousers resulted in national amusement, the incident passed into Australian folklore, and is still exploited for humorous effect. Roy and HG Roy & HG are a noted Australian comedy duo, with Greig Pickhaver, former Flinders University student politician, taking the role of HG Nelson and John Doyle as Rampaging Roy Slaven. ...


Criticism of Howard

Malcolm Fraser in 1997

After 1996 Fraser was critical of the Howard Liberal government over foreign policy issues (particularly support for the foreign policy of the Bush administration, which Fraser saw as damaging Australian relationships in Asia). He campaigned in support of an Australian Republic in 1999 and in the 2001 election campaign he opposed Howard's policy on asylum-seekers. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... For other uses, see Refugee (disambiguation). ...


The 2001 election completed Fraser's estrangement from the Liberal Party. Indeed, he and Whitlam say they are now good friends. Many Liberals became unrestrained in their attacks on the Fraser years as "a decade of lost opportunity," on deregulation of the Australian economy and other issues. This was highlighted when in early 2004 a Young Liberal convention in Hobart called for Fraser's life-membership of the Liberal Party to be ended. As Fraser passed 70 he had lost none of his combativeness and generally gave as good as he got in these exchanges. The Young Liberal Movement, or the Young Liberals, is the youth-division of the Liberal Party of Australia, and membership is open to those between 16 and 30 years of age. ...


In 2006, Fraser launched a "scathing attack" on the current Howard Liberal government, attacking their policies on areas such as refugees, terrorism and civil liberties, and that "if Australia continues to follow United States policies it runs the risk of being embroiled in the conflict in Iraq for decades and a fear of Islam in the Australian community will take years to eradicate". Mr Fraser also said the way the Government handled the David Hicks, Cornelia Rau and Vivian Alvarez Solon cases, was questionable.[4] Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ... The Liberal Party of Australia is an Australian political party. ... This article deals with the post-invasion period in Iraq and its occupation. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For the American chaplain, see David Hicks (chaplain). ... Cornelia Rau at a press conference at Glenside Hospital Cornelia Rau is an Australian permanent resident and German citizen who was unlawfully detained for a period of ten months in 2004 and 2005 as part of the Australian Governments mandatory detention program. ... Vivian Alvarez Solon is an Australian who was unlawfully removed to the Philippines by the Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs (DIMIA) in July 2001. ...


On 20th July 2007, Fraser sent an open letter to the 187787 members of Australian independent community advocacy organisation GetUp! encouraging members to support GetUp's campaign for a change in policy on Iraq including a clearly defined exit strategy. [5] Mr Fraser stated: "One of the things we should say to the Americans, quite simply, is that if the United States is not prepared to involve itself in high level diplomacy concerning Iraq and other Middle East questions, our forces will be withdrawn before Christmas." GetUp. ...


Honours

Fraser was made a Privy Councillor in 1976, a Companion of Honour in 1977 and a Companion of the Order of Australia in 1988. He received the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun from the Emperor of Japan in 2006 [1] Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... The Order of the Companions of Honour is a British and Commonwealth Order (decoration). ... Insignia of a Companion of the Order of Australia. ... Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun The Order of the Rising Sun or Kyokujitsu sho(旭日章) is a Japanese Order (decoration), established in 1875 by Emperor Meiji of Japan. ...


He has been awarded honorary doctorates from Deakin University, Murdoch University and the University of South Carolina. Deakin University is a large Australian public university with around 32,000 students studying Bachelor, Masters, Doctoral and Professional programs as of 2004. ... Murdoch University is a university with its main campus at Murdoch, south of Perth, Western Australia, along South Street near the Kwinana Freeway ( ). It commenced operations as WAs second university in 1973, and accepted its first students in 1975. ... The University of South Carolina, Columbia (USC or Carolina) is a public, co-educational, research university located in Columbia, South Carolina, United States. ...


References

  1. ^ In Matters for Judgment, Sir John Kerr recounted having to reject (on the ground that it was unsigned) government advice to that end proffered by Attorney General Kep Enderby.
  2. ^ ABC-TV - The 7:30 Report, 1 January 2006
  3. ^ Mal's trousers and me: Tamie. The Australian. Retrieved on 25 August 2007.
  4. ^ Fraser urges Iraq policy rethink. ABC News. Retrieved on 30 December 2006.
  5. ^ A Message From Malcolm Fraser, Former PM. GetUp!. Retrieved on 20 July 2007.

is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

See also

The First Fraser Ministry was the fifty-first Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 11th November 1975 to 22th December 1975. ... The Second Fraser Ministry was the fifty-second Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 22nd December 1975 to 20th December 1977. ... The Third Fraser Ministry was the fifty-third Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 20th December 1977 to 3rd November 1980. ... The Fourth Fraser Ministry was the fifty-fourth Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 3rd November 1980 to 11th March 1983. ...

Further reading

  • Ayres, Phillip, Malcolm Fraser, a Biography, Heinemann, Melbourne, 1987.
  • Kelly, Paul, "Malcolm Fraser", in Michelle Grattan (ed.), Australian Prime Ministers, New Holland, Sydney, 2000.

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Malcolm Fraser
Political offices
Preceded by
James Forbes
Minister for the Army
1966 – 1968
Succeeded by
Phillip Lynch
Preceded by
John Gorton
Minister for Education and Science
1968 – 1969
Succeeded by
Nigel Bowen
Preceded by
Allen Fairhall
Minister for Defence
1969 – 1971
Succeeded by
John Gorton
Preceded by
Gough Whitlam
Prime Minister of Australia
1975 – 1983
Succeeded by
Bob Hawke
Parliament of Australia
Preceded by
Donald McLeod
Member for Wannon
1955 – 1983
Succeeded by
David Hawker
Party political offices
Preceded by
Billy Snedden
Leader of the Liberal Party
1975 – 1983
Succeeded by
Andrew Peacock
Prime Ministers of Australia
Barton | Deakin | Watson | Reid | Fisher | Cook | Hughes | Bruce | Scullin | Lyons | Page | Menzies | Fadden | Curtin | Forde | Chifley | Holt | McEwen | Gorton | McMahon | Whitlam | Fraser | Hawke | Keating | Howard
Leaders of the Liberal Party of Australia
Menzies | Holt | Gorton | McMahon | Snedden | Fraser | Peacock | Howard | Peacock | Hewson | Downer | Howard

  Results from FactBites:
 
Malcolm Fraser - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1513 words)
John Malcolm Fraser AC, CH (born 21 May 1930), Australian politician and 22nd Prime Minister of Australia, came to power in the circumstances of the dismissal of the Whitlam government.
Fraser's economic record was marred by rising unemployment.
Fraser was heavily defeated by Hawke in the election.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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