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Encyclopedia > Malaysian Malaysia

The sometimes tumultous relationship between the People's Action Party and United Malays National Organisation, which were, and still are, the ruling parties respectively of Singapore and Malaysia, has impacted the recent history of both States. The Peoples Action Party (PAP) is a political party in Singapore. ... The United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu in Malay, is the largest political party in Malaysia and a founding member of the Barisan Nasional coalition, which has ruled the country uninterrupted since independence. ...

Contents

1 External links

Origins

Both parties have common roots, being formed during the sentiment of anti-colonialism and widespread resent which grew after the Japanese Occupation. Initially allowing insurgent faction members advocating communism into both their parties as an ally against colonialism, both later developed hostile ties with the Malayan Communist Party (MCP) and Indonesia, expelling the leftists from the party. For this reason they had co-operated for a term to work towards eliminating the MCP insurgency and achieving independence from colonialism. Singapore played a relatively minor role in the history of Southeast Asia until 1819, when the Englishman Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles founded a British port on the island. ... Communism is a term that can refer to one of several things: a social and economic system, an ideology which supports that system, or a political movement that wishes to implement that system. ... Communist Party of Malaya (CPM) Known as the Malayan Communist Party (MCP) until the 1960s. ...


Such co-operation culminated in 1963 with the merger of Singapore into the Federation of Malaysia. 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... This page deals with the combination of two companies into one. ...


Merger and Separation

Enlarge
Official ceromonies celebrate the formation of Malaysia on 16 September 1962.

There are many factors that led UMNO and the PAP to agree to merger. Negotiations for merger began in 1960, and initially, Malaysia refused. However, the danger of the MCP Insurgency taking over Singapore and using it as a base against Malaysia gave reason for Malaysia to allow Singapore into the Federation, and the promise of independence from colonial rule and economic growth with a guarantee Common Market for Singapore were the main primary reasons. Singapore joined Malaysia after a national referendum was held, under the conditions that all Singapore citizens would automatically become citizens of Malaysia. Singapore would also retain a degree of autonomy and state power, such as over labour and education. Singapore would also get to keep its language policies, such as to retain using all four major languages, English, Mandarin, Malay and Tamil. The Federation of Malaysia was formed fifteen days later on September 16, 1962 under those conditions. September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1960 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The 1962 Merger Referendum of Singapore was a referendum held in Singapore on September 1, 1962, which called for people to vote on the terms of merger with Malaysia. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Mandarin has a number of meanings: An Imperial Chinese bureaucrat, and in the UK, by analogy, any government bureaucrat. ... The Malay language, also known locally as Bahasa Melayu, is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people who are native to the Malay peninsula, southern Thailand, Singapore and parts of Sumatra. ... Missing image The letter ழ் is a consonant believed to be unique to Tamil and Malayalam Tamil is a classical language and one of the major languages belonging to the Dravidian language family. ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Initially all was well, and However, both developed different ideological lines on racial issues, especially concerning the Chinese race and the Malay race, marked by the UMNO's belief in the bumiputra policy of positive racial discrimination; UMNO saw this as much needed affirmative action for Malays which had supposedly been put at a disadvantage due to the heavy presence of immigrants that had entered the Malay Archipelago during colonial rule. The PAP staunchly opposed this as unjustified and racist. The PAP, along with several other Malaysian minority parties, epitomised this view with the cry of a "Malaysian Malaysia!"; a policy to serve the Malaysian nationality, which Singapore at that time was included in, as opposed to just the Malay race. This was driven by the fact Singaporean Chinese were being discriminated against, among other things, in elections and taxes as well as economically. One of the initial approaches was to have the PAP join UMNO and later on participate in the Federal Government, but the Malayan Chinese Association (MCA) feared that the PAP would replace them, and opposed the PAP and saw it as a radical socialist branch, and urged UMNO to prevent the PAP from being too influential in the Federal Government. From this point on the relationship between the UMNO and the PAP became increasingly cold, falling short of hostile. Malay can mean: The Malay language The Malay people From or related to Malaysia See also Cape Malays Malay nationalism Communes that begin with Malay in Yonne, France: Malay-le-Grand Malay-le-Petit This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... Bumiputra (Sanskrit, translated literally, it means sons of the Earth; Malay, translated literally, it means princes of the Earth), sometimes spelled Bumiputera, is an official definition widely used in Malaysia, embracing ethnic Malays as well as other indigenous ethnic groups. ... An African-American drinks out of a water fountain marked for colored in 1939 at a street car terminal in Oklahoma City. ... Affirmative action (US English), or positive discrimination (British English), is a policy or a program providing advantages for people of a minority group who are seen to have traditionally been discriminated against, with the aim of creating a more egalitarian society. ...


During this period, racial tensions grew between the Chinese and the Malays, allegedly partially incited earlier by the MCP, such as during the Hock Lee bus riots, but growing blame put on UMNO by the PAP. This was not an unfounded allegation, as many Malay newspapers, such as the partisan newspaper Utusan Melayu, continued to allege that the PAP had been mistreating the Malay race, such as the relocation of the Malays from the kampungs for redevelopment. An increasingly heated debate on both sides sprung up, inciting racial tensions to such an extent, racial riots occurred, culminating with the riot on Prophet Muhammad's birthday. Categories: Stub | Riots ... This is Muhammad, I lied god isnt real I just wanted some attention ...


Rather than temporarily cooling down to solve the problem, both parties continued to verbally use scathing attacks on each other, alleging each other being the cause of the riots. In violation of their previous agreements, UMNO backed and formed the Singapore Alliance Party which ran for the 1963 state elections in Singapore on 21 September 1963, but not winning any seats, even in the Malay constituencies. Despite this failure, it was seen as an attack on the PAP's power base, and this angered the PAP to such an extent, in a tit-for-tat situation, in coalition with other parties under the Malaysian Solidarity Convention ran for the Federal elections in Malaysia which took place during the April of 1964, winning only one seat and 7% of the vote. However, this was no doubt perceived as spite and the entire series of events greatly worsened relations. Dr. Tan Siew Sin, the Finance Minister at this time, demeaningly commented, "How can these kachang puteh parties pose a threat?" The sharp highlight of the degenerating situation was the stated vow by UMNO to oust the PAP from the Singapore Government when the next set of State Elections occurred, perhaps before the PAP could do likewise at the next Federal Election. September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four with the length of 30 days. ... 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Thorny issues concerning Singapore's right as an autonomous state in addition to racial ties further put a dent in relations, such as the failure of a common market to be set up between the Federation and Singapore, and the heavy tax system placed on Singapore, which was seen as unfair. Such issues catalysed the impending secession: On August 7, 1965, Tunku Abdul Rahman announced to the Malaysian Parliament in Kuala Lumpur that the Parliament should vote yes on the resolution to have Singapore to leave the Federation, choosing to "sever all ties with a State Government that showed no measure of loyalty to its Central Government" as opposed to the undesirable method of repressing the PAP for its actions. Singapore's secession and independence became official on August 9, 1965. Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... 1965 was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj (February 8, 1903 - December 6, 1990) known simply as the Tunku, and often called Bapa Kemerdekaan (Father of Independence) or Bapa Malaysia (Father of Malaysia), was Chief Minister of the Federation of Malaya from 1955 and the countrys first Prime Minister from independence... Mayor Datuk Ruslin Hasan District Kuala Lumpur District Area  - Total (City) 243. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... 1965 was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ...


It should be noted that although de jure, Singapore withdrew of its own accord, de facto, the PAP had no true authority to influence whether Singapore should leave or not, despite pressuring Tunku Abdul Rahman not to take such a course of action. The separation agreement was signed to maintain friendly relations, trade and mutual defence relations, and to leave them intact although Federal ties to Singapore as a state were now cut off. De jure (in Classical Latin de iure) is an expression that means by law, as contrasted with de facto, which means in fact. The terms de jure and de facto are used like in principle and in practice when one is describing political situations. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


Post-Separation

The complex relationship continued with the issue of trade and other agreements between the now separate entities of Malaysia and Singapore. At times both parties heavily criticised each other for their policies, to the extent of issuing threats. At the present moment, both parties have had their countries ban some of each other's media, for example, the New Straits Times, a Malaysian newspaper publication, is banned in Singapore, and the Straits Times, the respective newspaper publication for Singapore, is banned in Malaysia. This heavy exchange of words is epitomised with the past leaders of both countries, Lee Kuan Yew of the PAP, and Dr. Mahathir of the UMNO, both which are no longer the prime ministers of their countries. The New Straits Times is a Malaysian English language newspaper. ... The Straits Times is an English-language broadsheet newspaper based in Singapore. ... Lee Kuan Yew (born September 16, 1923) (Chinese: 李光耀, Pinyin: Lǐ Guāng Yào), also known as Lee Kwan-Yew or Harry Lee, was the first Prime Minister of the Republic of Singapore from 1959 to 1990. ... Mahathir bin Mohamad (born December 20, 1925 in Alor Star, Kedah) was the Prime Minister of Malaysia from July 16, 1981 to 2003. ...


Relations can be volatile, and can be seen as fickle. At the present moment, relations are rather cordial.


External links

  • Overview (http://ourstory.asia1.com.sg/merger/merger.html)

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