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Encyclopedia > Malaysia
Malaysia
Flag of Malaysia
Flag Coat of Arms
Motto"Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu"
"Unity Is Strength"1
AnthemNegaraku
"My Country"1
Capital
(and largest city)
Kuala Lumpur
3°08′N, 101°42′E
Official languages Malay2 
Demonym Malaysian
Government Federal constitutional monarchy and Parliamentary democracy
 -  Yang di-Pertuan Agong Mizan Zainal Abidin
 -  Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
Independence
 -  from the United Kingdom (Malaya only)
31 August 1957 
 -  Federation (with Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore4)
16 September 1963 
Area
 -  Total 329,847 km² (67th)
127,355 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.3
Population
 -  Feb 2008 estimate 27,496,000 (43rd)
 -  2000 census 24,821,286 
 -  Density 83/km² (110th)
216/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $357.9 billion (29th)
 -  Per capita $14,400 (57th)
GDP (nominal) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $165 billion (41st)
 -  Per capita $6,648 (63rd)
Gini (2002) 46.1 
HDI (2007) 0.811 (high) (63rd)
Currency Ringgit (RM) (MYR)
Time zone MST (UTC+8)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+8)
Internet TLD .my
Calling code +60
1 Malaysian Flag and Crest from www.gov.my.
2 The current terminology as per government policy is Bahasa Malaysia (literally Malaysian language) ref but legislation continues to refer to the official language as Bahasa Melayu (literally Malay language).
3 Putrajaya is the primary seat of government.
4 Singapore became an independent country on 9 August 1965.

Malaysia (pronounced /məˈleɪʒə/ or /məˈleɪziə/) is a country that consists of thirteen states and three federal territories in Southeast Asia with a total landmass of 329,847 square kilometres (127,355 sq mi).[1][2] The capital city is Kuala Lumpur, while Putrajaya is the seat of the federal government. The population stands at over 25 million.[2] The country is separated into two regions — Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo — by the South China Sea. [2] Malaysia borders Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei and the Philippines.[2] Located near the equator, the weather is characterized by tropical climate.[2] Malaysia is headed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and politically led by a Prime Minister.[3][4] The government is closely modeled after the Westminster parliamentary system.[5] Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Malaysia. ... National flag and state ensign. ... Emblem of Malaysia The National Emblem of Malaysia (Jata Negara in Malay) consists a shield guarded by two tigers. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Negaraku (English: My Country) is the national anthem of Malaysia. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Demographics of Malaysia is diverse. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... Flag of the Supreme Head of Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong is a Malay title usually translated as Supreme Ruler or Paramount Ruler, is the official title of the constitutional head of state of the federation of Malaysia. ... The Prime Minister of Malaysia (in Malay Perdana Menteri) is the indirectly elected head of government of Malaysia. ... Datuk Seri Abdullah bin Haji Ahmad Badawi[1] (born November 26, 1939 in Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang) is the 5th Prime Minister of Malaysia. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Sabah (disambiguation). ... For the river, see Sarawak River. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude and geographical regions, we list here areas between 100 km² and 1000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map of countries by 2006 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, October 2007). ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... ISO 4217 Code MYR User(s) Malaysia Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... // Malaysian Standard Time Malaysian Standard Time (MST) is a standard time used in Malaysia after Japan formally surrendered in Singapore after their occupation in British Malaya. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .my is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Malaysia. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Telephone numbering in Malaysia is regulated by the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC). ... Motto: Bandar raya Taman, Bandar raya Bestari (English :Garden City, Intelligent City ) Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1995, October 19th Made into Federal Territory 2001, February 1st Government  - Administered by Perbadanan Putrajaya Putrajaya Corporation  - Chairman Samsudin Osman Area  - City 46 km²  (17. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Malaysia is a federation of 13 states. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ... Motto: Bandar raya Taman, Bandar raya Bestari (English :Garden City, Intelligent City ) Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1995, October 19th Made into Federal Territory 2001, February 1st Government  - Administered by Perbadanan Putrajaya Putrajaya Corporation  - Chairman Samsudin Osman Area  - City 46 km²  (17. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (or Semenanjung Malaysia in the Malay language) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... East Malaysia comprises Sabah and Sarawak East Malaysia consists of the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak, located on the island of Borneo to the east, across the South China Sea from Peninsular Malaysia which is located on the Malay Peninsula. ... Filipino name Tagalog: Timog Dagat Tsina (Dagat Luzon for the portion within Philippine waters) Malay name Malay: Laut China Selatan Portuguese name Portuguese: Mar da China Meridional Vietnamese name Vietnamese: The South China Sea is a marginal sea south of China. ... A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead. ... Flag of the Supreme Head of Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong is a Malay title usually translated as Supreme Ruler or Paramount Ruler, is the official title of the constitutional head of state of the federation of Malaysia. ... The Prime Minister of Malaysia (in Malay Perdana Menteri) is the indirectly elected head of government of Malaysia. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ...


Malaysia as a unified state did not exist until 1963. Previously, a set of colonies were established by the United Kingdom from the late eighteenth century, and the western half of modern Malaysia was composed of several separate kingdoms. This group of colonies was known as British Malaya until its dissolution in 1946, when it was reorganized as the Federation of Malaya and later recognized as an independent nation in 1957.[6] Singapore, Sarawak, British North Borneo and the Federation of Malaya joined to form Malaysia on 16 September 1963.[7] The early years of the new union were marred by an armed conflict with Indonesia and the expulsion of Singapore.[8][9] The Southeast Asian nation experienced an economic boom and underwent rapid development during the late 20th century. With a GDP per capita standing at USD13,000, it has, from time to time, been considered a newly industrialized country.[10][11] As one of three countries that control the Strait of Malacca, international trade plays a large role in its economy.[12] At one time, it was the largest producer of tin, rubber and palm oil in the world.[13][14] Manufacturing has a large influence in the country's economy.[15] This article is about a type of political territory. ... Peninsular Malaysia (or Semenanjung Malaysia in the Malay language) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... For the river, see Sarawak River. ... Motto: Pergo et Perago (Latin: I undertake and I achieve”) British North Borneo Capital Jesselton Language(s) Malay, English Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1882 - 1901 Victoria  - 1952 - 1963 Elizabeth II Governor  - 1896 - 1901 Robert Scott Historical era New Imperialism  - North Borneo Company May, 1882  - British protectorate 1888  - Japanese invasion January 1... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962–1966. ... On 16 September 1963, Singapore joined the Federation of Malaya together with Sabah and Sarawak to form Malaysia. ... Countries considered NICs as of 2007 The category of newly industrialized country (NIC) is a socioeconomic classification applied to several countries around the world by political scientists and economists. ... A close-up map showing the Strait of Malacca separating peninsular Malaysia and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Palm oil from Ghana with its natural dark color visible, 2 litres Palm oil block showing the lighter color that results from boiling. ...


The Malays form the majority of the population. Some Malays are of Arab descent and there are sizable Chinese and Indian communities. Islam is the largest as well as the official religion of the federation.[2][16] The Malay language is the official language, the original script was Jawi and it was based on Arabic script .[17] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Yawi. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. ...


Malaysia is the founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and participates in many international organizations such as the United Nations.[18][19] As a former British colony, it is also a member of the Commonwealth of Nations.[20] It is also a member of the Developing 8 Countries.[21] Hymn The ASEAN Hymn Jakarta, Indonesia Membership 10 Southeast Asian states Leaders  -  Secretary General Ong Keng Yong Area  -  Total 4,497,4931 km²  Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character , sq mi  Population  -   estimate 566. ... UN redirects here. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... The official D-8 logo. ...

Contents

Etymology

The word Malaysia is visible on a 1914 map published in Chicago, United States.
The word Malaysia is visible on a 1914 map published in Chicago, United States.

The name "Malaysia" was adopted in 1963 when the Federation of Malaya, Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak formed a 14-state federation.[7] However the name itself had been vaguely used to refer to areas in Southeast Asia prior to that. A map published in 1914 in Chicago has the word Malaysia printed on it referring to certain territories within the Malay Archipelago.[22] The Philippines once contemplated naming their state "Malaysia", but Malaysia adopted the name first in 1963 before the Philippines could act further on the matter.[23] Other names were contemplated for the 1963 federation. Among them was Langkasuka (Langkasuka was an old kingdom located at the upper section of the Malay Peninsula in the first millennium of the common era).[24] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 596 pixelsFull resolution (3730 × 2781 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 596 pixelsFull resolution (3730 × 2781 pixels, file size: 2. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... World map depicting Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago is a vast archipelago located between mainland Southeastern Asia (Indochina) and Australia. ... Langkasuka (-langkha Sanskrit for resplendent land -sukkha of bliss) was apparently the oldest kingdom on the Malay peninsula. ...


Even farther back into history, the English ethnologist George Samuel Windsor Earl in volume IV of Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia in 1850 proposed to name the islands of Indonesia as Melayunesia or Indunesia though he favored the former.[25]


History

Main article: History of Malaysia

The history of Malaysia is a relatively recent offshoot of the history of the wider Malay-Indonesian world. ...

Prehistory

Main article: Prehistoric Malaysia

Archaeological remains have been found throughout Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak. The Semang have a deep ancestry within the Malay Peninsula, dating to the initial settlement from Africa over 50,000 years ago. The Senoi appear to be a composite group, with approximately half of the maternal lineages tracing back to the ancestors of the Semang and about half to Indochina. This is in agreement with the suggestion that they represent the descendants of early Austronesian speaking agriculturalists, who brought both their language and their technology to the southern part of the peninsula approximately 5,000 years ago and coalesced with the indigenous population. The Aboriginal Malays are more diverse, and although they show some connections with island Southeast Asia, some also have an ancestry in Indochina around the time of the Last Glacial Maximum, followed by an early-Holocene dispersal through the Malay Peninsula into island Southeast Asia. Caves paintings of Tambun, dated 3000 BC, in Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Senoi are a Malaysian hunting and gathering people who were reported to make extensive use of lucid dreaming to ensure happiness and mental health. ... Proto Malay is also known as Melayu Asli or Melayu Purba in local Malaysia language, is an ethnic group in Malaysia. ...


Early history

Ptolemy showed the Malay Peninsula on his early map with a label that translates as "Golden Chersonese", the Straits of Malacca were referred to as "Sinus Sabaricus".[26] From the mid to the late first millennium, much of the Peninsula as well as the Malay Archipelago were under the influence of Srivijaya. This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... World map depicting Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago is a vast archipelago located between mainland Southeastern Asia (Indochina) and Australia. ... The extent of Srivijayan Empire around 10th to 11th century. ...


There were numerous Malay kingdoms in the 2nd and 3rd century CE—as many as 30 according to Chinese sources. Kedah—known as Kedaram, Cheh-Cha (according to I-Ching) or Kataha, in ancient Pallava or Sanskrit—was in the direct route of invasions of Indian traders and kings. Rajendra Chola, Tamil Emperor who is now thought to have laid Kota Gelanggi to waste, put Kedah to heel in 1025 but his successor, Vir Rajendra Chola, had to put down a Kedah rebellion to overthrow the invaders. The coming of the Chola reduced the majesty of Srivijaya which had exerted influence over Kedah and Pattani and even as far as Ligor. BCE redirects here. ... The Pallava kingdom (Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian kingdom. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Rajendra Chola I was the son of Rajaraja Chola I, the great Chola king of South India. ... Chola redirects here. ... The ancient Tamil country refers to the areas of South India and the northeastern Sri Lanka in which Tamil was the major language during ancient times. ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... Kota Gelanggi or Perbendaharaan Permata (Treasury of Jewels in Malay language) is an archaeological site that is believed to be the first capital of the Srivijaya empire dating back to 650. ...


The Buddhist kingdom of Ligor took control of Kedah shortly after, and its King Chandrabhanu used it as a base to attack Sri Lanka in the 11th century, an event noted in a stone inscription in Nagapattinum in Tamil Nadu and in the Sri Lankan chronicles, Mahavamsa. During the first millennium, the people of the Malay Peninsula adopted Hinduism and Buddhism and the use of the Sanskrit language until they eventually converted to Islam. Nakhon Si Thammarat (Thai นครศรีธรรมราช) is a town in southern Thailand, capital of the Nakhon Si Thammarat province. ... There were numerous Malay kingdoms in the 2nd and 3rd century CE—as many as 30 according to Chinese sources. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... The Mahavansha, also Mahawansha, (Pāli: great chronicle) is a historical record, often thought to be the oldest written record oh history, written in the Pāli language, of the Buddhist kings as well as Dravidian kings of Sri Lanka. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...

A Famosa in Malacca. It was built by the Portuguese in the 15th century.
A Famosa in Malacca. It was built by the Portuguese in the 15th century.

There are reports of other areas older than Kedah—the ancient kingdom of Gangga Negara, around Beruas in Perak, for instance, pushes Malaysian history even further into antiquity. If that is not enough, a Tamil poem, Pattinapillai, of the second century CE, describes goods from Kadaram heaped in the broad streets of the Chola capital. A seventh century Sanskrit drama, Kaumudhimahotsva, refers to Kedah as Kataha-nagari. The Agnipurana also mentions a territory known as Anda-Kataha with one of its boundaries delineated by a peak, which scholars believe is Gunung Jerai. Stories from the Katasaritasagaram describe the elegance of life in Kataha. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 640 × 480 pixelsFull resolution (640 × 480 pixel, file size: 139 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 640 × 480 pixelsFull resolution (640 × 480 pixel, file size: 139 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... This article is about the state in Malaysia. ... Gangga Negara was believed to be a lost Hindu kingdom somewhere in the state of Perak, Malaysia. ... Beruas is a small town in Perak and was believed to be the place where the old Hindu Kingdom of Gangga Negara used to be. ...

Sultan Abdul Samad Building in Kuala Lumpur houses the High Court of Malaya and the Trade Court. Kuala Lumpur was the capital of the Federated Malay States and is the current Malaysian capital.

In the early 15th century, the Malacca Sultanate was established under a dynasty founded by Parameswara or Sultan Iskandar Shah, a prince from Palembang with bloodline related to the royal house of Srivijaya, who fled from Temasek (now Singapore). Parameswara decided to establish his kingdom in Malacca after witnessing an astonishing incident where a white mouse deer kicked one of his hunting dogs into a nearby river. He took this show of bravery by the mouse deer as a good sign and named his kingdom "Melaka" after the tree under which he was resting at the time. At its height, the sultanate controlled the areas which are now Peninsular Malaysia, southern Thailand (Patani), and the eastern coast of Sumatra. It existed for more than a century, and within that time period Islam spread to most of the Malay Archipelago. Malacca was the foremost trading port at the time in Southeast Asia.[27] Image File history File links KualaLumpurAbdulSamadBldg. ... Image File history File links KualaLumpurAbdulSamadBldg. ... Sultan Abdul Samad Building The Sultan Abdul Samad Building is located near the Dataran Merdeka (Independence Square) and the Royal Selangor Club in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Parameswara (1344 – 1414) was a Palembang prince of Hindu descent from Srivijaya that founded Malacca around 1402. ... Location of Palembang Palembang is a city in the south of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... The four species of chevrotain, also known as mouse deer (not to be confused with deer mice, Peromyscus), make up the family Tragulidae. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (or Semenanjung Malaysia in the Malay language) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... This article is about southern province of Thailand. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... World map depicting Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago is a vast archipelago located between mainland Southeastern Asia (Indochina) and Australia. ... This article is about the state in Malaysia. ...


The first evidence of Islam in the Malay Peninsula dates from the 14th century in Terengganu, but according to the Kedah Annals, the 9th sultan of Kedah, Maharaja Derbar Raja, converted to Islam and changed his name to Sultan Muzaffar Shah. In 1511, Malacca was conquered by Portugal, which established a colony there. The sons of the last Sultan of Malacca established two sultanates elsewhere in the peninsula—the Sultanate of Perak to the north, and the Sultanate of Johor (originally a continuation of the old Malacca sultanate) to the south. After the fall of Malacca, three nations struggled for the control of Malacca Strait: the Portuguese (in Malacca), the Sultanate of Johor, and the Sultanate of Aceh. This conflict went on until 1641, when the Dutch (allied to the Sultanate of Johor) gained control of Malacca. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... State motto: Islam Hadhari Terengganu Bestari State anthem: Terengganu State Anthem Capital (and royal capital) Kuala Terengganu Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin1  - Menteri Besar Idris Jusoh History    - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 12,955 km² Population  - 2005... Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa or The Kedah Annals is an ancient Malay literature that chronicles the bloodline of Merong Mahawangsa and the foundation of the Kedah, a state in Malaysia. ... This article is about the state in Malaysia. ... This article is about the state in Malaysia. ... A close-up map showing the Strait of Malacca separating peninsular Malaysia and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Aceh (pronounced , generally Anglicized as IPA: ) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ...


British arrival

Britain established its first colony in the Malay peninsula in 1786, with the lease of the island of Penang to the British East India Company by the Sultan of Kedah. In 1824, the British took control of Malacca following the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 which divided the Malay Archipelago between Britain and the Netherlands, with Malaya in the British zone. In 1826, Britain established the crown colony of the Straits Settlements, uniting its three possessions in Malaya: Penang, Malacca and Singapore. The Straits Settlements were administered under the East India Company in Kolkata until 1867, when they were transferred to the Colonial Office in London. State motto: Bersatu dan Setia (United and Loyal) (formerly Let Penang Lead) State anthem: Untuk Negeri Kita (For Our State) Capital George Town Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang Di-Pertua Negeri Tuan Yang Terutama Abdul Rahman bin Haji Abbas  - Ketua Menteri Tan Sri Dr. Koh Tsu Koon History    - Ceded by... The companys flag initially had the flag of England, the St Georges Cross, in the canton The Honourable East India Company (HEIC), often colloquially referred to as John Company, and Company Bahadur in India, was an early joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first... The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London (one of several), was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in London on March 17, 1824. ... World map depicting Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago is a vast archipelago located between mainland Southeastern Asia (Indochina) and Australia. ... Location of the British Overseas Territories The British Overseas Territories are fourteen[1] territories which the United Kingdom considers to be under its sovereignty, but not as part of the United Kingdom itself. ... The Straits Settlements were a collection of territories of the British East India Company in Southeast Asia, which were given collective administration in 1826. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ...


During the late 19th century, many Malay states decided to obtain British help in settling their internal conflicts. The commercial importance of tin mining in the Malay states to merchants in the Straits Settlements led to British government intervention in the tin-producing states in the Malay Peninsula. British gunboat diplomacy was employed to bring about a peaceful resolution to civil disturbances caused by Chinese gangsters and Malay gangsters, and the Pangkor Treaty of 1874 paved the way for the expansion of British influence in Malaya. By the turn of the 20th century, the states of Pahang, Selangor, Perak, and Negeri Sembilan, known together as the Federated Malay States (not to be confused with the Federation of Malaya), were under the de facto control of British Residents appointed to advise the Malay rulers. The British were "advisers" in name, but in reality they exercised substantial influence over the Malay rulers. This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... In international politics, gunboat diplomacy refers to the pursuit of foreign policy objectives with the aid of conspicuous displays of military power—implying or constituting a direct threat of warfare, should terms not be agreeable to the superior force. ... The Pangkor Treaty of 1874 was a treaty signed between the British and the Sultan of Perak. ... State anthem: Pahang State Anthem Capital Kuantan Royal capital Pekan Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Ahmad Shah  - Menteri Besar Adnan Yaakob History    - Federated into FMS 1895   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 35,964 km² Population  - 2005 estimate 1,372,500  - Density 38. ... State motto: Dipelihara Allah State anthem: Duli Yang Maha Mulia Capital Shah Alam Royal capital Klang Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Sharafuddin  - Menteri Besar Dr Mohd Khir Toyo History    - Federated into FMS 1895   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 7,956 km² Population  - 2005... For other uses, see Perak (disambiguation). ... State anthem: Berkatlah Yang DiPertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan Capital Seremban Royal capital Seri Menanti Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang di-Pertuan Besar Tuanku Jaafar  - Menteri Besar Mohamad Haji Hassan History    - Federated into FMS 1895   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 6,645 km² Population  - 2007... The Federated Malay States (FMS) was a federation of four states on the Malay Peninsula - Pahang, Perak, Selangor, and Negeri Sembilan - established by the British government in 1895, and lasted until 1946, when they together with the Straits Settlements and the Unfederated Malay States formed the Malayan Union. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... A Resident, or in full Resident Minister, is a state official of certain representative types, required to take up permanent residency abroad officially. ...

Malaysia Day celebration in 1963. (Majulah Malaysia means "Onwards Malaysia")
Malaysia Day celebration in 1963. (Majulah Malaysia means "Onwards Malaysia")

The remaining five states in the peninsula, known as the Unfederated Malay States, while not directly under rule from London, also accepted British advisers around the turn of the 20th century. Of these, the four northern states of Perlis, Kedah, Kelantan and Terengganu had previously been under Siamese control. The other unfederated state, Johor, was the only state which managed to preserve its independence throughout most of the 19th century. Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor and Queen Victoria were personal acquaintances, and recognized each other as equals. It was not until 1914 that Sultan Abu Bakar's successor, Sultan Ibrahim accepted a British adviser. Well known, and a common image in Singapore, and in the public domain. ... Well known, and a common image in Singapore, and in the public domain. ... The Unfederated Malay States were five Malay states, namely Johore Terengganu Kelantan Kedah Perlis Together the states were not a single entity but merely a category to describe those states which were not Federated Malay States or Straits Settlements. ... Siam redirects here. ... State motto: Kepada Allah Berserah State anthem: Lagu Bangsa Johor Capital Johor Bahru Royal capital Pasir Pelangi1 Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Iskandar  - Menteri Besar Abdul Ghani Othman History    - Johor Sultanate 14th century   - British control 1914   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 19,984... Almarhum Sultan Sir Abu Bakar ibni Almarhum Temenggong Daeng Ibrahim Sri Maharaja Johor (1833–1895) was the first sultan of modern Johor in Malaysia. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ...


On the island of Borneo, Sabah was governed as the crown colony of British North Borneo, while Sarawak was acquired from Brunei as the personal kingdom of the Brooke family, who ruled as White Rajahs. Φ Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... Motto: Pergo et Perago (Latin: I undertake and I achieve”) British North Borneo Capital Jesselton Language(s) Malay, English Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1882 - 1901 Victoria  - 1952 - 1963 Elizabeth II Governor  - 1896 - 1901 Robert Scott Historical era New Imperialism  - North Borneo Company May, 1882  - British protectorate 1888  - Japanese invasion January 1... The White Rajahs refer to a dynasty that founded and ruled the Kingdom of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946. ...


Following the Japanese Invasion of Malaya its occupation during World War II, popular support for independence grew.[28] Post-war British plans to unite the administration of Malaya under a single crown colony called the Malayan Union foundered on strong opposition from the Malays, who opposed the emasculation of the Malay rulers and the granting of citizenship to the ethnic Chinese.[29] The Malayan Union, established in 1946 and consisting of all the British possessions in Malaya with the exception of Singapore, was dissolved in 1948 and replaced by the Federation of Malaya, which restored the autonomy of the rulers of the Malay states under British protection. The Japanese invasion of Malaya began just after midnight on 8th December 1941 before the bombing of Pearl Harbor. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Malayan Union was formed on April 1, 1946 by the British. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Malay name Malay: Orang Cina Malaysia A Malaysian Chinese is an overseas Chinese who is a citizen or long-term resident of Malaysia. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ...


During this time, rebels under the leadership of the Malayan Communist Party launched guerrilla operations designed to force the British out of Malaya. The Malayan Emergency, as it was known, lasted from 1948 to 1960, and involved a long anti-insurgency campaign by Commonwealth troops in Malaya. Although the insurgency quickly stopped there was still a presence of Commonwealth troops, with the backdrop of the Cold War.[30] Against this backdrop, independence for the Federation within the Commonwealth was granted on 31 August 1957.[6] Communist Party of Malaya (CnoPM), also known as the Malayan Communist Party (MCP) until the 1960s was founded in Singapore in 1930 with a predominantly Chinese membership, carrying out armed resistance to the Japanese during World War II. From 1948 to 1960, its military arm, the Malayan Peoples Liberation Army... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand British colonies Federation of Malaya Rhodesia Fiji various British East African colonies Malayan Communist Party Malayan Races Liberation Army Commanders Harold Briggs Henry Gurney † Gerald Templer Henry Wells Chin Peng Strength 250,000 Malayan Home Guard troops 40,000 regular Commonwealth personnel 37,000... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...


Post independence

In 1963, Malaya along with the then-British crown colonies of Sabah (British North Borneo), Sarawak and Singapore, formed Malaysia. The Sultanate of Brunei, though initially expressing interest in joining the Federation, withdrew from the planned merger due to opposition from certain segments of its population as well as arguments over the payment of oil royalties and the status of the Sultan in the planned merger.[31][32] For other uses, see Sabah (disambiguation). ... For the river, see Sarawak River. ...

Kuala Lumpur, the capital and largest city in Malaysia

The early years of independence were marred by conflict with Indonesia (Konfrontasi) over the formation of Malaysia, Singapore's eventual exit in 1965, and racial strife in the form of racial riots in 1969.[33][8] The Philippines also made an active claim on Sabah in that period based upon the Sultanate of Brunei's cession of its north-east territories to the Sulu Sultanate in 1704. The claim is still ongoing.[34] After the 13 May racial riots of 1969, the controversial New Economic Policy—intended to increase proportionately the share of the economic pie of the bumiputras ("indigenous people", which includes the majority Malays, but not always the indigenous population) as compared to other ethnic groups—was launched by Prime Minister Abdul Razak. Malaysia has since maintained a delicate ethno-political balance, with a system of government that has attempted to combine overall economic development with political and economic policies that promote equitable participation of all races.[35] Image File history File links Malaysia. ... Image File history File links Malaysia. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962–1966. ... The May 13 Incident saw numerous cases of arson in the Malaysian capital city of Kuala Lumpur. ... For the province, see Sulu Location of Sulu in the Philippines Capital Jolo Language(s) Arabic (official), Tausug, Malay, Banguingui, Bajau languages Religion Islam Government Monarchy Sultan  - 1450-1480 Shariful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr  - 1884-1899 Jamal ul-Kiram I History  - Established 1450  - Annexed by USA 1899 The Sultanate... The May 13 Incident saw numerous cases of arson in the Malaysian capital city of Kuala Lumpur. ... Under the Malaysian New Economic Policy, Bumiputras are given discounts on real estate. ... Bumiputra or Bumiputera (Malay, from Sanskrit Bhumiputra; translated literally, it means son of the soil), is an official definition widely used in Malaysia, embracing ethnic Malays as well as other indigenous ethnic groups such as the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia and the tribal peoples in Sabah and Sarawak. ... Tun Abdul Razak bin Haji Dato Hussein Al-Haj (March 11, 1922-January 14, 1976) was the second Prime Minister of Malaysia, ruling from 1970 to 1976. ...


Between the 1980s and the mid 1990s, Malaysia experienced significant economic growth under the premiership of Mahathir bin Mohamad.[36] The period saw a shift from an agriculture-based economy to one based on manufacturing and industry in areas such as computers and consumer electronics. It was during this period, too, that the physical landscape of Malaysia has changed with the emergence of numerous mega-projects. The most notable of these projects are the Petronas Twin Towers (at the time the tallest building in the world), KL International Airport (KLIA), North-South Expressway, the Sepang F1 Circuit, the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC), the Bakun hydroelectric dam and Putrajaya, a new federal administrative capital. Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad () was the fourth Prime Minister of Malaysia. ... The Petronas Twin Towers (also known as the Petronas Towers or Twin Towers), in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia are the worlds tallest twin buildings. ...


In the late 1990s, Malaysia was shaken by the Asian financial crisis as well as political unrest caused by the sacking of the deputy prime minister Dato' Seri Anwar Ibrahim.[37] In 2003, Dr Mahathir, Malaysia's longest serving prime minister, retired in favour of his deputy, Abdullah Ahmad Badawi. On November 2007 Malaysia was rocked by two anti-government rallies. The 2007 Bersih Rally numbering 40,000 strong was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, on November 10 campaigning for electoral reform. It was precipitated by allegations of corruption and discrepancies in the Malaysian election system that heavily favor the ruling political party, Barisan Nasional, which has been in power since Malaysia achieved its independence in 1957.[38] The 2007 HINDRAF rally was held in Kuala Lumpur on 25 November. The rally organizer, the Hindu Rights Action Force, had called the protest over alleged discriminatory policies which favour ethnic Malays. The crowd was estimated to be between 5,000 to 30,000.[39] In both cases the government and police were heavy handed and tried to prevent the gatherings from taking place. The East Asian Financial Crisis was a period of economic unrest (or financial contagion) that started in July 1997 in Thailand with the financial collapse of the Thai Baht, and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in a number of Asian countries. ... Dato Seri Anwar bin Ibrahim (born August 10, 1947) is a former deputy prime minister and finance minister of Malaysia. ... Datuk Seri Abdullah bin Haji Ahmad Badawi[1] (born November 26, 1939 in Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang) is the 5th Prime Minister of Malaysia. ... HINDRAF activists carrying posters of Mahatma Gandhi and banners during a massive rally in Kuala Lumpur HINDRAF or Hindu Rights Action Force is a coalition of 30 Hindu Non-Governmental organizations committed to the preservation of Hindu community rights and heritage in secular Malaysia. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Government and politics

Main article: Politics of Malaysia
The Parliament building, symbol of democracy in Malaysia.
The Parliament building, symbol of democracy in Malaysia.
Malaysia PM's office, Putrajaya
Malaysia PM's office, Putrajaya

Malaysia is a federal constitutional elective monarchy. The federal head of state of Malaysia is the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, commonly referred to as the King of Malaysia. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected to a five-year term among the nine hereditary Sultans of the Malay states; the other four states, which have titular Governors, do not participate in the selection.[40] The politics of Malaysia takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister of Malaysia is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Image File history File links MalaysianParliament. ... Image File history File links MalaysianParliament. ... The Parliament building The Malaysian Houses of Parliament is where the Malaysian legislative arm assemble. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 332 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 332 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Motto: Bandar raya Taman, Bandar raya Bestari (English :Garden City, Intelligent City ) Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1995, October 19th Made into Federal Territory 2001, February 1st Government  - Administered by Perbadanan Putrajaya Putrajaya Corporation  - Chairman Samsudin Osman Area  - City 46 km²  (17. ... This article is about federal states. ... An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by a someone who is elected by a group. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Flag of the Supreme Head of Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong is a Malay title usually translated as Supreme Ruler or Paramount Ruler, is the official title of the constitutional head of state of the federation of Malaysia. ... The Rulers of the Malay States in Malaysia are the seven Sultans of Kedah, Perak, Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang, Selangor and Johor, the Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan and the Raja of Perlis. ... The Malay states are a group of nine states of Malaysia (all located in West Malaysia) which have hereditary Rulers. ...


The system of government in Malaysia is closely modeled on that of Westminster parliamentary system, a legacy of British colonial rule. In practice however, more power is vested in the executive branch of government than in the legislative, and the judiciary has been weakened by sustained attacks by the government during the Mahathir era. Since independence in 1957, Malaysia has been governed by a multi-party coalition known as the Barisan Nasional (formerly known as the Alliance).[41] The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... The dacing, symbol of Barisan Nasional Barisan Nasional (National Front or BN) is a major political coalition in Malaysia. ...


Legislative power is divided between federal and state legislatures. The bicameral parliament consists of the lower house, the House of Representatives or Dewan Rakyat (literally the "Chamber of the People") and the upper house, the Senate or Dewan Negara (literally the "Chamber of the Nation").[42][43][44] The 222-member House of Representatives are elected from single-member constituencies that are drawn based on population for a maximum term of five years. All 70 Senators sit for three-year terms; 26 are elected by the 13 state assemblies, two representing the federal territory of Kuala Lumpur, one each from federal territories of Labuan and Putrajaya, and 40 are appointed by the king. Besides the Parliament at the federal level, each state has a unicameral state legislative chamber (Malay: Dewan Undangan Negeri) whose members are elected from single-member constituencies. Parliamentary elections are held at least once every five years, with the last general election being in March 2008.[41] The cabinet is chosen from among members of both houses of Parliament and is responsible to that body.[45] A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... The Malaysian Houses of Parliament in Kuala Lumpur. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... The Parliament of Malaysia consists of the lower house (Dewan Rakyat or literally Peoples Hall, in Malay) and upper house (Dewan Negara or Nations Hall in Malay). ... For the demesne in The Keys to the Kingdom series, see The House An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... The Dewan Negara is the Malaysian Senate. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ... Motto: Coordinates: Country Malaysia State Wilayah Persekutuan Made into Federal Territory 16 April 1984 Government  - Administered by Perbadanan Labuan Labuan Corporation  - Chairman Datuk Suhaili Abdul Rahman Area  - City 92 km²  (35. ... Motto: Bandar raya Taman, Bandar raya Bestari (English :Garden City, Intelligent City ) Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1995, October 19th Made into Federal Territory 2001, February 1st Government  - Administered by Perbadanan Putrajaya Putrajaya Corporation  - Chairman Samsudin Osman Area  - City 46 km²  (17. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... Elections in Malaysia gives information on election and election results in Malaysia. ...


State governments are led by Chief Ministers (Menteri Besar in Malay states or Ketua Menteri in states without hereditary rulers), who is a state assembly member from the majority party in the Dewan Undangan Negeri. In each of the states with a hereditary ruler, the Chief Minister is required to be a Malay Muslim, although this rule is subject the rulers' discretions. Literally, big minister in Malay, a Menteri Besar is a Chief Executive of the state governments of Perlis, Kedah, Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Selangor, Pahang, Terengganu and Kelantan in Malaysia—that is, all states with royal rulers. ... Look up Malay in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


Citizenship

Main article: Malaysian citizenship

Most Malaysians are granted citizenship by lex soli.[46] All Malaysians are Federal citizens with no formal citizenships within the individual states, except for the states of Sabah and Sarawak and the federal territory of Labuan in East Malaysia, where state citizenship is a privilege and distinguishable from the Peninsula.[citation needed] Every citizen is issued a biometric smart chip identity card, known as MyKad, at the age of 12, and must carry the card at all times.[47] A citizen is required to present his or her identity card to the police, or in the case of an emergency, to any military personnel, to be identified.[citation needed] If the card cannot be produced immediately, the person technically has 24 hours under the law to produce it at the nearest police station.[citation needed] To become a Citizen of Malaysia, a person must meet the requirements of the Malaysia Citizenship Rules 1964. ... Jus soli (Latin for right of the territory), or birthright citizenship, is a right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognised to any individual born in the territory of the related state. ... For other uses, see Sabah (disambiguation). ... For the river, see Sarawak River. ... Motto: Coordinates: Country Malaysia State Wilayah Persekutuan Made into Federal Territory 16 April 1984 Government  - Administered by Perbadanan Labuan Labuan Corporation  - Chairman Datuk Suhaili Abdul Rahman Area  - City 92 km²  (35. ... East Malaysia comprises Sabah and Sarawak East Malaysia consists of the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak, located on the island of Borneo to the east, across the South China Sea from Peninsular Malaysia which is located on the Malay Peninsula. ... An identity document, or also called a piece of identification (ID), is a document designed to verify aspects of a persons identity. ... MyKad, or Government Multipurpose Card, (GMPC) is the official compulsory identity card of Malaysia. ...


Administrative divisions

Map of the states of Malaysia
Map of the states of Malaysia
Main article: States of Malaysia

Administratively, Malaysia consists of 13 states (11 in Peninsular Malaysia and 2 in Malaysian Borneo) and 3 federal territories. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 274 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 513 pixels, file size: 34 KB, MIME type: image/png) Map of the states of Malaysia, named in English/local terms I think. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 274 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 513 pixels, file size: 34 KB, MIME type: image/png) Map of the states of Malaysia, named in English/local terms I think. ... Malaysia is a federation of 13 states. ...


Geography

Main article: Geography of Malaysia
Map of Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia (Malaysian Borneo)

The two distinct parts of Malaysia, separated from each other by the South China Sea, share a largely similar landscape in that both West and East Malaysia feature coastal plains rising to often densely forested hills and mountains, the highest of which is Mount Kinabalu at 4,095.2 metres (13,435.7 ft) on the island of Borneo. The local climate is equatorial and characterized by the annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons. Location: Malaysia is located in Southeastern Asia. ... Filipino name Tagalog: Timog Dagat Tsina (Dagat Luzon for the portion within Philippine waters) Malay name Malay: Laut China Selatan Portuguese name Portuguese: Mar da China Meridional Vietnamese name Vietnamese: The South China Sea is a marginal sea south of China. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (or Semenanjung Malaysia in the Malay language) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... East Malaysia comprises Sabah and Sarawak East Malaysia consists of the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak, located on the island of Borneo to the east, across the South China Sea from Peninsular Malaysia which is located on the Malay Peninsula. ... Mount Kinabalu (Malay: Gunung Kinabalu) is a prominent mountain in Southeast Asia. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Φ Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ...


Tanjung Piai, located in the southern state of Johor, is the southernmost tip of continental Asia.[48][49] Tanjung Piai is the most southern point of mainland Asia. ... State motto: Kepada Allah Berserah State anthem: Lagu Bangsa Johor Capital Johor Bahru Royal capital Pasir Pelangi1 Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Iskandar  - Menteri Besar Abdul Ghani Othman History    - Johor Sultanate 14th century   - British control 1914   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 19,984... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


The Strait of Malacca, lying between Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia, is arguably the most important shipping lane in the world.[50] A close-up map showing the Strait of Malacca separating peninsular Malaysia and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (or Semenanjung Malaysia in the Malay language) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ...


Putrajaya is the newly created administrative capital for the federal government of Malaysia, aimed in part to ease growing congestion within Malaysia's capital city, Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur remains the seat of parliament, as well as the commercial and financial capital of the country. Other major cities include George Town, Ipoh, Johor Bahru, Kuching, Kota Kinabalu, Miri, Alor Star, Malacca Town, and Klang. Motto: Bandar raya Taman, Bandar raya Bestari (English :Garden City, Intelligent City ) Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1995, October 19th Made into Federal Territory 2001, February 1st Government  - Administered by Perbadanan Putrajaya Putrajaya Corporation  - Chairman Samsudin Osman Area  - City 46 km²  (17. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ... George Town is the capital city of the state of Penang in Malaysia. ... Nickname: Motto: Berkhidmat, Berbudaya, Berwawasan (English: Servicing, cultured, visionary) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: Country Malaysia State Johor Establishment 1855 Granted city status 1994 Government  - Mayor Latiff Yusof Area  - City 185 km²  (72. ... Kuching is the capital of the East Malaysian State of Sarawak. ... Nickname: Location in Malaysia and Sabah Country State Settled by BNBC 1882 Declared capital of North Borneo 1946 Granted city status February 2, 2000 Government  - Mayor Datuk Illiyas Ibrahim Area  - City 351 km²  (136 sq mi) Population (2007)  - City 532 129 [2]  - Density 1,516/km² (3,913/sq mi... For other uses, see Miri (disambiguation). ... Website: http://www. ... Nickname: Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1502 Granted city status 2003 Government  - Mayor Zaini Md Nor Area  - City 303 km²  (114. ... This article is about the royal town of Klang in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. ...


Natural resources

Malaysia is well-endowed with natural resources in areas such as agriculture, forestry and minerals. In terms of agriculture, Malaysia is one of the top exporters of natural rubber and palm oil, which together with sawn logs and sawn timber, cocoa, pepper, pineapple and tobacco dominate the growth of the sector. Palm oil is also a major generator of foreign exchange. This does not cite any references or sources. ... Palm oil from Ghana with its natural dark color visible, 2 litres Palm oil block showing the lighter color that results from boiling. ... For other uses, see Cocoa (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... For other uses, see Pineapple (disambiguation). ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ...


Regarding forestry resources, it is noted that logging only began to make a substantial contribution to the economy during the nineteenth century. Today, an estimated 59% of Malaysia remains forested. The rapid expansion of the timber industry, particularly after the 1960s, has brought about a serious erosion problem in the country's forest resources. However, in line with the Government's commitment to protect the environment and the ecological system, forestry resources are being managed on a sustainable basis and accordingly the rate of tree felling has been on the decline.


In addition, substantial areas are being silviculturally treated and reforestation of degraded forest land is also being carried out. The Malaysian government provide plans for the enrichment of some 312.30 square kilometers (120.5 sq mi) of land with rattan under natural forest conditions and in rubber plantations as an inter crop. To further enrich forest resources, fast-growing timber species such as meranti tembaga, merawan and sesenduk are also being planted. At the same time, the cultivation of high-value trees like teak and other trees for pulp and paper are also encouraged. Rubber, once the mainstay of the Malaysian economy, has been largely replaced by oil palm as Malaysia's leading agricultural export. Silviculture is the art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values of landowners, society and the many cultures throughout the globe // Forest regeneration is the act of renewing tree cover by establishing young trees naturally or artificially, generally... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Genera Calamus Calospatha Ceratolobus Daemonorops Eremospatha Eugeissonia Korthalsia Laccosperma Metroxylon Myrialepis Oncocalamus Pigafetta Plectocomia Plectomiopsis Raphia Zalacca Zalacella Rattan (from the Malay rotan), is the name for the roughly six hundred species of palms in the tribe Calameae, native to tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Australasia. ... Species Tectona grandis Tectona hamiltoniana Tectona philippinensis Teak (Tectona), is a genus of tropical hardwood trees in the family Verbenaceae, native to the south and southeast of Asia, and is commonly found as a component of monsoon forest vegetation. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Species Elaeis guineensis Elaeis oleifera The oil palms (Elaeis) coomprise two species of the Arecaceae, or palm family. ...


Tin and petroleum are the two main mineral resources that are of major significance in the Malaysian economy. Malaysia was once the world's largest producer of tin until the collapse of the tin market in the early 1980s. In the 19th and 20th century, tin played a predominant role in the Malaysian economy. It was only in 1972 that petroleum and natural gas took over from tin as the mainstay of the mineral extraction sector. Meanwhile, the contribution by tin has declined. Petroleum and natural gas discoveries in oil fields off Sabah, Sarawak and Terengganu have contributed much to the Malaysian economy. Other minerals of some importance or significance include copper, bauxite, iron-ore and coal together with industrial minerals like clay, kaolin, silica, limestone, barite, phosphates and dimension stones such as granite as well as marble blocks and slabs. Small quantities of gold are produced. This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... Petro redirects here. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ...


In 2004, Minister in the Prime Minister's Department, Mustapa Mohamed, revealed that Malaysia's oil reserves stood at 4.84 billion barrels while natural gas reserves increased to 89 trillion cubic feet (2,500 km³). This was an increase of 7.2%.[citation needed] As of January 1, 2007, Petronas reported that oil and gas reserve in Malaysia amounted to 20.18 billion barrels equivalent.[51] Dato Mustapa Mohamed is a Malaysian politician who is currently the Higher Education Minister. ... Synthetic motor oil being poured. ... The cubic foot is an imperial and US customary (non-metric) unit of volume, used in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom. ... Petronas, short for Petroliam Nasional Berhad, is a Malaysian owned oil and gas company that was founded on August 17, 1974. ...


The government estimates that at current production rates Malaysia will be able to produce oil up to 18 years and gas for 35 years. In 2004, Malaysia is ranked 24th in terms of world oil reserves and 13th for gas. 56% of the oil reserves exist in the Peninsula while 19% exist in East Malaysia. The government collects oil royalties of which 5% are passed to the states and the rest retained by the federal government.[citation needed]


Demographics

Distribution of Bumiputra and Chinese population

Malaysia's population comprises many ethnic groups, with the Malays and other bumiputra groups in Sabah and Sarawak making up the majority, at 65%[52] of the population. By constitutional definition, Malays are Muslims who practice Malay customs (adat) and culture. Therefore, technically, a Muslim of any race who practices Malay customs and culture can be considered a Malay and have equal rights when it comes to Malay rights as stated in the constitution. Non-Malay bumiputra groups make up more than half of the state of Sarawak's population (of which 30% are Ibans), and close to 60% of Sabah's population (of which 18% are Kadazan-Dusuns, and 17% are Bajaus)[53]. There also exist aboriginal groups in much smaller numbers on the Peninsula, where they are collectively known as Orang Asli. Demographics of Malaysia is diverse. ... Bumiputra or Bumiputera (Malay, from Sanskrit Bhumiputra; translated literally, it means son of the soil), is an official definition widely used in Malaysia, embracing ethnic Malays as well as other indigenous ethnic groups such as the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia and the tribal peoples in Sabah and Sarawak. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bumiputra or Bumiputera (Malay, from Sanskrit Bhumiputra; translated literally, it means son of the soil), is an official definition widely used in Malaysia, embracing ethnic Malays as well as other indigenous ethnic groups such as the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia and the tribal peoples in Sabah and Sarawak. ... For other uses, see Sabah (disambiguation). ... For the river, see Sarawak River. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Ibans doing the ngajat A Modern Iban Longhouse in Kapit Division IBAN is also an acronym for International Bank Account Number The Ibans were formerly known during the colonial period by the British as Sea Dayaks and are a branch of the Dayak peoples of Borneo. ... Kadazan-Dusun is the term assigned to the unification of the classification of two indigenous tribes in Sabah, Malaysia—the ethnic groups Kadazan and Dusun. ... The Bajau are an indigenous ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippines and parts of Sarawak. ... The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... Orang Asli is a general term used for any indigenous groups that are found in Peninsular Malaysia. ...


26% of the population are Malaysians of Chinese descent, while Malaysians of Indian descent comprise 8% of the population[54]. The majority of the Indian community are Tamils but various other groups are also present, including Malayalis, Punjabis and Gujaratis. Other Malaysians also include those whose origin, inter alia, can be traced to the Middle East, Thailand and Indonesia. Europeans and Eurasians include British who settled in Malaysia since colonial times, and a strong Portuguese community in Malacca. A small number of Cambodians and Vietnamese also settled in Malaysia as Vietnam War refugees. Malay name Malay: Orang Cina Malaysia A Malaysian Chinese is an overseas Chinese who is a citizen or long-term resident of Malaysia. ... The Indian Malaysians are a group of Malaysians largely descended from those who migrated from southern India during the British colonization of Malaya. ... Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are a multi-ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in Gurmukhī, Panjābī in Shāhmukhī) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... Language(s) Gujarati Religion(s) Hinduism, Islam, Zoroastrianism (see Parsis), Jainism, Christianity Gujarati people (Gujarati: ગુજરાતી લોકો Gujǎrātī loko), or Gujaratis, is an umbrella term used to describe traditionally Gujarati-speaking Indo-Aryan people who can trace their ancestry to the Gujarat region in India. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Eurasian, in English vernacular, is a term that refers to those of mixed European and Asian ancestry, regardless of continent of origin. ... This article is about the state in Malaysia. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


Population distribution is uneven, with some 20 million residents concentrated on the Malay Peninsula, while East Malaysia is relatively less populated. Due to the rise in labour intensive industries, Malaysia has 10 to 20% foreign workers with the uncertainty due in part to the large number of illegal workers, mostly Indonesian. There are a million legal foreign workers and perhaps another million unauthorized foreigners. The state of Sabah alone has nearly 25% of its 2.7 million population listed as illegal foreign workers in the last census. However, this figure of 25% is thought to be less than half the figure speculated by NGOs.[55] The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... East Malaysia comprises Sabah and Sarawak East Malaysia consists of the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak, located on the island of Borneo to the east, across the South China Sea from Peninsular Malaysia which is located on the Malay Peninsula. ...


Religion

Main article: Religion in Malaysia
Further information: Islam in Malaysia
Masjid Ubudiah is a well-known historical mosque in Kuala Kangsar.
Masjid Ubudiah is a well-known historical mosque in Kuala Kangsar.
Christ Church in Malacca Town was constructed in the 18th century by the Dutch.
Christ Church in Malacca Town was constructed in the 18th century by the Dutch.

Malaysia is a multi-religious society and Islam is the official religion. According to the Population and Housing Census 2000 figures, approximately 60.4 percent of the population practiced Islam; 19.2 percent Buddhism; 9.1 percent Christianity; 6.3 percent Hinduism; and 2.6 percent traditional Chinese religions.[56] The remaining 2 percent was accounted for by other faiths, including Animism and Sikhism.[57] Until the twentieth century, most practiced traditional beliefs, which arguably still linger on to a greater degree than Malaysian officialdom is prepared to acknowledge.[citation needed] Malaysia has a population of just over 26 million (2006). ... Islam is the official religion of Malaysia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 529 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 529 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Masjid Ubudiah in Kuala Kangsar. ... Kuala Kangsar Municipality Hall Mayor Shafie Arifin Address Majlis Perbandaran Kuala Kangsar, Jln Raja Chulan, 33000 Kuala Kangsar Phone number +(605)776 3199 Official website: www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x898, 944 KB) Beschreibung: Kirche in Melaka (Christ Church in Melacca) Quelle: fotografiert am 14. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x898, 944 KB) Beschreibung: Kirche in Melaka (Christ Church in Melacca) Quelle: fotografiert am 14. ... Nickname: Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1502 Granted city status 2003 Government  - Mayor Zaini Md Nor Area  - City 303 km²  (114. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ...


Although the Malaysian constitution theoretically guarantees religious freedom, in practice the situation is restricted. All ethnic Malays are Muslim as defined in the Malaysian constitution.[58] Additionally, all non-Muslims who marry a Muslim must renounce their religion and convert to Islam. Meanwhile, non-Muslims experience restrictions in activities such as construction of religious buildings and the celebration of certain religious events in some states.[59][60] Muslims are obliged to follow the decisions of Sharia courts when it comes to matters concerning their religion. The jurisdiction of Sharia court is limited only to Muslims over matters of Faith and Obligations as a Muslim, which includes marriage, inheritance, apostasy, conversion, and custody among others. No other criminal or civil offences are under the jurisdiction of the Sharia Courts. As a rule, the Civil Courts cannot overrule any decision made by the Sharia Courts - not even the Federal Court. The Sharia Courts have a similar hierarchy to the Civil Courts. Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ...


Education

Main article: Education in Malaysia
Malay College Kuala Kangsar (MCKK) is one of the earliest boarding schools to be established in British Malaya.
Malay College Kuala Kangsar (MCKK) is one of the earliest boarding schools to be established in British Malaya.

Education in Malaysia is monitored by the federal government Ministry of Education.[61]-1... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 574 KB) Summary By Mohd Hafiz Noor Shams. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 574 KB) Summary By Mohd Hafiz Noor Shams. ... The Malay College Kuala Kangsar (Malay College, MCKK, MC or Koleq, Kolek and sometimes dubbed the Eton of the East) is the premier residential school in Malaysia. ... British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 592 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 592 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... University of Nottingham in Malaysia. ...


Most Malaysian children start schooling between the ages of three to six, in kindergarten. Most kindergartens are run privately, but there are a few government-operated kindergartens. For other uses, see Kindergarten (disambiguation). ...


Children begin primary schooling at the age of seven for a period of six years. There are two major types of government-operated or government-assisted primary schools. They are the national schools (Sekolah Kebangsaan) which use Malay as the medium of instruction, and the national-type schools (Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan) which use either Chinese or Tamil as the medium of instruction. Before progressing to the secondary level of education, students in Year 6 are required to sit for the Ujian Pencapaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR), or Primary School Assessment Examination. An exam called Penilaian Tahap Satu (PTS), First Level Assessment, was used to measure the ability of bright students, and to allow them to move from Year 3 to 5, skipping Year 4.[62] This exam was removed in 2001. Ujian Pencapaian Sekolah Rendah also known as Ujian Penilaian Sekolah Rendah (commonly abbreviated as UPSR) is a national examination taken by all Standard 6 students in Malaysia. ...


Secondary education in government secondary schools last for five years. Government secondary schools use Malay as the main medium of instruction. The only exceptions are the Maths and Science subjects as well as languages other than Malay. At the end of the third year or Form Three, students sit for the Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR), Lower Secondary Assessment. The combination of subjects available to Form 4 students vary from one school to another. In the last year (Form 5), students sit for Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM), Malaysian Certificate of Education, which is equivalent to the British Ordinary or 'O' Levels (now referred to as GCSE). The oldest in Malaysia is Penang Free School. Penang Free School is also the oldest school in South East Asia. Penilaian Menengah Rendah or PMR is a Malaysian public examination taken by Form 3 or 15-year-old school students of both public and private schools. ... The Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM), formerly known as the Malaysian Certificate of Education (MCE), is a national examination taken by all fifth form students in Malaysia. ...


Mathematics and Science subjects in government primary and secondary schools such as Biology, Physics, and Chemistry are taught in English. The reasoning was that students would no longer be hindered by the language barrier during their tertiary education in fields such as medicine and engineering. For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ...


There are also 60 Chinese Independent High Schools in Malaysia, where most subjects are taught in Chinese. Chinese Independent High Schools are monitored and standardised by the United Chinese School Committees' Association of Malaysia (UCSCAM, more commonly referred to by its Chinese name, Dong Zong 董总), however, unlike government schools, every independent school is free to make its own decisions. Studying in independent schools takes 6 years to complete, divided into Junior Middle (3 years) and Senior Middle (3 years). Students sit for a standardised test by Dong Zong known as the Unified Examination Certificate (UEC) in Junior Middle 3 (equivalent to PMR) and Senior Middle 3 (equivalent to AO level). A number of independent schools conduct classes in Malay and English in addition to Chinese, enabling the students to sit for the PMR and SPM as well. Photo of Hin Hua High School (Chinese: 兴华中学), a modern Chinese Independent High School in Klang, Selangor. ...


Malaysia's secondary schools are grouped into a few types, namely national schools which include daily schools and religious schools, Chinese independent schools, technical schools, residential schools, Mara Junior Science College and private-funding schools such as religious schools, international schools and private schools.


Students who wish to enter public universities must complete one and a half more years of secondary schooling in Form Six and sit for the Sijil Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia (STPM), Malaysian Higher School Certificate; equivalent to the British Advanced or 'A' levels. The Sijil Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia (STPM) or Malaysia Higher School Certificate is a test usually taken by students at the end of Form 6. ...


As for tertiary education, there are public universities such as University of Malaya, Universiti Sains Malaysia and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. In addition, five international reputable universities have set up their branch campuses in Malaysia since 1998. A branch campus can be seen as an ‘off-shore campus’ of the foreign university, which offers the same courses and awards as the main campus. Both local and international students can acquire these identical foreign qualifications in Malaysia for a cheaper price. The foreign university branch campuses in Malaysia are: Monash University Malaysia Campus, Curtin University of Technology Sarawak Campus, Swinburne University of Technology Sarawak Campus and University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus. The University of Malaya (or Universiti Malaya in Malay; commonly abbreviated as UM) is the oldest university in Malaysia, and is situated on a 750 acre (3. ... Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) (马来西亚理科大学,理大) is a public university with a main campus in Penang, Malaysia. ... Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (National University of Malaysia) was established in May 1970. ... The Sunway Campus of Monash University opened in 1998 and is located within the Bandar Sunway township in Malaysia. ... Curtin University of Technology Sarawak Campus is the first off-shore campus of Curtin University of Technology. ... Swinburne University of Technology (Sarawak Campus) is an international branch campus of Swinburne University of Technology (Melbourne, Australia) located in Sarawak, Malaysia // Swinburne Sarawak was established in August 2000, operating in partnership with the Sarawak Foundation and the Sarawak Higher Education Foundation. ... University of Nottingham in Malaysia. ...


Students also have the option of enrolling in private colleges after secondary studies. Most colleges have educational links with overseas universities especially in the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. Malaysian students abroad study mostly in the UK, United States, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Singapore, and Japan.


In addition to the National Curriculum, Malaysia has many international schools. International schools offer students the opportunity to study the curriculum of another country. These schools mainly cater to the growing expatriate population in the country. International schools include: the Australian International School, Malaysia (Australian curriculum), The Alice Smith School (British Curriculum), elc International school (British Curriculum), The Garden International School (British Curriculum), Lodge International School (British Curriculum), The International School of Kuala Lumpur (International Baccalaureate and American Curriculum), The Japanese School of Kuala Lumpur (Japanese Curriculum), The International School of Penang (International Baccalaureate and British Curriculum), Lycée Français de Kuala Lumpur (French Curriculum) amongst others. The Australian International School Malaysia (AISM)is the only 100% Australian curriculum school in the country. ... For other uses, see Alice Smith School (disambiguation). ... Elc International School is an international school located in Selangor, Malaysia. ... Garden International School (abbreviated GIS) is an international school based in Malaysia. ... International School of Kuala Lumpur (ISKL) The International School of Kuala Lumpur (ISKL) is an independent private school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, accredited by the United States-based Western Association of Schools and Colleges. ...


Healthcare

Further information: List of hospitals in Malaysia and Healthcare in Malaysia

Malaysian society places importance on the expansion and development of health care, putting 5% of the government social sector development budget into public health care—an increase of more than 47% over the previous figure. This has meant an overall increase of more than RM 2 billion. With a rising and aging population, the Government wishes to improve in many areas including the refurbishment of existing hospitals, building and equipping new hospitals, expansion of the number of polyclinics, and improvements in training and expansion of telehealth. Over the last couple of years they have increased their efforts to overhaul the systems and attract more foreign investment. This is a list of government and private hospitals in Malaysia. ... Malaysia has an efficient and widespread system of health care. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... // Definition Telehealth is the delivery of health related services and information via telecommunications technologies. ...


The Malaysian health care system requires doctors to perform a compulsory three years service with public hospitals to ensure the manpower of these hospitals is maintained. Recently foreign doctors have also been encouraged to take up employment here. There is still, however, a compound shortage of medical workforce, especially that of highly trained specialists resulting in certain medical care and treatment only available in large cities. Recent efforts to bring many facilities to other towns have been hampered by lack of expertise to run the available equipment made ready by investments. A public hospital is a hospital which is owned by a government and receives government funding. ...


The majority of private hospitals are in urban areas and, unlike many of the public hospitals, are equipped with the latest diagnostic and imaging facilities. Private hospitals have not generally been seen as an ideal investment—it has often taken up to ten years before companies have seen any profits. However, the situation has now changed and companies are now looking into this area again, particularly in view of the increasing interest by foreigners in coming to Malaysia for medical care and the recent government focus to develop the health tourism industry.[63] A private hospital is a hospital which is owned by a company and is privatlely funded, through the payment for medical services by patientsm or by insurers. ... Medical tourism (also called medical travel or health tourism) is a term initially coined by travel agencies and the mass media to describe the rapidly-growing practice of traveling to another country to obtain health care. ...


Currently, private Malaysia Hospitals are looking at international healthcare accreditation, which may be Australian, British or American sourced. The subject of this article may not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Malaysia

See Also:Gas Subsidies Malaysia is a growing and relatively open economy. ...


The Malay Peninsula and indeed Southeast Asia has been a centre of trade for centuries. Various items such as porcelain and spices were actively traded even before Malacca and Singapore rose to prominence. The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... “Fine China” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Rubber latex.
Rubber latex.
The Malaysian government Ministry of Finance building in Putrajaya.
The Malaysian government Ministry of Finance building in Putrajaya.

In the 17th century, they were found in several Malay states. Later, as the British started to take over as administrators of Malaya, rubber and palm oil trees were introduced for commercial purposes. Over time, Malaya became the world's largest major producer of tin, rubber, and palm oil.[64] These three commodities, along with other raw materials, firmly set Malaysia's economic tempo well into the mid-20th century. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 348 pixelsFull resolution (2611 × 1136 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 348 pixelsFull resolution (2611 × 1136 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Malay states are a group of nine states of Malaysia (all located in West Malaysia) which have hereditary Rulers. ... British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Palm oil from Ghana with its natural dark color visible, 2 litres Palm oil block showing the lighter color that results from boiling. ...


Instead of relying on the local Malays as a source of labour, the British brought in Chinese and Indians to work on the mines and plantations. Although many of them returned to their respective home countries after their agreed tenure ended, some remained in Malaysia and settled permanently.


As Malaya moved towards independence, the government began implementing economic five-year plans, beginning with the First Malayan Five Year Plan in 1955. Upon the establishment of Malaysia, the plans were re-titled and renumbered, beginning with the First Malaysia Plan in 1965. The First Malayan Five Year Plan (1956 – 1960) was the first economic development plan launched by the Malayan government, just before independence in 1957. ... The First Malaysia Plan (1966–1970) was an economic development plan implemented by the government of Malaysia. ...


In 1970s, Malaysia began to imitate Asian Tigers and committed itself to a transition from being reliant on mining and agriculture to an economy that depends more on manufacturing. With Japanese investment, heavy industries flourished and in a matter of years, Malaysian exports became the country's primary growth engine. Malaysia consistently achieved more than 7% GDP growth along with low inflation in the 1980s and the 1990s.[65] Korean name Hangul: Skyline of Central, Hong Kongs financial centre (viewed from Victoria Peak, Hong Kong) Seoul, the capital of South Korea The skyline of Singapores town area at dusk. ...


During the same period, the government tried to eradicate poverty with the controversial New Economic Policy (NEP), after the May 13 Incident of racial rioting in 1969.[35] Its main objective was the elimination of the association of race with economic function, and the first five-year plan to begin implementing the NEP was the Second Malaysia Plan. The success or failure of the NEP is the subject of much debate, although it was officially retired in 1990 and replaced by the National Development Policy (NDP). Recently much debate has surfaced once again with regards to the results and relevance of the NEP. Some have argued that the NEP has indeed successfully created a Middle/Upper Class of Malay businessmen and professionals. Despite some improvement in the economic power of Malays in general, the Malaysian government maintains a policy of discrimination that favors ethnic Malays over other races—including preferential treatment in employment, education, scholarships, business, access to cheaper housing and assisted savings. This special treatment has sparked envy and resentment between non-Malays and Malays. Under the Malaysian New Economic Policy, Bumiputras are given discounts on real estate. ... The May 13 Incident saw numerous cases of arson in the Malaysian capital city of Kuala Lumpur. ... Crop diversification was introduced during the Second Malaysia Plan, phasing out rubber in favour of oil palm. ... The National Development Policy replaced the Malaysian New Economic Policy in 1990 but continued to pursue most of NEP policies. ...


The Chinese control of the country's economy meanwhile, has been ceded largely in favour of the Bumiputras/Malays in many essential or strategic industries such as petroleum retailing, transportation, agriculture and etc. The minority of Indian descent has by and large been the most adversely affected by this policy. Indicators point to a higher incidence of crime and gang related activities among the Indians in recent years.


The rapid economic boom led to a variety of supply problems, however. Labour shortages soon resulted in an influx of millions of foreign workers, many illegal. Cash-rich PLCs and consortia of banks eager to benefit from increased and rapid development began large infrastructure projects. This all ended when the Asian Financial Crisis hit in the fall of 1997, delivering a massive shock to Malaysia's economy. The initials PLC after a UK or Irish company name indicate that it is a public limited company, a type of limited company whose shares may be offered for sale to the public. ... The East Asian Financial Crisis was a period of economic unrest (or financial contagion) that started in July 1997 in Thailand with the financial collapse of the Thai Baht, and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in a number of Asian countries. ...


As with other countries affected by the crisis, there was speculative short-selling of the Malaysian currency, the ringgit. Foreign direct investment fell at an alarming rate and, as capital flowed out of the country, the value of the ringgit dropped from MYR 2.50 per USD to, at one point, MYR 4.80 per USD. The Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange's composite index plummeted from approximately 1300 points to around 400 points in a matter of weeks. After the controversial sacking of finance minister Anwar Ibrahim, a National Economic Action Council was formed to deal with the monetary crisis. Bank Negara imposed capital controls and pegged the Malaysian ringgit at 3.80 to the US dollar. Malaysia refused economic aid packages from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, however, surprising many analysts. Ringgit (Malay for jagged) mostly refers to the Malaysian ringgit, which is the local currency in Malaysia, but it can also refer to the Singapore dollar and Brunei dollar in the Malay language. ... This article is about economics. ... The Bursa Malaysia or Malaysia Exchange, MYX previously known as Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE, Bursa Saham Kuala Lumpur in Malay) dates back to 1930 when the Singapore Stockbrokers Association was set up as a formal organisation dealing in securities in Malaya. ... Dato Seri Anwar bin Ibrahim (born August 10, 1947) is a former deputy prime minister and finance minister of Malaysia. ... Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) is the Malaysian central bank. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... A fixed exchange rate, sometimes (less commonly) called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime wherein a currencys value is matched to the value of another single currency or to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold. ... IMF redirects here. ...


In March 2005, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) published a paper on the sources and pace of Malaysia's recovery, written by Jomo K.S. of the applied economics department, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. The paper concluded that the controls imposed by Malaysia's government neither hurt nor helped recovery. The chief factor was an increase in electronics components exports, which was caused by a large increase in the demand for components in the United States, which was caused, in turn, by a fear of the effects of the arrival of the year 2000 (Y2K) upon older computers and other digital devices. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body, UNCTAD is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment and development issues. ... The University of Malaya (or Universiti Malaya in Malay; commonly abbreviated as UM) is the oldest university in Malaysia, and is situated on a 750 acre (3. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ... This article is about the millennial computer glitch. ...


However, the post Y2K slump of 2001 did not affect Malaysia as much as other countries. This may have been clearer evidence that there are other causes and effects that can be more properly attributable for recovery. One possibility is that the currency speculators had run out of finance after failing in their attack on the Hong Kong dollar in August 1998 and after the Russian ruble collapsed. (See George Soros) ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 7% Source Rosstat, 2007 Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural The language(s) of this currency is of the Slavic languages. ... Soros redirects here. ...


Regardless of cause/effect claims, rejuvenation of the economy also coincided with massive government spending and budget deficits in the years that followed the crisis. Later, Malaysia enjoyed faster economic recovery compared to its neighbours. In many ways, however, the country has yet to recover to the levels of the pre-crisis era.


While the pace of development today is not as rapid, it is seen to be more sustainable. Although the controls and economic housekeeping may not have been the principal reason for recovery, there is no doubt that the banking sector has become more resilient to external shocks. The current account has also settled into a structural surplus, providing a cushion to capital flight. Asset prices are now a fraction of their pre-crisis heights.


The fixed exchange rate was abandoned in July 2005 in favour of a managed floating system within an hour of China's announcing of the same move.[66] In the same week, the ringgit strengthened a percent against various major currencies and was expected to appreciate further. As of December 2005, however, expectations of further appreciation were muted as capital flight exceeded USD 10 billion.[67] A fixed exchange rate, sometimes (less commonly) called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime wherein a currencys value is matched to the value of another single currency or to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold. ... A floating exchange rate or a flexible exchange rate is a type of exchange rate regime wherein a currencys value is allowed to fluctuate according to the foreign exchange market. ... Seen in Asian markets in the 1990s capital flight is when assets and/or money rapidly flow out of a country. ...


In September 2005, Sir Howard J. Davies, director of the London School of Economics, at a meeting in Kuala Lumpur, cautioned Malaysian officials that if they want a flexible capital market, they will have to lift the ban on short-selling put into effect during the crisis. In March 2006, Malaysia removed the ban on short selling.[68] Currently, Malaysia is considered a newly industrialized country.[10][11][69] Mascot: Beaver Affiliations: University of London Russell Group EUA ACU CEMS APSIA Golden Triangle G5 Group Universities UK Website: http://www. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ... Countries considered NICs as of 2007 The category of newly industrialized country (NIC) is a socioeconomic classification applied to several countries around the world by political scientists and economists. ...


Infrastructure

See also: Buildings and structures in Kuala Lumpur and Buildings and structures in Putrajaya
The Kuala Lumpur Tower enhances communication quality within Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley.
The Kuala Lumpur Tower enhances communication quality within Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley.
The Damansara Link section of Klang Valley's Sprint Expressway.

Malaysia has extensive roads that connect all major cities and towns on the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia. As of 2006, the total length of the Malaysian expressway network is 1471.6 kilometres (914.4 miles). The network connects all major cities and conurbations such as Klang Valley, Johor Bahru and Penang to each other. The major expressway, the North-South Expressway spans from the northern and the southern tips of Peninsular Malaysia at Bukit Kayu Hitam and Johor Bahru respectively. It is a part of the Asian Highway Network, which also connects into Thailand and Singapore. The 966km North-South Expressway is the longest expressway in Malaysia. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 4. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1292x1764, 1287 KB) Summary By Mohd Hafiz Noor Shams, __earth 13:46, 5 December 2005 (UTC) I took this to replace an unlicensed and inferior picture at Image:Malaysiakl-tower. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1292x1764, 1287 KB) Summary By Mohd Hafiz Noor Shams, __earth 13:46, 5 December 2005 (UTC) I took this to replace an unlicensed and inferior picture at Image:Malaysiakl-tower. ... The Kuala Lumpur Tower (officially known as Menara Kuala Lumpur; referred later as KL Tower) is a tall tower located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and was built in 1995. ... Klang Valley is the area in central Selangor, Malaysia comprising Kuala Lumpur and its surroundings and suburbs naturally delineated by hilly areas and the Port Klang coastline. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 598 KB)[edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 598 KB)[edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Sprint Expressway (Acronym in Malay : Sistem Penyuraian Trafik KL Barat = Western KL Traffic Dispersial System) is the main expressway network in Klang Valley, Malaysia. ... South section of North-South Expressway near Pedas-Linggi, Negeri Sembilan, facing towards Kuala Lumpur. ... “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Klang Valley is the area in central Selangor, Malaysia comprising Kuala Lumpur and its surroundings and suburbs naturally delineated by hilly areas and the Port Klang coastline. ... Nickname: Motto: Berkhidmat, Berbudaya, Berwawasan (English: Servicing, cultured, visionary) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: Country Malaysia State Johor Establishment 1855 Granted city status 1994 Government  - Mayor Latiff Yusof Area  - City 185 km²  (72. ... State motto: Bersatu dan Setia (United and Loyal) (formerly Let Penang Lead) State anthem: Untuk Negeri Kita (For Our State) Capital George Town Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang Di-Pertua Negeri Tuan Yang Terutama Abdul Rahman bin Haji Abbas  - Ketua Menteri Tan Sri Dr. Koh Tsu Koon History    - Ceded by... Map of the highways Asian Highway 2 sign near Ratchaburi, Thailand The Asian Highway (AH) project is a cooperative project among countries in Asia and the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) to improve the highway systems in Asia. ...


Roads in the East Malaysia and the eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia are still relatively undeveloped. Those are highly curved roads passing through mountainous regions and many are still unsealed, gravel roads. This has resulted in the continued use of rivers and the necessary use of airplanes as the main or alternative mode of transportation for the interior residents. Airplane and Aeroplane redirect here. ...


Train service in West Malaysia is operated by the Keretapi Tanah Melayu (Malayan Railways) and has extensive railroads that connect all major cities and towns on the peninsular, including Singapore. There is also a short railway in Sabah operated by Sabah State Railway that mainly carries freight. Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB) or Malayan Railway Limited is the main rail operator in Peninsular Malaysia. ... Sabah State Railway (SSR) is a railway system and operator in the state of Sabah in Malaysia. ...


There are seaports throughout the country. The major ports are Port Klang and Port of Tanjung Pelepas in Johor. Other important ports can be found in Tanjung Kidurong, Kota Kinabalu, Kuching, Kuantan, Pasir Gudang, Penang, Miri, Sandakan and Tawau. For other uses, see Port (disambiguation). ... Port Klang (Malay: Pelabuhan Klang) is the main port of Malaysia, located in the district of Klang in the state of Selangor. ... The Port of Tanjung Pelepas is Malaysias newest port for container ships, located near the tip of continental Asia, in southwest Malaysia. ... Tanjung Kidurong is a small port town in Sarawak, Malaysia. ... Nickname: Location in Malaysia and Sabah Country State Settled by BNBC 1882 Declared capital of North Borneo 1946 Granted city status February 2, 2000 Government  - Mayor Datuk Illiyas Ibrahim Area  - City 351 km²  (136 sq mi) Population (2007)  - City 532 129 [2]  - Density 1,516/km² (3,913/sq mi... Kuching is the capital of the East Malaysian State of Sarawak. ... Situated about 25 KM to the north of Kuantan city and facing South China Sea, Kuantan Port (Latitude 3°58N, Longitude 103° 26E) is a multipurpose all-weather port with excellent and well-developed infrastructure, complemented by an excellent road and rail networks that make it the leading... Pasir Gudang is a port (Johor Port Authority) town located 35 km east of Johor Bahru. ... State motto: Bersatu dan Setia (United and Loyal) (formerly Let Penang Lead) State anthem: Untuk Negeri Kita (For Our State) Capital George Town Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang Di-Pertua Negeri Tuan Yang Terutama Abdul Rahman bin Haji Abbas  - Ketua Menteri Tan Sri Dr. Koh Tsu Koon History    - Ceded by... For other uses, see Miri (disambiguation). ... Location in Sabah and Malaysia Country Malaysia State Sandakan Establishment Government  - Council President Dr Yeo Boon Hai Area  - City 2,266 km²  (875 sq mi) Population (2006)  - City 427,200  - Density 184/km² (488/sq mi) Time zone MST (UTC+8)  - Summer (DST) Not observed (UTC) Website: http://www. ... Nickname: Location of Tawau in Sabah, Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment Government  - Council President tuan haji Salsidu bin haji Ibrahim jr Area  - City 6,125 km²  (2,365 sq mi) Population (2006)  - City 370,800  - Density 60. ...


Airports are also found throughout the country. Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) is the main airport of the country. Other important airports include Kota Kinabalu International Airport, Penang International Airport, Kuching International Airport, Langkawi International Airport, and Senai International Airport. There are also airports in smaller towns, as well as small domestic airstrips in rural Sabah and Sarawak. There are daily flight services between West and East Malaysia, which is the only convenient option for passengers travelling between the two parts of the country. Malaysia is the home of the first low-cost carrier in the region, AirAsia. It has Kuala Lumpur as its hub and maintains flights to Southeast Asia and China as well. In KL it operates out of the Low Cost Carrier Terminal (LCCT) in KLIA. For other uses, see Kuala Lumpur International Airport (disambiguation). ... Kota Kinabalu International Airport (KKIA) (IATA: BKI, ICAO: WBKK) is located about 8 km from the city of Kota Kinabalu, the state capital of Sabah, Malaysia. ... Penang International Airport (IATA: PEN, ICAO: WMKP), previously known as Bayan Lepas International Airport, is situated in the Bayan Lepas area of Penang, Malaysia. ... Kuching International Airport (IATA: KCH, ICAO: WBGG) (KIA) is Sarawaks main international airport and is situated 11 km (6NM) south of the city of Kuching. ... Langkawi International Airport (IATA: LGK, ICAO: WMKL), is an airport situated on the duty-free island of Langkawi in Kedah, Malaysia. ... Senai International Airport (IATA: JHB, ICAO: WMKJ), formally known as Sultan Ismail International Airport (Malay: Lapangan Terbang Antarabangsa Sultan Ismail), is an airport located in Senai, near Johor Bahru, Malaysia. ... For the Taiwanese aircraft service company, see Air Asia (Taiwan). ...


The intercity telecommunication service is provided on Peninsular Malaysia mainly by microwave radio relay. International telecommunications are provided through submarine cables and satellite. One of the largest and most significant telecommunication companies in Malaysia is Telekom Malaysia (TM), providing products and services from fixed line, mobile as well as dial-up and broadband Internet access service. It has the near-monopoly of fixed line phone service in the country. Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM) is the largest telecommunication company in Malaysia. ...


In December 2004, Energy, Water and Communications Minister Datuk Seri Dr Lim Keng Yaik reported that only 0.85% or 218,004 people in Malaysia used broadband services. However these values are based on subscriber number, whilst household percentage can reflect the situation more accurately. This represented an increase from 0.45% in three quarters. He also stated that the government targeted usage of 5% by 2006 and doubling to 10% by 2008. Lim Keng Yaik had urged local telecommunication companies and service provider to open up the last mile and lower prices to benefit the users. Yang Berbahagia Dato Seri Dr Lim Keng Yaik (Chinese : 林敬益) is the National President of Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia since 1980. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Malaysia
See also: Tourism in Malaysia and Cuisine of Malaysia

Malaysia is a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural and multilingual society. The population as of February 2007 is 26.6 million consisting of 62% Malays, 24% Chinese, 8% Indians, with other minorities and indigenous peoples (Dept of Stats. Malaysia). Ethnic tensions have been rising in recent months.[70] Malaysian culture or Malaya culture is a mixture of Malay, Chinese, Indian, and various indigenous tribes dating back to more than fifteen hundred years ago from a Kedah kingdom in Lembah Bujang with traders from China and India. ... Petronas Twin Towers, Kuala Lumpur Teluk Cempedak Beach, Kuantan South Beach, Perhentian Besar Malaysia is a country in South-East Asia, located partly on a peninsula of the Asian mainland and partly on the northern third of the island of Borneo. ... Malaysian cuisine reflects the multi-racial aspects of Malaysia. ...


The Malays, who form the largest community, are defined as Muslims in the Constitution of Malaysia. The Malays play a dominant role politically and are included in a grouping identified as bumiputra. Their native language is Malay (Bahasa Melayu). Malay is the national language of the country.[17] The Constitution of Malaysia, comprising more than 180 articles, is the supreme law of Malaysia. ... Bumiputra or Bumiputera (Malay, from Sanskrit Bhumiputra; translated literally, it means son of the soil), is an official definition widely used in Malaysia, embracing ethnic Malays as well as other indigenous ethnic groups such as the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia and the tribal peoples in Sabah and Sarawak. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ...


In the past, Malays wrote in Sanskrit or using Sanskrit-based alphabets[citation needed]. After the 15th century, Jawi (a script based on Arabic) became popular[citation needed]. Over time, romanized script overtook Sanskrit and Jawi as the dominant script. This was largely due to the influence of the colonial education system, which taught children in romanised writing rather than in Arabic script[citation needed]. Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Yawi. ... Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language...


The largest non-Malay indigenous tribe is the Iban of Sarawak, who number over 600,000. Some Iban still live in traditional jungle villages in long houses along the Rajang and Lupar rivers and their tributaries, although many have moved to the cities. The Bidayuhs, numbering around 170,000, are concentrated in the southwestern part of Sarawak. The largest indigenous tribe in Sabah is the Kadazan. They are largely Christian subsistence farmers. The 140,000 Orang Asli, or aboriginal peoples, comprise a number of different ethnic communities living in Peninsular Malaysia. Traditionally nomadic hunter-gatherers and agriculturalists, many have been sedentarised and partially absorbed into modern Malaysia. The Ibans are a branch of the Dayak peoples of Borneo. ... A longhouse at the Museum of Anthropology at the University of British Columbia. ... The Bidayuh (formerly known as Land D(a)yak) is one of the main indigenous ethnic groups now settled in areas of southwest Sarawak and the adjacent areas of west Kalimantan. ... The Kadazan is the largest ethnic group in Sabah (a state in Malaysia) making up about one third of the population. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Orang Asli is a general term used for any indigenous groups that are found in Peninsular Malaysia. ...


The Chinese population in Malaysia is mostly Buddhist (of Mahayana sect) or Taoist. Chinese in Malaysia speak a variety of Chinese dialects including Mandarin Chinese, Hokkien, Cantonese, Hakka and Teochew. A large majority of Chinese in Malaysia, especially those from larger cities such as Kuala Lumpur, Petaling Jaya and Penang speak English as well. There has also been an increasing number of the present generation Chinese who consider English as their first language. Chinese have historically been dominant in the Malaysian business community. Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Taoism (pronounced or ; also spelled Daoism) refers to a variety of related philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... This article is about all of the Cantonese (Yue) dialects. ... For other uses, see Hakka (disambiguation). ... Chaozhou (Chinese: 潮州 lit. ...


The Indians in Malaysia are mainly Hindu Tamils from southern India who native language is Tamil, there are also other Indian communities which is Telugu, Malayalam and Hindi-speaking, living mainly in the larger towns on the west coast of the peninsula. Many middle to upper-middle class Indians in Malaysia also speak English as a first language. A vigorous 200,000-strong Tamil Muslim community also thrives as an independent subcultural group.there are also prevalent Tamil christian communities in major cities and towns. There is also a sizable Sikh community in Malaysia of over 83,000. Most Indians originally migrated from India as traders, teachers or other skilled workers. A larger number were also part of the forced migrations from India by the British during colonial times to work in the plantation industry.[citation needed] Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are a multi-ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... Tamil ( ; IPA: ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people, originating on the Indian subcontinent. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Malayalam ( ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... -1... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Tamil Muslim are members of a multi-ethnic Islamic community spread across South India and South East Asia. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ...


Eurasians, Cambodians, Vietnamese, and indigenous tribes make up the remaining population. A small number of Eurasians, of mixed Portuguese and Malay descent, speak a Portuguese-based creole, called Papiá Kristang. There are also Eurasians of mixed Filipino and Spanish descent, mostly in Sabah. Descended from immigrants from the Philippines, some speak Chavacano, the only Spanish-based creole language in Asia. Cambodians and Vietnamese are mostly Buddhists (Cambodians of Theravada sect and Vietnamese, Mahayana sect). Eurasian, in English vernacular, is a term that refers to those of mixed European and Asian ancestry, regardless of continent of origin. ... A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable language that originates seemingly as a nativized pidgin. ... Papiá Kristang (Christian language) is a creole language. ... For other uses, see Sabah (disambiguation). ... Chavacano (as a proper noun, as a derivative of the Spanish adjective chabacano, and as it is generally accepted in literature, the broadcast media, and Zamboangueños) or Chabacano (as the Spanish adjective) is the common name for the several varieties of the Philippine Creole Spanish spoken in the Philippines. ... A number of Creole languages are based on the Spanish language. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda (cf Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda); literally, the Teaching of the Elders, or the Ancient Teaching) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia...


Malaysian traditional music is heavily influenced by Chinese and Islamic forms. The music is based largely around the gendang (drum), but includes other percussion instruments (some made of shells); the rebab, a bowed string instrument; the serunai, a double-reed oboe-like instrument; flutes, and trumpets. The country has a strong tradition of dance and dance dramas, some of Thai, Indian and Portuguese origin. Other artistic forms include wayang kulit (shadow puppet theatre), silat (a stylised martial art) and crafts such as batik, weaving, including the ceremonial cloth pua kumbu, and silver and brasswork. Wayang is an Indonesian/Malay word for theater. ... This article is about a martial art forms practiced throughout the Malay Archipelago. ... This article is about the textile dyeing technique. ...


Holidays

Malaysians observe a number of holidays and festivities throughout the year. Some holidays are federal gazetted public holidays and some are public holidays observed by individual states. Other festivals are observed by particular ethnic or religion groups, but are not public holidays. There are two types of holidays in Malaysia, National and State levels. ...

Typical festive fare during Hari Raya Puasa or Hari Raya Haji (clockwise from bottom left): beef soup, ketupat (compressed rice cubes), beef rendang and sayur lodeh.
Typical festive fare during Hari Raya Puasa or Hari Raya Haji (clockwise from bottom left): beef soup, ketupat (compressed rice cubes), beef rendang and sayur lodeh.

The most celebrated holiday is the "Hari Merdeka" (Independence Day) on August 31 commemorating the independence of the Federation of Malaya in 1957, while Malaysia Day is only celebrated in the state of Sabah on September 16 to commemorate the formation of Malaysia in 1963. Hari Merdeka, as well as Labour Day (May 1), the King's Birthday (first Saturday of June) and some other festivals are federal gazetted public holidays. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Eid ul-Fitr or Id-Ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر ‘Īdu l-Fiá¹­r), often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the holy month of fasting. ... Eid ul-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى) is second in the series of Eid festivals that Muslims celebrate. ... This article is about the dish. ... Hari Merdeka (Independence Day) is a national day of Malaysia commemorating the independence of the Federation of Malaya from British colonial rule. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... A national ceremony celebrates the formation of the Federation of Malaysia in 1963 in Singapore. ... For other uses, see Sabah (disambiguation). ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about annual labour observances internationally. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Muslims in Malaysia celebrate Muslim holidays. The most celebrated festival, Hari Raya Puasa (also called Hari Raya Aidilfitri) is the Malay translation of Eid al-Fitr. It is generally a festival honoured by the Muslims worldwide marking the end of Ramadan, the fasting month. In addition to Hari Raya Puasa, they also celebrate Hari Raya Haji (also called Hari Raya Aidiladha, the translation of Eid ul-Adha), Awal Muharram (Islamic New Year) and Maulidul Rasul (Birthday of the Prophet). Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ... Eid ul-Fitr or Id-Ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر ‘Īdu l-Fiá¹­r), often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the holy month of fasting. ... The Islamic holiday of Eid ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر) marks the end of Ramadan. ... This article is about religious observances during the month of Ramadan. ... Eid ul-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى) is second in the series of Eid festivals that Muslims celebrate. ... Eid al-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى ‘Īd al-’Aḍḥā) is a religious festival celebrated by Muslims worldwide as a commemoration of Ibrahims (Abrahams) willingness to sacrifice his son Ismael for Allah, but a voice from heaven allows Ibrahim to sacrifice a goat instead. ... The Muslim New Year is a cultural event which some Muslims partake on the first day of Muharram, the first month in the Islamic Calendar. ... Milad, Milad an-Nabi or Mawlid un-Nabi (Arabic: ) is the celebration of the birthday of Muhammad. ...


Chinese in Malaysia typically celebrate festivals that are observed by Chinese around the world. Chinese New Year is the most celebrated among the festivals which lasts for fifteen days and ends with Chap Goh Mei. Other festivals celebrated by Chinese are the Qingming Festival, the Dragon Boat Festival and the Mid-Autumn Festival. In addition to traditional Chinese festivals, Buddhists Chinese also celebrate Vesak. For other traditions of celebrating lunar new year, see Lunar New Year. ... For the festival associated with mooncakes sometimes called Lantern Festival, see Mid-Autumn Festival. ... Burning paper gifts for the departed. ... For the same festival in other East Asian cultures, see Double Fifth. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Chữ nôm: Mid-Autumn Festival celebrations in Victoria Park, Hong Kong. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Vesak (Sinhalese) is an annual holiday observed by practicing Buddhists. ...


The majority of Indians in Malaysia are Hindus and they celebrate Diwali, the festival of light, while Thaipusam is a celebration which pilgrims from all over the country flock to Batu Caves. Apart from the Hindus, Sikhs celebrate the Vaisakhi, the Sikh New Year. This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Diwali, or Deepawali, (also called Tihar and Swanti in Nepal) (Markiscarali) is a major Indian and Nepalese festive holiday, and a significant festival in Hinduism, Sikhism and Jainism. ... It has been suggested that Thai Poosam Kavady be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about a particular group of seventeenth-century European colonists of North America. ... Batu Caves is a limestone hill to the north of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia which has a series of caves and cave temples. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... Vaisakhi (Punjabi: , , also known as Baisakhi) is an ancient harvest festival in Punjab, which also marks beginning of a new solar year, and new harvest season. ...


Other festivals such as Good Friday (East Malaysia only), Christmas, Hari Gawai of the Ibans (Dayaks), Pesta Menuai (Pesta Kaamatan) of the Kadazan-Dusuns are also celebrated in Malaysia. Good Friday, also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... Gawai Day or Gawai Dayak is a festive celebrated in Sarawak on 1st June every year is both a religious and social occasion. ... The Ibans are a branch of the Dayak peoples of Borneo. ... The Dayak IPA: (or Dyak) are the peoples indigenous to Borneo. ... Kaamatan is the harvest festival celebrated annually around the end of May in the state of Sabah in Malaysia. ... Kadazan-Dusun is the term assigned to the unification of the classification of two indigenous tribes in Sabah, Malaysia—the ethnic groups Kadazan and Dusun. ...


Despite most of the festivals being identified with a particular ethnic or religious group, all Malaysians celebrate the festivities together, regardless of their background. For years, when Hari Raya Puasa and Chinese New Year coincided, a slogan, Kongsi Raya, a combination of Gong Xi Fa Cai (a greeting used on the Chinese New Year) and Hari Raya (which could also mean "celebrating together" in Malay language) was coined. For years when the Hari Raya Puasa and Deepavali coincide, a slogan, Deepa Raya, is similarly coined.


See also

Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... This is a list of topics related to Malaysia. ... The history of Malaysia is a relatively recent offshoot of the history of the wider Malay-Indonesian world. ... Caves paintings of Tambun, dated 3000 BC, in Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia. ... British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ... The Straits Settlements were a collection of territories of the British East India Company in Southeast Asia, which were given collective administration in 1826. ... Throughout much of the Second World War, British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak were under Japanese occupation. ... The Malayan Union was formed on April 1, 1946 by the British. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... Hari Merdeka (Independence Day) is a national day of Malaysia commemorating the independence of the Federation of Malaya from British colonial rule. ... The May 13 Incident saw numerous cases of arson in the Malaysian capital city of Kuala Lumpur. ... The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ... The sometimes tumultous relationship between the Peoples Action Party (PAP) and United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), which were, and still are, the ruling parties respectively of Singapore and Malaysia, has impacted the recent history of both states. ... The history of Malaysia is a relatively recent offshoot of the history of the wider Malay-Indonesian world. ... The politics of Malaysia takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister of Malaysia is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Flag of the Supreme Head of Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong is a Malay title usually translated as Supreme Ruler or Paramount Ruler, is the official title of the constitutional head of state of the federation of Malaysia. ... The Cabinet of Malaysia is the executive branch of Malaysias government. ... The Prime Minister of Malaysia (in Malay Perdana Menteri) is the indirectly elected head of government of Malaysia. ... The Malaysian Houses of Parliament in Kuala Lumpur. ... Political parties in Malaysia lists political parties in Malaysia. ... Elections in Malaysia gives information on election and election results in Malaysia. ... Malaysia is a federation of 13 states. ... This article concerns the Foreign relations of Malaysia. ... There are human rights violations in Malaysia and some of the non-governmental organizations working in this field are: Suaram Hakam WAO In addition, there is the government-sponsored Human Rights Commission of Malaysia, Suhakam Human rights in Asia Human rights in: Afghanistan  â€¢ Armenia  â€¢ Azerbaijan  â€¢ Bahrain  â€¢ Bangladesh  â€¢ Bhutan  â€¢ Brunei  â€¢ Cambodia... There are many civil service and paramilitary forces in Malaysia. ... The law of Malaysia is mainly based on the common law legal system. ... The Sultan Abdul Samad Building, as were surrounding colonial buildings near the Merdeka Square, had formerly housed all of the countrys judicial branches for decades. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (or Semenanjung Malaysia in the Malay language) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... East Malaysia comprises Sabah and Sarawak East Malaysia consists of the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak, located on the island of Borneo to the east, across the South China Sea from Peninsular Malaysia which is located on the Malay Peninsula. ... Malaysia has a number of national parks but most of them are de facto state parks. ... The cities of Malaysia are (in order of grant of city status): George Town (1st January 1957) (current status disputed) Kuala Lumpur (1st February 1972) Ipoh (27th May 1988) Kuching North (1st August 1988) Kuching South (1st August 1988) Johor Bahru (1st January 1994) Kota Kinabalu (2nd February 2000) Shah... Districts are known as Daerah or Jajahan (in Kelantan). ... Malaysia is a federation of 13 states. ... ISO 4217 Code MYR User(s) Malaysia Inflation 2. ... Here is a full list of financial institutions in Malaysia. ... Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) is the Malaysian central bank. ... The Bursa Malaysia or Malaysia Exchange, MYX previously known as Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE, Bursa Saham Kuala Lumpur in Malay) dates back to 1930 when the Singapore Stockbrokers Association was set up as a formal organisation dealing in securities in Malaya. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 4. ... // Railways total: 2,418 km (207 km electrified km) paved: 49,935 km (including 1,192 km of expressways) unpaved: 15,942 km (1999) Waterways 7,200 km note: Peninsular Malaysia 3,200 km, Sabah 1,500 km, Sarawak 2,500 km (2004) Pipelines condensate 279 km; gas 5,047... The Employees Provident Fund (Abbreviation: EPF, Malay: Kumpulan Wang Simpanan Pekerja) is a government organisation in charge of social security or retirement planning for employees in Malaysia. ... The Federal Land Development Authority (more commonly referred to as FELDA) is a Malaysian government agency handling the resettlement of rural poor into newly developed areas. ... The Urban Development Authority (Malay: Perbadanan Pembangunan Bandar; commonly abbreviated as UDA) is an agency of the government of Malaysia. ... Demographics of Malaysia is diverse. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Peranakan, Baba-Nyonya (; Hokkien: Bā-bā Niûⁿ-liá) and Straits Chinese (; named after the Straits Settlements) are terms used for the descendants of the very early Chinese immigrants to the Nusantara region, including both the British Straits Settlements of Malaya and the Dutch-controlled island of Java among other places... The Indian Malaysians are a group of Malaysians largely descended from those who migrated from South India during the British colonization of Malaya. ... Kadazan-Dusun is the term assigned to the unification of the classification of two indigenous tribes in Sabah, Malaysia—the ethnic groups Kadazan and Dusun. ... The Ibans are a branch of the Dayak peoples of Borneo. ... Malaysian culture or Malaya culture is a mixture of Malay, Chinese, Indian, and various indigenous tribes dating back to more than fifteen hundred years ago from a Kedah kingdom in Lembah Bujang with traders from China and India. ... Malaysian cuisine reflects the multi-racial aspects of Malaysia. ... Malaysian music is influenced by neighboring Indonesian and Thai forms, as well as Portuguese, Filipino and Chinese styles (Munan, 175). ... There are two types of holidays in Malaysia, National and State levels. ... For other uses, see Kuala Lumpur International Airport (disambiguation). ... Malaysia Airlines (Abbreviated: MAS, Malay: Penerbangan Malaysia) is the national airline of Malaysia, operating scheduled services to over 100 destinations worldwide. ... Rail transport in Malaysia is comprised of two modes of rail transport, trains and light rail transits (LRT). ... A monorail approaching Imbi station After the success of Kuala Lumpur Monorail, there have been numerous proposal laid out to increase the users of public transports and to ease the congestion of traffic. ... South section of North-South Expressway near Pedas-Linggi, Negeri Sembilan, facing towards Kuala Lumpur. ... Malaysian Highway Authority logo Lembaga Lebuhraya Malaysia (Malaysian Highway Authority) is a government agency under Malaysian Ministry of Works. ... Top view of the Kuala Lumpur Monorail. ... Negaraku (English: My Country) is the national anthem of Malaysia. ... Binomial name Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Ref: ITIS 21611 The Chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.; Family Malvaceae) is an evergreen shrub native to east Asia, also known as China rose and Shoe flower. ... Current crest. ... National flag and state ensign. ... Rukunegara or sometimes Rukun Negara is a philosophy - de facto Malaysian pledge of allegiance - introduced by the Malaysian government 1970 in reaction to a serious race riot known as the May 13 Incident which occurred in 1969. ... This is a list of famous or notable Malaysians, sorted alphabetically by their last names or surnames within categories. ... The Malaysia My Second Home program (commonly abbreviated MM2H) is an international residency scheme enacted by the Government of Malaysia to allow foreigners to live in the country on a long-stay visa of up to 5 years. ... The Malaysian National Space Agency (MNSA) or in Malay, Agensi Angkasa Negara (ANGKASA) is a Malaysian space program established in the year 2002. ... Petronas Twin Towers, Kuala Lumpur Teluk Cempedak Beach, Kuantan South Beach, Perhentian Besar Malaysia is a country in South-East Asia, located partly on a peninsula of the Asian mainland and partly on the northern third of the island of Borneo. ...

References

  1. ^ Article 1. Constitution of Malaysia.
  2. ^ a b c d e f CIA. The World Fact Book. Malaysia. Retrieved December 9 2006.
  3. ^ Article 33. Constitution of Malaysia.
  4. ^ Article 43. Constitution of Malaysia.
  5. ^ The Federation of International Trade Associations. General Information of Malaysia. Retrieved December 7 2007.
  6. ^ a b Time Magazine. A New Nation. September 9 1957.
  7. ^ a b Paragraph 22. Singapore. Road to Independence. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Country Studies/Area Handbook Series. U.S. Department of the Army. Retrieved December 9 2006.
  8. ^ a b Time Magazine. The Art of Dispelling Anxiety. August.
  9. ^ Paragraph 25. Singapore. Road to Independence. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Country Studies/Area Handbook Series. U.S. Department of the Army. Retrieved December 9 2006.
  10. ^ a b Paweł Bożyk (2006). "Newly Industrialized Countries", Globalization and the Transformation of Foreign Economic Policy. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, 164. ISBN 0-75-464638-6. 
  11. ^ a b N. Gregory Mankiw (4th Edition 2007). Principles of Economics. ISBN 0-32-422472-9. 
  12. ^ The Prime Minister's Office. The Security of the Straits of Malacca and its implications to the Southeast Asia regional security. Retrieved November 26 2007.
  13. ^ American University. Tin Mining in Malaysia. Retrieved November 14 2007.
  14. ^ Malaysian Palm Oil Council. Malaysian Palm Oil. Retrieved November 14 2007.
  15. ^ Bank Negara. BNM National Summary Data Page. Retrieved November 8 2007
  16. ^ Article 3. Constitution of Malaysia.
  17. ^ a b Article 152. Constitution of Malaysia.
  18. ^ Overview. Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Retrieved November 8 2007.
  19. ^ List of Member States. United Nations. Retrieved November 8 2007
  20. ^ Members. Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved November 8 2007.
  21. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Turkey. Facts and Figures of the D-8. Retrieved December 12 2007.
  22. ^ The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.
  23. ^ Sakai, Manako. Reviving Malay Connections in Southeast Asia.
  24. ^ Page 46-47. Suarez, Thomas. Early Mapping of Southeast Asia.
  25. ^ Earl, George S. W. (1850). "On The Leading Characteristics of the Papuan, Australian and Malay-Polynesian Nations". Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (JIAEA): p.119. 
  26. ^ ASEAN Member: Malaysia Accessed 29 May 2008.
  27. ^ M.C. Ricklefs. pp. 19. A History of Modern Indonesia. Indiana University Press. 1981. ISBN
  28. ^ Mahathir bin Mohamad. Our Region, Ourselves. Time Asia. Retrieved May.
  29. ^ Time Magazine. Token Citizenship. May.
  30. ^ Time Magazine. Siege's End. May 2 1960.
  31. ^ Time Magazine. Hurray for Harry. December
  32. ^ Time Magazine. Fighting the Federation. December
  33. ^ Time Magazine. Race War in Malaysia. May. Retrieved December.
  34. ^ Republic of the Philippines. Department of Foreign Affairs. FAQs on the ICJ Decision. Retrieved December.
  35. ^ a b Jomo Kwame Sundaram. UNRISD The New Economic Policy and Interethnic Relations in Malaysia. Retrieved December.
  36. ^ Anthony Spaeth. Time Magazine. Bound for Glory. December 9 1996.
  37. ^ Anthony Spaeth. Time Magazine. He's the Boss. September.
  38. ^ http://asiasentinel.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=863&Itemid=31 Malaysian petitioners defy police
  39. ^ http://www.malaysiakini.com/news/75250 Malaysiakini.com, November 25, 2007.
  40. ^ Article 32. Constitution of Malaysia.
  41. ^ a b US Department of State. Malaysia. Retrieved December.
  42. ^ Article 44. Constitution of Malaysia.
  43. ^ Article 45. Constitution of Malaysia.
  44. ^ Article 46. Constitution of Malaysia.
  45. ^ Article 43 (1). Constitution of Malaysia
  46. ^ Article 14. Constitution of Malaysia
  47. ^ The Star Online. More than just a card. Retrieved November 26 2007.
  48. ^ Leow Chiah Wei. Travel Times. New Straits Times. Asia's southernmost tip. Retrieved December.
  49. ^ Sager Ahmad. Travel Times. New Straits Times. Tanjung Piai, the End of Asia. Retrieved December.
  50. ^ Andrew Marshall. Time Magazine. Waterway to the World. Retrieved December.
  51. ^ Petronas 1H profit up 7.7% to RM26.6b
  52. ^ Census of Population and Housing Malaysia 2000, Dept of Statistics Malaysia. [1]
  53. ^ Census of Population and Housing Malaysia 2000, Dept of Statistics Malaysia. [2]
  54. ^ Census of Population and Housing Malaysia 2000, Dept of Statistics Malaysia. [3]
  55. ^ All Sabahans must Fight BN and UMNO. Malaysia Today (August 15, 2006).
  56. ^ Census: Department of Statistics Malaysia. Accessed May 29, 2008.
  57. ^ "Population and Housing Census" Press statement, Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Accessed April 3, 2007.
  58. ^ Article 160 (2). Constitution of Malaysia.
  59. ^ Inter Press Service: Temple Demolitions Spell Creeping Islamisation. Retrieved 4 June 2006.
  60. ^ BBC : Pressure on multi-faith Malaysia. Retrieved 4 June 2006.
  61. ^ Ninth Schedule. Constitution of Malaysia.
  62. ^ World Education Forum. UNESCO. Education for All 2000 Assessment Report. Malaysia. Retrieved December.
  63. ^ Health Tourism, Malaysian Government Portal. Accessed October 12, 2007.
  64. ^ Time Magazine. Rubber from Malaya. March 1 1943.
  65. ^ How can Sri Lanka be transformed into Malaysia and Singapore? by Rajkumar Kanagasingam. Wijeya Newspapers Ltd, Sri Lanka[Daily Mirror] (November 17, 2005). Retrieved on 2008-03-28.
  66. ^ "Malaysia scraps ringgit peg", The Edge Daily, 2005-07-22. 
  67. ^ Department of Statistics. Malaysia. Quarterly Balance of Payments Performance October - December, 2005. Retrieved December.
  68. ^ Financial Times. Malaysia relaxes short-selling ban. Extracted March 28, 2006.
  69. ^ Boulton, William; Michael Pecht, William Tucker, Sam Wennberg (May 1997). Malaysia. Electronics Manufacturing in the Pacific Rim, World Technology Evaluation Center. Retrieved on 26 September 2007
  70. ^ International Herald Tribune. Ethnic anger on the rise in Malaysia. Extracted 30 January, 2008.

Federation of International Trade Associations - FITA. The Federation of International Trade Associations (FITA), was founded in 1984. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... For other universities known as American University, see American University (disambiguation). ... Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) is the Malaysian central bank. ... Indiana University, founded in 1820, is a nine-campus university system in the state of Indiana. ... Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad () was the fourth Prime Minister of Malaysia. ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... Jomo Kwame Sundaram (born 11 December 1952), better known as Jomo KS, is a prominent Malaysian economist, who is currently serving as the United Nations Assistant Secretary General for Economic Development in the UN’s Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). ... The United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) is an autonomous United Nations agency that carries out research on the social dimensions of contemporary problems affecting development [1]. The Institute was established in 1963. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... The Star is the leading English-language newspaper in Malaysia. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Financial Times (FT) is a British international business newspaper. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ...

Sources

  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. Malay States.
  • Zainal Abidin bin Abdul Wahid; Khoo, Kay Kim; Muhd Yusof bin Ibrahim; Singh, D.S. Ranjit (1994). Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Menengah Sejarah Tingkatan 2. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. ISBN
  • Adam, Ramlah binti, Samuri, Abdul Hakim bin & Fadzil, Muslimin bin (2004). Sejarah Tingkatan 3. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. ISBN.
  • Osborne, Milton (2000). Southeast Asia: An Introductory History. Allen & Unwin. ISBN

Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ... Dato Dr Khoo Kay Kim (b. ... Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka or DBP is a government body that responsible to coordinate the use malay language in Malaysia and Brunei. ... Milton Osborne is an Australian historian, author, and consultant specializing in Southeast Asia. ...

External links

Malaysia Portal
Find more about Malaysia on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources

Government Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ...

  • Malaysia Department of Statistics
  • myGovernment Portal - Malaysia Government Portal
  • Bernama - Malaysia national news agency
  • Tourism Malaysia - Malaysia tourism portal
  • Virtual Malaysia - The Official Portal of the Ministry of Tourism, Malaysia
  • Office of the Prime Minister of Malaysia
  • Radio Televisyen Malaysia - Government-owned television network
  • Malaysia External Trade Development Corporation
  • Small Medium Industries Development Corporation

Maps

  • Wikimedia Atlas of Malaysia

Overviews and Data Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ...

Others 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia and is still... The World Factbook (ISSN 1553-8133; also known as the CIA World Factbook)[2] is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. ...

“Sovereign” redirects here. ...


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