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Encyclopedia > Malayan Emergency
Malayan Emergency
Part of Cold War and British decolonisation

Australian Avro Lincoln bomber unloading 500 pound bombs on Communist targets in the Malayan jungle. circa 1950
Date June 194812 July 1960
Location Southeast Asia
Result
Combatants
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of Australia Australia
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand

British colonies
Flag of Federation of Malaya Federation of Malaya
Flag of Southern Rhodesia Rhodesia
Flag of Fiji Fiji
For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A line up of Avro Lincoln B.IIs (B.2) The Avro 694 Lincoln was a British 4-engined heavy bomber of World War II, first flying on June 9, 1944 and entering service in August 1945, too late to be used in action. ... For other uses, see June (disambiguation). ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaya. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Southern_Rhodesia. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Fiji. ...

Malayan Communist Party
Malayan Races Liberation Army
Commanders
Flag of the United Kingdom Harold Briggs
Flag of the United Kingdom Henry Gurney
Flag of the United Kingdom Gerald Templer
Flag of Australia Henry Wells
Chin Peng
Strength
250,000 Malayan Home Guard troops

40,000 regular Commonwealth personnel
37,000 Special Constables
24,000 Federation Police The Kings African Rifles (KAR) was a British colonial regiment in East Africa from 1902 until the independence of the various colonies in the 1960s. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle. ... Communist Party of Malaya (CnoPM), also known as the Malayan Communist Party (MCP) until the 1960s was founded in Singapore in 1930 with a predominantly Chinese membership, carrying out armed resistance to the Japanese during World War II. From 1948 to 1960, its military arm, the Malayan Peoples Liberation Army... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle. ... The Malayan Races Liberation Army (MRLA) was a combatant in the Malayan Emergency, an insurrection and guerrilla war against the British and Malayan administration from 1948-1960 in what is now Malaysia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Sir Harold Rawdon Briggs DSO, OBE (born 1894; died 1962) was an officer in the Indian Army during World War II. During the East African Campaign, Briggs commanded Briggsforce in the Sudan - two battalions from the 7th Indian Infantry Brigade (4th Indian Division), one Senegalese battalion, and one Free French... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Sir Henry Lovell Goldsworthy Gurney was born on 27 June 1898, in London. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Field Marshal Sir Gerald Templer, KG (1898 - 1979) was a British military commander. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle. ... Chin Peng (Traditional Chinese: 陳平, Simplified Chinese: 陈平, Mandarin Chén Píng) (born 1924), was born Ong Boon Hua (Mandarin: Wang Yonghua or Wang Wenhua Chinese: 王文華) in Sitiawan, and was a long-time leader of the Malayan Communist Party (MCP). ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... The Special Constabulary is the auxiliary wing of the British police. ...

up to 8,000 MRLA (peaking in 1951)

up to 150,000 Min Yuen (30,000 to 40,000 likely)

Casualties
Killed: 1,346 Malayan troops, and
519 British military personnel
Wounded: 2,406 Malayan and British troops

Civilian casualties: 2,478 killed, 810 missing

Killed: 6,710
Wounded: 1,289
Captured: 1,287
Surrendered: 2,702

The Malayan Emergency was a state of emergency declared by the British colonial government of Malaya in 1948 and lifted in 1960, as well as an insurrection and guerrilla war fought between government forces and the Malayan National Liberation Army around the same period. The state of emergency entailed the revocation of many civil rights, the granting of special powers to the police, and other measures aimed at the suppression of left wing political movements, especially the Malayan Communist Party (MCP). The guerrilla war, which is also known as the Malayan War, was part of the ongoing conflict between the MCP and other leftists, and the colonial establishment, starting shortly after the Japanese withdrawal in 1945 and extending at least to the signing of the peace treaty between the communists and the government of Malaya in 1989. The Malayan National Liberation Army (MNLA) was the military arm of the MCP; it was formed shortly after the Emergency was declared in 1948. A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government, may work to alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors, or may order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... The Malayan Races Liberation Army (MRLA) was a combatant in the Malayan Emergency, an insurrection and guerrilla war against the British and Malayan administration from 1948-1960 in what is now Malaysia. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition...

Contents

Origins

The withdrawal of Japan at the end of World War II left the Malayan economy disrupted; problems included unemployment, low wages, and scarce and expensive food. There was considerable labour unrest, and a large number of strikes occurred in 1946 through 1948. At the same time, the British administration was attempting to repair Malaya's war-damaged economy quickly, especially as income from Malaya's tin and rubber industries was important to Britain's own post-war recovery. As a result, strikers were dealt with harshly, by measures including arrests and deportations. The strikers became increasingly militant, and violent incidents occurred. When, on June 16, 1948, three European plantation managers were killed at Sungai Siput, Perak, the British brought into law emergency measures, first in Perak and then, in July, country-wide. Under the measures, the MCP and other leftist parties were outlawed, and the police were given the power to imprison, without trial, communists and those suspected of assisting communists. The MCP, led by Chin Peng, retreated to rural areas, and formed the Malayan National Liberation Army (MNLA), also known as the Malayan Races Liberation Army (MRLA), or the Malayan People's Liberation Army (MPLA). The MNLA began a guerrilla campaign, targeting mainly the colonial resource extraction industries, which in Malaya were the tin mines and rubber plantations. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sungai Siput is a town in Kinta district, Perak, Malaysia. ... State anthem: Allah Lanjutkan Usia Sultan Capital Ipoh Royal capital Kuala Kangsar Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Azlan Shah  - Menteri Besar Tajol Rosli Mohd Ghazali History    - Pangkor treaty 1874   - Federated into FMS 1895   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 21,006 km² Population  - 2005... Chin Peng (Traditional Chinese: 陳平, Simplified Chinese: 陈平, Mandarin Chén Píng) (born 1924), was born Ong Boon Hua (Mandarin: Wang Yonghua or Wang Wenhua Chinese: 王文華) in Sitiawan, and was a long-time leader of the Malayan Communist Party (MCP). ... Rainforest on Fatu-Hiva, Marquesas Islands Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ...


The MNLA was partly a re-formation of the Malayan People's Anti-Japanese Army (MPAJA), the MCP-led guerrilla force which had been the principal resistance in Malaya against the Japanese occupation. The British had secretly trained and equipped the MPAJA during the later stages of World War II. The MPAJA was disbanded in December, 1945. Officially, it turned all of its weapons in to the British Military Administration at that time, however many weapons were not returned and were stashed for possible future use. The anti-communists referred to the MNLA as "communist terrorists", which was often abbreviated to "terrs", "Charlie Tango" or "CTs". The Malayan Peoples Anti-Japanese Army (MPAJA) originated from among ethnic Chinese cadres of the Communist Party of Malaya (CPM) who became increasingly opposed to Japan due to its invasion of China in 1937. ... The British Military Administration (BMA) was the administrator of British Malaya between the end of World War II and the establishment of the Malayan Union in 1946. ...


Guerrilla war

"Malayan Emergency" was the colonial government's term for the war. The MNLA termed it "Anti-British National Liberation War".[1] Despite the usage of the term "emergency" it was in actuality a full-scale guerrilla war between the MNLA and Commonwealth armed forces; some have gone as far as to characterise it as a civil war. The rubber plantations and tin mining industries had pushed for the use of the term "emergency" since their losses would not have been covered by Lloyds insurers if it had been termed a "war". The MNLA commonly employed guerrilla tactics, sabotaging installations, attacking rubber plantations and destroying transportation and infrastructure.[2] “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... Lloyds of London is a British insurance market. ...

Identification portrait of a "communist terrorist", used by Commonwealth troops to help recognise insurgents.
Identification portrait of a "communist terrorist", used by Commonwealth troops to help recognise insurgents.

Support for the MNLA was mainly based on around 500,000 ethnic Chinese then living in Malaya (there were 3.12 million Chinese in total); the ethnic Malay population supported them in smaller numbers. The MNLA raised the support of the Chinese because they were denied the equal right to vote in elections, had no land rights to speak of, and were usually very poor. The MNLA's supply organisation was called "Min Yuen." It had a network of contacts within the general population. Besides supplying material, such as food and weapons, it was also important to the MNLA as an information gatherer. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A Chinese Malaysian (Mandarin: ma lai xi ya hua ren (馬來西亞華人), Hokkien: mah lai se ah hua kiao, Cantonese: mah lah zai wah kew (馬來西亞華僑), Bahasa Malaysia: fill-in) is an overseas Chinese who resides in Malaysia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ...


The MNLA had its hideouts in the rather inaccessible tropical jungle with limited infrastructure. Most MNLA guerrillas were ethnic Chinese, though there were some Malays, Indonesians and Indians among its members. The MNLA was organized into regiments. The regiments were considerably smaller than a regiment would usually be in a modern national army; the term was largely a geographical designation: each regiment operated in a different area of the country. The regiments had political sections, commissars, instructors and secret service. They also had lectures about Marxism-Leninism, and had political newsletters to be distributed to the locals. MNLA also stipulated that their soldiers had to get official permission for any romantic involvement with local women. Commissar is the English translation of an official title (комисса́р) used in Russia after the Bolshevik revolution and in the Soviet Union, as well as some other Communist countries. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ...


In the early stages of the conflict, the guerrillas envisioned establishing "liberated areas" in which the government forces had been driven out and MNLA control established. They were unsuccessful, however, in establishing any such areas. The initial government strategy was primarily to guard important economic targets such as mines and plantation estates. Subsequently, Director of Operations General Sir Harold Briggs developed an overall strategy known as the Briggs Plan. Its central tenet was that the best way to defeat an insurgency such as the government was facing is to cut the insurgents off from their supporters amongst the population. The Briggs Plan was multi-faceted; however one aspect of it has become particularly well known: this was the forced relocation of some 500,000 rural Malayans including 400,000 Chinese into guarded camps called "New Villages". These villages were newly constructed in most cases, and were surrounded by barbed wire, police posts, and floodlit areas, the purpose of which was both to keep the inhabitants in and the guerrillas out. People resented this at first but some soon became content with the better living standards in the villages. They were given money and ownership of the land they lived on. Removing a population which might be sympathetic to guerrillas was a counter-insurgency technique which the British had used before, notably against the Boer Commandos in the Second Boer War (1899–1902). Sir Harold Briggs served with the British military in Malaya in the 1950s. ... Briggs Plan was a major resettlement plan tailored by the British during the Malayan Emergency to stifle food and medical supplies to communists in Malaya during the mid-1950s. ... Gombak New Village. ... Counter-insurgency is the combating of insurgency, by the government (or allies) of the territory in which the insurgency takes place. ... This article is about the Boer people (Boerevolk). ... For other uses, see Commando (disambiguation). ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians...


In the international scene, the emerging Korean War eclipsed the developing conflict in Malaya. Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders...

Jungle service dress of the 1st Battalion Somerset Light Infantry used in the emergency.
Jungle service dress of the 1st Battalion Somerset Light Infantry used in the emergency.

At the start of the Emergency, the British had a total of 13 infantry battalions, comprising seven partly-formed Gurkha battalions, three British battalions, two battalions of the Royal Malay Regiment and a British Royal Artillery Regiment being utilised as infantry.[3] This force was too small to effectively meet the threat of the "communist terrorists" or "bandits", and more infantry battalions were needed in Malaya. The British brought in soldiers from units such as the Worcestershire Regiment, Royal Marines and King's African Rifles. Another effort was a re-formation of the Special Air Service as a specialised reconnaissance, raiding and counter-insurgency unit in 1950. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 3072 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 3072 pixel, file size: 3. ... The Somerset Light Infantry (Prince Alberts) was an infantry regiment of the British Army. ... Gurkha, also spelled as Gorkha, are people from Nepal and parts of North India, who take their name from the eighth century Hindu warrior-saint Guru Gorakhnath. ... The Royal Malay Regiment (Malay: Rejimen Askar Melayu DiRaja) is one of two infantry regiments in the Malaysian Army. ... Tactical Recognition Flash of the Royal Artillery The Royal Regiment of Artillery, generally known as the Royal Artillery (RA), is, despite its name, a corps of the British Army. ... The Worcestershire Regiment was an infantry regiment of the line in the British Army, formed in 1881 by the amalgamation of the 29th (Worcestershire) Regiment of Foot and the 36th (Herefordshire) Regiment of Foot. ... The Royal Marines (RM) are the marines and amphibious infantry of the United Kingdom and, along with the Royal Navy and Royal Fleet Auxiliary, form the Naval Service [2]. They are also the United Kingdoms amphibious force and specialists in mountain and Arctic warfare. ... The Kings African Rifles (KAR) was a British colonial regiment in East Africa from 1902 until the independence of the various colonies in the 1960s. ... See also Australian Special Air Service Regiment and New Zealand Special Air Service: The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... For other uses, see Raid. ... Counter-insurgency is the combating of insurgency, by the government (or allies) of the territory in which the insurgency takes place. ...


The Permanent Secretary of Defence for Malaya, Sir Robert Grainger Ker Thompson, had served in the Chindits in Burma during World War II, which meant that his vast experience in jungle warfare proved valuable during this period as he was able to help build effective civil-military relations and was one of the one of the chief architects of the counter-insurgency plan in Malaya.[4][5] In 1951, some British army units began a "hearts and minds campaign" by giving medical and food aid to Malays and indigenous tribes. At the same time, they put pressure on MNLA by patrolling the jungle. Units such as the SAS, the Royal Marines and Gurkha Brigade drove MNLA guerrillas deeper into the jungle and denied them resources. The MRLA had to extort food from the Sakai and earned their enmity. Many of the captured guerrillas changed sides. In comparison, the MRLA never released any Britons alive. Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... Sir Robert Grainger Ker Thompson (1916–1992) KBE, CMG, DSO, MC, was a British soldier and counter-insurgency expert. ... The Chindits (Officially in 1942 77th Indian Infantry Brigade and in 1943 Indian 3rd Infantry Division) were a British Indian Army Special Force that served in Burma and India from 1942 until 1945 during the Burma Campaign in World War II. They were formed into long range penetration groups trained... Jungle warfare is a term used to cover the special techniques needed for military units to survive and fight in jungle terrain. ... Hearts and Minds refers to two separate Vietnam War related subjects. ... Gurkha Soldiers (1896) The Brigade of Gurkhas is the collective term for British Army units that are composed of Nepalese soldiers. ...


In the end the conflict involved up to a maximum of 40,000 British and Commonwealth troops against a peak of about 7–8,000 communist guerrillas.


Resolving the Emergency

This article is part of
the History of Malaysia series.

Prehistory (60,000–2,000 BCE)
Gangga Negara (2nd–11th century CE)
Langkasuka (2nd–14th century)
Pan Pan (3rd–5th century)
Srivijaya (3rd–14th century)
Kedah Sultanate (1136–present)
Malacca Sultanate (1402–1511)
Portuguese Malacca (1511 - 1641)
Dutch Malacca (1641 - 1824)
Sulu Sultanate (1450–1899)
Johor Sultanate (1528–current)
Jementah Civil War (1879)
Kingdom of Sarawak (1841–1946)
British Malaya (1874–1946)
Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824
Burney Treaty (1826)
Straits Settlements (1826–1946)
Larut War (1861–1874)
Klang War (1867–1874)
Pangkor Treaty of 1874
Federated Malay States (1895–1946)
Unfederated Malay States (19th century–1946)
Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909
Battle of Penang (1914)
North Borneo (1882–1963)
Mat Salleh Rebellion (1896–1900)
World War II (1941–1945)
Battle of Malaya (1941–42)
Parit Sulong Massacre (1942)
Battle of Muar (1942)
Battle of Singapore (1942)
Syburi (1942–1945)
Battle of North Borneo (1945)
Sandakan Death Marches (1945)
Malayan Union (1946–1948)
Federation of Malaya (1948–1963)
Malayan Emergency (1948–1960)
Independence Day (1957)
Federation of Malaysia (1963–present)
Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation (1962–1966)
Brunei Revolt (1962–1966)
Singapore in Malaysia (1963–1965)
Communist Insurgency War (1967-1989)
New Economic Policy (1971–1990)
1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis (1987–88)
Asian financial crisis (1997–98)
[edit this box]

On October 7, 1951, the MNLA ambushed and killed the British High Commissioner, Sir Henry Gurney. The killing has been described as a major factor in causing the Malayan psyche to roundly reject the MRLA campaign, and also as leading to widespread fear due to the perception that "if even the High Commissioner was no longer safe, there was little hope of protection and safety for the man-in-the-street in Malaya."[6] More recently, MNLA leader Chin Peng has, by contrast, said that the killing had little effect, and that the communists anyway radically altered their strategy that month in their 'October Resolutions'.[citation needed] These responded to the Briggs Plan by reducing unit sizes, increasing jungle farming, and attempting to boost political work. The history of Malaysia is a relatively recent offshoot of the history of the wider Malay-Indonesian world. ... Image File history File links History_merdeka. ... Caves paintings of Tambun, dated 3000 BC, in Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia. ... The Common Era is the period beginning with a year near the birth of Jesus, coinciding with the period from AD 1 onwards. ... Gangga Negara was believed to be a lost Hindu kingdom somewhere in the state of Perak, Malaysia. ... “BCE” redirects here. ... Langkasuka (-langkha Sanskrit for resplendent land -sukkha of bliss) was apparently the oldest kingdom on the Malay peninsula. ... A call of pan-pan is a very urgent message concerning the safety of a ship, aircraft or other vehicle, or persons on board who require immediate assistance. ... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Portuguese Malacca Capital Malacca Town Language(s) Portuguese, Malay Political structure Colony King  - 1511-1521 Manuel I  - 1640-1641 John IV Captains-major  - 1512-1514 Ruí de Brito Patalim (first)  - 1638-1641 Manuel de Sousa Coutinho (last) Captains-general  - 1616-1635 António Pinto da Fonseca (first)  - 1637-1641 Lu... Dutch Malacca Capital Malacca Town Language(s) Dutch, Malay Political structure Colony Governor  - 1641 - 1642 Jan van Twist  - 1824 - 1825 Hendrik S. van Son British Residents  - 1795 Archibald Brown  - 1803 - 1818 William Farquhar Historical era Imperialism  - Established 14 January, 1641  - British occupation 1795-1818  - Anglo-Dutch Treaty 17 March, 1824... For the province, see Sulu Location of Sulu in the Philippines Capital Jolo Language(s) Arabic (official), Tausug, Malay, Banguingui, Bajau languages Religion Islam Government Monarchy Sultan  - 1450-1480 Shariful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr  - 1884-1899 Jamal ul-Kiram I History  - Established 1450  - Annexed by USA 1899 The Sultanate... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jementah Civil War happened in 1879 in Jementah, Sultanate of Johor when Tengku Alam, the heir of Sultan Ali of Muar refused to give the district of Muar under temporary administration of Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor. ... State motto: Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti State anthem: Ibu Pertiwiku Capital Kuching Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Abang Muhammad Salahuddin  - Ketua Menteri Abdul Taib Mahmud History    - Brunei Sultanate 19th century   - Brooke dynasty 1841   - Japanese occupation 1941-1945   - British control 1946   - Accession into Malaysia 1963  Area  - Total 124,450... British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ... The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London (one of several), was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in London on March 17, 1824. ... The Burney Treaty was a treaty signed between Siam and the British in 1826. ... The Straits Settlements were a collection of territories of the British East India Company in Southeast Asia, which were given collective administration in 1826. ... Larut War was a series of four wars started in July 1861 and ended with the signing of the Pangkor Treaty of 1874. ... The Klang War or Selangor Civil War took place in the Malay state of Selangor and was fought between Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, the administrator of Klang and Raja Mahadi bin Raja Sulaiman from 1867 to 1874. ... The Pangkor Treaty of 1874 was a treaty signed between the British and the Sultan of Perak. ... The Federated Malay States (FMS) was a federation of four states on the Malay Peninsula - Pahang, Perak, Selangor, and Negeri Sembilan - established by the British government in 1895, and lasted until 1946, when they together with the Straits Settlements and the Unfederated Malay States formed the Malayan Union. ... The Unfederated Malay States were five Malay states, namely Johore Terengganu Kelantan Kedah Perlis Together the states were not a single entity but merely a category to describe those states which were not Federated Malay States or Straits Settlements. ... The Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1906 (in which the Malays were not represented) effectively dissected the northern Malay states into two parts: Pattani, Narathiwat, Songkhla, Satun and Yala remained under Siam, but Siam relinquished its claims to sovereignty over Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis, and Terengganu to Great Britain. ... The Battle of Penang occured in 1914, during World War I. It was a naval action. ... Motto: Pergo et Perago (Latin: I undertake and I achieve”) British North Borneo Capital Jesselton Language(s) Malay, English Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1882 - 1901 Victoria  - 1952 - 1963 Elizabeth II Governor  - 1896 - 1901 Robert Scott Historical era New Imperialism  - North Borneo Company May, 1882  - British protectorate 1888  - Japanese invasion January 1... Mat Salleh Rebellion was a series of major disturbances in North Borneo, now Malaysian state of Sabah, from 1894 to 1900. ... Throughout much of the Second World War, British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak were under Japanese occupation. ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... On January 23, 1942, the Parit Sulong Massacre was committed against Allied soldiers by members of the Imperial Guards Division of the Imperial Japanese Army. ... Combatants Australian 8th Division Indian III Corps 53rd British Infantry Brigade Royal Air Force Imperial Guards Division IJA Commanders Gordon Bennett Charles Anderson H. C. Duncan â€  Black Jack Galleghan Takuma Nishimura Strength 4000 Infantry 60 aircraft Several Thousand Infantry 400 aircraft Casualties Large number killed or wounded (+200 POWs executed... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... During the Japanese Occupation of Malaya, control of the State of Kedah was given to Thailand by the Japanese. ... The Battle of North Borneo was fought from June 17 to August 15 of 1945 between Australia and Japan. ... October 24, 1945. ... The Malayan Union was formed on April 1, 1946 by the British. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... Hari Merdeka (Independence Day) is a national day of Malaysia commemorating the independence of the Federation of Malaya from British colonial rule. ... Motto Anthem Negaraku Capital (and largest city) Kuala Lumpur3 Official languages Malay2 Demonym Malaysian Government Federal constitutional monarchy  -  Yang di-Pertuan Agong Mizan Zainal Abidin  -  Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi Independence  -  from the United Kingdom (Malaya only) August 31, 1957   -  Federation (with Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore4) September 16, 1963  Area... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962–1966. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Malaya Brunei Parti Rakyat Brunei Indonesia Commanders General Sir Nigel Poett Yassin Affandi Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? The Brunei Revolt broke out on December 8, 1962 and was led by Yassin Affandi and his armed rebels. ... On 16 September 1963, Singapore joined the Federation of Malaya together with Sabah and Sarawak to form Malaysia. ... Combatants Malaysian Federal Government Malaysian Army Royal Malay Regiment Royal Ranger Regiment Royal Malaysian Air Force Royal Malaysian Police Malayan Communist Party Commanders Abdullah CD (Che Anjang Abdullah) - CPM leader Chin Peng - Secretary general Ah Sek (Ah Sze) Casualties Civilian casualties: The Communist Insurgency War or Second Malayan Emergency was... Under the Malaysian New Economic Policy, Bumiputras are given discounts on real estate. ... The Sultan Abdul Samad Building housed the Supreme Court at the time of the 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis. ... The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Henry Lovell Goldsworthy Gurney was born on 27 June 1898, in London. ...


Gurney's successor, Lieutenant General Gerald Templer was instructed by the British government to push for immediate measures to give ethnic Chinese residents the right to vote. He also pursued the Briggs's Plan, and sped up the formation of a Malayan army. At the same time he made it clear that the emergency itself was the main impediment to accelerating decolonisation. He also instituted financial rewards for detecting guerrillas by any civilians and expanded the intelligence network (Special Branch). Field Marshal Sir Gerald Templer, KG (1898 - 1979) was a British military commander. ...


Australia was willing to send troops to help a SEATO ally and the first Australian ground forces, the 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (2RAR), arrived in 1955.[7] The battalion would later be replaced by 3RAR, which would in turn be replaced by 1RAR. The Royal Australian Air Force contributed No. 1 Squadron (Avro Lincoln bombers) and No. 38 Squadron (C-47 transports), operating out of Singapore, early in the conflict. In 1955, the RAAF constructed Butterworth air base, from which Canberra bombers of No. 2 Squadron (replacing No. 1 Squadron) and Sabres of No. 78 Wing carried out ground attack missions against the guerillas. The Royal Australian Navy destroyers Warramunga and Arunta joined the force in June 1955. Between 1956 and 1960, the aircraft carriers Melbourne and Sydney and destroyers Anzac, Quadrant, Queenborough, Quiberon, Quickmatch, Tobruk, Vampire, Vendetta and Voyager were attached to the Commonwealth Strategic Reserve forces for 6-9 months at a time. Several of the destroyers fired on Communist positions in Johor State. External links kamouflage. ... 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (2 RAR) is an Australian light infantry battalion. ... Soldiers from 3 RAR during an exercise in 2004. ... Soldiers from 1 RAR arive in the Solomon Islands in December 2004 Members of 1RAR undergoing a training exercise. ... The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) is the Air Force branch of the Australian Defence Force. ... No. ... A line up of Avro Lincoln B.IIs (B.2) The Avro 694 Lincoln was a British 4-engined heavy bomber of World War II, first flying on June 9, 1944 and entering service in August 1945, too late to be used in action. ... No. ... The Douglas C-47 Skytrain or Dakota is a military transport that was developed from the Douglas DC-3 airliner. ... RMAF Base Butterworth is an air force base operated by the Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF). ... The English Electric Canberra was a first-generation jet bomber manufactured in large numbers through the 1950s. ... A Wedgetail from No. ... The North American F-86 Sabre (sometimes called the Sabrejet) was a transonic combat aircraft developed for the US Air Force. ... No. ... The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. ... HMAS Warramunga (D-10) was a Tribal class destroyer, laid down by the Cockatoo Docks and Engineering Company Limited at Sydney on the 10th February 1940, launched on 7 February 1942 by Mrs. ... The first HMAS Arunta (D-130/I-30) was a Tribal class destroyer, laid down by the Cockatoo Docks and Engineering Company Limited at Sydney in New South Wales on 15 November 1939, launched on 30 November 1940, and commissioned on 30 March 1942. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other ships of the construction name, see HMS Majestic. ... For other ships by her former name, see HMS Terrible. ... HMAS Anzac (D-59) was a Battle-class destroyer of the Royal Australian Navy, laid down by the Williamstown Naval Dockyard at Melbourne in Victoria on 23 September 1946, launched on 20 August 1948 by Mrs. ... HMAS Quadrant (G11/F01) was a Q class destroyer laid down by R. and W. Hawthorn, Leslie and Company Limited at Hebburn-on-Tyne in England on 24 September 1940, launched on 28 February 1942, commissioned in the Royal Navy on 26 November 1942, purchased by Australia and commissioned into... HMAS Queenborough (G30/F02) was a Q-class destroyer laid down by Swan Hunter and Wigham Richardson Limited at Wallsend-on-Tyne in England on 6 November 1940, launched on 16 January 1942, commissioned into the Royal Navy as HMS Queenborough on 10 December 1942, commissioned into the Royal Australian... HMAS Quiberon (G81/F03) was a Q class destroyer laid down by J. Samuel White and Company Limited of Cowes on the Isle of Wight in England on 14 October 1940, launched on 31 January 1942 by Mrs. ... HMAS Quickmatch (G92/F04) was a Q class destroyer laid down by J. Samuel White and Company Limited of Cowes on the Isle of Wight in England on 6 February 1941, launched on 11 April 1942 by Mrs. ... HMAS Tobruk (D-37) was a Battle-class destroyer laid down by he Cockatoo Docks and Engineering Company Propriety Limited at Sydney in New South Wales on 5 August 1946, launched on 20 December 1947 by Mrs. ... HMAS Vampire (D68/I68) was a V-class destroyer of the British and Royal Australian navies. ... The first HMAS Vendetta (D-69/I-69) was a V class destroyer laid down by the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, Limited, at Govan in Scotland on 25 November 1916, launched on 3 September 1917, completed on 17 October 1917 and commissioned into the Royal Navy, transferred to the... The second HMAS Voyager (D-04) was a Daring class destroyer laid down by the Cockatoo Docks and Engineering Company Limited at Sydney in New South Wales on 10 October 1949, launched on 1 May 1952 by Dame Pattie Menzies, wife of the Prime Minister, and commissioned on 12 February... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Realising that his conflict has not come to any fruition, Chin Peng sought a referendum with the ruling British government alongside many Malayan officials at Baling in 1955. The meeting was intended to pursue a mutual end to the conflict but the Malayan government representatives, led by Tunku Abdul Rahman, dismissed all of Chin Peng's demands. As a result, the conflict heightened and, in response, New Zealand sent NZSAS soldiers, No. 14 Squadron RNZAF and later No. 75 Squadron RNZAF, and other Commonwealth members also sent troops to aid the British. Also see bale. ... Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Hamid Shah (February 8, 1903–December 6, 1990) usually known as the Tunku (a princely title in Malaysia), and also called Bapa Kemerdekaan (Father of Independence) or Bapa Malaysia (Father of Malaysia), was Chief Minister of the Federation of Malaya... 14 Squadron RNZAF is an air force squadron of the Royal New Zealand Air Force. ... Formed from a World War II RAF bomber squadron intially equipped and largely manned by New Zealanders 75 Squadron RNZAF was formed from No. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total...


With the independence of Malaya under Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman on August 31, 1957, the insurrection lost its rationale as a war of colonial liberation. The last serious resistance from MRLA guerrillas ended with a surrender in the Telok Anson marsh area in 1958. The remaining MRLA forces fled to the Thai border and further east. is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... --202. ... Anthem Phleng Chat Royal anthem Phleng Sansoen Phra Barami Capital (and largest city) Bangkok Official languages Thai Demonym Thai Government Military Junta under Constitutional Monarchy  -  Monarch King Bhumibol Adulyadej  -  Prime Minister Surayud Chulanont  -  President of the Council for National Security Air Chief Marshal Chalit Pookpasuk (acting) Formation  -  Sukhothai Kingdom 1238...


On July 31, 1960, the Malayan government declared the Emergency was over, and Chin Peng left south Thailand for Beijing where he was accommodated by the Chinese authorities in the International Liaison Bureau, where many other Southeast Asian Communist Party leaders were housed. is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


During the conflict security forces killed 6,710 MRLA guerrillas and captured 1,287. Of the total number of guerrillas, 2,702 surrendered during the conflict and about 500 at the end of the conflict. There were 1,346 Malayan troops and 519 British military personnel killed. 2,478 civilians were killed and 810 recorded missing as a result of the conflict.


Comparisons

The conflicts in Malaya and Vietnam have been compared many times and it has been asked by historians how a British force of 35,000 succeeded where over a half million U.S. and others soldiers failed. However the two conflicts differ in several key points.

  • The MNLA was isolated and without external supporters.
  • The MNLA was politically isolated from the bulk of the population. It was, as mentioned above, a political movement almost entirely limited to ethnic Chinese; support among Muslim Malays and smaller tribes was scattered if existent at all. Malay nationalists supported the British because they promised independence in a Malay state; an MNLA victory would imply a state dominated by ethnic Chinese, and possibly a puppet state of Beijing or Moscow.
  • Britain never approached the Emergency as a conventional conflict and quickly implemented an effective combined intelligence (led by Malayan Police Special Branch against the political arm of the guerrilla movement)[8][9] and a 'hearts and minds' operation. At all levels, command was through a small committee of army, police and civilian administration officials, which allowed intelligence to be rapidly evaluated and disseminated.
  • Many Malayans had fought side by side with the British against the Japanese occupation in World War II, including Chin Peng. This is in contrast to Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia) where French colonial officials often operated as proxies and collaborators to the Japanese. This factor of trust between the locals and the colonials was what gave the British an advantage over the French and later, the Americans in Vietnam.

A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ...

Legacy

In the late 1960s the coverage of the My Lai massacre during the Vietnam War prompted the initiation of investigations in the UK concerning alleged war crimes perpetrated by British forces during the Emergency. One of such allegations is the Batang Kali massacre. No charges arose however, and it has been suggested that the incoming government of Edward Heath acted improperly in terminating the investigations.[citation needed] The My Lai Massacre ( , approximately ) (Vietnamese: thảm sát Mỹ Lai) was the mass murder of 347 to 504 defenseless Vietnamese civilians, mostly women and children, conducted by U.S. Army forces on March 16, 1968, in the hamlet of My Lai, during the Vietnam War. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The event dubbed the Batang Kali Massacre took place December 12, 1948. ... Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, OBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ...


In popular Malaysian culture, the Emergency has sometimes been portrayed as a primarily Malay struggle against the communists. However, this perception has been criticised by several, such as Information Minister Zainuddin Maidin, for not recognising Chinese and Indian efforts.[10]


In literature

  • The Emergency provided the subject and setting for the novel …And the Rain My Drink by Han Suyin published in 1954.
  • Author Leslie Thomas used his experiences as a conscripted British soldier during the emergency as the basis for his novel, The Virgin Soldiers.
  • Anthony Burgess wrote a trilogy of novels known as The Long Day Wanes: A Malayan Trilogy based on his experiences as an education officer in Malaysia at the time of the emergency.
  • The stage production (and later movie) Privates on Parade, starring John Cleese and Simon Jones is set during the Malayan Emergency and relates to the members of SADUSEA — the Song And Dance Unit, South-East Asia during the conflict.

Han Suyin (Chinese: 韩素音; pinyin: Hán Sùyīn) (born September 12, 1917), is the pen name of Elizabeth Comber, born Rosalie Elisabeth Kuanghu Chow (Chinese: 周光湖, pinyin: Zhōu Guānghú). She is a Chinese-born author of several books on modern China, novels set in East Asia, and autobiographical... Leslie Thomas, OBE (born March 22, 1931 in Newport, Monmouthshire) is a British author. ... Anthony Burgess (February 25, 1917 – November 22, 1993) was a British novelist, critic and composer. ... The Long Day Wanes: A Malayan Trilogy is the title of Anthony Burgesss trio of novels published in the late 1950s, which explore the effects of the Malayan Emergency and Britains final pull-out from its Southeast Asian territories. ... “Cleese” redirects here. ... Simon Jones may refer to: Simon Jones, British actor; Simon Jones, Welsh cricketer, who plays for England; Simon Jones, English Writer/Blogger/Photographer, Author of Meanwhile; Simon Jones, British musician. ...

See also

British military history is a long and varied topic, extending from the prehistoric and ancient historic period, through the Roman invasions of Julius Cæsar and Claudius and subsequent Roman occupation; warfare in the Mediaeval period, including the invasions of the Saxons and the Vikings in the Early Middle Ages... The Far East Strategic Reserve (FESR) began in response to communist aggression in South East Asia following World War II. The socio-political climate of the period was one of fear and uncertainty as totalitarianism evolved from fascism to communism. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Mohamed Amin and Malcolm Caldwell, ed's. The Making of a Neo Colony; 1977, Spokesman Books, UK., footnote, p. 216.
  2. ^ Rashid, Rehman (1993). A Malaysian Journey, p. 27. Self-published. ISBN 983-99819-1-9.
  3. ^ Karl Hack, Defense & Decolonization in South-East Asia, p. 113.
  4. ^ Joel E. Hamby Civil-military operations: joint doctrine and the Malayan Emergency, Joint Force Quarterly, Autumn, 2002, Paragraph 3,4
  5. ^ Curtis Peoples. The Use of the British Village Resettlement Model in Malaya and Vietnam, 4th Triennial Symposium (April 11-13, 2002), The Vietnam Center and Archive, Texas Tech University
  6. ^ Ongkili, James P. (1985). Nation-building in Malaysia 1946–1974, p. 79. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-582681-7.
  7. ^ AWM.
  8. ^ Leon Comber, "Malaya's Secret Police 1945–60. The Role of the Special Branch in the Malayan Emergency", PhD dissertation, Monash University, Melbourne, 2006 (to be jointly published by ISEAS (Institute of SE Asia Studies, Singapore and Monash Asia Institute)).
  9. ^ Clutterbuck, Richard (1967). The long long war: The emergency in Malaya, 1948–1960 Cassell. Cited at length in Vietnam War essay on Insurgency and Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya, eHistory, Ohio State University.
  10. ^ Kaur, Manjit (Dec. 16, 2006). Zam: Chinese too fought against communists. Malaysia Today.

Texas Tech University redirects here. ...

Bibliography

  • Stubbs, Richard (2004). Hearts and Minds in Guerilla Warfare: The Malayan Emergency 1948–1960 Eastern University, ISBN 981210352X.
  • Hack, Karl and Chin, C.C. (2004), Dialogues with Chin Peng: New Light on the Malayan Communist Party.
  • Hack, Karl (1999), 'Corpses, Prisoners of War and Captured documents: British and Communist Narratives of the Malayan Emergency, and the Dynamics of Intelligence Transformation;, in Intelligence and National Security.
  • Comber, Leon (2006), "Malaya's Secret Police 1945–60. The Role of the Special Branch in the Malayan Emergency", PhD dissertation, Monash University, Melbourne (to be jointly published by ISEAS (Institute of SE Asian Affairs, Singapore) and MAI (Monash Asia Institute)in early 2007.
  • Jumper, Roy (2001), Death Waits in the "Dark": The Senoi Praaq, Malaysia's Killer Elite, Greenwood Press, [ISBN: 0-313-31515-9]
  • Leon Comber, "The Malayan Special Branch on the Malayan-Thai Frontier during the Malayan Emergency", Intelligence and National Security, Vol. 21, No. 1 (February 2006), pp. 77–99.
  • Leon Comber, "The Malayan Security Service (1945–1948)", Intelligence and National Security, Vol. 18, No. 3, (Autumn 2003), pp. 128–153.
  • Nagl, John A (2002). Learning to Eat Soup With a Knife: Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam University of Chicago, ISBN 0226-56770-2

External links

  • Australian War Memorial (Malayan Emergency 1950–1960)
  • Far East Strategic Reserve Navy Association (Australia) Inc. (Origins of the FESR — Navy)
  • Malayan Emergency (AUS/NZ Overview)
  • Britain's Small Wars (Malayan Emergency)
  • PsyWar.Org (Psychological Operations during the Malayan Emergency)
  • www.roll-of-honour.com (Searchable database of Commonwealth Soldiers who died)

 
 

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