FACTOID # 18: Alaska spends more money per capita on elementary and secondary education than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Malayalam language
Malayalam
മലയാളം malayāḷaṁ
Spoken in: India 
Region: Predominantly in Kerala, Lakshadweep, Mahé (Mayyazhii) in Puducherry ,Arab regions, the United Kingdom the United States and Canada
Total speakers: 35,757,100[1].
35,351,000 in India,
37,000[2] in Malaysia, and
10,000 in Singapore 
Ranking: 29
Language family: Dravidian
 Southern
  Tamil-Kannada
   Tamil-Kodagu
    Tamil-Malayalam
     Malayalam 
Writing system: Malayalam script, historically written in Vattezhuthu script, Kolezhuthu script , Karzoni script. Also Arabic script (Arabi Malayalam), Indian alphabet(Roman alphabet) 
Official status
Official language of: Kerala State and the Union Territories of Lakshadweep & Puducherry
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: ml
ISO 639-2: mal
ISO 639-3: mal
This page contains Indic text. Without rendering support you may see irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts. More...

Malayalam (മലയാളം malayāḷaṁ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. It is one of the 23 official languages of India, spoken by around 37 million people. A native speaker of Malayalam is called a ‘Malayali’. Malayalam is also spoken widely in Lakshadweep, Mahé (Mayyazhi), Kodagu (Coorg) and Dakshina Kannada (South Canara). Malayalam is also spoken by a large population of Indian expatriates living in Arab States. , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Mahé (disambiguation). ... , Puducherry (formerly  ) is a Union Territory of India. ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... This is a sub-classification of the Dravidian family of languages. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Tamil-Kodagu languages are a subcategory of the Dravidian language family, and include Tamil, Malayalam, and other simmilar languages. ... The Tamil-Malayalam languages are a subcategory of the Dravidian language family, and include Tamil, Malayalam, and related dialects. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... The Malayalam script is an abugida of the Brahmic family, used to write the Malayalam language. ... An example of the Vatteluttu script from an inscription by Rajaraja Chola I at the Brihadisvara temple in Thanjavur. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... A Union Territory is an administrative division of India. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... , Puducherry (formerly  ) is a Union Territory of India. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Example. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the two Union Territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... Indian constitution recognizes 22 languages as National languages 1. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Mahé (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mahé (disambiguation). ... Location of the Kodagu district with respect to the other districts of Karnataka. ... Location of Dakshina Kannada district with respect to the other districts of Karnataka. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Arab world. ...


The language belongs to the family of Dravidian languages. The language Tamil and Malayalam has same origin from a common language. However, Malayalam has a script of its own, covering all the symbols of Sanskrit as well as special Dravidian letters. The word Malayalam is an apparent palindrome; however, strictly, it is not, as the next to last vowel is long and should properly be written with a diacritic or spelled double. For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... The Malayalam script is an abugida of the Brahmic family, used to write the Malayalam language. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... For the movie, see Palindromes (film). ...

Contents

Evolution

With Tamil, Toda, Kannada, Telugu and Tulu, Malayalam belongs to the southern group of Dravidian languages. Its affinity to Tamil is most striking. Proto-Tamil Malayalam, the common stock of Tamil and Malayalam apparently diverged over a period of four or five centuries from the ninth century on, resulting in the emergence of Malayalam as a language distinct from Tamil. As the language of scholarship and administration, Tamil greatly influenced the early development of Malayalam. Later the irresistible inroads the Namboothiris made into the cultural life of Kerala, the trade relationships with Arabs, and the invasion of Kerala by the Portuguese, establishing vassal states accelerated the assimilation of many Romance, Semitic and Indo-Aryan features into Malayalam at different levels spoken by different castes and religious communities like Muslims, Christians, Jews,Jainas and Hindus. Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Toda is a Dravidian language well known for its many fricatives and trills. ... “Kannada” redirects here. ... “Telugu” redirects here. ... Tulu is one of the minor languages of India with under 2,000,000 speakers. ... For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... The Namboothiris (Malayalam :നമ്പൂതിരി) are the Brahmins of Kerala, thought to be the most orthodox brahmins in India. ... A Keralite wearing a type of sari called set sari. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Jainism (pronounced in English as //), traditionally known as Jain Dharma (जैन धर्म) , is a classical religion with its origins in the prehistory of India. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...


In his Comparative Grammar of Dravidian Languages (1875), Bishop Robert Caldwell argued that Malayalam evolved out of Tamil and that the process took place during the Sangam period (first five centuries A.D.) when Kerala belonged to the larger political unit called Tamilakam, the apogee of Dravidian civilization. Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ...


Grammatically, Malayalam differs from Tamil about as much as, say, Spanish and Portuguese do. However, Malayalam has lost the personal endings of the verb, which Tamil retains.


Development of literature

The earliest written record of Malayalam is the Vazhappalli inscription (ca. 830 AD). The early literature of Malayalam comprised three types of composition:

  • Classical songs known as Naadan Pattu of the Tamil tradition
  • Manipravalam of the Sanskrit tradition, which permitted a generous interspersing of Sanskrit with Malayalam
  • The folk song rich in native elements

Malayalam poetry to the late twentieth century betrays varying degrees of the fusion of the three different strands. The oldest examples of Pattu and Manipravalam respectively are Ramacharitam and Vaishikatantram, both of the twelfth century. While the Pattu school flourished among certain sections of the society, the literature of the elite was composed in the curious mixture of Sanskrit and Malayalam which is referred to as Manipravalam, mani meaning ruby (Malayalam) and pravalam meaning coral (Sanskrit). ...


The earliest extant prose work in the language is a commentary in simple Malayalam, Bhashakautaliyam (12th century) on Chanakya’s Arthasastra. Adhyathmaramayanam by Thunchaththu Ramanujan Ezhuthachan is one of the most important works in Malayalam Literature. Malayalam prose of different periods exhibit various levels of influence from different languages such as Tamil, Sanskrit, Prakrit, Pali, Hebrew, Hindi, Urdu, Arabic, Persian, Syriac, Portuguese, Dutch, French and English. Although this may be true, Malayalam is strikingly similar to Tamil, considerably more than the similarity between modern Dutch and German. Modern literature is rich in poetry, fiction, drama, biography, and literary criticism. Adhyathmaramayanam is the Malayalam version of Ramayana written by Thunchaththu Ramanujan Ezhuthachan in the early 17th Century. ... Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan Malayalam തുഞ്ചത്തു് എഴുത്തച്ഛന്‍ (commonly known as Thunjath Ramanujan Ezhuthachan) is considered as the Father of the Malayalam language. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the two central official languages of India, the other being English. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... “Arabic” redirects here. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


==Phonology== For the consonants and vowels, the IPA is given, followed by the Malayalam character and the ISO 15919 transliteration. A romanization or latinization is a system for representing a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, where the original word or language used a different writing system. ...


Vowels

  Short Long
Front Central Back Front Central Back
Close /i/ ഇ i /ɨ̆/ * ŭ /u/ ഉ u /iː/ ഈ ī   /uː/ ഊ ū
Mid /e/ എ e /ə/ * a /o/ ഒ o /eː/ ഏ ē   /oː/ ഓ ō
Open   /a/ അ a     /aː/ ആ ā  
  • */ɨ̆/ is the samvr̥tokāram, an epenthentic vowel in Malayalam. Therefore, it has no independent vowel letter (because it never occurs at the beginning of words) but, when it comes after a consonant, there are various ways of representing it. In medieval times, it was just represented with the symbol for /u/, but later on it was just completely omitted (that is, written as an inherent vowel). In modern times, it is written in two different ways - the Northern style, in which a chandrakkala is used, and the Southern or Travancore style, in which the diacritic for a /u/ is attached to the preceding consonant and a chandrakkala is written above.
  • */a/ (phonetically central: [ä]) and /ə/ are both represented as basic or "default" vowels in the abugida script (although /ə/ never occurs word-initially and therefore does not make use of the letter അ), but they are distinct vowels.

Malayalam has also borrowed the Sanskrit diphthongs of /äu/ (represented in Malayalam as ഔ, au) and /ai/ (represented in Malayalam as ഐ, ai), although these mostly occur only in Sanskrit loanwords. Traditionally (as in Sanskrit), four vocalic consonants (technically consonants followed by the samvr̥tokāram, which is not officially a vowel) have been classified as vowels: vocalic r (ഋ, /rɨ̆/, ), long vocalic r (ൠ, /rɨː/, r̥̄), vocalic l (ഌ, /lɨ̆/, ) and long vocalic l (ൡ, /lɨː/, l̥̄). Except for the first, the other three have been omitted from the current script used in Kerala as as there are no words in current Malayalam that use them. In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A central vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A central vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A close vowel is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. ... A mid vowel is a vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... An open vowel is a vowel sound of a type used in most spoken languages. ... In poetry and phonetics, epenthesis (, from Greek epi on + en in + thesis putting) is the insertion of a consonant, a vowel, or a whole syllable into a word, usually to facilitate pronunciation. ... Virama is a generic term for the diacritic character in many Brahmic scripts that is used to suppress an inherent vowel sound that occurs with every consonant character. ... Flag for former princely state of Travancore Travancore or Thiruvithaamkoor (Malayalam: തിരുവിതാങ്കൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാങ്കോട് []) was a princely state in India with its capital at Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram). ...


Consonants

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop Unaspirated /p/ പ p /b/ ബ b /t̪/ ത t /d̪/ ദ d /t/ * t /ʈ/ /ɖ/ /ʧ/ ച c /ʤ/ ജ j /k/ ക k /g/ ഗ g
Aspirated /pʰ/ ഫ ph /bʱ/ ഭ bh /t̪ʰ/ ഥ th /d̪ʱ/ ധ dh /ʈʰ/ṭh /ɖʱ/ḍh /ʧʰ/ ഛ ch /ʤʱ/ ഝ jh /kʰ/ ഖ kh /gʱ/ ഘ gh
Nasal /m/ മ m /n̪/ ന n /n/ ന * n /ɳ/ /ɲ/ ഞ ñ /ŋ/
Approximant /ʋ/ വ v /ɻ/l /j/ യ y
Liquid /r/r
Fricative /f/ ഫ* f /s/ സ s /ʂ/ /ɕ/ ശ ś /ɦ/ ഹ h
Tap /ɾ/ ര r
Lateral approximant /l/ ല l /ɭ/
  • The unaspirated alveolar plosive used to have a separate character but it has become obsolete because it only occurs in geminate form (when geminated it is written with a റ below another റ) or immediately following other consonants (in these cases, റ or ററ is usually written in small size underneath the first consonant). To see how the archaic letter looked, find the Malayalam letter in the row for t here. In current Malayalam, this sound is used only for words borrowed from European languages (such as English, French, Portuguese or Dutch).
  • The alveolar nasal used to have a separate character but this is now obsolete (to see how it looked, find the Malayalam letter in the row for n here) and the sound is now almost always represented by the symbol that was originally used only for the dental nasal. However, both sounds are extensively used in current colloquial and official Malayalam.
  • The letter ഫ represents both /pʰ/, a native phoneme, and /f/, which only occurs in borrowed words.

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some obstruents. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some obstruents. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Liquid consonants, or liquids, are approximant consonants that are not classified as semivowels (glides) because they do not correspond phonetically to specific vowels (in the way that, for example, the initial in English yes corresponds to ). The class of liquids can be divided into lateral liquids and rhotics. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... The alveolar nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The dental nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...

The script

Main article: Malayalam script

In the early ninth century vattezhuthu (round writing) traceable through the Grantha script, to the pan-Indian Brahmi script, gave rise to the Malayalam writing system. It is syllabic in the sense that the sequence of graphic elements means that syllables have to be read as units, though in this system the elements representing individual vowels and consonants are for the most part readily identifiable. In the 1960s Malayalam dispensed with many special letters representing less frequent conjunct consonants and combinations of the vowel /u/ with different consonants. The Malayalam script is an abugida of the Brahmic family, used to write the Malayalam language. ... Grantha (from Sanskrit ग्रन्थ grantha meaning book or manuscript) is an ancient script that was prevalent in South India. ... Brāhmī refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 3rd century BC. The best known and earliest dated inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka. ...


Malayalam language script consists of 51 letters including 16 vowels and 37 consonants[3]. The earlier style of writing is now substituted with a new style from 1981. This new script reduces the different letters for typeset from 900 to less than 90. This was mainly done to include Malayalam in the keyboards of typewriters and computers.


In 1999 a group called Rachana Akshara Vedi, led by Chitrajakumar and K.H. Hussein, produced a set of free fonts containing the entire character repertoire of more than 900 glyphs. This was announced and released along with an editor in the same year at Thiruvananthapuram, the capital city of Kerala. In 2004, the fonts were released under the GNU GPL license by Richard Stallman of the Free Software Foundation at the Cochin University of Science and Technology in Kochi, Kerala. “Font” redirects here. ... variant glyphs representing the character a (allographs of a) in the Zapfino typeface. ... An editor is a software tool. ... , Thiruvananthapuram   (Malayalam: തിരുവനന്തപുരം TiruvanÅ­ntapuraṁ), also known as Trivandrum, is the capital of the Indian state of Kerala and the headquarters of the Thiruvananthapuram District. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... GPL redirects here. ...


Dialects and external influences

Variations in intonation patterns, vocabulary, and distribution of grammatical and phonological elements are observable along the parameters of region, religion, community, occupation, social stratum, style and register. Influence of Sanskrit is very prominent in formal Malayalam used in literature. The Malayalam that is used in talking and older Malayalam have an extremely limited amount of Sanskrit words, and it is almost identical to Tamil. Like in other parts of India, Sanskrit was considered an aristocratic and scholastic language, similar to Latin in European history. Intonation, in linguistics, is the variation of pitch when speaking. ... Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Loan words and influences from Hebrew, Syriac and Ladino abound in the Jewish Malayalam dialects, as well as English, Portuguese and Greek in the Christian dialects, while Arabic and Persian elements predominate in the Muslim dialects (Mappila Malayalam, Beary bashe). “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... Judeo-Malayalam is the traditional language spoken by the Cochin Jews (also called Malabar Jews), from Kerala, in southern India, spoken today by about 8,000 people in Israel and by probably fewer than 100 in India. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Malayalam language spoken by the Mappila Muslim community of Kerala is called Mappila dialect of Malayalam. ... Beary bashe or Naaknik bashe is a Dravidian language spoken by a religious minority of Muslims in a region known as Tulunadu in the state of Karnataka. ...


Words Adopted from Sanskrit

When words are adopted from Sanskrit, they are usually changed to conform to Malayalam norms:

  1. Masculine Sanskrit words ending in a short "a" in the nominative singular change their ending to "an". For example, Krishna -> Krishnan[citation needed]. However, there are exceptions - for example, if someone’s first name were a Sanskrit derived name like Kṛṣṇan, a person talking about him might drop the "n" if it were immediately followed by his surname (this only applies for certain surnames)[citation needed].
  2. Feminine words ending in a long "ā" or "ī" are changed so that they now end in a short "a" or "i", for example Sītā -> Sīta and Lakṣmī -> Lakṣmi. However, the long vowel still appears in compound words like Sītādēvi or Lakṣmīdēvi. Some vocative case forms of both Sanskrit and native Malayalam words end in ā or ī, and there are also a small number of nominative ī endings that have not been shortened - a prominent example being the word Śrī,
  3. Masculine words ending in a long "ā" in the nominative singular have a "vŭ" added to them, for example Brahmā -> Brahmāvŭ[citation needed].
  4. Words which end in "n" in the Sanskrit nominative singular but have a different root - for example, the Sanskrit root of "Bhagavān" is actually "Bhagavat"- are also changed. The original root is ignored and "Bhagavān" (for example) is taken as the basic form of the noun when declining.[citation needed]
  5. Sanskrit words describing things or animals rather than people which end in a short "a" have an "m" added to the end in Malayalam. For example, Rāmāyaṇa -> Rāmāyaṇam. "Things and animals" and "people" are not differentiated based on whether or not they are sentient beings - for example Narasimha becomes Narasimham and not Narasimhan whilst Ananta becomes Anantan even though both are sentient - but on purely arbitrary criteria.[citation needed]
  6. All other nouns like "Vishnu", "Prajāpati" etc stay the same.[citation needed]

Malayalam also has its influence from Spanish, as is evident from the use of word like 'mesa' for a small table. The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun, which generally marks the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... Krishnan is a popular name in south India. ... Lord Rama (center) with wife Sita, brother Lakshmana and devotee Hanuman. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... The vocative case (also called the fifth case) is the case used for a noun identifying the person (animal, object, etc. ... Brahma, the Creator, is depicted with four heads, each reciting one of the four Vedas. ... Bhagavan, also written Bhagwan or Bhagawan, from the Sanskrit nt-stem (nominative/vocative ) (hindi sandhi vichchhed:भ्+अ+ग्+अ+व्+आ+न्+अ)literally means: भ bh=bhoo soil अ a=agni fire ग g=gagan sky वा va=vaayu air न n=neer water BHAGAVAN is said to be composed up of all five matters other meanings possessing fortune, blessed, prosperous... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Yoga Narasimha form at a temple in Vijayanagara, Hampi, India (man-lion) (also spelt as Narasingh, Narasinga) (नरसिंह in Devanagari) is described as the fourteenth incarnation (avatara) of Vishnu within the Puranic texts of Hinduism [1] who takes the form of half-man / half-lion, having a human torso and lower... Ananta (अनन्‍त) is a Sanskrit word meaning without end or infinity. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ... In Hinduism, Prajapati is Lord of Creatures, thought to be depicted on ancient Harappan seals, sitting in yogic posture, with an erection and what appear to be bison horns. ...


References

  1. ^ Malayalam. Ethnologue. Retrieved on 2007-05-28.
  2. ^ Languages of Malaysia. Ethnologue. Retrieved on 2007-05-28.
  3. ^ Language. kerala.gov.in. Retrieved on 2007-05-28.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

External links

Wikipedia
Malayalam language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Malayalam_language information. LANGUAGE SCHOOL EXPLORER (1915 words)
Malayalam is also spoken by a large population of Indian expatriates living in Arab States.
The language belongs to the family of Dravidian languages.
Malayalam poetry to the late twentieth century betrays varying degrees of the fusion of the three different strands.
Languages of Kerala,Language in Kerala,Kerala Malayalam Language,Kerala Travel Tours (409 words)
Subsequently the synonyms Malayanma and Malayayma came into being as denoting the language of the Malayalam county and finally the name of the land itself was taken over as the name of its language.
Evidently Malayalam belongs to the Dravidian family of languages, but there is considerable difference of opinion about the exact nature of its relationship with the other languages of the stock, with Tamil in particular towards which it bears the closest affinity.
The intimacy that subsisted between the two languages all through the centuries, the identity that the grammars and vocabularies of both the languages evince, and the old practice of using the term ‘Tamil’; as a synonym for Malayalam have all lent considerable support to this theory.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m