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Encyclopedia > Malayalam calendar
Calendars
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Malayalam calendar (also known as Malayalam Era or Kollavarsham) is a solar Sidereal calendar used in the state of Kerala in South India. The Era started in the year 825 AD. A calendar is a system for assigning calendar dates to days. ... A Tunisian calendar showing Gregorian, Islamic and Berber dates // Afghan calendar (Afghan Calendar Project) Armenian calendar Astronomical year numbering Baháí calendar Bengali calendar Berber calendar Buddhist calendar Chinese calendar Coptic calendar Ethiopian calendar Fiscal year Germanic calendar (still in use by Ásatrúar) Gregorian calendar Hebrew calendar Hindu calendars Indian... Astronomical year numbering is based on BCE/CE (or BC/AD) year numbering, but follows normal decimal integer numbering more strictly. ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwīm-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... The ISO week date system is a leap week calendar system that is part of the ISO 8601 date and time standard. ... A lunisolar calendar is a calendar whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. ... A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving on the celestial sphere). ... A lunar calendar is a calendar that is based on cycles of the moon phase. ... The Assyrian calender is a lunar-based calender that begins in the year 4750 BC, marking the finishing of the first temple build by the Assyrians for the God Ashur. ... The Attic calendar is the calendar that was in use in ancient Attica, the ancestral territory of the Athenian polis. ... The sun stone also called the Aztec calendar on display at the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City. ... The Tonalpohualli,the day-count in English, is the 260 day sacred calendar of early Mesoamericans. ... The Xiuhpohualli was a calendar cycle constructed from a count of 365 days, used by the Aztecs and other Nahua peoples from the central Mexican region during the Postclassic period of Mesoamerican chronology. ... In the Babylonian calendar a year consisted of 12 lunar months, each beginning when a new crescent moon was first sighted low on the western horizon at sunset. ... The Baháí calendar, also called the Badí‘ calendar, used by the Baháí Faith, is a solar calendar with regular years of 365 days, and leap years of 366 days. ... The Bengali calendar (Bengali: ) is a traditional solar calendar used in Bangladesh and the states of West Bengal, Assam and Tripura in eastern India. ... The Berber calendar is the annual calendar used by Berber people in North Africa. ... Bikram Samwat (Bikram Sambat, Devnagari:बिक्रम संवत, abbreviated B.S.) is the calendar established by Indian emperor Vikramaditya. ... The Buddhist calendar is used on mainland southeast Asia in the countries of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Myanmar (formerly Burma) in several related forms. ... The term Celtic calendar is used to refer to a variety of calendars used by Celtic-speaking peoples at different times in history. ... The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church. ... A French Revolutionary Calendar in the Historical Museum of Lausanne. ... The Hebrew calendar (‎) or Jewish calendar is the calendar used by Jews for religious purposes. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... The Javanese calendar is a calendar used by the Javanese people. ... The Juche Idea (also Juche Sasang or Chuche; pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official state ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ... The Revised Julian calendar is a calendar that was considered for adoption by the Eastern Orthodox churches at a synod in Istanbul in May 1923. ... The Maya calendar is a system of distinct calendars and almanacs used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by some modern Maya communities in highland Guatemala. ... Tzolkin (in the revised Guatemala Mayan languages Academy orthography which is now preferred, formerly and commonly tzolkin) is the name bestowed by Mayanist scholars upon the version of the 260-day Mesoamerican calendar which was used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. ... The Maya Haab calendar is a 365-day solar calendar whose dates indicate the position of the Sun at noon relative to the zenith over the Yucatan peninsula. ... A calendar that commemorates the first year of the Republic as well as the election of Sun Yat-sen as the provisional President. ... The Nanakshahi (Punjabi: , ) calendar is a solar calendar that was adopted by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee to determine the dates for important Sikh events. ... Nepal Sambat (Nepal Bhasa: नेपाल सम्बत) is a lunar calendar. ... The Pawukon is a 210 day calendar that has its origins in the Hindu religion in Bali, Indonesia. ... The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. ... Page of the Soviet revolutionary calendar showing December 12, 1937 The Soviet revolutionary calendar was in use in the USSR from 1929 to 1940. ... The Tamil Calendar is followed by the Tamil speaking state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in India, and by the Tamil population in Malaysia, Singapore & Sri Lanka. ... The Thai lunar calendar or Patitin Chantarakati (Thai: ปฏิทินจันทรคติ) was replaced by the Patitin Suriyakati (ปฎิทินสุริยคติ) Thai solar calendar in AD 1888 2431 BE for most purposes, but the Chantarakati still determines most Buddhist feast or holy days, as well as a day for the famous Loy Krathong festival. ... The Thai solar, or Suriyakati (สุริยคติ), calendar is used in traditional and official contexts in Thailand, although the Western calendar is sometimes used in business. ... The Tibetan calendar is a lunisolar calendar, that is, the Tibetan year is composed of either 12 or 13 lunar months, each beginning and ending with a new moon. ... Tết display in Ho Chi Minh City Tết Nguyên Đán (Sino-Vietnamese for Feast of the First Morning, derived from Hán nôm 節元旦), more commonly known by its shortened name Tết, is the most important holiday in Vietnam. ... By the traditional Xhosa calendar, the year began in June and ended in May, when Canopus, a large star visible in the Southern Hemisphere, signalled the time for harvesting. ... The Zoroastrian calendar is a religious calendar used by members of the Zoroastrian faith, and it is an approximation of the (tropical) solar calendar. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Runic calendar - Norwegian - carved wood. ... The Pre-Columbian people of Mesoamerica kept track of time with calendars which had ritual and religious meaning. ... Long Count redirects here. ... In the Mesoamerican calendars, Calendar Round dates are composed by interlacing the dates of the Tzolkin 260 day period (eg the Tzolkin) with that of the 365 day period (known in the Maya language as the Haab). ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ...

Contents

Origin

Almost all of the regions in Kerala used Kali abda before the acceptance of Kollavarsham.[1][2]


The start of the Malayalam Era has been attributed to many origins. The popular notion[3][4] according to Hermann Gundert, is that it coordinated with consecration of a Shiva temple during the reign of Udaya Marthanda Varma. According to K Sivasankaran Nair, an amateur historian [5], the era was started by Nestorian Christian merchants who settled in KorukeNi kollam, near present day Kollam[6]. Another theory is that Kollavarsham was started by the disciples of Sankaracharya in 825 AD.[7] Dr. Herman Gundert Rev. ... For the 1994 film, see Amateur (film). ... The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Sri Adi Sankara Adi Shankaracharya or Adi Shankara (the first Shankara in his lineage), reverentially called Bhagavatpada Acharya (the teacher at the feet of Lord), Shankara (approximately 509- 477 BC (though some claim 788-820 CE)) was the most famous Advaita philosopher who had a profound influence on the growth... Look up AD, ad-, and ad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The first mention of this era in any official document is in the Mampalli plates given by SriVallabhan Kotha in the year 973 AD (149 ME).


Calendar system

The malayalam year (solar calendar) starts on the day of vernal equinox (in mid April), in the month of Medam (Mesham in Sanskrit) when the sun moves from the southern to northern hemisphere. This coincides with new year festivities elsewhere in India which occur during the same time, such as Bihu (Assam), Baisakhi (Punjab) etc and is traditionally celebrated as Vishu in Kerala. The last month of Malayalam Calendar is "Meenam". Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The vernal equinox (or spring equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical spring. ... Vishu (Malayalam:വിഷു)- (American Vjéshu), (Tamil:வீஷூ) is a new year festival held in the state of Kerala in South India (and adjoining areas of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu). ...


Months of Malayalam Calendar

The following are the months of the Malayalam calendar:

Comparative table showing corresponding months of other calendars
Months in Malayalam Era In Malayalam Gregorian Calendar Tamil calendar Saka era Hijra Era
Medam മേടം April-May Chithtrai - Vaikasi Chaitra - Vaisakha Rabi`al-Awwal - Rabi`ath-Thani
Edavam ഏടവം May-June Vaikasi- Aani Vaisakha - Jyaistha Rabi`ath-Thani - Jumada l-Ula
Midhunam മിധുനം June-July Aani - Aadi Jyaistha - Asada Jumada l-Ula - Jumada t-Tania
Karkidakam കര്‍ക്കടകം July-August Aadi - Aavani Asada - Sravana Jumada t-Tania - Rajab
Chingam ചിങ്ങം August- September Aavani-Purattasi Sravan- Bhadrapada Rajab - Sha`ban
Kanni കന്നി September-October Purattasi-Aippasi Bhadrapada - Asvina Sha`ban - Ramadan
Thulam തുലാം October-November Aippasi - Karthigai Asvina - Kartika Ramadan - Shawwal
Vrishchikam വൃശ്ചികം November-December Karthigai - Margazhi Kartika - Agrahayana Shawwal - Dhu l-Qa`da
Dhanu ധനു December-January Margazhi - Thai Agrahayana - Pausa Dhu l-Qa`da - Dhu l-Hijja
Makaram മകരം January-February Thai - Maasi Pausa - Magha Dhu l-Hijja - Muharram
Kumbham കുംഭം February-March Maasi - Panguni Magha - Phalguna Muharram - Safar
Meenam മീനം March-April Panguni - Chithtrai Phalguna - Chaitra Safar - Rabi`al-Awwal

Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... The Tamil Calendar is followed by the Tamil speaking state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in India, and by the Tamil population in Malaysia, Singapore & Sri Lanka. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 Events Romans conquer the Ordovices, located in present-day northern Wales, as well as the Silures. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwīm-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate...

Weeks

Weekdays in the Malayalam calendar are suffixed with Azhcha(Week). Sunday would be njAyaRAzhcha, Monday thinkaLAzhcha and so on.

Comparative table showing corresponding weekdays
Weekday in Malayalam മലയാളം English
njayar ഞായര്‍ Sunday
thinkal തിങ്കള്‍ Monday
chouwa ചൊവ്വ Tuesday
budhan ബുധന്‍ Wednesday
vyazham വ്യാഴം Thursday
velli വെള്ളി Friday
Shani ശനി Saturday

Like the months above, there are twenty seven stars starting from Aswathi (Ashvinī in Sanskrit) and ending in Revathi. The 365 days of the year are divided into groups of fourteen days called Njattuvela, each one bearing the name of a star. A nakshatra (Devanagari: नक्षत्र) or lunar mansion is one of the 27 or 28 divisions of the sky, identified by the prominent star(s) in them, that the Moon passes through during its monthly cycle, as used in Hindu astronomy and astrology. ... Ashvini () is the name of a Hindu constellation (the head of Aries, or the first of the 28 Nakshatras). ...


Derived names

Many events in Kerala are related to the dates in the Malayalam calendar.


The agricultural activities of Kerala are centred around the seasons. The Southwest monsoon which starts around June 1 is known as Edavappathi, meaning mid- Edavam. The North east monsoon which starts during mid October is called thulavarsham (rain in the month of thulam). The two harvests of paddy are called Kannikkoythu and Makarakkoythu (harvest in the month kanni and makaram) respectively. For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ...


The Makaravilakku festival is celebrated in the Ayyappa Temple at Sabarimala on the 1st day of month Makaram. This marks the grand finale of the two-month period to the Sabarimala pilgrimage. Ayyappan, Malayalam അയ്യപ്പന്‍, is one of southern India’s most revered deities. ... Sabarimala (Malayalam :ശബരിമല) is a pilgrim centre in Kerala in the Western Ghat mountain ranges of India. ...


Dates

The festivals Vishu(new year) is celebrated on the 1st of Medam and Onam in the month of Chingam.Interestingly,People in southern Kerala also consider Chingam as the start of the year cycle. The months are named after the constellations through which the Sun. Thus Chingam (from Simham or Lion) is named after the constellation Leo. Vishu (Malayalam:വിഷു)- (American Vjéshu), (Tamil:வீஷூ) is a new year festival held in the state of Kerala in South India (and adjoining areas of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu). ... Onam (IPA: [oːɳam], Malayalam: ഓണം) is an annual harvest festival, celebrated mainly in the south Indian state of Kerala. ... Chingam is the first month of the Malayalam calendar. ...


Notes

  1. ^ The hindu
  2. ^ It was 3926 years into the Kali Yuga in 824 AD. In the Travancore State Manual, Ch:XIII,pages 49-50, by Sri.T.K.Velu Pillai according to keralainfoservice
  3. ^ Kerala government website
  4. ^ In the Travancore State Manual, Ch:XIII,pages 49-50, by Sri.T.K.Velu Pillai according to keralainfoservice
  5. ^ The Hindu
  6. ^ 'K Sivasankaran Nair, vENadinte pariNAmam വേണാടിന്‍റെ പരിണാമം, DC books, pages 28-29
  7. ^ Namboothiri Website

See also

A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... The Bengali calendar (Bengali: ) is a traditional solar calendar used in Bangladesh and the states of West Bengal, Assam and Tripura in eastern India. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Onam (5262 words)
It is a popular festival among the cultural repertoire of Malayalees, and falls during the month of Chingam (August/September as per the Gregorian calendar), the first month of the Malayalam calendar, and lasts for ten days.
Malayalam () is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India.
Malayalam calendar (also known as Malayalam Era or Kollavarsham) is a solar Sideral calendar used in the state of Kerala in South India.
Malayalam Calendar (288 words)
Malayalam calendar also known as ‘Malayalam Era’ or ‘Kollavarsham’ is a solar sideral calendar used in the state of Kerala in South India.
According to the traditional Malayalam calendar, it is the 1st day of Malayalam month Medam, that marks the beginning of the new year.Whereas some observe Onam on the beginning of the first month of Malayalam calendar known as the month of Chingam.
The different events in Malayalam calendar corresponds to the monsoon season and the different periods of agricultural harvesting of the region.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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