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Encyclopedia > Malay language
Malay
Bahasa Malaysia / Bahasa Melayu, بهاس ملايو
Spoken in: Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, southern Thailand, southern Philippines, Australia
Total speakers: 20–30 million (first speaker), almost 400 million (second speaker including Indonesians) 
Ranking: 54 (does not include Indonesian)
Language family: Austronesian
 Malayo-Polynesian (MP)
  Nuclear MP
   Sunda-Sulawesi
    Malayic
     Malayan
      Local Malay
       Malay 
Writing system: Rumi (Latin alphabet) (official in Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia; co-official in Brunei) and Jawi (Arabic script) (co-official in Brunei). Historically written in Pallava, Kawi and Rencong 
Official status
Official language in: Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, East Timor (working language)
Regulated by: Majlis Bahasa Brunei Darussalam - Indonesia - Malaysia (Brunei Darussalam - Indonesia - Malaysia Language Council), Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (Institute of Language and Literature) Pusat Bahasa, Indonesia
Language codes
ISO 639-1: ms
ISO 639-2: may (B)  msa (T)
ISO 639-3: variously:
msa – Malay (generic)
mly – Malay (specific)
btj – Bacanese Malay
bve – Berau Malay
bvu – Bukit Malay
coa – Cocos Islands Malay
jax – Jambi Malay
meo – Kedah Malay
mqg – Kota Bangun Kutai Malay
xmm – Manado Malay
max – North Moluccan Malay
mfa – Pattani Malay
msi – Sabah Malay
vkt – Tenggarong Kutai Malay

The Malay language (ISO 639-1 code: MS)[1][2] (Malay: Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesia) | Bahasa Malaysia (Malaysia) | Bahasa Melayu (Singapore and Brunei); Jawi script: بهاس ملايو) is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people and people of other races who reside in the Malay Peninsula, southern Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore, central eastern Sumatra, the Riau islands and parts of the coast of Borneo.[3]. Malayalam ( ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages used by some 351 million speakers. ... The Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages are a branch of the Austronesian family that are thought to have dispersed from a possible homeland in Sulawesi. ... The Sunda-Sulawesi languages (or Inner Hesperonesian or Inner Western Malayo-Polynesian languages) are a branch of the Austronesian family which include the languages of Sulawesi and the Greater Sunda Islands, as well as a few outliers such as Charmorro and Palauan, as outlined in Wouk and Ross (2002). ... The Malay language, also known locally as Bahasa Melayu or Bahasa Malaysia, is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people who reside in the Malay Peninsula, southern Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore, central eastern Sumatra, the Riau islands, and parts of the coast of Borneo. ... The Malay language (Malay: Bahasa Melayu; Jawi script: بهاس ملايو), is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people who reside in the Malay Peninsula, southern Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore, central eastern Sumatra, the Riau islands, parts of the coast of Borneo and even in the Netherlands[1]. It is an official... Local Malay languages are a group of closely related languages that are the results of Malay outposts across Malaysia and Indonesia. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Yawi. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tamil script. ... Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka or DBP is a government body that responsible to coordinate the use malay language in Malaysia and Brunei. ... The Pusat Bahasa (Indonesian for Language Center) is the institution responsible for designing and regulating the growth of the Indonesian language in Indonesia. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Jambi Malay is a variant of the Malay language spoken in Jambi (province). ... Manado Malay is a language spoken in Manado and the surrounding area. ... Yawi is the transcription of the Thai word ยาวี, which Thai people understand to be the Patani Malay language (or Bahasa Melayu Patani in Malay). ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Yawi. ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... The Riau Islands (Kepulauan Riau (Kepri for short) or sometimes Riau Kepulauan in Bahasa Indonesia) are a province and a group of islands in Indonesia, located south of Singapore, off the eastern coast of Riau province on Sumatra island. ... Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ...


Malay is an official language of Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia, and East Timor. In Indonesia and East Timor, the language is formally referred to as Bahasa Indonesia, which literally translates as "Indonesian language." It is also called Bahasa Kebangsaan (National Language) and Bahasa Persatuan/Pemersatu (Unifying Language) in Indonesia. In Malaysia, the language was once officially known as Bahasa Malaysia, ("Malaysian language".) An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Indonesian or Bahasa Indonesia, based on the Riau version of Malay language, was declared the official language with the declaration of Indonesias independence in 1945, following the 1928 unifying language declaration in the Indonesian Youth Pledge. ...


The term, which was introduced by the National Language Act of 1967, was in use until the 1990s, when most academics and government officials reverted to "Bahasa Melayu," used in the Malay version of the Federal Constitution. According to Article 152 of the Federal Constitution, Bahasa Malaysia is the official language of Malaysia. "Bahasa Kebangsaan" (National Language) was also used at one point during the 1970s. The Constitution of Malaysia, comprising more than 180 articles, is the supreme law of Malaysia. ... The Constitution of Malaysia, comprising more than 180 articles, is the supreme law of Malaysia. ...


Indonesia announced Malay as its official language when it gained independence, calling it Bahasa Indonesia. However, the language had been used by the Dutch to unite the people of the Indonesian archipelagos during their presence there. Since 1928, nationalists and young people throughout the Indonesian archipelagos have declared it to be Indonesia's only official language, as proclaimed in the Sumpah Pemuda "Youth Vow."


Indonesian and Malay are, to a large degree, mutually intelligible, however, Indonesian is distinct from Malay as spoken in Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei, where the language is known simply as Bahasa Malaysia. 'Bahasa Malaysia' is defined as Brunei's official language in the country's 1959 Constitution.


However, many Malay dialects are not as mutually intelligible: for example, Kelantanese pronunciation is difficult even for some Malaysians to understand, while Indonesian has a lot of words unique to it that are unfamiliar to other speakers of Malay who are not from Indonesia. For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ...


The language spoken by the Peranakan (Straits Chinese, a hybrid of Chinese settlers from the Ming Dynasty and local Malays) is a unique patois of Malay and the Chinese dialect of Hokkien, which is mostly spoken in the former Straits Settlements of Penang and Malacca. Peranakan, Baba-Nyonya () and Straits Chinese (; named after the Straits Settlements) are terms used for the descendants of the very early Chinese immigrants to the Nusantara region, including both the British Straits Settlements of Malaya and the Dutch-controlled island of Java among other places, who have partially adopted Malay... For other uses, see Ming. ... Patois, although without a formal definition in linguistics, can be used to describe a language considered as nonstandard. ... Mǐn Nán (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name Bân-lâm-gú; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... The Straits Settlements were a collection of territories of the British East India Company in Southeast Asia, which were given collective administration in 1826. ... State motto: Bersatu dan Setia (United and Loyal) (formerly Let Penang Lead) State anthem: Untuk Negeri Kita (For Our State) Capital George Town Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang Di-Pertua Negeri Tuan Yang Terutama Abdul Rahman bin Haji Abbas  - Ketua Menteri Tan Sri Dr. Koh Tsu Koon History    - Ceded by... This article is about the state in Malaysia. ...

Contents

Classification and related languages

See also: Austronesian languages#Cross-linguistic Comparison Chart

Malay is a member of the Austronesian family of languages which includes languages from Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean, with a smaller number in continental Asia. Malagasy, a geographic outlier spoken on the island of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, is also a member of this linguistic family. The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


Malay belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the family, which includes the Languages of the Philippines and Malagasy, which is further subdivided into Outer Hesperonesian languages and Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian of which Malay is a member. Malay's closest relatives therefore include Javanese, Acehnese, Chamorro and Palauan. The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages used by some 351 million speakers. ... There are over 170 languages in the Philippines; almost all of them belong to the Austronesian language family. ... The Borneo-Philippines languages (or Outer Hesperonesian or Outer Western Malayo-Polynesian languages) are a branch of the Austronesian family which include the languages of the Philippines, much of Borneo, the northern peninsula of Sulawesi, and Madagascar, as outlined in Wouk and Ross (2002). ... The Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages are a branch of the Austronesian family that are thought to have dispersed from a possible homeland in Sulawesi. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Acehnese (also Achinese, Achehnese) or Aceh (formerly Atjeh) is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken in Aceh, Sumatra, Indonesia. ... Chamorro (Chamoru in Chamorro) is the native language of the Chamorro or Chamoru of the Northern Mariana Islands and Guam. ...


Although each language of the family is mutually unintelligible, their similarities are rather striking. Many roots have come virtually unchanged from their common Austronesian ancestor. There are many cognates found in the languages' words for kinship, health, body parts and common animals. Numbers, especially, show remarkable similarities. The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... Cognates are words that have a common origin. ...


Writing system

Main article: Malay alphabet

Malay is normally written using Latin alphabet called Rumi, although a modified Arabic script called Jawi also exists. Rumi is official in Malaysia and Singapore, and Indonesian has a different official orthography also using the Latin script. Rumi and Jawi are co-official in Brunei. Efforts are currently being undertaken to preserve Jawi script and to revive its use amongst Malays in Malaysia, and students taking Malay language examination in Malaysia have the option of answering questions using Jawi script. Latin alphabet, however, is still the most commonly used script in Malaysia, both for official and informal purposes. Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Yawi. ...


Historically, Malay language has been written using various types of script. Before the introduction of Arabic script in the Malay region, Malay was written using Pallava, Kawi and Rencong script. Old Malay was written using Pallava and Kawi script, as evident from several inscription stones in the Malay region. Starting from the era of kingdom of Pasai and throughout the golden age of Sultanate of Malacca, Jawi has gradually replaced these scripts as the most commonly used script in the Malay region. An example of the Vatteluttu script from an inscription by Rajaraja Chola I at the Brihadisvara temple in Thanjavur. ... Kawi (from Sanskrit: kāvya, poet) is a language from the islands of Java, Bali and Lombok. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Extent of use and dialects

The extent to which Malay is used in these countries varies depending on historical and cultural circumstances. Bahasa Melayu is the national language in Malaysia by Article 152 of the Constitution of Malaysia, and became the sole official language in West Malaysia in 1968, and in East Malaysia gradually from 1974. English continues, however, to be widely used in professional and commercial fields and in the superior courts. Other minority languages are also commonly used by the country's large ethnic minorities. The situation in Brunei is similar to that of Malaysia. The Constitution of Malaysia, comprising more than 180 articles, is the supreme law of Malaysia. ... The Constitution of Malaysia, comprising more than 180 articles, is the supreme law of Malaysia. ... Peninsular Malaysia (or Semenanjung Malaysia in the Malay language) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... East Malaysia comprises Sabah and Sarawak East Malaysia consists of the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak, located on the island of Borneo to the east, across the South China Sea from Peninsular Malaysia which is located on the Malay Peninsula. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


In Singapore, Malay was historically the lingua franca among people of different races and nationalities. Although this has largely given way to English, Malay still retains the status of national language and the national anthem, Majulah Singapura, is entirely in Malay. In addition, parade commands in the military, police and civil defence are given only in Malay. Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... A giant Singapore flag suspended from a CH-47 Chinook helicopter during a National Day Parade rehearsal. ...


Most residents of the five southernmost provinces of Thailand — a region that, for the most part, used to be part of an ancient Malay kingdom called Pattani — speak a dialect of Malay called Yawi (not to be confused with Jawi), which is similar to Kelantanese Malay, but the language has no official status or recognition. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Yawi is the transcription of the Thai word ยาวี, which Thai people understand to be the Patani Malay language (or Bahasa Melayu Patani in Malay). ...


Due to earlier contact with the Philippines, Malay words LIKE YO DANG-ON MAMA — such as dalam hati (sympathy), luwalhati (glory), tengah hari (midday), sedap (delicious) — have evolved and been integrated into Tagalog and other Philippine languages. Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... There are over 170 languages in the Philippines; almost all of them belong to the Austronesian language family. ...


By contrast, Indonesian has successfully become the lingua franca for its disparate islands and ethnic groups, in part because the colonial language, Dutch, is no longer commonly spoken. (In East Timor, which was governed as a province of Indonesia from 1976 to 1999, Indonesian is widely spoken and recognized under its Constitution as a 'working language'.) Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ...


Besides Bahasa Indonesia that is developed from Riau dialect, there are many Malay dialects spoken in Indonesia [1], divided into : western and eastern group. Western Malay is predominantly spoken in Sumatra, known as Sumatran dialects, such as: Riau, Langkat, Palembang and Jambi. Minangkabau and Bengkulu language are believed to be Sumatran Malay language descendants. Meanwhile Jakarta dialect (known as Betawi) also belongs to western Malay group. Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia and a remarkable language in several ways. ... Map of Indonesia showing Riau province Riau is a province of Indonesia, located in the center of Sumatra island along the Strait of Malacca. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... Location of Palembang Palembang is a city in the south of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... For other uses, see Jambi (disambiguation). ... Languages Minangkabau, Indonesian and Malay. ... Bengkulu is a province of Indonesia. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... The Betawi (Orang Betawi, or people of Batavia) are the descendants of the people living around Batavia (the colonial name for Jakarta) from around the 17th century. ...


The eastern dialects are spoken in easternmost part of Indonesian archipelago such as: Manado dialect [2](in north Celebes) and Maluku dialect (known as Ambon dialect that also spoken as lingua franca in West Papua). Manado is the capital of the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia. ... Map of Sulawesi pictures by Julianto Halim Sulawesi (or Celebes) is a large Indonesian island. ... This page is about the geography and history of the island group in Indonesia — for the political entities encompassing the islands, see Maluku (Indonesian province) and North Maluku. ... Ambon may refer to two geographical places. ... Papua is: Another name for New Guinea Papua (Australian territory): A former Australian territory comprising the southeastern quarter of the island of New Guinea, now the southern part of Papua New Guinea Papua (Indonesian province): An Indonesian province comprising the western half of the island of New Guinea Related Words...


The differences among both groups are quite observable. For example the word 'kita' means "we, us" in western, but means "I, me" in Manado, meanwhile "we, us" in Manado is 'torang' and Ambon 'katong' (originally abbreviated from Malay 'kita orang' (means "we people"). Another difference is the lack of possessive pronouns (and suffixes) in eastern dialects. Manado use verb 'pe' and Ambon 'pu' (from Malay 'punya' means "to have") to mark possession. So "my name" and "our house" are translated in western Malay as 'namaku' and 'rumah kita' but 'kita pe nama' and 'torang pe rumah' in Manado and 'beta pu nama', 'katong pu rumah' in Ambon dialect.


The pronunciation may vary in western dialects, especially the pronunciation of words ended vowel 'a'. For example Malaysian pronounce 'kita' as /kitə/, Riau /kita/, Palembang /kito/ and Betawi as /kitɛ/.


Betawi and eastern dialects are sometimes regarded as Malay creole, because the speakers don't belong to Malay ethnics


Phonology

Note: this article uses the orthography of Malaysian Malay. For Indonesian orthography, see Indonesian language. Indonesian or Bahasa Indonesia, based on the Riau version of Malay language, was declared the official language with the declaration of Indonesias independence in 1945, following the 1928 unifying language declaration in the Indonesian Youth Pledge. ...

Table of consonant phonemes of Malay
Bilabial Labio-
Dental
Dental Alveolar Post-
Alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ny /ɲ/ ng /ŋ/
Plosive p /p/ b /b/ t /t/ d /d/ k /k/ g /g/
Affricate c /tʃ/ j /dʒ/
Fricative f /f/ v /v, ʋ/ s /s/ z /z/ sy , ʂ, sj] h /h/
Approximant r /r/ y /j/ w /w/
Lateral l /l/

Orthographic Note: In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ...

  • The combination of /ŋg/ is represented as ngg.
Table of vowel phonemes of Malay
Height Front Central Back
Close i /i/ u /u/
Mid e /e, ɛ/ e /ə/ o /o, ɔ/
Open a /a/ a /ɑ/
Table diphthongs of Malay
Orthography IPA
ai /aɪ̯, ai/
au /aʊ̯, au/
ua /ua/

There are two vowels represented by the letter "e", i.e. /e, ɛ/ and /ə/. Learners of Malay are expected to distinguish between the two sounds while learning each new word. Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


In some parts of Peninsular Malaysia, especially in the central and southern region, most words which end with the letter a tends to be pronounced as /ə/.


Grammar

Word Formation

Malay is an agglutinative language, and new words are formed via three methods. New words can be created by attaching affixes onto a root word (affixation), formation of a compound word (composition), or repetition of words or portions of words (reduplication). Affixation occurs when a bound morpheme is attached to a root morpheme. ... A compound is a word (lexeme) that consists of more than one free morpheme. ... Reduplication, in linguistics, is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word, or only part of it, is repeated. ...


Affixes

Root words are either nouns or verbs, which can be affixed to derive new words, e.g. masak (to cook) yields memasak (cooks, is cooking, etc.), memasakkan (cooks, is cooking for etc.), dimasak (cooked - passive) as well as pemasak (cook - person), masakan (cooking, cookery). Many initial consonants undergo mutation when prefixes are added: e.g. sapu (sweep) becomes penyapu (broom); panggil (to call) becomes memanggil (calls, is calling, etc.), tapis (sieve) becomes menapis (sieves, is sieving, etc.)


Other examples of the use of affixes to change the meaning of a word can be seen with the word ajar (teach): Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • ajar = teach
  • ajaran = teachings
  • belajar = to learn
  • mengajar = to teach
  • diajar = being taught (non-transitive)
  • diajarkan = being taught (transitive)
  • mempelajari = to study
  • dipelajari = being studied
  • pelajar = student
  • pengajar = teacher
  • pelajaran = subject
  • pengajaran = lesson, moral of story
  • pembelajaran = learning
  • terajar = taught
  • terpelajar = well-educated
  • berpelajaran = is educated

There are four types of affixes, namely prefixes (awalan), suffixes (akhiran), circumfixes (apitan) and infixes (sisipan). These affixes are categorised into noun affixes, verb affixes, and adjective affixes. In grammar, a verb is transitive if it takes an object. ... A prefix is the initial portion of some object or term (typically in text or speech) with a distinct and he base semantics for a word. ... Look up Suffix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A circumfix or circumflection is an affix, a morpheme which is placed around another morpheme. ... An infix is an affix inserted inside an existing word. ...


Noun affixes are affixes that form nouns upon addition to root words. The following are examples of noun affixes:

Type of noun affixes Affix Example of root word Example of derived word
Prefix pe(N)- duduk (sit) penduduk (population)
ke- hendak (want) kehendak (desire)
juru- acara (event) juruacara (event host)
Infix -el- tunjuk (point) telunjuk (index finger, command)
-em- kelut (dishevelled) kemelut (chaos, crisis)
-er- gigi (teeth) gerigi (toothed blade)
Suffix -an bangun (wake up, raise) bangunan (building)
Circumfix ke-...-an raja (king) kerajaan (government)
pe(N)-...-an kerja (work) pekerjaan (occupation)

(N) and (R) indicate that if a word begins with certain letters (most often vowels or consonants k, p, s, t), the letter will either be omitted or will undergo nasal mutation or be replaced by the letter l. Nasal mutation (Welsh: treiglad trwynol) is an initial consonant mutation in Welsh, which normally occurs after the words fy (meaning my) or yn where it means in. It also occurs after the negating prefix an-, and sometimes after saith (seven). Under nasal mutation, plosives become nasals, and unvoiced plosives become...


Similarly, verb affixes are attached to root words to form verbs. In Malay, there are:

Type of verb affixes Affix Example of root word Example of derived word
Prefix be(R)- ajar (teach) belajar (to study) - Intransitive
me(N)- tolong (help) menolong (to help) - Active transitive
di- ambil (take) diambil (is being taken) - Passive transitive
mempe(R)- kemas (tidy up, orderly) memperkemas (to arrange further)
dipe(R)- dalam (deep) diperdalam (is being further deepen)
te(R)- makan (eat) termakan (to have accidentally eaten)
Suffix -kan letak (place, keep) letakkan (keep) - Imperative transitive
-i jauh (far) jauhi (avoid) - Imperative transitive
Circumfix be(R)-...-an pasang (pair) berpasangan (in pairs)
be(R)-...-kan tajuk (title) bertajukkan (to be titled, to entitle)
me(N)-...-kan pasti (sure) memastikan (to make sure)
me(N)-...-i teman (company) menemani (to accompany)
mempe(R)-...-kan guna (use) mempergunakan (to utilise, to exploit)
mempe(R)-...-i ajar (teach) mempelajari (to study)
ke-...-an hilang (disappear) kehilangan (to lose)
di-...-i sakit (pain) disakiti (to be hurt by)
di-...-kan benar (right) dibenarkan (is allowed to)
dipe(R)-...-kan kenal (know, recognise) diperkenalkan (is being introduced)

Adjective affixes are attached to root words to form adjectives: In grammar, an intransitive verb is an action verb that takes no object. ... active active lifestyle active volcano sexually active, meaning to regularly undertake sexual activity active grammatical voice active electronics are components, circuits or units of equipment that consume power other than the signal itself, most normally to provide amplification. ... In grammar, a verb is transitive if it takes an object. ... Passive has several meanings: In grammar it describes a grammatical voice. ... In grammar, a verb is transitive if it takes an object. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood (or mode), which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ...

Type of adjective affixes Affix Example of root word Example of derived word
Prefix te(R)- kenal (know) terkenal (famous)
se- lari (run) selari (parallel)
Infix -el- serak (disperse) selerak (messy)
-em- cerlang (radiant bright) cemerlang (bright, excellent)
-er- sabut (husk) serabut (dishevelled)
Circumfix ke-...-an barat (west) kebaratan (westernized)

In addition to these affixes, Malay language also has a lot of borrowed affixes from other languages such as Sanskrit, Arabic and English. For example maha-, pasca-, eka-, bi-, anti-, pro- etc.


Compound word

In Malay, new words can be formed by joining two or more root words. Compound words, when exist freely in a sentence, are often written separately. Compound words are only attached to each other when they are bound by circumfix or when they are already considered as stable words.


For example, the word kereta which means car and api which means fire, are compounded to form a new word kereta api (train). Similarly, ambil alih (take over) is formed using the root words ambil (take) and alih (move), but will link together when a circumfix is attached to it, i.e. pengambilalihan (takeover). Certain stable words, such as kakitangan (personel), and kerjasama (corporation), are spelled as one word even when they exist freely in sentences.


Reduplication

There are four types of words reduplication in Malay, namely

  • Full reduplication
  • Partial reduplication
  • Rhythmic reduplication
  • Reduplication of meaning

Measure words

Another distinguishing feature of Malay is its use of measure words (penjodoh bilangan). In this way, it is similar to many other languages of Asia, including Chinese, Vietnamese, Burmese, and Bengali. Measure words, in linguistics, are words (or morphemes) that are used in combination with a numeral to indicate the count of nouns. ... Bangla redirects here. ...


Measure words can not be translated. They are :

measure word used for measuring literary translation example
buah thing (in general) 'fruit' sebuah pena (a pen), dua buah meja (two tables), lima buah rumah (five houses)
orang person, human 'person' seorang lelaki (a man), enam orang petani (six farmers), seratus orang murid (a hundred students)
butir rounded object 'grain' sebutir telur (an egg)

Part of Speech

In Malay, there are 4 parts of speech:

  • Nouns
  • Verbs
  • Adjectives
  • Function words

Function words

There are 16 types of function words in Malay which performs a grammatical function in a sentence. [4] Amongst these are conjunctions, interjections, prepositions, negations and determiners.


Negations

There are two negation words in Malay, that is bukan and tidak. Bukan is used to negate noun phrases and preposition in a predicate, whereas tidak is used to negate verbs and adjectives phrases in a predicate.

Subject Negation Predicate
Lelaki yang berjalan dengan Fazila itu
(That boy who is walking with Fazila)
bukan
(is not)
teman lelakinya
(her boyfriend)
Surat itu
(The letter)
bukan
(is not)
daripada teman penanya di Perancis
(from his penpal in France)
Pelajar-pelajar itu
(Those students)
tidak
(do not)
mengikuti peraturan sekolah
(obey school regulations)
Penguasaan Bahasa Melayunya
(His command of Malay language)
tidak
(is not)
sempurna
(perfect)

The negative word bukan however, can be used before verb phrases and adjective phrases if the sentence shows contradictions.

Subject Negation Predicate Contradiction
Karangannya
(His composition)
bukan
(is not)
baik sangat,
(very good,)
tetapi dia mendapat markah yang baik
(but he received good marks)
Kilang itu
(The factory)
bukan
(is not)
menghasilkan kereta Kancil,
(producing Kancil cars)
sebaliknya menghasilkan Proton Wira
(instead is producing Proton Wira)

Grammatical gender

Malay does not make use of grammatical gender, and there are only a few words that use natural gender; the same word is used for he and she or for his and her. Most of the words that refer to people (family terms, professions, etc.) have a form that does not distinguish between the sexes. For example, adik can both refer to a younger sibling of either gender. In order to specify the natural gender of a noun, an adjective has to be added: adik laki-laki corresponds to "brother" but really means "male younger sibling". There are some words that are gendered, for instance puteri means "princess", and putera means "prince"; words like these are usually absorbed from other languages (in these cases, from Sanskrit). In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


Pluralization

Plurals are often expressed by means of reduplication, but only when the plural is not implied in the context. For example, "cup", which is 'cawan', would be 'cawan-cawan'. This can be shortened to 'cecawan', but this only applies to a limited number of words. Reduplication to mark pluralization is often in complementary distribution with numeral markers, for example "one thousand cups" would be 'seribu cawan' and not 'seribu cawan-cawan'. Reduplication, in linguistics, is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word, or only part of it, is repeated. ...


Verbs

Verbs are not inflected for person or number, and they are not marked for tense; tense is instead denoted by time adverbs (such as "yesterday") or by other tense indicators, such as sudah, "already". On the other hand, there is a complex system of verb affixes to render nuances of meaning and denote active and passive voices. Some of these affixes are ignored in daily conversations. This article is about inflection in linguistics. ...


Word order

The basic word order is Subject Verb Object. Adjectives, demonstrative pronouns and possessive pronouns follow the noun they describe. In linguistic typology, subject-verb-object (SVO) is the sequence subject verb object in neutral expressions: Sam ate oranges. ... A demonstrative pronoun in grammar and syntax is a pronoun that shows the place of something. ... A possessive pronoun is a word that attributes ownership to someone or something without using a noun. ...


Borrowed words

The Malay language has many words borrowed from Arabic (mainly religious terms), Hindustani, Sanskrit, Tamil, Persian, Portuguese, Dutch, certain Chinese dialects and more recently, English (in particular many scientific and technological terms). Some examples follow: Arabic redirects here. ... The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

  • abjad - alphabet/alefbet (from Arabic & Persian] abjad)
  • ahli - member (from Arabic ali)
  • agama - religion (from Sanskrit agama)
  • aksi - action (from Dutch actie)
  • almari - cupboard (from Sanskrit armario)
  • anggur - grape (from Persian انگور/angur)
  • askar - soldier (from Persian عسکر /askar )
  • bahasa - language (from Sanskrit bhāshā)
  • bandar - port (from Persian بندر/bandr)
  • bangku - stool (from Portuguese banco)
  • bas - bus (from English)
  • bendera - flag (from Portuguese bandeira)
  • biara - monastery (from Javanese)
  • bihun - rice vermicelli (from Hokkien bi-hun)
  • biola - violin (from Portuguese viola)
  • biskut or biskuit - biscuit (from English)
  • bomba - fire brigade (from Portuguese bomba, "pump", or bombeiro, "fireman", lit. "pumper")
  • boneka - doll (from Portuguese boneca)
  • buat - do (from Sanskrit wuat)
  • buku - book (from Dutch boek)
  • bumi - earth (from Sanskrit bhumi)
  • butuh - penis (from Greek buto)
  • cawan - cup (from Mandarin cháwǎn)
  • cibai - cunt (from Mandarin chee bái)
  • dakwah - sermon (from Arabic da'wah)
  • dekan - dean (from Portuguese decano)
  • dewan - hall (from Persian دیوان/diwan "administration")
  • duka - sadness (from Sanskrit duhkha)
  • dunia - world (from Arabic dunyā)
  • falsafah - philosophy (from Arabic falsafah)
  • gandum - wheat (from Persian گندمGandm)
  • garpu - fork (from Portuguese garfo)
  • gereja - church (from Portuguese igreja)
  • gratis - for free (from Portuguese)
  • guru - teacher (from Sanskrit)
  • had - limit (from Arabic hadd)
  • halal -permitted (from Arabic )
  • haram - forbidden ( (from Arabic )
  • hisab - counting/arithmetic (from Persian حساب /hisāb, Arabic hasabba)
  • huruf - word character/letter (from Arabic ḥurūf)
  • ilmu - knowledge/science (from Persian & Arabic alm/ilmi)
  • ini - this (from Persian این)
  • jawab - to answer (from Arabic jawāb)
  • jendela - window (from Portuguese janela)
  • Khamis - Thursday (Arabic al-khamis)
  • kamus - dictionary (from Arabic qāmūs)
  • kapal - ship (from Tamil kappal)
  • katil - bed (from Tamil kattil)
  • kaunter - counter or desk (from English)
  • keju - cheese (from Portuguese queijo)
  • kemeja - shirt (from Portuguese camisa)
  • kepala - head (from Sanskrit kapala "skull")
  • kereta - carriage, car (from Portuguese carreta)
  • komputer - computer (from English)
  • kongsi - share (from Hokkien kong-si 公司)
  • korban - sacrifice (from Arabic Qur-ban)
  • kuda - horse (from Hindustani kudh)
  • kuih - cake (from Hokkien 粿)
  • kurma - date (from Persian خرما/Khurma)
  • limau - lemon/orange (from Portuguese limão "lemon")
  • maaf - sorry (from Hindustani māf "forgiveness")/(from Arabic Ma3fu
  • maha - great (from Sanskrit)
  • makmal - laboratory Arabic
  • mangga - mango (Ultimately from Tamil Mankay)
  • manusia - human being (from Sanskrit manuṣya)
  • masjid - mosque ( (from Arabic )
  • mentega - butter (from Portuguese manteiga)
  • mee/mi - noodles (from Hokkien miᴺ)
  • meja - table (from Portuguese mesa)
  • misai - moustache (from Tamil meesai)
  • miskin - poor (via Arabic miskiin from Persian Miskin مسکین)
  • nafas - breath ( (from Arabic )
  • najis - excrement (from Arabic )
  • muflis - bankrupt (from Arabic muflis)
  • nama - name (from Sanskrit naam)
  • nenek - grandmother (from Mandarin né né)
  • neraka - hell (from Sanskrit naraka)
  • nujum - astrologer (from Arabic al-nujum)
  • nanas/nenas - pineapple (from Portuguese or Arabic ananás)
  • nusantara - archipelago (esp. the Malay Archipelago) (from Javanese)
  • paderi - priest (Christian) (from Portuguese padre)
  • pahlawan - hero/warrior (from Persian پ‍ﮩ‍لوان /pahlawān)
  • pantat - vagina (from Thai pantat)
  • perpustakaan - library (base word "pustaka" is the Sanskrit word for "book")
  • pau - bun (from Hokkien pau )
  • pesta - party (from Portuguese festa)
  • pita - tape (from Portuguese fita)
  • puasa - fasting (from Sanskrit)
  • putera - prince (from Sanskrit putra "son")
  • raja - king (from Sanskrit rāja)
  • roda - wheel (from Portuguese roda)
  • roti - bread (from Sanskrit roṭi)
  • sabun - soap (from Arabic) sàbuun
  • sains - science (from English)
  • sama - same (from Sanskrit)
  • salji - snow (from Arabic thalji)
  • sama-sama - together (derived from loanword sama via reduplication)
  • sayang - love (from Tagalog sayang)
  • sekolah - school (from Portuguese escola)
  • seks - to have sex (from English)
  • sengsara - suffering (from Sanskrit saṃsara)
  • sepatu - shoe (from Portuguese sapato)
  • singa - lion (from Sanskrit)
  • soldadu - soldier (from Portuguese soldado)
  • syariah - Islamic law (from Arabic shāri`ah)
  • syukur - thankful (from Arabic shukr)
  • syurga - heaven (from Tamil சொர்கம் /sorgam)
  • sistem - system (from English)
  • suka - happiness (from Sanskrit sukha)
  • tangki - tank (from Portuguese tanque)
  • tauhu - beancurd (from Hokkien tao-hu)
  • tarikh - date (from Arabic tārīkh)
  • teh - tea (from Hokkien )
  • teksi - taxi (from English taxi)
  • teko - teapot (from Hokkien tɛ-ko)
  • televisyen - television (from English)
  • tuala - towel (from Portuguese toalha)
  • tukar - to exchange (from Portuguese trocar)
  • unta - camel (from Hindustani ūnṭ)
  • utara - north (from Sanskrit uttara)
  • warna - colour (from Sanskrit varnam)
  • wibawa - authority (from Javanese wibawa)
  • waktu - time (from Arabic waqt)
  • wanita - women (from Spanish Juanita)
  • zirafah - giraffe (from Arabic zirāfah)

There are some Malay words which are spelled exactly the same as the English word e.g hospital. Arabic redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Dutch ( ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people, mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname, but also by smaller groups of speakers in parts of France, Germany and several former Dutch colonies. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Farsi redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Rice vermicelli (Chinese: 米粉; pinyin: ; POJ: bí-hún; Hokkien: Bee hoon; Malay: Bihun; Cantonese: Mai fun; Filipino: Bihon or Bijon) are thin noodles made from rice, sometimes also known as rice noodles, rice sticks or glass noodles. ... Mǐn Nán (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name Bân-lâm-gú; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Dean, from the Late Latin decanus (chief of ten) is a title given to the holder of senior positions in various fields. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Mǐn Nán (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name Bân-lâm-gú; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ... Hokkien is a Min nan word corresponding to Standard Mandarin Fujian. It can refer to: Min Nan, a Chinese language/dialect, also called Minnan, Min Nan or Minnanyu (meaning Southern Fujian). ... Farsi redirects here. ... The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Mǐn Nán (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name Bân-lâm-gú; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... For other uses, see Pineapple (disambiguation). ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Mǐn Nán (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name Bân-lâm-gú; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Reduplication, in linguistics, is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word, or only part of it, is repeated. ... Filipino (formerly Pilipino) is the national and an official language of the Philippines as designated in the 1987 Philippine Constitution. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Mǐn Nán (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name Bân-lâm-gú; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Mǐn Nán (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name Bân-lâm-gú; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Mǐn Nán (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name Bân-lâm-gú; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ...


Some Malay words have been borrowed into English. See the list of words of Malay origin at Wiktionary, the free dictionary and Wikipedia's sister project. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...


Malay language has also heavily influenced the forms of colloquial English spoken in Malaysia (Manglish). Manglish (or sometimes Malglish or Mangled English) is the colloquial version of the English language as spoken in Malaysia and it is a portmanteau of the word Malay and English (also possibly Mandarin and English). ...


Some simple phrases in Malay

In Malaysia, to greet somebody with "Selamat pagi" or "Selamat sejahtera" would be considered very formal, and the borrowed word "Hi" would be more usually among friends; similarly "Bye-bye" is often used when taking one's leave.

Malay Phrase IPA English Translation
Selamat datang /səlamat dataŋ/ Welcome (Used as a greeting)
Selamat jalan /səlamat dʒalan/ Have a safe journey (equivalent to "goodbye", used by the party staying)
Selamat tinggal /səlamat tiŋgal/ Goodbye (Lit translation: "Good stay", used by the party going)
Terima kasih /tərima kaseh/ Thank you
Sama-sama /sama sama/ You are welcome (as in a response to Thank You)
Selamat pagi /səlamat pagi/ Good morning
Selamat petang /səlamat pətaŋ/ Good afternoon/evening (note that 'Selamat petang' must not be used at night as in English. For a general greeting, use 'Selamat sejahtera')
Selamat sejahtera /səlamat sədʒahtəra/ Greetings (formal)
Selamat malam /səlamat malam/ Good night
Jumpa lagi See you again
Siapakah nama awak?/Nama awak apa? What is your name?
Nama saya ... My name is ... (The relevant name is placed in front. For example, if your name was Mawar, then you would introduce yourself by saying "Nama saya Mawar", which translates to "My name is Mawar")
Apa khabar? How are you? / What's up? (literally, "What news?")
Khabar baik Fine, good news
Saya sakit I'm sick
Ya /ja/ Yes
Tidak ("tak" colloquially) No
Saya sayang awak I love you (In a more of a family or affectionate sort of love, e.g.: mother to daughter)
Saya cinta awak I love you (romantic love)
Saya tidak faham (or simply "tak faham" colloquially) I do not understand
Saya tidak tahu (or "tak tau" colloquially or "sik tau" in Sarawak) I do not know
(Minta) maaf I apologise ('minta' is to request)
Tumpang tanya "May I ask...?" (used when trying to ask something)
(Minta) tolong Please help (me) ('Tolong!' on its own just means "help")
Apa What
Tiada Nothing

IPA may refer to: The International Phonetic Alphabet or India Pale Ale ...

Colloquial and contemporary usage

Contemporary usage of Malay includes a set of slang words, formed by innovations of standard Malay words or incorporated from other languages, spoken by the urban speech community, which may not be familiar to the older generation, e.g. awek (girl); balak (guy); usha (survey); skodeng (peep); cun (pretty); poyo/slenge (horrible, low-quality) etc. The Malay-speaking community, especially in Kuala Lumpur, also code-switch between English and Malay in their speech, forming Bahasa Rojak. Examples of the borrowings are: Bestlah tempat ni (This place is cool);kau ni terror lah (How daring you are; you're fabulous). Consequently, this phenomenon has raised the displeasure of language purists in Malaysia, in their effort to uphold the proper use of the national language. Bahasa rojak (Mixed-up language) is a kind of informal speeches and slangs of Malay language as a result of mixing words from different langages with Malay. ... A purist is one who desires that a particular item remain true to its essence and free from adulterating or diluting influences. ... A national language is a language (or language variant, i. ...


The following are some contractions used by Malay-speaking youths:

Non-formal
Word
Formal
Word
English
Translation
tak tidak no, not
bleh boleh can, able to
ko engkau you
nape kenapa why
gi pergi go
kat dekat/di at
ne mana where
tau tahu know
je sahaja only
awek gadis girl/grilfriend
balak pemuda boy/boyfriend
skodeng mengintai peep
cun cantik pretty
poyo/selenge buruk horrible
blah beredar go away
meh mari come
apsal apa pasal why
tak yah tidak payah not necessary
pastu selepas itu after that
amik ambil take
sudey sudah enough

Dictionary

There are many, different Malay dictionaries. In Malaysia, the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP) dictionary is the chief arbiter for the language, and is considered the authority in defining Malay usage. Some other dictionaries are: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka or DBP is a government body that responsible to coordinate the use malay language in Malaysia and Brunei. ...

Kamus Dewan (Malay for Hall Dictionary) is a Malay language dictionary published by Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. ...

See also

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Jawi may refer to: Jawi peoplevery good Jawi language (Australian Aboriginal) Jawi script (Arabic based for writing Malay) Category: ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Kamus Dewan (Malay for Hall Dictionary) is a Malay language dictionary published by Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. ... Indonesian or Bahasa Indonesia, based on the Riau version of Malay language, was declared the official language with the declaration of Indonesias independence in 1945, following the 1928 unifying language declaration in the Indonesian Youth Pledge. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Differences between Malay, Indonesian and Tagalog. ... The Minangkabau language (autonym: Baso Minang(kabau); Indonesian: Bahasa Minangkabau) is an Austronesian language, spoken by the Minangkabau-people of West Sumatra, in the western part of Riau and in several cities throughout Indonesia by migrated Minangkabau, who often trade or have a restaurant. ... The Malay language, through its history, also experiences pidginization and creolization processes. ... Manado Malay is a language spoken in Manado and the surrounding area. ... Malaysian English (MyE) or formally known as Malaysian Standard English (MySE) is a form of English used and spoken in Malaysia as a second language. ... Bahasa rojak (Mixed-up language) is a kind of informal speeches and slangs of Malay language as a result of mixing words from different langages with Malay. ... Hamzah Fansuri (16th century) was a famous Sumatran Sufi poet, the first to pen mystical pantheistic ideas into the Malay language. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Loan words from Malay in English Amok  (berserk), as in to run amok Bamboo  from bambu Caddy  from kati (a measurement unit, whereby 1 kati = approximately 600 g) Cockatoo  from kakak or sister and tua or older Compound (enclosed group of buildings)  by folk etymology from kampung or village Cooties...

References

  1. ^ "Alpha-3 Codes Arranged Alphabetically by the English Name of Language." _The Library of Congress_. 7-11-2006. Accessed 13-11-2007.
  2. ^ "Codes for the Representation of Names of Languages Part 2: Alpha-3 Code." _The Library of Congress_. 14-11-2006. Accessed 13-11-2007. Note: "ISO 639 provides two sets of language codes, one as a two-letter code set (639-1) and another as a three-letter code set (this part of ISO 639) for the representation of names of languages."
  3. ^ Ethnologue report for Netherlands
  4. ^ http://faculty.unitarklj1.edu.my/ALD0063/week/week6/MORFOLOGI/GOLONGAN%20KATA.doc

External links

Wikipedia
Malay language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikisource

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...


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