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Encyclopedia > Malaria
Malaria
Classification & external resources
Plasmodium falciparum ring-forms and gametocytes in human blood.
ICD-10 B50.
ICD-9 084
OMIM 248310
DiseasesDB 7728
MedlinePlus 000621
eMedicine med/1385  emerg/305 ped/1357
MeSH C03.752.250.552

Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of the Americas, Asia, and Africa. Each year, it causes disease in approximately 515 million people and kills between one and three million, most of them young children in Sub-Saharan Africa.[1] Malaria is commonly associated with poverty, but is also a cause of poverty and a major hindrance to economic development. Image File history File linksMetadata Plasmodium. ... A gametocyte is a eukaryotic germ cell that divides by mitosis into other gametocytes or by meiosis into gametes. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Protozoa (in Greek protos = first and zoon = animal) are single-celled creatures with nuclei that show some characteristics usually associated with animals, most notably mobility and heterotrophy. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south... Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants. ...


Malaria is one of the most common infectious diseases and an enormous public-health problem. The disease is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. The most serious forms of the disease are caused by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, but other related species (Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae, and sometimes Plasmodium knowlesi) can also infect humans. This group of human-pathogenic Plasmodium species is usually referred to as malaria parasites. Protozoa (in Greek protos = first and zoon = animal) are single-celled creatures with nuclei that show some characteristics usually associated with animals, most notably mobility and heterotrophy. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Species Plasmodium achiotense Plasmodium achromaticum Plasmodium acuminatum Plasmodium adunyinkai Plasmodium aegyptensis Plasmodium aeuminatum Plasmodium agamae Plasmodium anasum Plasmodium anomaluri Plasmodium arachniformis Plasmodium ashfordi Plasmodium atheruri Plasmodium aurulentum Plasmodium australis Plasmodium attenuatum Plasmodium azurophilum Plasmodium balli Plasmodium bambusicolai Plasmodium basilisci Plasmodium beebei Plasmodium beltrani Plasmodium berghei Plasmodium bertii Plasmodium bigueti Plasmodium... Binomial name Welch, 1897 Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite, one of the species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans. ... Binomial name Plasmodium vivax Grassi & Feletti 1890 The parasite Plasmodium vivax is the most frequent and widely distributed cause of benign, but recurring (tertian), malaria. ... Binomial name Stephens 1922 Plasmodium ovale is a species of parasitic protozoa that causes tertian malaria in humans. ... Binomial name Plasmodium malariae Feletti & Grassi, 1889 Plasmodium malariae is a parasitic protozoa that causes malaria in dogs. ... Binomial name Plasmodium knowlesi Plasmodium knowlesi is a primate malaria parasite commonly found in Southeast Asia. ...


Malaria parasites are transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes. The parasites multiply within red blood cells, causing symptoms that include symptoms of anemia (light headedness, shortness of breath, tachycardia etc.), as well as other general symptoms such as fever, chills, nausea, flu-like illness, and in severe cases, coma and death. Malaria transmission can be reduced by preventing mosquito bites with mosquito nets and insect repellents, or by mosquito control measures such as spraying insecticides inside houses and draining standing water where mosquitoes lay their eggs. Some Species Anopheles atroparvus Anopheles barberi Anopheles beklemishevi Anopheles coustani Anopheles crypticus Anopheles culicifacies Anopheles earlei Anopheles farauti Anopheles fluviatilis Anopheles forattinii Anopheles funestus Anopheles gambiae Anopheles grabhamii Anopheles hailarensis Anopheles halophylus Anopheles hyrcanus Anopheles introlatus Anopheles kosiensis Anopheles latens Anopheles maculipennis Anopheles minimus Anopheles moucheti Anopheles nili Anopheles ovengensis... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ... For other uses, see Coma (disambiguation). ... A bed covered by a mosquito net. ... Mosquito on a bottle of herbal mosquito repellent. ... It has been suggested that ovicide be merged into this article or section. ...


Although some are under development, no vaccine is currently available for malaria; preventative drugs must be taken continuously to reduce the risk of infection. These prophylactic drug treatments are often too expensive for most people living in endemic areas. Most adults from endemic areas have a degree of long-term recurrent infection and also of partial resistance; the resistance reduces with time and such adults may become susceptible to severe malaria if they have spent a significant amount of time in non-endemic areas. They are strongly recommended to take full precautions if they return to an endemic area. Malaria infections are treated through the use of antimalarial drugs, such as quinine or artemisinin derivatives, although drug resistance is increasingly common. A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Prophylaxis refers to any medical or public health procedure whose purpose is to prevent, rather than treat or cure, disease. ... Antimalarial drugs are designed to prevent or treat malaria. ... Quinine (IPA: ) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), anti-smallpox, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. ... Artemisinin (IPA: ) is a drug used to treat multi-drug resistant strains of falciparum malaria. ... Organisms are said to be drug-resistant when they are no longer affected by drugs that are meant to neutralize them. ...

Contents

History

Further information: Jesuit's bark
Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran

Malaria has infected humans for over 50,000 years, and may have been a human pathogen for the entire history of our species.[2] Indeed, close relatives of the human malaria parasites remain common in chimpanzees, our closest relatives.[3] References to the unique periodic fevers of malaria are found throughout recorded history, beginning in 2700 BC in China.[4] The term malaria originates from Medieval Italian: mala aria — "bad air"; and the disease was formerly called ague or marsh fever due to its association with swamps. Chinchona officinalis Jesuits Bark, also called the Peruvian Bark, is the historical name of the most celebrated specific remedy for all forms of malaria. ... From [1] This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... From [1] This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The miasmatic theory of disease held that diseases such as cholera or the Black Death were caused by a miasma (Greek language: pollution), a noxious form of bad air. In general, this concept has been supplanted by the more scientifically founded germ theory of disease. ...


Scientific studies on malaria made their first significant advance in 1880, when a French army doctor working in Algeria named Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran observed parasites inside the red blood cells of people suffering from malaria. He therefore proposed that malaria was caused by this protozoan, the first time protozoa were identified as causing disease.[5] For this and later discoveries, he was awarded the 1907 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. The protozoan was called Plasmodium by the Italian scientists Ettore Marchiafava and Angelo Celli.[6] A year later, Carlos Finlay, a Cuban doctor treating patients with yellow fever in Havana, first suggested that mosquitoes were transmitting disease to and from humans. However, it was Britain's Sir Ronald Ross working in India who finally proved in 1898 that malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes. He did this by showing that certain mosquito species transmit malaria to birds and isolating malaria parasites from the salivary glands of mosquitoes that had fed on infected birds.[7] For this work Ross received the 1902 Nobel Prize in Medicine. After resigning from the Indian Medical Service, Ross worked at the newly-established Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and directed malaria-control efforts in Egypt, Panama, Greece and Mauritius.[8] The findings of Finlay and Ross were later confirmed by a medical board headed by Walter Reed in 1900, and its recommendations implemented by William C. Gorgas in the health measures undertaken during construction of the Panama Canal. This public-health work saved the lives of thousands of workers and helped develop the methods used in future public-health campaigns against this disease. Laveran won a Nobel Prize in 1907 Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran (June 18, 1845 – May 18, 1922) (sometimes spelled Alfons or Alfonse) was a French physician. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... Leishmania donovani, (a species of protozoan) in a bone marrow cell Protozoa (in Greek proto = first and zoa = animals) are one-celled eukaryotes (that is, unicellular microbes whose cells have membrane-bound nuclei) that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, mobility and heterotrophy. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... Juan Carlos Finlay. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ... Ronald Ross Sir Ronald Ross (May 13, 1857 – September 16, 1932) was a Scottish physician. ... The Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM), England, was founded on 12 November 1898, by a donation from Sir Alfred Lewis Jones, a Liverpool Shipowner. ... Major Walter Reed, M.D., (September 13, 1851 - November 23, 1902) was a U.S. Army physician who in 1900 led the team which confirmed the theory (first set forth in 1881 by Cuban doctor/scientist Carlos Finlay) that yellow fever is transmitted by mosquitoes, rather than by direct contact. ... Major General William Crawford Gorgas (October 3, 1854, in Mobile, Alabama -- July 3, 1920, in London) was a United States physician and 22nd Surgeon General of the U.S. Army (1914-18). ... One of the greatest challenges facing the builders of the Panama Canal was dealing with the tropical diseases rife in the area. ... Two Panamax running the Miraflores Locks The Panama Canal (Spanish: ) is a major ship canal that traverses the Isthmus of Panama in Central America, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. ...


The first effective treatment for malaria was the bark of cinchona tree, which contains quinine. This tree grows on the slopes of the Andes, mainly in Peru. This natural product was used by the inhabitants of Peru to control malaria, and the Jesuits introduced this practice to Europe during the 1640s where it was rapidly accepted.[9] However, it was not until 1820 that the active ingredient quinine was extracted from the bark, isolated and named by the French chemists Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Jean Bienaime Caventou.[10] Species See text Cinchona L., is the name of a genus in Rubiaceae family, large evergreens that can grow over 10 metres tall. ... Quinine (IPA: ) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), anti-smallpox, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Pierre Joseph Pelletier, (1788-1842), was a chemist who did notable research work on vegetable alkaloids, and was the co-discoverer of quinine and strychnine. ... Jean Bienaime Caventou (1795–1877) was a French scientist who discovered quinine in 1820 with Pierre Joseph Pelletier. ...


In the early twentieth century, before antibiotics, patients with syphilis were intentionally infected with malaria to create a fever, following the work of Julius Wagner-Jauregg. By accurately controlling the fever with quinine, the effects of both syphilis and malaria could be minimized. Although some patients died from malaria, this was preferable than the almost-certain death from syphilis.[11] An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Julius Wagner Ritter von Jauregg, after the abolition of titles of nobility in Austria in 1919 Julius Wagner-Jauregg, (March 7, 1857 Wels, Upper Austria – September 27, 1940 Vienna) was an Austrian physician. ... Quinine (IPA: ) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), anti-smallpox, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. ...


Although the blood stage and mosquito stages of the malaria life cycle were established in the 19th and early 20th centuries, it was not until the 1980s that the latent liver form of the parasite was observed.[12][13] The discovery of this latent form of the parasite finally explained why people could appear to be cured of malaria but still relapse years after the parasite had disappeared from their bloodstreams.


Distribution and impact

Further information: Diseases of poverty, Tropical disease
Areas of the world where malaria is endemic in the 21st Century (coloured blue).[14]

Malaria causes about 400–900 million cases of fever and approximately one to three million deaths annually [15] — this represents at least one death every 30 seconds. The vast majority of cases occur in children under the age of 5 years;[16] pregnant women are also especially vulnerable. Despite efforts to reduce transmission and increase treatment, there has been little change in which areas are at risk of this disease since 1992.[17] Indeed, if the prevalence of malaria stays on its present upwards course, the death rate could double in the next twenty years.[15] Precise statistics are unknown because many cases occur in rural areas where people do not have access to hospitals or the means to afford health care. Consequently, the majority of cases are undocumented.[15] Diseases of poverty are diseases that overwhelmingly affect the poor; in many cases poverty is the leading risk factor for incidence of such disease, and some disease can (or allegedly) cause poverty. ... Tropical diseases are infectious diseases that either occur uniquely in tropical and subtropical regions (which is rare) or, more commonly, are either more widespread in the tropics or more difficult to prevent or control. ... Image File history File links Malariageodistribution. ... Image File history File links Malariageodistribution. ... In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. ...


Although co-infection with HIV and malaria does cause increased mortality, this is less of a problem than with HIV/tuberculosis co-infection, due to the two diseases usually attacking different age-ranges, with malaria being most common in the young and active tuberculosis most common in the old.[18] Although HIV/malaria co-infection produces less severe symptoms than the interaction between HIV and TB, HIV and malaria do contribute to each other's spread. This effect comes from malaria increasing viral load and HIV infection increasing a person's susceptibility to malaria infection.[19] Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Viral load is a measure of the severity of a viral infection, and can be estimated by calculating the amount of virus in an involved body fluid, e. ...


Malaria is presently endemic in a broad band around the equator, in areas of the Americas, many parts of Asia, and much of Africa; however, it is in sub-Saharan Africa where 85– 90% of malaria fatalities occur.[20] The geographic distribution of malaria within large regions is complex, and malarial and malaria-free areas are often found close to each other.[21] In drier areas, outbreaks of malaria can be predicted with reasonable accuracy by mapping rainfall.[22] Malaria is more common in rural areas than in cities; this is in contrast to dengue fever where urban areas present the greater risk.[23] For example, the cities of the Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia are essentially malaria-free, but the disease is present in many rural regions.[24] By contrast, in Africa malaria is present in both rural and urban areas, though the risk is lower in the larger cities.[25] The global endemic levels of malaria have not been mapped since the 1960s, however, the Wellcome Trust, UK, has funded the Malaria Atlas Project[26] to rectify this, providing a more contemporary and robust means with which to assess current and future malaria disease burden. World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... “Dengue Fever” redirects here. ... In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. ... The Wellcome Trusts Gibbs Building on Euston Road The Wellcome Trust is a United Kingdom-based charity established in 1936 to administer the fortune of the American-born pharmaceutical magnate Sir Henry Wellcome. ... The Malaria Atlas Project or abbreviated as MAP is a non-profit project funded for five years by the Wellcome Trust, UK.[1] MAP is a joint project between the Malaria Public Health & Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, Kenya and the Spatial Ecology & Epidemiology Group, University of Oxford, UK... Disease burden is the impact of a health problem in an area measured by financial cost, mortality, morbidity, or other indicators. ...


Socio-economic effects

Malaria is not just a disease commonly associated with poverty, but is also a cause of poverty and a major hindrance to economic development. The disease has been associated with major negative economic effects on regions where it is widespread. A comparison of average per capita GDP in 1995, adjusted to give parity of purchasing power, between malarious and non-malarious countries demonstrates a fivefold difference ($1,526 USD versus $8,268 USD). Moreover, in countries where malaria is common, average per capita GDP has risen (between 1965 and 1990) only 0.4% per year, compared to 2.4% per year in other countries.[27] However, correlation does not imply causation, and the prevalence is at least partly because these regions do not have the financial capacities to prevent malaria. In its entirety, the economic impact of malaria has been estimated to cost Africa $12 billion USD every year. The economic impact includes costs of health care, working days lost due to sickness, days lost in education, decreased productivity due to brain damage from cerebral malaria, and loss of investment and tourism.[16] In some countries with a heavy malaria burden, the disease may account for as much as 40% of public health expenditure, 30-50% of inpatient admissions, and up to 50% of outpatient visits.[28] Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants. ...


Symptoms

Symptoms of malaria include fever, shivering, arthralgia (joint pain), vomiting, anemia caused by hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, and convulsions. There may be the feeling of tingling in the skin, particularly with malaria caused by P. falciparum. The classical symptom of malaria is cyclical occurrence of sudden coldness followed by rigor and then fever and sweating lasting four to six hours, occurring every two days in P. vivax and P. ovale infections, while every three for P. malariae.[29] P. falciparum can have recurrent fever every 36-48 hours or a less pronounced and almost continuous fever. For reasons that are poorly understood, but which may be related to high intracranial pressure, children with malaria frequently exhibit abnormal posturing, a sign indicating severe brain damage.[30] Malaria has been found to cause cognitive impairments, especially in children. It causes widespread anemia during a period of rapid brain development and also direct brain damage. This neurologic damage results from cerebral malaria to which children are more vulnerable.[31] An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Shivering is a human bodily function in response to cold. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Emesis redirects here. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... {{otheruses4|1=medical hemoglobin]] into the surrounding fluid (plasma, in vivo). ... In medicine, haemoglobinuria is a condition in which the oxygen transport protein haemoglobin is found in abnormally high concentrations in the urine. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... Intracranial pressure, (ICP), is the pressure exerted by the cranium on the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the brains circulating blood volume. ... A woman with malaria displaying decerebrate posturing, with arms extended at her sides. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ...


Severe malaria is almost exclusively caused by P. falciparum infection and usually arises 6-14 days after infection.[32] Consequences of severe malaria include coma and death if untreated—young children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable. Splenomegaly (enlarged spleen), severe headache, cerebral ischemia, hepatomegaly (enlarged liver), hypoglycemia, and hemoglobinuria with renal failure may occur. Renal failure may cause blackwater fever, where hemoglobin from lysed red blood cells leaks into the urine. Severe malaria can progress extremely rapidly and cause death within hours or days.[32] In the most severe cases of the disease fatality rates can exceed 20%, even with intensive care and treatment.[33] In endemic areas, treatment is often less satisfactory and the overall fatality rate for all cases of malaria can be as high as one in ten.[34] Over the longer term, developmental impairments have been documented in children who have suffered episodes of severe malaria.[35] For other uses, see Coma (disambiguation). ... Splenomegaly is an enlargement of the spleen, which usually lies in the left upper quadrant (LUQ) of the human abdomen. ... A headache (cephalalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... In medicine, ischemia (Greek ισχαιμία, isch- is restriction, hema or haema is blood) is a restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue. ... Hepatomegaly is the condition of having an enlarged liver. ... Hypoglycemia (hypoglycaemia in British English) is a medical term referring to a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. ... Renal failure is the condition in which the kidneys fail to function properly. ... Blackwater fever is a complication of malaria characterized by intravascular haemolysis, haemoglobinuria and kidney failure. ...


Chronic malaria is seen in both P. vivax and P. ovale, but not in P. falciparum. Here, the disease can relapse months or years after exposure, due to the presence of latent parasites in the liver. Describing a case of malaria as cured by observing the disappearance of parasites from the bloodstream can therefore be deceptive. The longest incubation period reported for a P. vivax infection is 30 years.[32] Approximately one in five of P. vivax malaria cases in temperate areas involve overwintering by hypnozoites (i.e., relapses begin the year after the mosquito bite).[36] For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ...


Causes

A Plasmodium sporozoite traverses the cytoplasm of a mosquito midgut epithelial cell in this false-color electron micrograph.
A Plasmodium sporozoite traverses the cytoplasm of a mosquito midgut epithelial cell in this false-color electron micrograph.

Image File history File links Malaria. ... Image File history File links Malaria. ... An electron micrograph is a micrograph made with an electron microscope. ...

Malaria parasites

Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium (phylum Apicomplexa). In humans malaria is caused by P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale, and P. vivax. P. vivax is the most common cause of infection, responsible for about 80 % of all malaria cases. However, P. falciparum is the most important cause of disease, and responsible for about 15% of infections and 90% of deaths.[37] Parasitic Plasmodium species also infect birds, reptiles, monkeys, chimpanzees and rodents.[38] There have been documented human infections with several simian species of malaria, namely P. knowlesi, P. inui, P. cynomolgi[39], P. simiovale, P. brazilianum, P. schwetzi and P. simium; however these are mostly of limited public health importance. Although avian malaria can kill chickens and turkeys, this disease does not cause serious economic losses to poultry farmers.[40] However, since being accidentally introduced by humans it has decimated the endemic birds of Hawaii, which evolved in its absence and lack any resistance to it.[41] Leishmania donovani, (a species of protozoan) in a bone marrow cell Protozoa (in Greek proto = first and zoa = animals) are one-celled eukaryotes (that is, unicellular microbes whose cells have membrane-bound nuclei) that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, mobility and heterotrophy. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Species Plasmodium achiotense Plasmodium achromaticum Plasmodium acuminatum Plasmodium adunyinkai Plasmodium aegyptensis Plasmodium aeuminatum Plasmodium agamae Plasmodium anasum Plasmodium anomaluri Plasmodium arachniformis Plasmodium ashfordi Plasmodium atheruri Plasmodium aurulentum Plasmodium australis Plasmodium attenuatum Plasmodium azurophilum Plasmodium balli Plasmodium bambusicolai Plasmodium basilisci Plasmodium beebei Plasmodium beltrani Plasmodium berghei Plasmodium bertii Plasmodium bigueti Plasmodium... Classes & Subclasses Aconoidasida Haemosporasina Piroplasmasina Blastocystea Conoidasida Coccidiasina Gregarinasina The Apicomplexa are a large group of protists, characterized by the presence of a unique organelle called an apical complex. ... Binomial name Welch, 1897 Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite, one of the species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans. ... Binomial name Plasmodium malariae Feletti & Grassi, 1889 Plasmodium malariae is a parasitic protozoa that causes malaria in dogs. ... Binomial name Stephens 1922 Plasmodium ovale is a species of parasitic protozoa that causes tertian malaria in humans. ... Binomial name Plasmodium vivax Grassi & Feletti 1890 The parasite Plasmodium vivax is the most frequent and widely distributed cause of benign, but recurring (tertian), malaria. ... Binomial name Plasmodium knowlesi Plasmodium knowlesi is a primate malaria parasite commonly found in Southeast Asia. ... This article is one of a series providing information about endemism among birds in the Worlds various zoogeographic zones. ...


Mosquito vectors and the Plasmodium life cycle

The parasite's primary (definitive) hosts and transmission vectors are female mosquitoes of the Anopheles genus. Young mosquitoes first ingest the malaria parasite by feeding on an infected human carrier and the infected Anopheles mosquitoes carry Plasmodium sporozoites in their salivary glands. A mosquito becomes infected when it takes a blood meal from an infected human. Once ingested, the parasite gametocytes taken up in the blood will further differentiate into male or female gametes and then fuse in the mosquito gut. This produces an ookinete that penetrates the gut lining and produces an oocyst in the gut wall. When the oocyst ruptures, it releases sporozoites that migrate through the mosquito's body to the salivary glands, where they are then ready to infect a new human host. This type of transmission is occasionally referred to as anterior station transfer.[42] The sporozoites are injected into the skin, alongside saliva, when the mosquito takes a subsequent blood meal. In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ... Some Species Anopheles atroparvus Anopheles barberi Anopheles beklemishevi Anopheles coustani Anopheles crypticus Anopheles culicifacies Anopheles earlei Anopheles farauti Anopheles fluviatilis Anopheles forattinii Anopheles funestus Anopheles gambiae Anopheles grabhamii Anopheles hailarensis Anopheles halophylus Anopheles hyrcanus Anopheles introlatus Anopheles kosiensis Anopheles latens Anopheles maculipennis Anopheles minimus Anopheles moucheti Anopheles nili Anopheles ovengensis... Some Species Anopheles atroparvus Anopheles barberi Anopheles beklemishevi Anopheles coustani Anopheles crypticus Anopheles culicifacies Anopheles earlei Anopheles farauti Anopheles fluviatilis Anopheles forattinii Anopheles funestus Anopheles gambiae Anopheles grabhamii Anopheles hailarensis Anopheles halophylus Anopheles hyrcanus Anopheles introlatus Anopheles kosiensis Anopheles latens Anopheles maculipennis Anopheles minimus Anopheles moucheti Anopheles nili Anopheles ovengensis... In the life-cycle of apicomplexan protozoa, sporozoites are cells that infect new hosts. ... The salivary glands produce saliva, which keeps the mouth and other parts of the digestive system moist. ... A gametocyte is a eukaryotic germ cell that divides by mitosis into other gametocytes or by meiosis into gametes. ... Gametes (in Greek: γαμέτες) —also known as sex cells, germ cells, or spores—are the specialized cells that come together during fertilization (conception) in organisms that reproduce sexually. ... An ookinete is a zygote of protozoans such as the malaria organism. ... Cryptosporidium has a spore phase (oocyst) and in this state can survive for lengthy periods outside a host and also resist many common disinfectants, notably chlorine based disinfectants. ... In the life-cycle of apicomplexan protozoa, sporozoites are cells that infect new hosts. ...


Only female mosquitoes feed on blood, thus males do not transmit the disease. The females of the Anopheles genus of mosquito prefer to feed at night. They usually start searching for a meal at dusk, and will continue throughout the night until taking a meal. Malaria parasites can also be transmitted by blood transfusions, although this is rare.[43] Some Species Anopheles atroparvus Anopheles barberi Anopheles beklemishevi Anopheles coustani Anopheles crypticus Anopheles culicifacies Anopheles earlei Anopheles farauti Anopheles fluviatilis Anopheles forattinii Anopheles funestus Anopheles gambiae Anopheles grabhamii Anopheles hailarensis Anopheles halophylus Anopheles hyrcanus Anopheles introlatus Anopheles kosiensis Anopheles latens Anopheles maculipennis Anopheles minimus Anopheles moucheti Anopheles nili Anopheles ovengensis... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ...


Pathogenesis

The life cycle of malaria parasites in the human body. The various stages in this process are discussed in the text.

Malaria in humans develops via two phases: an exoerythrocytic (hepatic) and an erythrocytic phase. When an infected mosquito pierces a person's skin to take a blood meal, sporozoites in the mosquito's saliva enter the bloodstream and migrate to the liver. Within 30 minutes of being introduced into the human host, they infect hepatocytes, multiplying asexually and asymptomatically for a period of 6–15 days. Once in the liver these organisms differentiate to yield thousands of merozoites which, following rupture of their host cells, escape into the blood and infect red blood cells, thus beginning the erythrocytic stage of the life cycle.[44] The parasite escapes from the liver undetected by wrapping itself in the cell membrane of the infected host liver cell.[45] Image File history File links MalariacycleBig. ... Image File history File links MalariacycleBig. ... In the life-cycle of apicomplexan protozoa, sporozoites are cells that infect new hosts. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... Hepatocytes make up 60-80% of the cytoplasmic mass of the liver. ... A merozoite is a daughter cell of protozoan parasites. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ...


Within the red blood cells the parasites multiply further, again asexually, periodically breaking out of their hosts to invade fresh red blood cells. Several such amplification cycles occur. Thus, classical descriptions of waves of fever arise from simultaneous waves of merozoites escaping and infecting red blood cells.


Some P. vivax and P. ovale sporozoites do not immediately develop into exoerythrocytic-phase merozoites, but instead produce hypnozoites that remain dormant for periods ranging from several months (6–12 months is typical) to as long as three years. After a period of dormancy, they reactivate and produce merozoites. Hypnozoites are responsible for long incubation and late relapses in these two species of malaria.[46]


The parasite is relatively protected from attack by the body's immune system because for most of its human life cycle it resides within the liver and blood cells and is relatively invisible to immune surveillance. However, circulating infected blood cells are destroyed in the spleen. To avoid this fate, the P. falciparum parasite displays adhesive proteins on the surface of the infected blood cells, causing the blood cells to stick to the walls of small blood vessels, thereby sequestering the parasite from passage through the general circulation and the spleen.[47] This "stickiness" is the main factor giving rise to hemorrhagic complications of malaria. High endothelial venules (the smallest branches of the circulatory system) can be blocked by the attachment of masses of these infected red blood cells. The blockage of these vessels causes symptoms such as in placental and cerebral malaria. In cerebral malaria the sequestrated red blood cells can breach the blood brain barrier possibly leading to coma.[48] A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... The spleen is an organ located in the abdomen, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and holding a reservoir of blood. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... High endothelial venules, or HEVs, are a subtype of blood endothelium present within lymph nodes; used by various leukocytes to gain entry into the lymph node via the blood. ... The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a membranic structure that acts primarily to protect the brain from chemicals in the blood, while still allowing essential metabolic function. ...


Although the red blood cell surface adhesive proteins (called PfEMP1, for Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1) are exposed to the immune system they do not serve as good immune targets because of their extreme diversity; there are at least 60 variations of the protein within a single parasite and perhaps limitless versions within parasite populations.[47] Like a thief changing disguises or a spy with multiple passports, the parasite switches between a broad repertoire of PfEMP1 surface proteins, thus staying one step ahead of the pursuing immune system.


Some merozoites turn into male and female gametocytes. If a mosquito pierces the skin of an infected person, it potentially picks up gametocytes within the blood. Fertilization and sexual recombination of the parasite occurs in the mosquito's gut, thereby defining the mosquito as the definitive host of the disease. New sporozoites develop and travel to the mosquito's salivary gland, completing the cycle. Pregnant women are especially attractive to the mosquitoes,[49] and malaria in pregnant women is an important cause of stillbirths, infant mortality and low birth weight.[50] A gametocyte is a eukaryotic germ cell that divides by mitosis into other gametocytes or by meiosis into gametes. ... In parasitology, an intermediate host is an organism that is infected with a parasite that will not reproduce sexually within it, while a definitive host is one in which the parasite reproduces. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Evolutionary pressure of malaria on human genes

Further information: Evolution, Natural selection

Malaria is thought to have been the greatest selective pressure on the human genome in recent history.[51] This is due to the high levels of mortality and morbidity caused by malaria, especially the P. falciparum species. This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Selection (disambiguation). ... A graphical representation of the normal human karyotype. ... In medicine, epidemiology and actuarial science, the term morbidity can refer to the state of being diseased (from Latin morbidus: sick, unhealthy), the degree or severity of a disease, the prevalence of a disease: the total number of cases in a particular population at a particular point in time, the... Binomial name Welch, 1897 Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite, one of the species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans. ...


Sickle-cell disease

Distribution of the sickle cell trait.
Distribution of Malaria.

The best-studied influence of the malaria parasite upon the human genome is the blood disease, sickle-cell disease. In sickle-cell disease, there is a mutation in the HBB gene, which encodes the beta globin subunit of haemoglobin. The normal allele encodes a glutamate at position six of the beta globin protein, while the sickle-cell allele encodes a valine. This change from a hydrophilic to a hydrophobic amino acid encourages binding between haemoglobin molecules, with polymerization of haemoglobin deforming red blood cells into a "sickle" shape. Such deformed cells are cleared rapidly from the blood, mainly in the spleen, for destruction and recycling. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Sickle-cell disease is a group of genetic disorders caused by sickle hemoglobin (Hgb S or Hb S). ... 3-dimensional structure of hemoglobin Hemoglobin or haemoglobin is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red cells of the blood in mammals and other animals. ... Glutamate is the anion of glutamic acid. ... Valine is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized by humans, so it is considered an essential amino acid for human life. ...


In the merozoite stage of its life cycle the malaria parasite lives inside red blood cells, and its metabolism changes the internal chemistry of the red blood cell. Infected cells normally survive until the parasite reproduces, but if the red cell contains a mixture of sickle and normal haemoglobin, it is likely to become deformed and be destroyed before the daughter parasites emerge. Thus, individuals heterozygous for the mutated allele, known as sickle-cell trait, may have a low and usually unimportant level of anaemia, but also have a greatly reduced chance of serious malaria infection. This is a classic example of heterozygote advantage. Heterozygote cells are diploid or polyploid and have different alleles at a locus (position) on homologous chromosomes. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... A heterozygote advantage (heterozygous advantage or overdominance) describes the case in which the heterozygote genotype has a higher relative fitness than either the homozygote dominant or homozygote recessive genotype. ...


Individuals homozygous for the mutation have full sickle-cell disease and in traditional societies rarely live beyond adolescence. However, in populations where malaria is endemic, the frequency of sickle-cell genes is around 10%. The existence of four haplotypes of sickle-type hemoglobin suggests that this mutation has emerged independently at least four times in malaria-endemic areas, further demonstrating its evolutionary advantage in such affected regions. There are also other mutations of the HBB gene that produce haemoglobin molecules capable of conferring similar resistance to malaria infection. These mutations produce haemoglobin types HbE and HbC which are common in Southeast Asia and Western Africa, respectively. Homozygote cells are diploid or polyploid and have the same alleles at a locus (position) on homologous chromosomes. ... In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. ... Allele frequency is a measure of the relative frequency of an allele on a genetic locus in a population. ... A haplotype is the genetic constitution of an individual chromosome. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... West Africa is the region of western Africa generally considered to include these countries: Benin Burkina Faso Cameroon Côte dIvoire (Ivory Coast) Equatorial Guinea Gabon The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) Senegal Sierra Leone Togo Chad, Mauritania, and...


Thalassaemias

Another well documented set of mutations found in the human genome associated with malaria are those involved in causing blood disorders known as thalassaemias. Studies in Sardinia and Papua New Guinea have found that the gene frequency of β-thalassaemias is related to the level of malarial endemicity in a given population. A study on more than 500 children in Liberia found that those with β-thalassaemia had a 50% decreased chance of getting clinical malaria. Similar studies have found links between gene frequency and malaria endemicity in the α+ form of α-thalassaemia. Presumably these genes have also been selected in the course of human evolution. For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... Allele frequency is a measure of the relative frequency of an allele on a genetic locus in a population. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ...


Duffy antigens

The Duffy antigens are antigens expressed on red blood cells and other cells in the body acting as a chemokine receptor. The expression of Duffy antigens on blood cells is encoded by Fy genes (Fya, Fyb, Fyc etc.). Plasmodium vivax malaria uses the Duffy antigen to enter blood cells. However, it is possible to express no Duffy antigen on red blood cells (Fy-/Fy-). This genotype confers complete resistance to P. vivax infection. The genotype is very rare in European, Asian and American populations, but is found in almost all of the indigenous population of West and Central Africa.[52] This is thought to be due to very high exposure to P. vivax in Africa in the last few thousand years. Discovery In 1950 the Duffy antigen was discovered in a multiply transfused hemophiliac in whose serum contained the first example of anti-Fya. ... An antigen is any molecule that is recognized by antibodies. ... Chemokines are a family of pro-inflammatory activation-inducible cytokines, or small protein signals secreted by cells. ... Binomial name Plasmodium vivax Grassi & Feletti 1890 The parasite Plasmodium vivax is the most frequent and widely distributed cause of benign, but recurring (tertian), malaria. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


G6PD

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme which normally protects from the effects of oxidative stress in red blood cells. However, a genetic deficiency in this enzyme results in increased protection against severe malaria. see Glucose-6-phosphate_dehydrogenase_deficiency Category: Biochemistry stubs ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Oxidative stress is a medical term for damage to animal or plant cells (and thereby the organs and tissues composed of those cells) caused by reactive oxygen species, which include (but are not limited to) superoxide, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite or hydrogen peroxide. ...


HLA and interleukin-4

HLA-B53 is associated with low risk of severe malaria. This MHC class I molecule presents liver stage and sporozoite antigens to T-Cells. Interleukin-4, encoded by IL4, is produced by activated T cells and promotes proliferation and differentiation of antibody-producing B cells. A study of the Fulani of Burkina Faso, who have both fewer malaria attacks and higher levels of antimalarial antibodies than do neighboring ethnic groups, found that the IL4-524 T allele was associated with elevated antibody levels against malaria antigens, which raises the possibility that this might be a factor in increased resistance to malaria.[53] HLA region of Chromosome 6 The human leukocyte antigen system (HLA) is the name of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC). ... Protein images comparing the MHC I (1hsa) and MHC II (1dlh) molecules. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... In the life-cycle of apicomplexan protozoa, sporozoites are cells that infect new hosts. ... An antigen is any molecule that is recognized by antibodies. ... T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ...


Diagnosis

Further information: Blood film
Blood smear from a P. falciparum culture (K1 strain). Several red blood cells have ring stages inside them. Close to the center there is a schizont and on the left a trophozoite.

The most economic, preferred, and reliable diagnosis of malaria is microscopic examination of blood films because each of the four major parasite species has distinguishing characteristics. Two sorts of blood film are traditionally used. Thin films are similar to usual blood films and allow species identification because the parasite's appearance is best preserved in this preparation. Thick films allow the microscopist to screen a larger volume of blood and are about eleven times more sensitive than the thin film, so picking up low levels of infection is easier on the thick film, but the appearance of the parasite is much more distorted and therefore distinguishing between the different species can be much more difficult. With the pros and cons of both thick and thin smears taken into consideration, it is imperative to utilize both smears while attempting to make a definitive diagnosis.[54] Blood films, Giemsa stained A blood film or peripheral blood smear is a slide made from a drop of blood, that allows the cells to be examined. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1159x745, 95 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1159x745, 95 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Malaria culture is the method to grow malaria parasites continuously in an in vitro environment. ... Blood films, Giemsa stained A blood film or peripheral blood smear is a slide made from a drop of blood, that allows the cells to be examined. ...


From the thick film, an experienced microscopist can detect parasite levels (or parasitemia) down to as low as 0.0000001% of red blood cells. Microscopic diagnosis can be difficult because the early trophozoites ("ring form") of all four species look identical and it is never possible to diagnose species on the basis of a single ring form; species identification is always based on several trophozoites. Please refer to the articles on each parasite for their microscopic appearances: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae. Parasitemia is the quantitative content of parasites in the blood. ... Binomial name Welch, 1897 Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite, one of the species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans. ... Binomial name Plasmodium vivax Grassi & Feletti 1890 The parasite Plasmodium vivax is the most frequent and widely distributed cause of benign, but recurring (tertian), malaria. ... Binomial name Stephens 1922 Plasmodium ovale is a species of parasitic protozoa that causes tertian malaria in humans. ... Binomial name Plasmodium malariae Feletti & Grassi, 1889 Plasmodium malariae is a parasitic protozoa that causes malaria in dogs. ...


In areas where microscopy is not available, or where laboratory staff are not experienced at malaria diagnosis, there are antigen detection tests that require only a drop of blood.[55] OptiMAL-IT® will reliably detect falciparum down to 0.01% parasitemia and non-falciparum down to 0.1%. Paracheck-Pf® will detect parasitemias down to 0.002% but will not distinguish between falciparum and non-falciparum malaria. Parasite nucleic acids are detected using polymerase chain reaction. This technique is more accurate than microscopy. However, it is expensive, and requires a specialized laboratory. Moreover, levels of parasitemia are not necessarily correlative with the progression of disease, particularly when the parasite is able to adhere to blood vessel walls. Therefore more sensitive, low-tech diagnosis tools need to be developed in order to detect low levels of parasitaemia in the field. Areas that cannot afford even simple laboratory diagnostic tests often use only a history of subjective fever as the indication to treat for malaria. Using Giemsa-stained blood smears from children in Malawi, one study showed that unnecessary treatment for malaria was significantly decreased when clinical predictors (rectal temperature, nailbed pallor, and splenomegaly) were used as treatment indications, rather than the current national policy of using only a history of subjective fevers (sensitivity increased from 21% to 41%). [56] Malaria antigen detection tests are a group of commercially available tests that allow the rapid diagnosis of malaria by people who are not otherwise skilled in traditional laboratory techniques for diagnosing malaria or in situations where such equipement is not available. ... Parasitemia is the quantitative content of parasites in the blood. ... “PCR” redirects here. ...


Molecular methods are available in some clinical laboratories and rapid real-time assays (for example, QT-NASBA based on the polymerase chain reaction)[57] are being developed with the hope of being able to deploy them in endemic areas. In molecular biology, real-time polymerase chain reaction, also called quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) or kinetic polymerase chain reaction, is a laboratory technique used to simultaneously quantify and amplify a specific part of a given DNA molecule. ...


Severe malaria is commonly misdiagnosed in Africa, leading to a failure to treat other life-threatening illnesses. In malaria-endemic areas, parasitemia does not ensure a diagnosis of severe malaria because parasitemia can be incidental to other concurrent disease. Recent investigations suggest that malarial retinopathy is better (collective sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 90%) than any other clinical or laboratory feature in distinguishing malarial from non-malarial coma.[58] A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Parasitemia is the quantitative content of parasites in the blood. ... Retinopathy is a general term that refers to some form of non-inflammatory damage to the retina of the eye. ... For other uses, see Coma (disambiguation). ...


Treatment

Active malaria infection with P. falciparum is a medical emergency requiring hospitalization. Infection with P. vivax, P. ovale or P. malariae can often be treated on an outpatient basis. Treatment of malaria involves supportive measures as well as specific antimalarial drugs. When properly treated, someone with malaria can expect a complete cure.[59] {{Otheruses4|the medical term|the Australian television series|Medical Emergenc an immediate threat to a persons life or long term health. ... For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ...


Antimalarial drugs

Further information: Antimalarial drugs

There are several families of drugs used to treat malaria. Chloroquine is very cheap and, until recently, was very effective, which made it the antimalarial drug of choice for many years in most parts of the world. However, resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine has spread recently from Asia to Africa, making the drug ineffective against the most dangerous Plasmodium strain in many affected regions of the world. In those areas where chloroquine is still effective it remains the first choice. Unfortunately, chloroquine-resistance is associated with reduced sensitivity to other drugs such as quinine and amodiaquine.[60] Antimalarial drugs are designed to prevent or treat malaria. ... Chloroquine is a 4-aminoquinoline drug long used in the treatment or prevention of malaria. ... Quinine (IPA: ) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), anti-smallpox, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. ... amidoquine ...


There are several other substances which are used for treatment and, partially, for prevention (prophylaxis). Many drugs may be used for both purposes; larger doses are used to treat cases of malaria. Their deployment depends mainly on the frequency of resistant parasites in the area where the drug is used. One drug currently being investigated for possible use as an anti-malarial, especially for treatment of drug-resistant strains, is the beta blocker propranolol. Propranolol has been shown to block both Plasmodium's ability to enter red blood cell and establish an infection, as well as parasite replication. A December 2006 study by Northwestern University researchers suggested that propranolol may reduce the dosages required for existing drugs to be effective against P. falciparum by 5- to 10-fold, suggesting a role in combination therapies.[61] 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Beta blockers or beta-adrenergic blocking agents are a class of drugs used to treat a variety of cardiovascular conditions and some other diseases. ... Propranolol (INN) (IPA: ) is a non-selective beta blocker mainly used in the treatment of hypertension. ... Northwestern University (NU) is a selective private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university with campuses located in Evanston, Illinois and downtown Chicago, Illinois. ...


Currently available anti-malarial drugs include:[62]

The development of drugs was facilitated when Plasmodium falciparum was successfully cultured.[63] This allowed in vitro testing of new drug candidates. Artemisinin is a drug used to treat multi-drug resistant strains of falciparum malaria. ... Lumefantrine (or benflumetol) is an antimalarial drug. ... Artemisinin is a drug used to treat multi-drug resistant strains of falciparum malaria. ... amidoquine ... Artemisinin is a drug used to treat multi-drug resistant strains of falciparum malaria. ... Mefloquine is an orally administered antimalarial drug used as a prophylaxis against and treatment for malaria. ... Artemisinin is a drug used to treat multi-drug resistant strains of falciparum malaria. ... There are several sulphonamide-based groups of drugs. ... Pyrimethamine (Daraprim®) is a medication used for protozoal infections. ... Atovaquone (Mepron) is a medication used to treat or prevent Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. ... Proguanil (proguanil hydrochloride) is a prophylactic antimalarial drug, which works by stopping the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, from reproducing once it is in the red blood cells. ... Malarone: New Malaria Medication With Fewer Side-effects Malarone is a newly released medication for prevention and treatment of chloroquine-resistant forms of malaria, including cerebral malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. ... Quinine (IPA: ) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), anti-smallpox, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. ... Chloroquine is a 4-aminoquinoline drug long used in the treatment or prevention of malaria. ... A treatment and prophylaxis for malaria consisting of a multiple complex combination of rifampicin, isoniazid, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim. ... Doxycycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a member of the tetracycline antibiotics group and is commonly used to treat a variety of infections. ... Mefloquine is an orally administered antimalarial drug used as a prophylaxis against and treatment for malaria. ... Primaquine or Primaquine Phosphate. ... Proguanil (proguanil hydrochloride) is a prophylactic antimalarial drug, which works by stopping the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, from reproducing once it is in the red blood cells. ... There are several sulphonamide-based groups of drugs. ... Pyrimethamine (Daraprim®) is a medication used for protozoal infections. ... Hydroxychloroquine is an antimalarial also used to reduce inflammation and treat arthritis and lupus. ... Malaria culture is the method to grow malaria parasites continuously in an in vitro environment. ...


Extracts of the plant Artemisia annua, containing the compound artemisinin or semi-synthetic derivatives (a substance unrelated to quinine), offer over 90% efficacy rates, but their supply is not meeting demand.[64] One study in Rwanda showed that children with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria demonstrated fewer clinical and parasitological failures on post-treatment day 28 when amodiaquine was combined with artesunate, rather than administered alone (OR = 0.34). However, increased resistance to amodiaquine during this study period was also noted. [65] Since 2001 the World Health Organization has recommended using artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in areas experiencing resistance to older medications. The most recent WHO treatment guidelines for malaria recommend four different ACTs. While numerous countries, including most African nations, have adopted the change in their official malaria treatment policies, cost remains a major barrier to ACT implementation. Because ACTs cost up to twenty times as much as older medications, they remain unaffordable in many malaria-endemic countries. The molecular target of artemisinin is controversial, although recent studies suggest that SERCA, a calcium pump in the endoplasmic reticulum may be associated with artemisinin resistance.[66] Malaria parasites can develop resistance to artemisinin and resistance can be produced by mutation of SERCA.[67] However, other studies suggest the mitochondrion is the major target for artemisinin and its analogs.[68] Binomial name Artemisia annua Artemisia annua is the official Latin name for a plant better known by names such as sweet sagewood, sweet wormwood, annual sagebrush, or Chinese wormwood. ... Artemisinin (IPA: ) is a drug used to treat multi-drug resistant strains of falciparum malaria. ... Artemisinin is a drug used to treat multi-drug resistant strains of falciparum malaria. ... WHO redirects here. ... Artemisinin (IPA: ) is a drug used to treat multi-drug resistant strains of falciparum malaria. ... Look up who in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... SERCA stands for Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase SERCA resides in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) within muscle cells. ... The endoplasmic reticulum or ER is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells that is an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles and cisternae that is responsible for several specialized functions: Protein translation, folding, and transport of proteins to be used in the cell membrane (e. ...


In February 2002, the journal Science and other press outlets[69] announced progress on a new treatment for infected individuals. A team of French and South African researchers had identified a new drug they were calling "G25".[70] It cured malaria in test primates by blocking the ability of the parasite to copy itself within the red blood cells of its victims. In 2005 the same team of researchers published their research on achieving an oral form, which they refer to as "TE3" or "te3".[71] As of early 2006, there is no information in the mainstream press as to when this family of drugs will become commercially available. Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ...


In 1996, Professor Geoff McFadden stumbled upon the work of British biologist Ian Wilson, who had discovered that the plasmodia responsible for causing malaria retained parts of chloroplasts[72], an organelle usually found in plants, complete with their own functioning genomes. This led Professor McFadden to the realisation that any number of herbicides may in fact be successful in the fight against malaria, and so he set about trialing large numbers of them, and enjoyed a 75% success rate.


These "apicoplasts" are thought to have originated through the endosymbiosis of algae[73] and play a crucial role in fatty acid bio-synthesis in plasmodia[74]. To date, 466 proteins have been found to be produced by apicoplasts[75] and these are now being looked at as possible targets for novel anti-malarial drugs. The Apicoplast is a relict, non-photosynthetic plastid found in the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. ...


Although effective anti-malarial drugs are on the market, the disease remains a threat to people living in endemic areas who have no proper and prompt access to effective drugs. Access to pharmacies and health facilities, as well as drug costs, are major obstacles. Médecins Sans Frontières estimates that the cost of treating a malaria-infected person in an endemic country was between US$0.25 and $2.40 per dose in 2002.[76] Médecins Sans Frontières logo Médecins Sans Frontières ( ) (English: Doctors Without Borders, its official name in the United States) is a secular humanitarian-aid non-governmental organization best known for its projects in war-torn regions and developing countries facing endemic disease. ... USD redirects here. ...


Counterfeit drugs

Sophisticated counterfeits have been found in Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia[77] and China,[78] and are an important cause of avoidable death in these countries.[79] There is no reliable way for doctors or lay people to detect counterfeit drugs without help from a laboratory. Companies are attempting to combat the persistence of counterfeit drugs by using new technology to provide security from source to distribution. A counterfeit drug or a counterfeit medicine is a medication which is produced and sold with the intent to deceptively represent its origin, authenticity or effectiveness. ...


Prevention and disease control

Further information: Mosquito control
Anopheles albimanus mosquito feeding on a human arm. This mosquito is a vector of malaria and mosquito control is a very effective way of reducing the incidence of malaria.

Methods used to prevent the spread of disease, or to protect individuals in areas where malaria is endemic, include prophylactic drugs, mosquito eradication, and the prevention of mosquito bites. There is currently no vaccine that will prevent malaria, but this is an active field of research. Mosquito control is the task of managing the population of mosquitoes to reduce their damage to human health, economies, and enjoyment of mosquito-ridden areas. ... Image File history File links Anopheles_albimanus_mosquito. ... Image File history File links Anopheles_albimanus_mosquito. ... Some Species Anopheles atroparvus Anopheles barberi Anopheles beklemishevi Anopheles coustani Anopheles crypticus Anopheles culicifacies Anopheles earlei Anopheles farauti Anopheles fluviatilis Anopheles forattinii Anopheles funestus Anopheles gambiae Anopheles grabhamii Anopheles hailarensis Anopheles halophylus Anopheles hyrcanus Anopheles introlatus Anopheles kosiensis Anopheles latens Anopheles maculipennis Anopheles minimus Anopheles moucheti Anopheles nili Anopheles ovengensis... A vial of the vaccine against influenza. ...


Many researchers argue that prevention of malaria may be more cost-effective than treatment of the disease in the long run, but the capital costs required are out of reach of many of the world's poorest people. Economic adviser Jeffrey Sachs estimates that malaria can be controlled for US$3 billion in aid per year. It has been argued that, in order to meet the Millennium Development Goals, money should be redirected from HIV/AIDS treatment to malaria prevention, which for the same amount of money would provide greater benefit to African economies.[80] Jeffrey Sachs Jeffrey David Sachs (born November 5, 1954 in Detroit, Michigan) is an American economist known for his work as an economic advisor to governments in Latin America, Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, Asia, and Africa. ... The Millenium Development Goals The Millennium Development Goals are eight goals that 192 United Nations member states have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...


Efforts to eradicate malaria by eliminating mosquitoes have been successful in some areas. Malaria was once common in the United States and southern Europe, but the draining of wetland breeding grounds and better sanitation, in conjunction with the monitoring and treatment of infected humans, eliminated it from affluent regions. In 2002, there were 1,059 cases of malaria reported in the US, including eight deaths. In five of those cases, the disease was contracted in the United States. Malaria was eliminated from the northern parts of the USA in the early twentieth century, and the use of the pesticide DDT eliminated it from the South by 1951. In the 1950s and 1960s, there was a major public health effort to eradicate malaria worldwide by selectively targeting mosquitoes in areas where malaria was rampant.[81] However, these efforts have so far failed to eradicate malaria in many parts of the developing world - the problem is most prevalent in Africa. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... DDT or Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane is the first modern pesticide and is one of the best known synthetic pesticides. ...


Brazil, Eritrea, India, and Vietnam have, unlike many other developing nations, successfully reduced the malaria burden. Common success factors included conducive country conditions, a targeted technical approach using a package of effective tools, data-driven decision-making, active leadership at all levels of government, involvement of communities, decentralized implementation and control of finances, skilled technical and managerial capacity at national and sub-national levels, hands-on technical and programmatic support from partner agencies, and sufficient and flexible financing.[82]


The Malaria Control Project is currently using downtime computing power donated by individual volunteers around the world (see Volunteer computing and BOINC) to simulate models of the health effects and transmission dynamics in order to find the best method or combination of methods for malaria control. This modeling is extremely computer intensive due to the simulations of large human populations with a vast range of parameters related to biological and social factors that influence the spread of the disease. It is expected to take a few months using volunteered computing power compared to the 40 years it would have taken with the current resources available to the scientists who developed the program.[83] Malaria Control Project—is an application that makes use of network computing for stochastic modelling of the clinical epidemiology and natural history of Plasmodium falciparum malaria Using the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) distributed computing platform. ... Volunteer computing is a type of distributed computing in which computer owners donate their computing resources (such as processing power and storage) to one or more projects. It is distinct from Grid computing, which involves sharing of managed computing resources within and between organizations. ... The Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) is a distributed computing infrastructure intended to be useful to fields beyond SETI. It is being developed by a team based at the University of California, Berkeley led by the project director of [email protected], David Anderson. ...


Prophylactic drugs

Main article: Malaria prophylaxis

Several drugs, most of which are also used for treatment of malaria, can be taken preventively. Generally, these drugs are taken daily or weekly, at a lower dose than would be used for treatment of a person who had actually contracted the disease. Use of prophylactic drugs is seldom practical for full-time residents of malaria-endemic areas, and their use is usually restricted to short-term visitors and travelers to malarial regions. This is due to the cost of purchasing the drugs, negative side effects from long-term use, and because some effective anti-malarial drugs are difficult to obtain outside of wealthy nations. Malaria prophylaxis is the prevention of malaria. ... Adverse effect, in medicine, is an abnormal, harmful, undesired and/or unintended side-effect, although not necessarily unexpected, which is obtained as the result of a therapy or other medical intervention, such as drug/chemotherapy, physical therapy, surgery, medical procedure, use of a medical device, etc. ...


Quinine was used starting in the seventeenth century as a prophylactic against malaria. The development of more effective alternatives such as quinacrine, chloroquine, and primaquine in the twentieth century reduced the reliance on quinine. Today, quinine is still used to treat chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum, as well as severe and cerebral stages of malaria, but is not generally used for prophylaxis. Of interesting historical note is the observation by Samuel Hahnemann in the late 18th Century that over-dosing of quinine leads to a symptomatic state very similar to that of malaria itself. This lead Hahnemann to develop the medical Law of Similars, and the subsequent medical system of Homeopathy. Quinine (IPA: ) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), anti-smallpox, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Quinacrine (trade name: Atabrine) is a drug with a number of different medical applications. ... Chloroquine is a 4-aminoquinoline drug long used in the treatment or prevention of malaria. ... Primaquine or Primaquine Phosphate. ... Binomial name Welch, 1897 Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite, one of the species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans. ... Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann (10th April 1755 in Meißen, Saxony, Holy Roman Empire - 2nd July 1843 in Paris, France) was a physician who, beginning with an article he published in a German medical journal in 1796, coined homoeopathic medicine. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Hair of the dog is a colloquial English expression predominantly used to refer to ingestion of alcohol as treatment for a hangover. ... Homeopathy starring at the horrors of Allopathy by Alexander Beydeman, 1857 Homeopathy (also spelled homœopathy or homoeopathy), from the Greek words όμοιος, hómoios (similar) and πάθος, páthos (suffering, disease),[1] is a highly controversial type of alternative medicine that aims to treat like with like. ...


Modern drugs used preventively include mefloquine (Lariam®), doxycycline (available generically), and the combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride (Malarone®). The choice of which drug to use depends on which drugs the parasites in the area are resistant to, as well as side-effects and other considerations. The prophylactic effect does not begin immediately upon starting taking the drugs, so people temporarily visiting malaria-endemic areas usually begin taking the drugs one to two weeks before arriving and must continue taking them for 4 weeks after leaving (with the exception of atovaquone proguanil that only needs be started 2 days prior and continued for 7 days afterwards). Mefloquine is an orally administered antimalarial drug used as a prophylaxis against and treatment for malaria. ... Doxycycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a member of the tetracycline antibiotics group and is commonly used to treat a variety of infections. ... Atovaquone (Mepron) is a medication used to treat or prevent Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. ... Proguanil (proguanil hydrochloride) is a prophylactic antimalarial drug, which works by stopping the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, from reproducing once it is in the red blood cells. ... Organisms are said to be drug-resistant when they are no longer affected by drugs that are meant to neutralize them. ...


Indoor residual spraying

DDT was developed as the first of the modern insecticides early in World War II. While it was initially used to combat malaria, its use spread to agriculture where it was used to eliminate insect pests. In time, pest-control, rather than disease-control, came to dominate DDT use, particularly in the developed world. During the 1960s, awareness of the negative consequences of its indiscriminate use increased, and ultimately led to bans in many countries in the 1970s. By this time, its large-scale use had already led to the evolution of resistant mosquitoes in many regions. DDT or Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane is the first modern pesticide and is one of the best known synthetic pesticides. ... It has been suggested that ovicide be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


However, given the continuing toll to malaria, particularly in developing countries, there is considerable controversy regarding the restrictions placed on the use of DDT. Though DDT has never been banned for use in malaria control, some advocates claim that bans are responsible for tens of millions of deaths in tropical countries where DDT had previously been effective in controlling malaria. Furthermore, most of the problems associated with DDT use stem specifically from its industrial-scale application in agriculture, rather than its use in public health.[84] Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ...


The World Health Organization (WHO) currently advises the use of DDT to combat malaria in endemic areas.[85] For instance, DDT-spraying the interior walls of living spaces, where mosquitoes land, is an effective control. The WHO also recommends a series of alternative insecticides (such as the pyrethroids permethrin and deltamethrin) to both combat malaria in areas where mosquitoes are DDT-resistant, and to slow the evolution of resistance. This public health use of small amounts of DDT is permitted under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), which prohibits the agricultural use of DDT for large-scale field spraying.[86] However, because of its legacy, many developed countries discourage DDT use even in small quantities.[87] WHO redirects here. ... Permethrin is a common synthetic chemical, widely used as an insecticide and acaricide and as an insect repellent. ... Deltamethrin is a pyrethroid ester insecticide. ... Stockholm Convention is an international agreement on persistent organic pollutants (POPs). ... Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes. ...


Mosquito nets and bedclothes

Mosquito nets help keep mosquitoes away from people, and thus greatly reduce the infection and transmission of malaria. The nets are not a perfect barrier, so they are often treated with an insecticide designed to kill the mosquito before it has time to search for a way past the net. Insecticide-treated nets (ITN) are estimated to be twice as effective as untreated nets,[80] and offer greater than 70% protection compared with no net.[88] Since the Anopheles mosquitoes feed at night, the preferred method is to hang a large "bed net" above the center of a bed such that it drapes down and covers the bed completely. Some Species Anopheles atroparvus Anopheles barberi Anopheles beklemishevi Anopheles coustani Anopheles crypticus Anopheles culicifacies Anopheles earlei Anopheles farauti Anopheles fluviatilis Anopheles forattinii Anopheles funestus Anopheles gambiae Anopheles grabhamii Anopheles hailarensis Anopheles halophylus Anopheles hyrcanus Anopheles introlatus Anopheles kosiensis Anopheles latens Anopheles maculipennis Anopheles minimus Anopheles moucheti Anopheles nili Anopheles ovengensis...


The distribution of mosquito nets impregnated with insecticide (often permethrin or deltamethrin) has been shown to be an extremely effective method of malaria prevention, and it is also one of the most cost-effective methods of prevention. These nets can often be obtained for around US$2.50 - $3.50 (2-3 euros) from the United Nations, the World Health Organization, and others. Permethrin is a common synthetic chemical, widely used as an insecticide and acaricide and as an insect repellent. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


For maximum effectiveness, the nets should be re-impregnated with insecticide every six months. This process poses a significant logistical problem in rural areas. New technologies like Olyset or DawaPlus allow for production of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets (LLINs), which release insecticide for approximately 5 years,[89] and cost about US$5.50. ITN's have the advantage of protecting people sleeping under the net and simultaneously killing mosquitoes that contact the net. This has the effect of killing the most dangerous mosquitoes. Some protection is also provided to others, including people sleeping in the same room but not under the net.


Unfortunately, the cost of treating malaria is high relative to income, and the illness results in lost wages. Consequently, the financial burden means that the cost of a mosquito net is often unaffordable to people in developing countries, especially for those most at risk. Only 1 out of 20 people in Africa own a bed net.[80] Although shipped into Africa mainly from Europe as free development help, the nets quickly become expensive trade goods. They are mainly used for fishing, and by combining hundreds of donated mosquito nets, whole river sections can be completely shut off, catching even the smallest fish. [90]


A study among Afghan refugees in Pakistan found that treating top-sheets and chaddars (head coverings) with permethrin has similar effectiveness to using a treated net, but is much cheaper.[91] The Muhajir or Mohajir Afghans are the Afghan refugees that fled Afghanistan after the Soviet invasion in 1979. ...


A new approach, announced in Science on June 10, 2005, uses spores of the fungus Beauveria bassiana, sprayed on walls and bed nets, to kill mosquitoes. While some mosquitoes have developed resistance to chemicals, they have not been found to develop a resistance to fungal infections.[92] is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Subkingdom/Phyla Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota Neocallimastigomycota Glomeromycota Zygomycota Dikarya (inc. ... Binomial name Beauveria bassiana (Bals. ...


Vaccination

Further information: Malaria vaccine

Vaccines for malaria are under development, with no completely effective vaccine yet available. The first promising studies demonstrating the potential for a malaria vaccine were performed in 1967 by immunizing mice with live, radiation-attenuated sporozoites, providing protection to about 60% of the mice upon subsequent injection with normal, viable sporozoites.[93] Since the 1970s, there has been a considerable effort to develop similar vaccination strategies within humans. It was determined that an individual can be protected from a P. falciparum infection if they receive over 1000 bites from infected, irradiated mosquitoes.[94] Malaria vaccines are an area of intensive research, however, no effective vaccine has yet been introduced to the clinic. ... A vial of the vaccine against influenza. ... The attenuator plays an important regulatory role in prokaryotic cells because of the absence of the nucleus in prokaryotic organisms. ... In the life-cycle of apicomplexan protozoa, sporozoites are cells that infect new hosts. ...


It has been generally accepted that it is impractical to provide at-risk individuals with this vaccination strategy, but that has been recently challenged with work being done by Dr. Stephen Hoffman of Sanaria, one of the key researchers who originally sequenced the genome of Plasmodium falciparum. His work most recently has revolved around solving the logistical problem of isolating and preparing the parasites equivalent to a 1000 irradiated mosquitoes for mass storage and inoculation of human beings. The company has recently received several multi-million dollar grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the U.S. government to begin early clinical studies in 2007 and 2008.[95] Binomial name Welch, 1897 Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite, one of the species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans. ... The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (B&MGF) is the largest transparently operated[2] charitable foundation in the world, founded by Bill and Melinda Gates in 2000 and doubled in size by Warren Buffett in 2006. ...


Instead, much work has been performed to try and understand the immunological processes that provide protection after immunization with irradiated sporozoites. After the mouse vaccination study in 1967,[93] it was hypothesized that the injected sporozoites themselves were being recognized by the immune system, which was in turn creating antibodies against the parasite. It was determined that the immune system was creating antibodies against the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) which coated the sporozoite.[96] Moreover, antibodies against CSP prevented the sporozoite from invading hepatocytes.[97] CSP was therefore chosen as the most promising protein on which to develop a vaccine against the malaria sporozoite. It is for these historical reasons that vaccines based on CSP are the most numerous of all malaria vaccines. A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ...


Presently, there is a huge variety of vaccine candidates on the table. Pre-erythrocytic vaccines (vaccines that target the parasite before it reaches the blood), in particular vaccines based on CSP, make up the largest group of research for the malaria vaccine. Other vaccine candidates include: those that seek to induce immunity to the blood stages of the infection; those that seek to avoid more severe pathologies of malaria by preventing adherence of the parasite to blood venules and placenta; and transmission-blocking vaccines that would stop the development of the parasite in the mosquito right after the mosquito has taken a bloodmeal from an infected person.[98] It is hoped that the sequencing of the P. falciparum genome will provide targets for new drugs or vaccines.[99] A venule is a small blood vessel that allows deoxygenated blood to return from the capillary beds to the larger blood vessels called veins. ... The placenta is an ephemeral (temporary) organ present in female placental vertebrates, such as some mammals and sharks during gestation (pregnancy). ... In medicine, transmission is the passing of a disease from an infected individual or group to a previously uninfected individual or group. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ...


The first vaccine developed that has undergone field trials, is the SPf66, developed by Manuel Elkin Patarroyo in 1987. It presents a combination of antigens from the sporozoite (using CS repeats) and merozoite parasites. During phase I trials a 75% efficacy rate was demonstrated and the vaccine appeared to be well tolerated by subjects and immunogenic. The phase IIb and III trials were less promising, with the efficacy falling to between 38.8% and 60.2%. A trial was carried out in Tanzania in 1993 demonstrating the efficacy to be 31% after a years follow up, however the most recent (though controversial) study in the Gambia did not show any effect. Despite the relatively long trial periods and the number of studies carried out, it is still not known how the SPf66 vaccine confers immunity; it therefore remains an unlikely solution to malaria. The CSP was the next vaccine developed that initially appeared promising enough to undergo trials. It is also based on the circumsporoziote protein, but additionally has the recombinant (Asn-Ala-Pro15Asn-Val-Asp-Pro)2-Leu-Arg(R32LR) protein covalently bound to a purified Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin (A9). However at an early stage a complete lack of protective immunity was demonstrated in those inoculated. The study group used in Kenya had an 82% incidence of parasitaemia whilst the control group only had an 89% incidence. The vaccine intended to cause an increased T-lymphocyte response in those exposed, this was also not observed. Manuel Elkin Patarroyo (b. ... Binomial name Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Schroeter 1872) Migula 1900 Synonyms Bacterium aeruginosum Schroeter 1872 Bacterium aeruginosum Cohn 1872 Micrococcus pyocyaneus Zopf 1884 Bacillus aeruginosus (Schroeter 1872) Trevisan 1885 Bacillus pyocyaneus (Zopf 1884) Flügge 1886 Pseudomonas pyocyanea (Zopf 1884) Migula 1895 Bacterium pyocyaneum (Zopf 1884) Lehmann and Neumann 1896 Pseudomonas polycolor...


The efficacy of Patarroyo's vaccine has been disputed with some US scientists concluding in The Lancet (1997) that "the vaccine was not effective and should be dropped" while the Colombian accused them of "arrogance" putting down their assertions to the fact that he came from a developing country. The Lancet is one of the oldest and most respected peer-reviewed medical journals in the world, published weekly by Elsevier, part of Reed Elsevier. ...


The RTS,S/AS02A vaccine is the candidate furthest along in vaccine trials. It is being developed by a partnership between the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative (a grantee of the Gates Foundation), the pharmaceutical company, GlaxoSmithKline, and the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research[100] In the vaccine, a portion of CSP has been fused to the immunogenic "S antigen" of the hepatitis B virus; this recombinant protein is injected alongside the potent AS02A adjuvant.[98] In October 2004, the RTS,S/AS02A researchers announced results of a Phase IIb trial, indicating the vaccine reduced infection risk by approximately 30% and severity of infection by over 50%. The study looked at over 2,000 Mozambican children.[101] More recent testing of the RTS,S/AS02A vaccine has focused on the safety and efficacy of administering it earlier in infancy: In October 2007, the researchers announced results of a phase I/IIb trial conducted on 214 Mozambican infants between the ages of 10 and 18 months in which the full three-dose course of the vaccine led to a 62% reduction of infection with no serious side-effects save some pain at the point of injection.[102] Further research will delay this vaccine from commercial release until around 2011.[103] The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is the worlds largest charitable foundation. ... A pharmaceutical company, or drug company, is a commercial business whose focus is to research, develop, market and/or distribute drugs, most commonly in the context of healthcare. ... GlaxoSmithKline plc (LSE: GSK NYSE: GSK) is a British based pharmaceutical, biological, and healthcare company. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary using the Transwiki process. ... An antigen or immunogen is a molecule that stimulates an immune response. ... “HBV” redirects here. ... Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by different genetically modified organisms following insertion of the relevant DNA into their genome. ... In medicine, adjuvants are agents which modify the effect of other agents while having few if any direct effects when given by themselves. ... In health care, including medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a process in which a medicine or other medical treatment is tested for its safety and effectiveness, often in comparison to existing treatments. ... In health care, including medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a process in which a medicine or other medical treatment is tested for its safety and effectiveness, often in comparison to existing treatments. ...


Other methods

Sterile insect technique is emerging as a potential mosquito control method. Progress towards transgenic, or genetically modified, insects suggest that wild mosquito populations could be made malaria-resistant. Researchers at Imperial College London created the world's first transgenic malaria mosquito,[104] with the first plasmodium-resistant species announced by a team at Case Western Reserve University in Ohio in 2002.[105] Successful replacement of existent populations with genetically modified populations, relies upon a drive mechanism, such as transposable elements to allow for non-Mendelian inheritance of the gene of interest. El Salvador successfully demonstrated the sterile insect technique by eliminating a malaria-causing mosquito from a region for a period of time. ... GloFish: the first genetically modified animal to be sold as a pet. ... Affiliations Russell Group Association of MBAs IDEA League Association of Commonwealth Universities Golden Triangle Oak Ridge Associated Universities Nobel laureates 14 Website http://www. ... Case Western Reserve University is a university in Cleveland, Ohio, United States, with some residence halls on the south end of campus located in Cleveland Heights. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Greater Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... Transposons are sequences of DNA that can move around to different positions within the genome of a single cell, a process called Transposition. ...


Education in recognising the symptoms of Malaria has reduced the number of cases in some areas of the developing world by as much as 20%. Recognising the disease in the early stages can also stop the disease from becoming a killer. Education can also inform people to cover over areas of stangnant, still water eg Water Tanks which are ideal breeding grounds for the parastie and mosquito thus, cutting down the risk of the transmission between people. This is most put in practice in urban areas where there is large centres of population in a confined space and transmission would be most likely in these areas.


Before DDT, malaria was successfully eradicated or controlled also in several tropical areas by removing or poisoning the breeding grounds of the mosquitoes or the aquatic habitats of the larva stages, for example by filling or applying oil to places with standing water. These methods have seen little application in Africa for more than half a century.[106]


Policy implementation and access to anti-malarial drugs in developing countries

The introduction of any anti-malarial therapy requires policies to regulate local distribution, access and guidelines for usage. There are many considerations when implementing the use a newly developed drug.


These include:

  • the known efficacy of the treatment and the adherence levels likely within the constraints of the local health system;
  • the economic resources necessary to implement the policy by the health care sector;
  • the human and technical resources and the basic primary health care infrastructure;
  • education;
  • training and health promotion schemes for staff and the general population;
  • successful interactions between the public and private sector to ensure that sufficient drugs are supplied;
  • regulation over quality control;
  • distribution and pricing;
  • regular monitoring and a system enabling alteration of the policy.

One of the major problems associated with anti-malarial therapy is the inadequate primary health care infrastructure in many of the countries where malaria is endemic. It is estimated that one third of the population at risk of developing the infection has no access to therapy. Access is defined as the availability to pharmaceuticals of quality and can be subdivided in to physical, financial (affordability and equity) and rational-use access. The level of access is determined by many factors from the appropriate knowledge to use the drug effectively, supply management, basic infrastructure for delivery, economic and legislative issues. This is affected by the participation and support of all the stakeholders involved from the government to local private companies. In many countries access is prevented by poor political will and interest, low levels of economic growth and the investment of the majority of financial resources in secondary or tertiary health care.


The level of quality control over anti-malarials provided is a key problem in many areas of the world. Poor quality and counterfeit drugs can lead to an increase in the rate of resistance development due to incorrect dosing and can pose a fatal risk if given in acute cases where little or no drug is contained within the given dose. This issue is thought to account, to an unknown degree, to the perceived resistance and treatment failure rates seen. The percentage failure rates in sub-Saharan Africa vary from 20 to 67%. Random content testing has been carried out and demonstrated that, in certain areas up to 100% of this failure is due to poor content. This poses a serious danger to the international campaigns against malaria and therefore cannot be ignored. Suggestions to overcome such problems include international surveillance systems within drug regulatory authorities and supporting pharmaceutical manufacturers.


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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... WHO redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... WHO redirects here. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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UNITAID is an international facility for the purchase of drugs against HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...

Protozoa (in Greek protos = first and zoon = animal) are single-celled eukaryotes (organisms with nuclei) that show some characteristics usually associated with animals, most notably mobility and heterotrophy. ... Classes & Subclasses Aconoidasida Haemosporasina Piroplasmasina Blastocystea Conoidasida Coccidiasina Gregarinasina The Apicomplexa are a large group of protists, characterized by the presence of a unique organelle called an apical complex. ... Coccidia are microscopic, single-celled parasites that infect the intestine. ... Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease affecting the intestines of mammals that is caused by Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite in the phylum Apicomplexa. ... Isosporiasis is a human intestinal disease caused by a parasite called Isosporiasis belli. ... Cyclospora cayetanensis is a pathogenic protozoan transmitted by feces or feces-contaminated fresh produce and water. ... Blackwater fever is a complication of malaria characterized by intravascular haemolysis, haemoglobinuria and kidney failure. ... Babesiosis is a parasitic disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia, which belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa. ... This article is about the protist group called excavates. ... Giardiasis (also known as beaver fever) is a disease caused by the flagellate protozoan Giardia lamblia (also Giardia intestinalis). ... Trypanosomiasis is the name of the diseases caused by parasitic protozoan trypanosomes of the genus trypanosoma in vertebrates. ... Sleeping sickness or African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease in people and animals, caused by protozoa of genus Trypanosoma and transmitted by the tsetse fly. ... Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of leishmaniasis. ... Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar and black fever, is the most severe form of leishmaniasis, a disease caused by parasites of the Leishmania genus. ... Trichomoniasis, sometimes referred to as trich, is a common sexually transmitted disease that affects 7. ... Blastocystosis refers to a medical condition caused by infection with Blastocystis. ... Dientamoebiasis is a medical condition caused by infection with Dientamoeba fragilis. ... An intestinal infection that causes diarrhea and wasting in persons with HIV. It results from two different species of microsporidia, a protozoal parasite. ... Binomial name Naegleria fowleri Carter (1970) Naegleria fowleri (pronounced nuh-GLEER-e-uh) is a free living amoeba typically found in warm fresh water, from 25-35 degrees Celsius in a flagellated stage. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Frequently Asked Questions | CDC Malaria (3332 words)
Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease caused by a parasite that commonly infects a certain type of mosquito which feeds on humans.
Malaria may also be transmitted from a mother to her unborn infant before or during delivery ("congenital" malaria).
Malaria parasites, which grow and develop inside the mosquito, need warmth to complete their growth before they are mature enough to be transmitted to humans.
Malaria (827 words)
Malaria is then transmitted to other people when they are bitten by the infected mosquitoes.
The incubation period for malaria is the time between the mosquito bite and the release of parasites from the liver.
Several malaria vaccines are currently being developed and tested across the world, but because the malaria parasite has a complicated life cycle, it is a difficult vaccine to develop.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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