FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Malacca Sultanate
Sultanate of Malacca

1402 – 1511
 

 

The extent of the Sultanate in the 15th century
Capital Malacca
Language(s) Malay language
Religion Islam
Government Monarchy
Sultan Parameswara
Mahmud Shah of Malacca
History
 - Established 1402
 - Portuguese invasion 1511
Currency Native gold and silver coins

The Sultanate of Malacca was founded by Parameswara in 1402 and later married the princess of Pasai in 1409. Centered in the modern town of Malacca, the sultanate stretched from southern Thailand in the north to Sumatra in the southwest. The Portuguese invaded its capital in 1511 and in 1528, the Sultanate of Johor was established by a Malaccan prince to succeed Malacca. The extent of Srivijayan Empire around 10th to 11th century. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Image File history File links Flag_of_Johor. ... The Sultanate of Johor (or sometimes Johor-Riau) was founded by Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Shahs son, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah in 1528. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Perak. ... For other uses, see Perak (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Portuguese Malacca Capital Malacca Town Language(s) Portuguese, Malay Political structure Colony King  - 1511-1521 Manuel I  - 1640-1641 John IV Captains-major  - 1512-1514 Ruí de Brito Patalim (first)  - 1638-1641 Manuel de Sousa Coutinho (last) Captains-general  - 1616-1635 António Pinto da Fonseca (first)  - 1637-1641 Lu... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... This article is about the state in Malaysia. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... People by name Parameshwara: The fourteenth century Indian mathematician. ... Sultan Mahmud Shah (died 1528) ruled Malacca from 1488 to 1528. ... Parameswara (1344 – 1414) was a Palembang prince of Hindu descent from Srivijaya that founded Malacca around 1402. ... Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ... Events January 1 - The Welsh surrender Harlech Castle to the English. ... Nickname: Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1502 Granted city status 2003 Government  - Mayor Zaini Md Nor Area  - City 303 km²  (114. ... Year 1511 (MDXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events June 19 - Battle of Landriano - A French army in Italy under Marshal St. ... The Sultanate of Johor (or sometimes Johor-Riau) was founded by Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Shahs son, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah in 1528. ...

Contents

Establishment of Malacca

This article is part of
the History of Malaysia series

Prehistory (60,000–2,000 BCE)
Early kingdoms
Gangga Negara (2nd–11th century CE)
Langkasuka (2nd–14th century)
Pan Pan (3rd–5th century)
Srivijaya (3rd–14th century)
The rise of Muslim states
Kedah Sultanate (1136–present)
Malacca Sultanate (1402–1511)
Sulu Sultanate (1450–1899)
Johor Sultanate (1528–current)
Jementah Civil War (1879)
European colonialism
Portuguese Malacca (1511 - 1641)
Dutch Malacca (1641 - 1824)
Kingdom of Sarawak (1841–1946)
British Malaya (1874–1946)
Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824
Burney Treaty (1826)
Straits Settlements (1826–1946)
Larut War (1861–1874)
Klang War (1867–1874)
Pangkor Treaty of 1874
Federated Malay States (1895–1946)
Unfederated Malay States (1800s–1946)
Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909
Battle of Penang (1914)
North Borneo (1882–1963)
Mat Salleh Rebellion (1896–1900)
World War II
Japanese occupation (1941–1945)
Battle of Malaya (1941–42)
Parit Sulong Massacre (1942)
Battle of Muar (1942)
Battle of Singapore (1942)
Syburi (1942–1945)
Battle of North Borneo (1945)
Sandakan Death Marches (1945)
Malaysia in transition
Malayan Union (1946–1948)
Federation of Malaya (1948–1963)
Malayan Emergency (1948–1960)
Bukit Kepong Incident (1950)
Independence Day (1957)
Federation of Malaysia (1963–present)
Operation Coldstore (1963)
Indonesia confrontation (1962–1966)
Brunei Revolt (1962–1966)
Singapore in Malaysia (1963–1965)
1964 Race Riots (1964)
Communist Insurgency War (1967-1989)
Contemporary Malaysia
Malaysia today
May 13 Incident (1969)
New Economic Policy (1971–1990)
Operation Lalang (1987)
1988 constitutional crisis (1987–88)
Asian financial crisis (1997–98)
[edit this box]

Parameswara founded Malacca around 1400. He was a Buddhist Srivijayan prince and Sejarah Melayu mentioned that he laid claims of being descended from the Macedonian King Alexander the Great / Iskandar Zulkarnain. When Parameswara became the ruler of Palembang, the Srivijaya Empire was already in decline. In 1390s, Majapahit sent thousands of ships to attack Palembang. Parameswara had fled his palace and eventually reached Temasek island which was headed by a Srivijayan descendent. However, Temasek had been a vassal of Majapahit since 1365. After several days, Parameswara was betrayed by his relative and he had to kill him. Parameswara then ruled Temasik for about 4 years, where he was finally attacked by the Majapahit armies when one of the ministers opened the gates for Majapahit armies to attack the palace. Parameswara fled north to Muar before founding Melaka in 1400. In 1409, Parameswara assumed the title Sultan Iskandar Shah due to his marriage to a princess from Pasai. His marriage to the Muslim princess encouraged a number of his subjects to embrace Islam. According to the Sejarah Melayu, legend has it that the king saw a mouse deer outwit a dog when he was resting under the Melaka tree. He took what he saw as a good omen and decided to establish a capital for his kingdom there. Today, the mouse deer is part of modern Malacca's coat of arms. The history of Malaysia is a relatively recent offshoot of the history of the wider Malay-Indonesian world. ... Image File history File links History_merdeka. ... Caves paintings of Tambun, dated 3000 BC, in Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia. ... The Common Era is the period beginning with a year near the birth of Jesus, coinciding with the period from AD 1 onwards. ... Gangga Negara was believed to be a lost Hindu kingdom somewhere in the state of Perak, Malaysia. ... BCE redirects here. ... Langkasuka (-langkha Sanskrit for resplendent land -sukkha of bliss) was apparently the oldest kingdom on the Malay peninsula. ... A call of pan-pan is a very urgent message concerning the safety of a ship, aircraft or other vehicle, or persons on board who require immediate assistance. ... The extent of Srivijayan Empire around 10th to 11th century. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... For the province, see Sulu Location of Sulu in the Philippines Capital Jolo Language(s) Arabic (official), Tausug, Malay, Banguingui, Bajau languages Religion Islam Government Monarchy Sultan  - 1450-1480 Shariful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr  - 1884-1899 Jamal ul-Kiram I History  - Established 1450  - Annexed by USA 1899 The Sultanate... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jementah Civil War happened in 1879 in Jementah, Sultanate of Johor when Tengku Alam, the heir of Sultan Ali of Muar refused to give the district of Muar under temporary administration of Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor. ... Portuguese Malacca Capital Malacca Town Language(s) Portuguese, Malay Political structure Colony King  - 1511-1521 Manuel I  - 1640-1641 John IV Captains-major  - 1512-1514 Ruí de Brito Patalim (first)  - 1638-1641 Manuel de Sousa Coutinho (last) Captains-general  - 1616-1635 António Pinto da Fonseca (first)  - 1637-1641 Lu... Dutch Malacca Capital Malacca Town Language(s) Dutch, Malay Political structure Colony Governor  - 1641 - 1642 Jan van Twist  - 1824 - 1825 Hendrik S. van Son British Residents  - 1795 Archibald Brown  - 1803 - 1818 William Farquhar Historical era Imperialism  - Established 14 January, 1641  - British occupation 1795-1818  - Anglo-Dutch Treaty 17 March, 1824... State motto: Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti State anthem: Ibu Pertiwiku Capital Kuching Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Abang Muhammad Salahuddin  - Ketua Menteri Abdul Taib Mahmud History    - Brunei Sultanate 19th century   - Brooke dynasty 1841   - Japanese occupation 1941-1945   - British control 1946   - Accession into Malaysia 1963  Area  - Total 124,450... British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ... The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London (one of several), was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in London on March 17, 1824. ... The Burney Treaty was a treaty signed between Siam and the British in 1826. ... The Straits Settlements were a collection of territories of the British East India Company in Southeast Asia, which were given collective administration in 1826. ... Larut War was a series of four wars started in July 1861 and ended with the signing of the Pangkor Treaty of 1874. ... The Klang War or Selangor Civil War took place in the Malay state of Selangor and was fought between Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, the administrator of Klang and Raja Mahadi bin Raja Sulaiman from 1867 to 1874. ... The Pangkor Treaty of 1874 was a treaty signed between the British and the Sultan of Perak. ... The Federated Malay States (FMS) was a federation of four states on the Malay Peninsula - Pahang, Perak, Selangor, and Negeri Sembilan - established by the British government in 1895, and lasted until 1946, when they together with the Straits Settlements and the Unfederated Malay States formed the Malayan Union. ... The Unfederated Malay States were five Malay states, namely Johore Terengganu Kelantan Kedah Perlis Together the states were not a single entity but merely a category to describe those states which were not Federated Malay States or Straits Settlements. ... The Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 or Bangkok Treaty of 1909 was a treaty between the United Kingdom and Thailand signed on March 10, 1909 in Bangkok. ... Belligerents British Empire Russian Empire France Empire of Japan German Empire Commanders Admiral Jerram Captain Baron Cherkassov Karl von Müller Strength Allied fleet stationed at George Town Light cruiser Emden Casualties and losses 1 protected cruiser lost (Russia) 1 destroyer lost (France) 89 killed (Russia) approx. ... Motto: Pergo et Perago (Latin: I undertake and I achieve”) British North Borneo Capital Jesselton Language(s) Malay, English Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1882 - 1901 Victoria  - 1952 - 1963 Elizabeth II Governor  - 1896 - 1901 Robert Scott Historical era New Imperialism  - North Borneo Company May, 1882  - British protectorate 1888  - Japanese invasion January 1... Mat Salleh Rebellion was a series of major disturbances in North Borneo, now Malaysian state of Sabah, from 1894 to 1900. ... Throughout much of the Second World War, British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak were under Japanese occupation. ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... On January 23, 1942, the Parit Sulong Massacre was committed against Allied soldiers by members of the Imperial Guards Division of the Imperial Japanese Army. ... Combatants Westforce: Australian 8th Division Indian 9th Division 45th Indian Brigade 53rd Infantry Brigade Twenty-Fifth Army: Imperial Guards 5th Division Commanders Arthur Percival Gordon Bennett Herbert Duncan â€  Charles Anderson Frederick Galleghan Takuma Nishimura Strength 45th Indian Brigade: 4000 Infantry 60 aircraft 8000 Infantry 400 aircraft Casualties 45th Indian Brigade... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... During the Japanese Occupation of Malaya, control of the State of Kedah was given to Thailand by the Japanese. ... The Battle of North Borneo was fought from June 17 to August 15 of 1945 between Australia and Japan. ... October 24, 1945. ... The Malayan Union was formed on April 1, 1946 by the British. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand British colonies Federation of Malaya Rhodesia Fiji various British East African colonies Malayan Communist Party Malayan Races Liberation Army Commanders Harold Briggs Henry Gurney † Gerald Templer Henry Wells Chin Peng Strength 250,000 Malayan Home Guard troops 40,000 regular Commonwealth personnel 37,000... Combatants Malayan Races Liberation Army or Malayan Communist Party Malayan Police Commanders Muhammad Madera Lek Tuan Sgt Jamil Mohd Shah (Bukit Kepong police chief) Penghulu Ali Mustapha (penghulu of the Bukit Kepong town) Strength 200 25 Casualties about 40 dead 23 dead including non-combatants (Assistant Police (AP)) Bukit Kepong... Hari Merdeka (Independence Day) is a national day of Malaysia commemorating the independence of the Federation of Malaya from British colonial rule. ... Motto: Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu Unity Is Strength1 Anthem: Negaraku My Country1 Capital (and largest city) Kuala Lumpur Official languages Malay2  Demonym Malaysian Government Federal constitutional monarchy and Parliamentary democracy  -  Yang di-Pertuan Agong Mizan Zainal Abidin  -  Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi Independence  -  from the United Kingdom (Malaya only... In February 1963, the government of Singapore conducted a security operation, named Operation Coldstore (sometimes spelled Operation Cold Store), and arrested at least 107 left-wing politicians and trade unionists. ... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962–1966. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Malaya Brunei Parti Rakyat Brunei Indonesia Commanders General Sir Nigel Poett Yassin Affandi Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? The Brunei Revolt broke out on December 8, 1962 and was led by Yassin Affandi and his armed rebels. ... On 16 September 1963, Singapore joined the Federation of Malaya together with Sabah and Sarawak to form Malaysia. ... The start of the July riot on Prophet Muhammads birthday, that would later injure hundreds and kill 23 people. ... Combatants Malaysian Federal Government Malaysian Army Royal Malay Regiment Royal Ranger Regiment Royal Malaysian Air Force Royal Malaysian Police Malayan Communist Party Commanders Abdullah CD (Che Anjang Abdullah) - CPM leader Chin Peng - Secretary general Ah Sek (Ah Sze) Casualties Civilian casualties: The Communist Insurgency War or Second Malayan Emergency was... Motto: Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu Unity Is Strength1 Anthem: Negaraku My Country1 Capital (and largest city) Kuala Lumpur Official languages Malay2  Demonym Malaysian Government Federal constitutional monarchy and Parliamentary democracy  -  Yang di-Pertuan Agong Mizan Zainal Abidin  -  Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi Independence  -  from the United Kingdom (Malaya only... The May 13 Incident saw numerous cases of arson in the Malaysian capital city of Kuala Lumpur. ... Under the Malaysian New Economic Policy, Bumiputras are given discounts on real estate. ... Operation Lalang (or in English, Weeding Operation; also referred to as Ops Lallang) was carried out on 27 October 1987 by the Malaysian police to crackdown on opposition leaders and social activists. ... The Sultan Abdul Samad Building housed the Supreme Court at the time of the 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis. ... The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ... Parameswara (1344 – 1414) was a Palembang prince of Hindu descent from Srivijaya that founded Malacca around 1402. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The extent of Srivijayan Empire around 10th to 11th century. ... Sejarah Melayu or The Malay Annals is a historical literary Malay work that chronicles the establishment of the Malacca Sultanate and spans over 600 years of the history of the Malay Peninsula. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... Location of Palembang Palembang is a city in the south of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Temasek (Sea Town in Javanese, spelt Tumasik; Simplified Chinese: ) was the name of an early city on the site of modern Singapore. ... District Muar District Area  - Total (District) 2346. ... Events January 1 - The Welsh surrender Harlech Castle to the English. ... Map of Pasai. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Sejarah Melayu or The Malay Annals is a historical literary Malay work that chronicles the establishment of the Malacca Sultanate and spans over 600 years of the history of the Malay Peninsula. ... The four species of chevrotain, also known as mouse deer, make up the family Tragulidae. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... This article is about the state in Malaysia. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ...


Administration

Further information: Malaysian legal history
Sultan of Malacca Reign
Parameswara
(aka Iskandar Shah)
1400 - 1414
Megat Iskandar Shah 1414 - 1424
Muhammad Shah 1424 - 1444
Abu Syahid 1444 - 1446
Muzaffar Shah 1446 - 1459
Mansur Shah 1459 - 1477
Alauddin Riayat Shah 1477 - 1488
Mahmud Shah 1488 - 1528

Malacca had a well-defined government with a set of laws. On top of the sultanate's hierarchy sat the sultan and he was an absolute monarch. Below him was a bendahara, a position similar to that of a prime minister. Most of all, a bendahara was an adviser to the sultan. A bendahara is a common person appointed by the sultan and it was the highest ranking officer that could be held by any common people. After bendahara, a laksamana's authority is paramount. A laksamana is an admiral and was responsible for the state and the sultan's security. He commanded the army. Later comes the temenggung which more or less a chief of public police. At the bottom of this nobility structure are penghulu bendahari, who was the treasurer of the state and the shahbandars of whom were responsible to matters of trade and ports. Malaysia’s legal history has been determined by events spanning a period of some six hundred years. ... Parameswara (1344 – 1414) was a Palembang prince of Hindu descent from Srivijaya that founded Malacca around 1402. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... // Events Council of Constance begins. ... // Events Council of Constance begins. ... August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stewart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ... Events March 2 - Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg proclaimed commander of the Albanian resistance April 16 - Truce of Tours. ... Sultan Abu Syahid Shah was the sultan of Malacca from 1444 to 1446. ... Events Mehmed II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire is forced to abdicate in favor of his father Murad II by the Janissaries. ... Sultan Muzaffar Shah was the fifth Sultan of Malacca. ... Events September 23 - Battle of Blore Heath. ... Sultan Mansur Shah was the fourth Sultan of Malacca. ... Events January 5 - Battle of Nancy - Charles the Bold of Burgundy is again defeated, and this time is killed. ... Alauddin Riayat Shah was a sultan of the Malacca Sultanate from 1477 to 1488. ... // January 8 - The present Royal Netherlands Navy was formed By decree of Maximillian of Austria. ... Sultan Mahmud Shah (Sultan 1488 - 1528) is the son of Paduka Sri Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah. ... Events June 19 - Battle of Landriano - A French army in Italy under Marshal St. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Bendahara is an administrative position within classical Malay kingdoms before the intervention of European powers during the 19th century. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Shahbandar (Shahbunder, Shahbundar, Shāhbandar) (Urdu: شاہ بندر ) is located in Thatta District, Sindh, Pakistan. ...


The most famous Malaccan bendahara is Tun Perak. Under his advice, he managed to expand Malacca to its greatest extent. Hang Tuah is an example of Malaccan laksamana. Tun Perak was the most famous prime minister of the Sultanate of Malacca, having served under 4 Sultans from 1456 to 1498. ... A bronze sculpture of Hang buah with Ta Melayu Hilang Di-Dunia written at the top. ...


The sultanate was governed with several set of laws. The formal legal text of traditional Melaka consisted of the Undang-Undang Melaka (Laws of Malacca), variously called the Hukum Kanun Melaka and Risalat Hukum Kanun, and the Undang-Undang Laut Melaka (the Maritime Laws of Malacca). The laws as written in the legal digests went through an evolutionary process. The legal rules that eventually evolved were shaped by three main influences, namely the early non-indigenous Hindu/Buddhist tradition, Islam and the indigenous "adat".


Factors for growth

A bronze sculpture of Hang Tuah, a legendary Malay hero. Exhibited at the National History Museum, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

The Sultanate thrived on entrepot trade and became the most important port in Southeast Asia during the 15th and the early 16th century. Furthermore, Malacca was as a major player in the spice trade, serving as a gateway between the Spice Islands and high-paying Eurasian markets. This is reflected by the Portuguese Tomé Pires who claimed "Whoever is lord of Malacca has his hand on the throat of Venice". Image File history File links TuahNatlHistoryMuseumKL.jpg Summary shot by Mohd Hafiz Noor Shams; User:Earth. ... Image File history File links TuahNatlHistoryMuseumKL.jpg Summary shot by Mohd Hafiz Noor Shams; User:Earth. ... A bronze sculpture of Hang buah with Ta Melayu Hilang Di-Dunia written at the top. ... A photo taken from the National History Museum of Kuala Lumpur. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Spice Islands most commonly refers to the Maluku Islands (formerly the Moluccas), which lie on the equator, between Sulawesi (Celebes) and New Guinea in what is now Indonesia. ... Tomé Piers was an apothecary from Lisbon who spent 1512 to 1515 in Malacca immediately after the Portuguese conquest at a time when Europeans were only first arriving in South East Asia. ...


One of the factors that contributed to the rise of Malacca was the monsoon winds that enabled Arab and Indian traders from the west to travel to China in the east and vice versa. At the height of its power, the Sultanate encompassed most of modern day Peninsular Malaysia, the site of modern day Singapore and a great portion of eastern Sumatra. It was also the center of Islam in the eastern sphere, where imams and ustazes came to discuss religion and the like. Muslim missionaries were also sent by the Sultan to spread Islam to other communities in the Malay Archipelago, such as in Java, Borneo, and the Philippines. Most of South East Asia at that time was Hindu. For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (or Semenanjung Malaysia in the Malay language) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Φ Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...


The Sultanate's most important regional rivals were Siam in the north and the declining Majapahit Empire in the south. Majapahit was not able to control or effectively compete with Malacca within the archipelago, and came to an end during the later 15th century. Siam on the other hand attacked Malacca three times, but all attacks were repelled. Siam redirects here. ... The Majapahit Empire was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500. ...


At the same time, Malacca had a good relationship with Ming, resulting in Zheng He's visits. Parameswara had met the Ming emperor to receive a Letter of Friendship, hence making Malacca the first foreign kingdom to attain such treatment. In 1409, the sultan paid tribute to the Ming emperor to ask for protection against Siam and Malacca was made as protectorate of Ming China. Moreover, one of the sultans, Mansur Shah even married a Ming princess named Hang Li Po. This Sino-Malacca relationship helped deter Siam from further threatening Malacca.(See Zheng He In Malacca.) For other uses, see Ming. ... A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ... Events January 1 - The Welsh surrender Harlech Castle to the English. ... The Yongle Emperor (May 2, 1360–August 12, 1424), born Zhu Di, was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to 1424. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... The Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Pinyin: míng cháo) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, though claims to the Ming throne (now collectively called the Southern Ming) survived until 1662. ... Sultan Mansur Shah was the fourth Sultan of Malacca. ... Artist impression of princess Hang Li Po, wife of Sultan Mansur Shah of Malacca. ... A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ...


Portuguese invasion and its effects

This article is part of
the History of Indonesia series
See also:
Timeline of Indonesian History
Prehistory
Early kingdoms
Srivijaya (3rd to 14th centuries)
Tarumanagara (358-723)
Sailendra (8th & 9th centuries)
Kingdom of Sunda (669-1579)
Kingdom of Mataram (752–1045)
Kediri (1045–1221)
Singhasari (1222–1292)
Majapahit (1293–1500)
The rise of Muslim states
The spread of Islam (1200–1600)
Malacca Sultanate (1400–1511)
Sultanate of Demak (1475–1518)
Aceh Sultanate (1496–1903)
The Sultanate of Banten (1526–1813)
Mataram Sultanate (1500s to 1700s)
European colonialism
The Portuguese (1512–1850)
Dutch East India Company (1602–1800)
Dutch East Indies (1800–1942)
The emergence of Indonesia
National Awakening (1899–1942)
Japanese Occupation (1942–45)
Declaration of Independence (1945)
National Revolution (1945–1950)
Independent Indonesia
Liberal Democracy (1950–1957)
Guided Democracy (1957–1965)
Start of the New Order (1965–1966)
The New Order (1966–1998)
Reformation Era (1998–present)
Edit this template
Further information: Portuguese Malacca

Hearing of Malacca's great wealth coming from Asian traders, the Portuguese king sent Admiral Lopes de Sequeira to find Malacca, to make a friendly compact with its ruler and to stay on Portugal's representative east of India. The first European to reach Malacca and Southeast Asia, Sequeira arrived in Malacca in 1509. Although he was initially well-received by Sultan Mahmud Shah trouble however quickly ensued.[1] The general feeling of rivalry between Islam and Christianity was invoked by a group of Goa Muslims in the sultan's court after the Portuguese had captured Goa.[2] The international Muslim trading community convinced Mahmud that the Portuguese were a grave threat. Mahmud subsequently captured several of his men, killed others and attempted to attack the four Portuguese ships, although they escaped. As the Portuguese had found in India, conquest would be the only way they could establish themselves in Malacca.[1] Indonesia is an archipelagic country of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited) stretching along the equator in South East Asia. ... Image File history File links Historyofindonesia. ... Main article: History of Indonesia This is a timeline of Indonesian history. ... Indonesia is an archipelagic country of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited) stretching along the equator in South East Asia. ... The extent of Srivijayan Empire around 10th to 11th century. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Taruma kingdom. ... Sailendra ( meaning Lord of the Mountain in Sanskrit ) was the name of an Indonesian dynasty, emerging in Central Java at the end of the 8 th century. ... This acticle concerns the Hindu Kingdom of Mataram. ... Kediri was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1042 to around 1222. ... Singhasari was a kingdom located in east Java between 1222 and 1292. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... Islam is thought to have first been adopted by Indonesians sometime during the eleventh century, although Muslims had visited Indonesia early in the Muslim era. ... The Sultanate of Demak was founded in the 16th century by Raden Patah (1475-1518), once a vassal of the declining Majapahit Empire. ... Aceh was a sultanate in the region of what is today Aceh Province of Indonesia. ... This article is about a historic kingdom on Java in what is now Indonesia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Japanese occupation of Indonesia refers to the period between 1942 and 1945, during World War II, when the Empire of Japan ruled Indonesia. ... The independece declaration announced by Sukarno The Indonesian Declaration of Independence was officially proclaimed at 10. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The era of Liberal Democracy (Indonesian: Demokrasi Liberal) was the name for the period in Indonesian history from the dissolution of the United States of Indonesia and the return to a unitary state in 1950, following the Indonesian National Revolution, to the imposition of martial law and the introduction by... Guided Democracy was the political system in place in Indonesia from 1957 until the New Order began in 1966. ... Indonesias Transition to the New Order occurred over 1965-67. ... The New Order (Indonesian: Orde Baru) is the term coined by former Indonesian President Suharto to characterize his regime as he came to power in 1966. ... The Reformation (in bahasa Indonesia Reformasi) is the name commonly used for the present era in the history of Indonesia. ... Portuguese Malacca Capital Malacca Town Language(s) Portuguese, Malay Political structure Colony King  - 1511-1521 Manuel I  - 1640-1641 John IV Captains-major  - 1512-1514 Ruí de Brito Patalim (first)  - 1638-1641 Manuel de Sousa Coutinho (last) Captains-general  - 1616-1635 António Pinto da Fonseca (first)  - 1637-1641 Lu... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sultan Mahmud Shah (died 1528) ruled Malacca from 1488 to 1528. ...


In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships.[1] The Viceroy made a number of demands - one of which was for permission to build a fortress as a Portuguese trading post near the city. [2]. All the demands were refused by the Sultan. Conflict was unavoidable, and after 40 days of fighting, Malacca fell to the Portuguese on August 24. Although Malacca seems to have been well supplied with artillery, but the combination of Portuguese firepower, determination and fanatical courage prevailed. A bitter dispute between Sultan Mahmud and his son Sultan Ahmad also weighed down the Malaccan side.[1] The Portuguese was helped by Guy Arojo, Chinese Capitans who supplied small ships to enter the Port of Malacca and the southern Indian and Javanese group who were in dispute with the Sultanate of Malacca.[citation needed] Afonso de Albuquerque (or Afonso dAlbuquerque - disused) (pronounced ) (treated with a Don by some although his birth didnt grant him that treatment) (1453, Alhandra - Goa, December 16, 1515) was a Portuguese fidalgo, or nobleman, a naval general officer whose military and administrative activities conquered and established the Portuguese... This article is about the state in Malaysia. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Albuquerque remained in Malacca until November 1511 preparing its defences against any Malay counterattack.[1] Sultan Mahmud Shah was forced to flee Malacca. The sultan made several attempts to retake the capital but his efforts were fruitless. The Portuguese retaliated and forced the sultan to flee to Pahang. Later, the sultan sailed to Bintan and established a new capital there. With a base established, the sultan rallied the disarrayed Malay forces and organized several attacks and blockades against the Portuguese's position. Frequent raids on Malacca caused the Portuguese severe hardship. The raids helped convince the Portuguese that the exiled sultan's forces must be silenced. A number of attempts were made to suppress the Malay forces, but it wasn't until 1526 that the Portuguese finally razed Bintan to the ground. The sultan then retreated to Kampar in Sumatra where he died two years later. He left behind two sons named Muzaffar Shah and Alauddin Riayat Shah II. State anthem: Pahang State Anthem Capital Kuantan Royal capital Pekan Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Ahmad Shah  - Menteri Besar Adnan Yaakob History    - Federated into FMS 1895   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 35,964 km² Population  - 2005 estimate 1,372,500  - Density 38. ... Bintan Island or Negeri Segantang Lada is an island of 1,866 square kilometers, and is part of the Riau Islands province of Indonesia. ... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... Kampar can refer to: Kampar, Perak - a town in Perak, Malaysia. ... Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II was the first Sultan of Johor. ...


Muzaffar Shah was invited by the people in the north of the peninsula to become their ruler, establishing the Sultanate of Perak. Meanwhile, Mahmud's other son, Alauddin succeeded his father and made a new capital in the south. His realm was the Sultanate of Johor, the successor of Malacca. The Sultanate of Johor (or sometimes Johor-Riau) was founded by Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Shahs son, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah in 1528. ...


It soon became clear that Portuguese control of Malacca did not mean they now controlled Asian trade that centred around it. Their Malaccan rule was marred with difficulties: they could not become self-supporting and remained reliant on Asian suppliers (as had their Malay predecessors); they were short of both funds and manpower; and administration was hampered by organisational confusion and command overlap, corruption and inefficiency. Competition from other ports such as Johor saw Asian traders bypass Malacca and the city began to decline as a trading port.[3] Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating it, the Portuguese had fundamentally disrupted the organisation of the Asian trade network. Rather than a centralised port of exchange of Asian wealth exchange, or a Malay state to police the Straits of Malacca that made it safe for commercial traffic, trade was now scattered over a number of ports amongst bitter warfare in the Straits.[3] State motto: Kepada Allah Berserah State anthem: Lagu Bangsa Johor Capital Johor Bahru Royal capital Pasir Pelangi1 Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Iskandar  - Menteri Besar Abdul Ghani Othman History    - Johor Sultanate 14th century   - British control 1914   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 19,984... The Straits of Malacca is a narrow stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ...


Malacca was later conquered by the Dutch in 1641. Through the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, Malacca became a colony of the United Kingdom. In 1957, Malacca joined other Malay states to form Malaya and in 1963, together with Sarawak, Sabah and Singapore formed Malaysia. Year 1641 (MDCXLI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London (one of several), was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in London on March 17, 1824. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... The Malay states are a group of nine states of Malaysia (all located in West Malaysia) which have hereditary Rulers. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... For the river, see Sarawak River. ... For other uses, see Sabah (disambiguation). ...


Fei Xin's description of Malacca

Part of the original script of Xing Cha Sheng Lan written by translator Fei Xin.

Fei Xin (Chinese: 费信) was a translator for the Ming Dynasty admiral Zheng He during his expeditions abroad. In his Description of the Starry Raft (1436) there were descriptions of early 15th century Malacca. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Fei Xin (Chinese: 费信) was the Ming dynasty admiral Zheng Hes translator. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ... Description of the Starry Raft (Chinese: 星槎勝覽 Xin Cha Shen Lan) is written in year 1436 by the translator/intepreter of admiral Zheng He, the description depicted places, peoples, cultures, etc, about all of what he saw. ...


He noted that Malacca people which was the Malays had "their skin resembled black lacquer, but there were some white-skinned people among them who are of ethnic Tang. Men and women appeared in mallet-like chignon hair style, simple and kind lifestyle, they fish at rivers and at sea. The coastal village was inhabited by very few peoples and was not ruled by any neighboring kingdoms. The only produce of Malacca was tin, from a river. Tins obtained from river were fired into tin block (konwn as Tin ingot) where each weigh 1.4 jin. Malacca paid annual 40 golds to Siam as tax...."[4] For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Jin may refer to: In Chinese history: Jin (廑), a ruler of the Xia dynasty (2033 BC–1562 BC) Jin (state) (746 BC-403 BC) (晉), a state in northern China during the Spring and Autumn Period Jin Dynasty, used to refer to a number of Chinese dynastic kingdoms: Jìn Dynasty...


Malacca's Tin ingot

Malacca's tin ingot, photo taken from National History Museum of Kuala Lumpur.

Tin ingots were a trading currency unique to Malacca. Cast in the shape of a peck, each block weighs just over one pound. Ten blocks made up one unit called a 'small bundle', and 40 blocks made up one 'large bundle'. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... A photo taken from the National History Museum of Kuala Lumpur. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ... Malaccas tin ingot, photo taken from National History Museum of Kuala Lumpur. ...


References

General

  1. ^ a b c d e Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan, p.23. ISBN 0-333-57689-6. 
  2. ^ a b Mohd. Fawzi bin Mohd. Basri; Mohd Fo'ad bin Sakdan; Azami bin Man (2002). Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Menengah Sejarah Tingkatan 1. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, p.95. ISBN 983-62-7410-3. 
  3. ^ a b Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan, p.23-24. ISBN 0-333-57689-6. 
  4. ^ When China Ruled the Seas: The Treasure Fleet of the Dragon Throne, 1405-1433 by Louise Levathes (ISBN 0-19-511207-5)

Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka or DBP is a government body that responsible to coordinate the use malay language in Malaysia and Brunei. ...

External links

  • Description of the Starry Raft (1436) Xin Cha Shen Lan 星槎勝覽

See also

The Sultanate of Johor (or sometimes Johor-Riau) was founded by Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Shahs son, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah in 1528. ... Sultanate of Kedah is possibly the oldest sultanate in the Malay Peninsula and King Phra Ong Mahawangsa is possibly the first Malay ruler to convert to Islam, he ruled Kedah from 1136 to 1179, known as Sultan Mudzafar Shah. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Geneology of Malacca Sultanate (1973 words)
Almarhum Sultan Muzzaffar Shah, (3rd.Sultan of Malacca) (s/o Raja Tua).
a) Raja Abdullah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Munawar Shah, Raja of Kampar.
Sultan Ala'uddin Ri'ayat Shah, (6th.Sultan of Malacca) and Sultan of Johore.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m