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Encyclopedia > Malacca

States and Territories of Malaysia
Melaka
Malacca
Flag of Malacca
Flag Coat of arms
State motto: Bersatu Teguh
State anthem: Melaka Maju Jaya
Capital Malacca
Ruling party Barisan Nasional
 - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Mohd Khalil Yaakob
 - Ketua Menteri Mohd Ali Mohd Rustam
History  
 - Malacca Sultanate 13th century 
 - Portuguese control 24 August 1511 
 - Dutch control 14 January 1641 
 - British control 17 March 1824 
 - Japanese occupation 1942-1946 
 - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948 
Area
 - Total 1,650 km²
Population
 - 2005 estimate 713,000
 - Density 432.1/km²
National calling code 06
National postal code 75xxx to 78xxx
License plate prefix M
Website: http://www.melaka.gov.my

Malacca (Malay: Melaka), dubbed as The Historical State (Malay: Negeri Bersejarah) or The Hang Tuah State (Malay: Negeri Hang Tuah) is the third smallest state of Malaysia, after Perlis and Penang. It is located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, on the Straits of Malacca. It borders Negeri Sembilan to the north and the state of Johor to the east. The state's capital is Malacca Town. Malacca can refer to: Malacca, a state in Malaysia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malacca. ... Image File history File links Lambang_Melaka_547x483px. ... Flag of Malacca The Flag of Malacca is the flag of the Malaysian state of Malacca. ... Coat of arms of Malacca The Coat of arms of Malacca is the official coat of arms of the Malaysian state of Malacca. ... Image:Antigua and barbuda coa. ... An anthem is a composition to an English religious text sung in the context of an Anglican service. ... Melaka Maju Jaya (loosely translated as Onward Melaka) is the state anthem of Melaka/Malacca, a state in the southwest region of Peninsular Malaysia. ... Malaysia Melaka map. ... Nickname: Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1502 Granted city status 2003 Government  - Mayor Zaini Md Nor Area  - City 303 km²  (114. ... General elections were held in Malaysia on March 21, 2004. ... Barisan Nasional (National Front or BN) is a political coalition in Malaysia. ... Yang di-Pertua Negeri, literally the head of state in Malay, is the title of the largely symbolic state Governors of the Malaysian states of Penang, Malacca, Sabah and Sarawak, who are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or King of Malaysia. ... Tun Datuk Seri Utama Mohd. ... A Chief Minister is the elected Head of Government of a state of India, a territory of Australia or a British overseas territory that has attained self-government. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1511 (MDXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London (one of several), was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in London on March 17, 1824. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Throughout much of the Second World War, British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak were under Japanese occupation. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Telephone numbering in Malaysia is regulated by the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC). ... The postal codes used in Malaysia is a 5 digit code. ... Malaysian vehicle license plates are the license plates displayed on all motorized road vehicles in Malaysia, as required by law. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... A bronze sculpture of Hang buah with Ta Melayu Hilang Di-Dunia written at the top. ... Malaysia is a federation of 13 states. ... This article is about the Malaysian state. ... State motto: Bersatu dan Setia (United and Loyal) (formerly Let Penang Lead) State anthem: Untuk Negeri Kita (For Our State) Capital George Town Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang Di-Pertua Negeri Tuan Yang Terutama Abdul Rahman bin Haji Abbas  - Ketua Menteri Tan Sri Dr. Koh Tsu Koon History    - Ceded by... The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... A close-up map showing the Strait of Malacca separating peninsular Malaysia and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... State motto: no State motto Capital Seremban Royal Capital Seri Menanti Yang di-Pertuan Besar Tuanku Jaafar ibni Almarhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman Chief Minister YAB Dato Seri Utama Mohamad Haji Hasan Area 6,645 km2 Population  - Est. ... State motto: Kepada Allah Berserah State anthem: Lagu Bangsa Johor Capital Johor Bahru Royal capital Pasir Pelangi1 Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Iskandar  - Menteri Besar Abdul Ghani Othman History    - Johor Sultanate 14th century   - British control 1914   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 19,984... Nickname: Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1502 Granted city status 2003 Government  - Mayor Zaini Md Nor Area  - City 303 km²  (114. ...


Although Malacca was once one of the oldest Malay sultanates, the state has no Sultan today. Instead, the head of state is the Yang di-Pertua Negeri or Governor. Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Yang di-Pertua Negeri, literally the head of state in Malay, is the title of the largely symbolic state Governors of the Malaysian states of Penang, Malacca, Sabah and Sarawak, who are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or King of Malaysia. ...

Contents

Geography

The state of Malacca covers an area of 1,650-sq. km. or 1.3 percent of the whole area of Malaysia. The state is divided into 3 districts, that is Central Melaka (Melaka Tengah) (314 km²), Alor Gajah (660 km²), and Jasin (676 km²). Central Melaka or Melaka Tengah is a main district in Melaka, Malaysia. ... Alor Gajah is a town and a district in Melaka, Malaysia. ... Jasin is one of the three districts in the State of Melaka in Malaysia. ...


Malacca is located on the southwestern coast of Malay Peninsula opposite Sumatra, with the state of Negeri Sembilan to the north and Johor to the east. Malacca is also situated roughly two-thirds of the way down the West coast, 148 km south of Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia and 245 km north of Singapore and commanding a central position on the Straits of Malacca. The state capital Malacca Town is strategically located between the two national capitals (of Malaysia and Singapore respectively) and is linked with excellent roads and highways. Malacca is yet to have its own train station, though the terminal at Tampin, Negeri Sembilan is easily accessible. It has a domestic airport terminal located in Batu Berendam. The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... State motto: no State motto Capital Seremban Royal Capital Seri Menanti Yang di-Pertuan Besar Tuanku Jaafar ibni Almarhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman Chief Minister YAB Dato Seri Utama Mohamad Haji Hasan Area 6,645 km2 Population  - Est. ... State motto: Kepada Allah Berserah State anthem: Lagu Bangsa Johor Capital Johor Bahru Royal capital Pasir Pelangi1 Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Iskandar  - Menteri Besar Abdul Ghani Othman History    - Johor Sultanate 14th century   - British control 1914   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 19,984... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ... The Straits of Malacca is a narrow stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Nickname: Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1502 Granted city status 2003 Government  - Mayor Zaini Md Nor Area  - City 303 km²  (114. ... State motto: no State motto Capital Seremban Royal Capital Seri Menanti Yang di-Pertuan Besar Tuanku Jaafar ibni Almarhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman Chief Minister YAB Dato Seri Utama Mohamad Haji Hasan Area 6,645 km2 Population  - Est. ... Batu Berendam is a small town in Melaka state Malaysia. ...


The offshore Pulau Besar (Malacca) is also part of Malacca. Pulau Besar is the name of many islands in Malaysia and Indonesia. ...


Demographics

Canals in Malacca
Canals in Malacca

Malacca has a population of 759,000 as of 2007, being composed of: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 413 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 413 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

The major towns of Malacca are Malacca Town, Alor Gajah, Masjid Tanah, Jasin, Merlimau, Pulau Sebang and Ayer Keroh.
This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Peranakan, Baba-Nyonya () and Straits Chinese (; named after the Straits Settlements) are terms used for the descendants of the very early Chinese immigrants to the Nusantara region, including both the British Straits Settlements of Malaya and the Dutch-controlled island of Java among other places, who have partially adopted Malay... The Chitty caretaker of the Chitty museum. ... The Kristang or Cristão people are an ethnic group of people, mostly in Malacca (Malaysia) and Singapore. ... Nickname: Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1502 Granted city status 2003 Government  - Mayor Zaini Md Nor Area  - City 303 km²  (114. ... Alor Gajah is a town and a district in Melaka, Malaysia. ... Masjid Tanah is a major town in Melaka, Malaysia. ... Jasin is one of the three districts in the State of Melaka in Malaysia. ... Merlimau is a main town in Melaka, Malaysia. ... Ayer Keroh is town in the Malaysian state of Malacca. ...


History

Sultanate of Malacca

Main article: Malacca Sultanate

The precise origins of Malacca are disputed. It appears that Malacca was founded by Parameswara, a Srivijayan prince of Palembang who fled Sumatra following a Majapahit attack in 1377. He found his way to Malacca c. 1400 where he found a good port accessible in all seasons and on the strategically located narrowest point of the Malacca Straits.[1] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... People by name Parameshwara: The fourteenth century Indian mathematician. ... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... Location of Palembang Palembang is a city in the south of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... ...


According to a popular legend, Parameswara was resting under a tree near a river while hunting, when one of his dogs cornered a mouse deer. In self-defence, the mouse deer pushed the dog into the river. Impressed by the courage of the deer, and taking it as a propitious omen of the weak overcoming the powerful, Parameswara decided on the spot to found an empire on the very place that he was sitting. He named it 'Melaka' after the tree under which he had taken shelter. Another version of the story says that Parameswara chose the name 'Malacca' from the Tamil word 'mallakka' which means upside down or on ones back. Old illustrations of the scene where the mousedeer kicks the dog shows the dog falling on its back into the river, hence the inspiration. Parameswara converted to Islam in 1414 and changed his name to 'Raja Iskandar Shah'. The four species of chevrotain, also known as mouse deer, make up the family Tragulidae. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... // Events Council of Constance begins. ...


In collaboration with allies from the sea-people (orang laut) the wandering proto-Malay privateers of the Straits, he established Malacca as major international port by compelling passing ships to call there, and establishing fair and reliable facilities for warehousing and trade.[1] Mass settlement of Chinese, mostly from the imperial and merchant fleet occurred during the reign of Parameswara, occurred in the vicinity of the Bukit China ("Chinese Hill") area, which had among the best Feng Shui (geomancy) in Malacca then. Sultan Iskandar Shah died in 1424, and was succeeded by his son, Sri Maharaja also called Sultan Muhammad Shah. Proto Malay is also known as Melayu Asli or Melayu Purba in local Malaysia language, is an ethnic group in Malaysia. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Merchant Navy. ... F&#275;ng Shu&#464; (&#39080;&#27700; &#8211; literally, wind and water pronounced fung shuway), which may be more than 3000 years old, is the ancient practice of placement to achieve harmony with the environment. ... Geomancy (from Old French geomancie <Late Latin geōmantia <Late Greek geōmanteia< geo, earth + manteia, divination) from the eponymous ilm al-raml (the science of sand), is a method of divination that interprets markings on the ground, or how handfuls of dirt land when someone tosses them. ... August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stewart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ...


The prosperity of Malacca attracted the invasion of the Siamese. Attempts in 1446 and 1456, however, were warded off by Tun Perak, the then Bendahara (a position similar to Prime Minister). The development of relations between Malacca and China was at that time a strategic decision to ward off further Siamese attacks. Anthem Phleng Chat Royal anthem Phleng Sansoen Phra Barami Capital (and largest city) Bangkok Official languages Thai Demonym Thai Government Military Junta under Constitutional Monarchy  -  Monarch King Bhumibol Adulyadej  -  Prime Minister Surayud Chulanont  -  President of the Council for National Security Air Chief Marshal Chalit Pookpasuk (acting) Formation  -  Sukhothai Kingdom 1238... Events Mehmed II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire is forced to abdicate in favor of his father Murad II by the Janissaries. ... // Events July 7 - Joan of Arc acquitted (but she had already been executed). ... Tun Perak was the most famous prime minister of the Sultanate of Malacca, having served under 4 Sultans from 1456 to 1498. ... Bendahara is an administrative position within classical Malay kingdoms before the intervention of European powers during the 19th century. ...


Because of its strategic location, Malacca was an important outpost for Zheng He's spectacular exploration fleet. To enhance relations, Hang Li Po, allegedly a princess of the Ming Emperor of China, arrived in Malacca, accompanied by 500 attendants, to marry Sultan Manshur Shah who reigned from 1456 until 1477. Her attendants married the locals and settled mostly in Bukit China (Bukit Cina).(See Zheng He in Malacca). Outpost may mean: a trading post is a place for trading goods, typically in a remote wilderness area Outpost (computer game) outpost (chess) Outpost. ... A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ... Artist impression of princess Hang Li Po, wife of Sultan Mansur Shah of Malacca. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Sultan Mansur Shah was the fourth Sultan of Malacca. ... // Events July 7 - Joan of Arc acquitted (but she had already been executed). ... Events January 5 - Battle of Nancy - Charles the Bold of Burgundy is again defeated, and this time is killed. ... Bukit Cina (Malay: China hill) is a hillside of historical significance in the Malaysia state of Malacca near its capital, Malacca Town. ... A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ...


A cultural result of the vibrant trade was the expansion of the Peranakan people, who spread to other major settlements in the region. Peranakan, Baba-Nyonya () and Straits Chinese (; named after the Straits Settlements) are terms used for the descendants of the very early Chinese immigrants to the Nusantara region, including both the British Straits Settlements of Malaya and the Dutch-controlled island of Java among other places, who have partially adopted Malay...


During its prime Malacca was a powerful Sultanate which extended its rule over the southern Malay Peninsula and much of Sumatra. Its rise helped to hold off the Thai's southwards encroachment and arguably hasten the decline of the rival Majapahit Empire of Java which was in decline as Malacca was rising. Malacca was also central in the spread of Islam in the Malay Archipelago. The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... This article is about the Java island. ... World map depicting Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago is a vast archipelago located between mainland Southeastern Asia (Indochina) and Australia. ...


European colonization

Malacca harbor in 1831.

In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships.[2] It became a strategic base for Portuguese expansion in the East Indies. Sultan Mahmud Shah, the last Sultan of Malacca took refuge in the hinterland, and made intermittent raids both by land and sea, causing considerable hardship for the Portuguese. Finally in 1526, a large force of Portuguese ships, under the command of Pedro Mascarenhas, was sent to destroy Bintan, where Sultan Mahmud was based. Sultan Mahmud fled with his family across the Straits to Kampar in Sumatra, where he died two years later. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 502 pixelsFull resolution (1492 × 936 pixel, file size: 663 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From Missionary Sketches no LIV, July 1831 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 502 pixelsFull resolution (1492 × 936 pixel, file size: 663 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From Missionary Sketches no LIV, July 1831 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States... Afonso de Albuquerque (or Afonso dAlbuquerque - disused) (pronounced ) (treated with a Don by some although his birth didnt grant him that treatment) (1453, Alhandra - Goa, December 16, 1515) was a Portuguese fidalgo, or nobleman, a naval general officer whose military and administrative activities conquered and established the Portuguese... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and... Sultan Mahmud Shah (Sultan 1488 - 1528) is the son of Paduka Sri Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah. ... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... Bintan Bintan Island or Negeri Segantang Lada is an island of 1,866 square kilometer located about 48 km (30 miles) southeast of Singapore. ... A close-up map showing the Strait of Malacca separating peninsular Malaysia and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ...


It soon became clear that Portuguese control of Malacca did not mean they now controlled Asian trade that centred around it. Their Malaccan rule was severely hampered by administrative and economic difficulties.[3] Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating Asian trade, the Portuguese had fundamentally disrupted the organisation of the network. The centralised port of exchange of Asian wealth exchange had now gone, as was a Malay state to police the Straits of Malacca that made it safe for commercial traffic. Trade was now scattered over a number of ports amongst bitter warfare in the Straits.[3] The Straits of Malacca is a narrow stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ...


The Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier spent several months in Malacca in 1545, 1546 and 1549. In 1641 the Dutch defeated the Portuguese to capture Malacca with the help of the Sultan of Johore. The Dutch ruled Malacca from 1641 to 1795 but they were not interested in developing it as a trading centre, placing greater importance to Batavia (Jakarta) in Indonesia as their administrative centre. Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... Saint Francis Xavier (Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa; Spanish: San Francisco Javier; Portuguese: São Francisco Xavier; Chinese: 聖方濟各沙勿略) (7 April 1506 - 2 December 1552) was a Spanish pioneering Roman Catholic Christian missionary and co-founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order). ... Events February 27 - Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scots victory over superior English forces December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Battle of Kawagoe - between two branches of Uesugi families and the late Hojo clan in Japan. ... // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ... Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... State motto: Kepada Allah Berserah State anthem: Lagu Bangsa Johor Capital Johor Bahru Royal capital Pasir Pelangi1 Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Iskandar  - Menteri Besar Abdul Ghani Othman History    - Johor Sultanate 14th century   - British control 1914   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 19,984... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This page is about the capital city of Indonesia. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ...


Malacca was ceded to the British in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 in exchange for Bencoolen on Sumatra. From 1826 to 1946 Malacca was governed, first by the British East India Company and then as a Crown Colony. It formed part of the Straits Settlements, together with Singapore and Penang. After the dissolution of this crown colony, Malacca and Penang became part of the Malayan Union, which later became Malaysia. The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London (one of several), was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in London on March 17, 1824. ... Bengkulu is a province of Indonesia. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... The Straits Settlements were a collection of territories of the British East India Company in Southeast Asia, which were given collective administration in 1826. ... State motto: Bersatu dan Setia (United and Loyal) (formerly Let Penang Lead) State anthem: Untuk Negeri Kita (For Our State) Capital George Town Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang Di-Pertua Negeri Tuan Yang Terutama Abdul Rahman bin Haji Abbas  - Ketua Menteri Tan Sri Dr. Koh Tsu Koon History    - Ceded by... The Malayan Union was formed on April 1, 1946 by the British. ...


State government

Malacca is administered by its State Assembly and Executive Committee (EXCO). The State Assembly represents the highest authority in the state and decides on policy matters. The EXCO is responsible to the State Assembly and comprises members who are appointed every five years by the political party in power. It is headed by the Governor (Yang Di-Pertuan Negeri) who is appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia. Flag of the Supreme Head of Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong is a Malay title usually translated as Supreme Ruler or Paramount Ruler, is the official title of the constitutional head of state of the federation of Malaysia. ...


The Chief Minister's Department is the administrative pillar of the State Government, and is responsible for the overall administration of the State, as well as its political interest. The administrative complex houses the Chief Minister's office, as well as the office of the State Secretariat. For administrative purposes, Malacca is divided into three districts under separate jurisdiction: A Chief Minister is the elected Head of Government of a state of India, a territory of Australia or a British overseas territory that has attained self-government. ...

  • Malacca Central District & Land Office
  • Alor Gajah District & Land Office
  • Jasin District & Land Office

These offices render various services and facilities to the people in their daily lives.


Economy

The tourism and manufacturing sectors are the two most important sectors in the state economy. Malacca has adopted as its slogan, "Visiting Malacca Means Visiting Malaysia" ("Melawat Melaka Bererti Melawati Malaysia"). It is rich in cultural heritage and bears several places of historical interest. Tourist redirects here. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ...


Apart from tourism, Malacca is also a manufacturing centre for products ranging from food and consumer products, through high-tech weaponry and automotive components to electronic and computer parts. There are at least 23 industrial estates that houses some 500 factories from the United States, Germany, Japan, Taiwan, and Singapore. High tech refers to high technology, technology that is at the cutting-edge and the most advanced currently available. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... This article is about the machine. ... An industrial park (or industrial estate in British English) is an area of land set aside for industrial development. ...


Education

Malacca has given birth to numerous successful Malaysians who have achieved immense success in Malaysia and abroad.


The state is much sought after for medical education with the setting up of the Melaka Manipal Medical College. It has produced many doctors who are serving the country or working abroad since its inception in 1997. Melaka Manipal Medical College is a Malaysian private medical college which offers a twinning MBBS degree (Bachelor of Medicine & Bachelor Surgery) programme for medical undergraduates. ...


The state also has a branch campus of Multimedia University. The campus currently attracts many foreign students, especially those from the Middle East and Africa, through its computer and engineering programmes. The university also features degree programmes in fields like robotics, bio-instrumentation and law. Most of the student population of Multimedia University is drawn from its foundation programmes, also known as the Alpha Programmes. Multimedia Universitys Melaka Campus Multimedia University is Malaysias first private university. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Malacca also has several public universities and colleges such as, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, UTeM (previously known as Kolej Universiti Teknikal Kebangsaan Malaysia, KUTKM) and Kolej Yayasan Melaka.


Medicine

Malacca boasts of the most up to date medical infrastructure, comparable to developed countries. There are numerous hospitals, both government and private, spread throughout the state. They are listed below:

  • Government hospitals
    • Melaka General Hospital
    • Jasin District Hospital

Currently, both these government hospitals serve as teaching hospitals for Melaka Manipal Medical College. Melaka Manipal Medical College is a Malaysian private medical college which offers a twinning MBBS degree (Bachelor of Medicine & Bachelor Surgery) programme for medical undergraduates. ...

  • Private Hospitals
    • Putra Hospital (formerly known as Southern Hospital, owned by the state government)
    • Pantai Ayer Keroh
    • Mahkota Hospital (opposite Mahkota Parade)

Malacca's private healthcare services are becoming increasingly sought after by patients from as far away as Indonesia and Singapore.


Culture

Malacca is well-known for its food. Most notable of all is the Nyonya-Baba cuisine which is a mixture of Chinese and Malay cooking with most dishes being spicy in nature. Interesting dishes of the Peranakan include Itek Tim (a soup containing duck and salted vegetables), Ayam Pong Teh (chicken casserole with salted brown-bean sauce) as well as the famous Nyonya Laksa. Peranakan, Baba-Nyonya () and Straits Chinese (; named after the Straits Settlements) are terms used for the descendants of the very early Chinese immigrants to the Nusantara region, including both the British Straits Settlements of Malaya and the Dutch-controlled island of Java among other places, who have partially adopted Malay... Cuisine (from French cuisine, cooking; culinary art; kitchen; ultimately from Latin coquere, to cook) is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. ... Sanskrit name Sanskrit: लक्ष Laksa is a popular spicy noodle soup from Peranakan culture, which is a merger of Chinese and Malay elements found in Malaysia and Singapore. ...

Baba-Nyonya house in Melaka
Baba-Nyonya house in Melaka

The Portuguese colonization of the early 16th century also contributed dishes like Devil's Curry and Portuguese tart to the town's already rich cuisine. The interesting Chinese cuisine in Malacca includes the popular Chicken Rice Ball as well as dodol, a sort of solidified pudding generally made with durian or coconut. Ikan Bakar restaurants are also popular in Malacca with places like Umbai, Serkam and Alai being the choice of the populace. Baba house, Malacca, Malaysia, by Andrew Lih File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Baba house, Malacca, Malaysia, by Andrew Lih File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Chicken Rice Ball dish is a variation of the Hainanese Chicken Rice. ... People making Dodol Dodol is a delicacy popular in Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. ...


The average tourist can find most popular Malaccan cuisine at the foodcourts or medan selera as they are referred to in the local Malay language. Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ...


Malacca's ethnic Portuguese population is a unique cultural and historical legacy of Portuguese colonization in the 16th and 17th century. Even to this day, many of the ancient traditions passed down since the Portuguese occupation are still practised, i.e. "Intrudu" (a water festival that marks the beginning of the Catholic fasting season, the season of Lent), "branyu" (traditional dance), "santa cruz" (a yearly fiesta of street celebrations). Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. ... For other uses, see Festival (disambiguation). ...


Transport

Tampin, a town 30 km north of Malacca town, is the nearest train station that serves Malacca. There were railway tracks from Tampin to Malacca before World War II but was dismantled by the Japanese during the war for the construction of the infamous Burmese Death Railway. It was never rebuilt after the war though traces of the line remain. Tampin is both a town and a district in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia and is located near the Malacca-Negeri Sembilan border. ... Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street station in 1865. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Bridge over the river Kwai Map of the Death Railway The Death Railway (known also as Thai-Burma Railway or Burma Railway) was a railway built from Thailand to Burma (now Myanmar) by the Japanese during World War II to complete the route from Bangkok to Rangoon and support...


Malacca has a bus station, Melaka Central which has air-conditioned waiting areas and separate areas for buses plying the town routes and for buses plying the intertown routes with regular bus services to Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Johor Bahru, and other places in Malaysia. Batu Berendam Airport in Batu Berendam mainly serves chartered flights from around the region. It also serves as a flight school for Malaysia Flying Academy. For other meanings, see Bus stop (disambiguation). ... “Autobus” redirects here. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ... Nickname: Motto: Berkhidmat, Berbudaya, Berwawasan (English: Servicing, cultured, visionary) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: Country Malaysia State Johor Establishment 1855 Granted city status 1994 Government  - Mayor Latiff Yusof Area  - City 185 km²  (72. ... Except the local residents, not many people know about the existence of Batu Berendam Airport in Melaka. ... A charter airline is one that operates charter flights, that is flights that take place outside normal schedules, by a hiring arrangement with a particular customer. ...


The Ayer Keroh exit at the North-South highway is the main entry to Malacca. There are two additional exits along the North-South highway, namely the Alor Gajah and Jasin exits. The North-South Expressway Northern Route between Gopeng and Simpang Pulai skretch. ...


Popular historical attractions

Stadhuys building, Melaka.
Stadhuys building, Melaka.
Example of gravestone from St Francis Xavier Church.
Example of gravestone from St Francis Xavier Church.
  • Fort A Famosa: Constructed by the Portuguese in 1511, it suffered severe structural damage during the Dutch invasion. The plan by the British to destroy it was aborted as a result of the intervention of Sir Stamford Raffles in 1808.
  • St. John's Fort: Reconstructed by the Dutch in the third quarter of the 18th century, the cannons in this fort point inwards towards the mainland because at that time, the threat to Malacca was mainly from inland rather than the sea.
  • St. Peter's Church: Constructed in 1710 under the Dutch administration, the church is the oldest Catholic church in Malaysia. Its facade and decorative embellishment is a mix of both eastern and western architecture. Its bell was delivered from Goa in 1608.
  • St. Paul's Church: Constructed by the Portuguese captain, Duarte Coelho, this church was named "Our Lady of The Hill", but was later turned into a burial ground by the Dutch for their noble dead, and renamed "St. Paul's Church". Currently the church is part of the Malaccan Museums Complex. The body of St. Francis Xavier was interred here temporarily before it was taken to Goa, India.
  • Christ Church: Constructed in 1753, the structure reflects original Dutch architecture. The building houses hand-crafted church benches, jointless ceiling skylights, a copper replica of the Bible, a headstone written in the Armenian language, and a replica of "The Last Supper".
  • Francis Xavier Church: This Gothic church was built by aFrench priest, Rev. Fabre, in 1849, to commemorate St. Francis Xavier who is also known as the "Apostle of the East". St. Francis Xavier is credited for his Catholic missionary work in Southeast Asia during the 16th century.
  • Stadhuys Building: Constructed in 1650 as the residence of the Dutch Governor and his deputy, the structure reflects Dutch architecture. It is today the "Museum of History and Ethnography". The museum exhibits traditional wedding clothes and artifacts of Melaka, dating back to its days of glory.
  • Jonker Street (Jalan Hang Jebat): This street is famous for its antique goods. It is also famous for its carnival-like atmosphere during weekend nights.
  • Portuguese Square Perhaps the right phrase to infer strong affinity to Portugal would be 'Mini Lisbon'. Located within the Portuguese Settlement, the square is the culmination of Portuguese culture in its full splendour and colours.

In order to attract more tourists to Malacca, the State government has built a number of museums to house its rich cultural heritage. Image File history File links Christ_church_melaka. ... Image File history File links Christ_church_melaka. ... Image File history File links Melakagrave1_small. ... Image File history File links Melakagrave1_small. ... A Famosa at the foot of St. ... Thomas Stamford Raffles. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... For the fortification of food, see Food fortification. ... // Events April 10 - The worlds first copyright legislation became effective, Britains Statute of Anne Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) Births January 3 - Richard Gridley, American Revolutionary soldier (d. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... For other uses, see facade (disambiguation). ... This article is about building architecture. ... A bell is a simple sound-making device. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Events March 18 - Sissinios formally crowned Emperor of Ethiopia May 14 - Protestant Union founded in Auhausen. ... Captain is a rank or title with various meanings. ... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The word skylight, when used alone, has several possible meanings in the English language. ... Copper has played a significant part in the history of mankind, which has used the easily accessible uncompounded metal for nearly 10,000 years. ... Look up replica in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... “Tombstone” redirects here. ... The Armenian language (, IPA: — , conventional short form ) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian people. ... The Last Supper was the last meal Jesus shared with his apostles before his death. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... This article is about religious workers. ... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ethnography ( ethnos = people and graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... The Louvre Museum in Paris, one of the largest and most famous museums in the world. ... In archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological endeavor. ... For the province in the Philippines, see Antique (province) and for the band, see Antique (duo). ...


Key people from Malacca

The following is a list of historically significant as well as well-known contemporary personages who are either born in Malacca, or otherwise, significantly linked to the history of Malacca:

Shirley Geok-lin Lim (born 1944) is an award-winning Malaysian-born American writer of poetry, fiction, and criticism, and one of Hong Kongs most-published authors. ... The University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) is a coeducational public university located in Santa Barbara County, California. ... Maria Jane Dyer (January 16, 1837 – July 23, 1870) was a British Protestant Christian missionary to China, and Mother of the China Inland Mission with her husband, founder James Hudson Taylor. ... Samuel Dyer (January 20, 1804 – October 24, 1843), Christian missionary to China in the Congregationalist tradition, was a pioneer missionary to the Chinese in Malaysia. ... Maria Tarn (ca. ... James Hudson Taylor (May 21, 1832 &#8211; June 3, 1905), Christian missionary to China and founder of the China Inland Mission, served there for 51 years, bringing over 800 missionaries to the country and personally baptizing an estimated 50,000 converts. ... The China Inland Mission was a missionary society, set up by English missionary Hudson Taylor on 25 June 1865 in Brighton during a home leave. ...

See also

A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ... Portuguese Malacca Capital Malacca Town Language(s) Portuguese, Malay Political structure Colony King  - 1511-1521 Manuel I  - 1640-1641 John IV Captains-major  - 1512-1514 Ruí de Brito Patalim (first)  - 1638-1641 Manuel de Sousa Coutinho (last) Captains-general  - 1616-1635 António Pinto da Fonseca (first)  - 1637-1641 Lu... Dutch Malacca Capital Malacca Town Language(s) Dutch, Malay Political structure Colony Governor  - 1641 - 1642 Jan van Twist  - 1824 - 1825 Hendrik S. van Son British Residents  - 1795 Archibald Brown  - 1803 - 1818 William Farquhar Historical era Imperialism  - Established 14 January, 1641  - British occupation 1795-1818  - Anglo-Dutch Treaty 17 March, 1824...

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan, p.19. ISBN 0-333-57689-6. 
  2. ^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan, p.23. ISBN 0-333-57689-6. 
  3. ^ a b Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan, p.23-24. ISBN 0-333-57689-6. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Malacca

Coordinates: 2°12′N, 102°15′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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Malacca.. (1297 words)
Malacca was prominent as a great empire in the Malay Archipelago and also as a centre for maritime trade and the spread of Islam.
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Centered in the town of Malacca, the sultanate stretched from southern Thailand in the north to Sumatra in the southwest.
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