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Encyclopedia > Makuuchi

Makuuchi (幕内 (maku-uchi?)) or makunouchi (幕の内 (maku-no-uchi?)), is the top division of professional sumo. Its size is fixed at 42 wrestlers, ordered into five ranks according to their ability as defined by their performance in previous tournaments. A Sumo match (Ozeki Kaio vs. ...


This is the only division that is featured on NHK's standard live coverage of sumo tournaments. The lower divisions are shown on their BS satellite coverage, with only makuuchi broadcast with bilingual commentary. NHK Broadcasting Center in Shibuya, Tokyo NHK (, Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai), or the Japan Broadcasting Corporation, is Japans public broadcaster. ...


Makuuchi literally means "inside the curtain", a reference to the early period of professional sumo, when there was a curtained-off area reserved for the top ranked wrestlers to sit prior to appearing for their bouts.


Wrestlers are considered for promotion or demotion in rank prior to each grand tournament according to their performance in the one previous. Generally, a greater number of wins than losses (kachikoshi) results in a promotion, and the reverse (makekoshi) results in demotion. There are stricter criteria for promotion to the top two ranks, which are also privileged when considered for demotion. In many sports leagues around the world (with North American and Australian professional leagues being the most notable exceptions), relegation (or demotion) means the mandated transfer of the least successful team(s) of a higher division into a lower division at the end of the season. ... Kachikoshi (勝ち越し) means a majority of wins in a professional sumo championship. ... Makekoshi (負け越し) means a majority of losses in a professional sumo championship. ...

Contents

Overview

At the top of the division are the "titleholder" or sanyaku ranks of yokozuna, ōzeki, sekiwake and komusubi. There are typically 8-12 sanyaku wrestlers with the remainder, called maegashira, ranked in numerical order from 1 downwards.


Sanyaku (三役) literally means "the three ranks", even though it really comprises four. The discrepancy arose because the yokozuna was traditionally regarded as an ōzeki with a special license to wear a particular rope around his waist and perform a distinctive ring entry ceremony. In modern use sanyaku has a somewhat flexible definition, sometimes not including yokozuna — thus resulting in three sanyaku ranks — and sometimes not even ōzeki. is sometimes not regarded as part of sanyaku.


There are normally two wrestlers each in sekiwake and komosube, although there may be more and there must be at least one. Although there is usually a yokozuna there is no requirement for one, and it has sometimes happened that no active yokozuna are listed in the ranks. If there is more than one yokozuna but only one ōzeki, the lower rank will be filled out by designating one of the yokozuna as yokozuna-ōzeki. There is no recorded instance of there being fewer than two yokozuna and ōzeki in total.


There are a number of privileges and responsibilities associated with the sanyaku ranks. Any wrestler who reaches one of them is entitled to purchase one of the membership shares in the Japan Sumo Association, regardless of the total number of tournaments they have spent in the top makuuchi division. They may be called on to represent all sumo wrestlers on certain occasions. For example, when the president of the Sumo Association makes a formal speech on the opening and closing days of a tournament, he is flanked by all the sanyaku wrestlers in their mawashi. Similarly they may be called to assist in welcoming a VIP, such as the Emperor, to the arena. The Japan Sumo Association (日本相撲協会 or Nihon Sumo Kyokai) is the body who operate and control professional sumo wrestling in Japan. ... In sumo, a mawashi (Japanese: 廻し) is the belt that the rikishi (or sumo wrestler) wears during training or in competition. ... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ...


The sanyaku can be split into two groups: The senior yokozuna and ozeki, and junior sekiwake and komusubi.


The former group have special promotion criteria and higher salaries, and have additional perks such as a higher number of junior wrestlers to assist them, an entitlement to park in the Sumo Association compound and voting rights in the election for Association directors. Senior yokozuna and ozeki also have added responsibilities. They are expected to represent wrestler views to the Association, assist in advertising events and meet event sponsors.


The latter group, sekiwake and komusubi, have lesser responsibilities and are still eligible for one of the three special prizes, or sansho that are awarded for exceptional performance at the end of each tournament. Sansho is a term used to describe one of the three special prizes awarded to top (Makuuchi division sumo wrestlers for excptional performance during a sumo basho or tournament. ...


Yokozuna

For more information on individual yokozuna please see the List of yokozuna which also has links to their individual articles. This is a list of all Sumo wrestlers who have reached the sports highest rank of Yokozuna. ...

Yokozuna Asashoryu (center) performing the ring-entering ceremony while flanked by a sword bearer on the left and dew sweeper on the right.

Yokozuna (横綱 yokodzuna?) is the highest rank in sumo. The name literally means "horizontal rope" and comes from the most visible symbol of their rank, the rope (tsuna) worn around the waist. The rope is similar to the shimenawa used to mark off sacred areas in Shinto, and like shimenawa serves to purify and mark off its content. The rope, which may weigh up to 20 kilograms, is not used during the matches themselves, but is worn during the yokozuna's dohyo-iri ring entrance ceremony. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A Sumo match (Ozeki Kaio vs. ... Shimenawa (kanji: 注連縄 or 七五三縄; hiragana: しめなわ -- しめ shime, enclosing + なわ nawa, rope) are lengths of braided rice straw rope used for ritual purification in the Shinto religion. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ...


History of yokozuna

The birth of the rank of yokozuna is unclear, and there are two competing legends. According to one, a 9th-century wrestler named Hajikami tied a shimenawa around his waist as a handicap and dared any to touch it, creating sumo as we know it in the process. According to the other, legendary wrestler Akashi Shiganosuke tied the shimenawa around his waist in 1630 as a sign of respect when visiting the Emperor, and was posthumously awarded the title for the first time. There is little supporting evidence for either theory — in fact, it is not even certain that Akashi was a historical figure — but it is known that by 1789, yokozuna starting from Tanikaze Kajinosuke were depicted in ukiyo-e prints as wearing the shimenawa. Akashi strangling an opponent in a woodcut by Yoshitoshi Akashi Shiganosuke (明石 志賀之助) is said to have been the first sumo wrestler to hold the title of yokozuna. ... Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of Yokozuna. ... View of Mount Fuji from Numazu, part of the Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō series by Hiroshige, published 1850 Ukiyo-e ), pictures of the floating world, is a genre of Japanese woodblock prints (or woodcuts) and paintings produced between the 17th and the 20th centuries, featuring motifs of...


Prior to the Meiji Era, the title yokozuna was conferred on ōzeki who performed sumo in front of the Shogun. This privilege was more often determined by a wrestler's patron having sufficient influence rather than purely on the ability and dignity of the wrestler. Thus there are a number of early wrestlers who were, by modern standards, yokozuna in name only. Furthermore the right to award a wrestler a yokozuna licence was a hereditary privilege of one family. In these early days yokozuna was also not regarded as a separate rank in the listings, but as an ozeki with special dispensation to perform his own ring entering ceremony. Historically, yokozuna tend to be among the heaviest wrestlers, and this tendency has continued into the modern era with the average weight of the last 10 yokozuna being approximately 181kg (400lbs). History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Meiji period (Japanese: Meiji Jidai 明治&#26178... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ...


Criteria for promotion to yokozuna

In modern sumo, the qualifications that an ōzeki must satisfy to be promoted are that he has enough power, skill and dignity/grace (品格 hinkaku) to qualify. There are no absolute criteria, nor is there a set quota: there have been periods with no wrestlers at yokozuna rank, and there have been periods with up to four simultaneously.


The power and skill aspects are usually considered with reference to recent tournament performance. The de facto standard is to win two consecutive championships as ozeki or an equivalent performance. In the case where the "equivalent performance" criterion is used the wrestler's record over the previous three tournaments is taken into account with an expectation at least one tournament victory and two runner up performances, with none of the three records falling below twelve wins. Thus a consistent high level of performance is required. Winning two tournaments with a poor performance between them is not usually sufficient. The rules are not set in stone and hence the Yokozuna Deliberation Council and Sumo Association can interpret the criteria more leniently or strictly and also take other factors, such as total number of tournament victories, and the quality of the wins and whether the losses show any bad vulnerabilities in reaching their conclusion. De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


The issue of hinkaku (dignity and grace) is more contentious, as it is essentially a subjective issue. For example Hawaiian born ozeki Konishiki, in particular, was felt by many to be unfairly kept from yokozuna status due to his non Japanese origin, and many Sumo Association members even openly said that foreigners (gaijin) could never achieve the hinkaku needed to be a yokozuna. In the case of Konishiki, other issues such as his weight were also cited.[1] Other wrestlers in the past have also been held back. For example Chiyonoyama in the 1950s was not immediately promoted due to his relative youth despite winning consecutive tournaments, although he later achieved the top rank.[2]On the other hand, Futahaguro was given the title of yokozuna in 1986, despite immaturity being cited in opposition to his promotion. [3] After being promoted, he was involved in several misbehaviors that embarrassed the Sumo Association such as hitting one of his tsukebitos (manservant or personal assistant) over a trivial matter in a scandal that had all of his six tsukebitos decide to leave him.[4]The promotion again proved to be a total fiasco when it was later revealed that he had a heated argument with his stable boss, Tatsunami, and stormed out of the heya, allegedly striking Tatsunami's wife on the way. Futahaguro eventually retired after only one and a half year at the top rank and became the only yokozuna in sumo history ever at that time to retire without having won at least one top division championship. Konishiki Yasokichi, (小錦八十吉, formally Salevaa Atisanoe, born December 31, 1963), is a Hawaii-born Samoan sumo wrestler. ... This article is about the Japanese word for foreigner. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Kōji Kitao (born August 12, 1963) is a former sumo wrestler and professional wrestler, born in Mie, Japan. ... Heya - The organization a sumo wrestler belongs to. ...


The debate concerning foreigners having the dignity to be a yokozuna was finally laid to rest on January 27, 1993, when ozeki Akebono was formally promoted to yokozuna after only 8 months as an ozeki. Since then three other overseas wrestlers have also achieved sumo's ultimate rank: Musashimaru, Asashoryu, and Hakuhō. January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Yokozuna Akebono is fitted with a tsuna belt for the last time at his retirement ceremony. ... Musashimaru Koyo was declared the most successful foreign sumo wrestler ever during his retirement ceremony on October 2, 2004. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Hakuhō Shō ) is a professional sumo wrestler (rikishi) born Munkhbat Davaajargal on March 11, 1985 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. ...


Becoming a yokozuna

Elevation to yokozuna rank is a multi-stage process. After a tournament, the Yokozuna Deliberation Council, a body of "lay people" (that is, not former sumo wrestlers) who are appointed by the Japan Sumo Association to provide an independent quality control on Yokozuna promotion, meet and discuss the performance of the top-ranked wrestlers. Usually at the instigation of the Japan Sumo Association they can make a recommendation that a particular ozeki-ranked wrestler has the necessary attributes to be promoted. Their recommendation is then passed to the Judging division and then the Board of Directors of the Sumo Association who make the final decision. The Japan Sumo Association (日本相撲協会 or Nihon Sumo Kyokai) is the body who operate and control professional sumo wrestling in Japan. ...


If a wrestler is deemed to have met the criteria then he will be formally visited in his training stable by a member of the Sumo Association Board of Directors who will formally give him the news. In the following days a yokozuna hawser will then be made in his stable and he will practice the ring entrance ceremony with advice from a previous or current yokozuna. Finally he will have his inaugural ceremonial ring entry ceremony held at Meiji Jingu in Tokyo, which is usually completed within a couple of weeks after the tournament ends. The central sanctuary where the Meiji emperor is enshrined. ...   , literally Eastern capital) is a unique subnational administrative region of Japan with characteristics of both a prefecture and a city. ...


In competition in each tournament for the championship he can never be relegated. A yokozuna is expected to retire if he is no longer able to compete at the peak of the sport. As a result of this, the system for promotion is quite strict. In many sports leagues around the world (with North American and Australian professional leagues being the most notable exceptions), relegation (or demotion) means the mandated transfer of the least successful team(s) of a higher division into a lower division at the end of the season. ...


Yokozuna ceremonies and traditions

The formal birth of the rank from Tanikaze's time appears to have in part come from a desire to let the very best have a separate ring entry ceremony (dohyō-iri) from the remaining top division wrestlers. The dohyō-iri is a ceremonial presentation of all the top division wrestlers which is held prior to the competitive bouts of the day. The normal ceremony for top division wrestlers is to be introduced and form a circle around the wrestling ring (dohyō) wearing specially decorated heavy silk "aprons", called kesho mawashi. A brief symbolic "dance" is carried out before filing off to change into their fighting mawashi and prepare for their bouts. In sumo, a mawashi is the belt that the rikishi (or sumo wrestler) wears during training or in competition. ... In sumo, a mawashi (Japanese: 廻し) is the belt that the rikishi (or sumo wrestler) wears during training or in competition. ...


A yokozuna, however, is introduced after the lower ranked wrestlers and is flanked by two other top division wrestler "assistants". The "dewsweeper" or tsuyuharai precedes the Yokozuna, while the "sword bearer" or tachimochi follows him into the arena. The sword is a Japanese katana and symbolises the samurai status of the yokozuna. The tachimochi will always be the more highly ranked of the assisting wrestlers. As indicated above, during the ceremony the yokozuna will wear his tsuna around his waist. The ceremonial aprons of all three form a matching set. The tsuyuharai (lit. ... The tachimochi (lit. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Once in the ring the yokozuna takes centre stage and performs a much more complex ritual dance. The dance can take one of two forms, one of which the yokozuna usually chooses when he is first promoted. In addition to the slightly different routine the choice of the yokozuna's ritual can also be determined by the knot used to tie the rope around his waist. The currently more popular "Unryū" style has only one loop at the back, while the "Shiranui" style has two. The styles are named after two famous yokozuna of the Edo period, although there is no historical proof that they actually carried out the dances that have been attributed to them. Indeed there are some scholars who believe that in fact the two concerned have had their ring entering rituals mixed up. Ceremonial dance is a major category or classification of dance forms or dance styles, where the purpose is ceremonial or ritualistic. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ...


If a former yokozuna reaches the age of sixty, he usually performs a special ring-entering ceremony known as kanreki dohyō-iri, in celebration of his longevity. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


If a yokozuna is defeated by a lower ranked wrestler, it is common and expected for audience members to throw their seat cushions into the ring (and onto the wrestlers).


As of June 2007, there have been a grand total of 69 yokozuna, although formal recordkeeping only started with Tanikaze and Onogawa in 1789. For a list of all the yokozuna recorded through history, see here. Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of Yokozuna. ... Onogawa Kisaburō, repelling a monster by blowing smoke in its face, depicted in an 1865 print by Yoshitoshi. ... This is a list of all Sumo wrestlers who have reached the sports highest rank of Yokozuna. ...


Active yokozuna

The two currently active yokozuna are:

  • Asashoryu (朝青龍), the 68th yokozuna, from Mongolia, promoted January 2003
  • Hakuho (白鵬), the 69th yokozuna, also from Mongolia, promoted May 2007

Asashōryū Akinori (朝青龍 明徳), born as Dolgorsuren Dagvadorj (Долгорсүрэн Дагвадорж) on September 27, 1980 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, is the first Mongolian sumo wrestler to reach the... Hakuhō Shō ) is a professional sumo wrestler. ...

Ōzeki

The ōzeki (大関 (ōzeki?)), or champion rank, is immediately below yokozuna, in the ranking system. Until the yokozuna rank was introduced, ōzeki was the highest rank attainable.


Promotion to ōzeki

The promotion of a wrestler to ōzeki is a multi-tournament process. A wrestler at the rank of sekiwake will be considered for promotion if he has achieved a total of at least 30 wins over the three most recent tournaments, including 10 or more wins in the tournament just completed. Promotion is discretionary and there are no hard-and-fast rules, though a three-tournament record of 33 wins is considered a near-guarantee. Other factors toward promotion will include tangibles such as winning a tournament or defeating yokozuna, as well as the rikishi's overall consistency, prowess, and quality of sumo - for example, a record of illegal maneuvers or reliance on certain dodging techniques would count against the dignity expected of an ōzeki. Sekiwake (関脇) is the third highest rank in professional sumo wrestling, and is one of the so-called sanyaku ranks. ... A honbasho is the term given to any of the six official professional sumo tournaments held each year. ... A yusho is a championship of a tournament in any division of sumo. ... The following words are terms used in sumo wrestling in Japan. ...


Promotions are recommended by the Judging Division to the Board of Directors of the Japan Sumo Association. If it is a first promotion to the rank a member of the Board of Directors will formally visit the wrestler's stable to inform the new ōzeki of his promotion. The ōzeki will usually make a speech on this occasion promising to do his best to uphold the dignity of the rank. The Japan Sumo Association (日本相撲協会 or Nihon Sumo Kyokai) is the body who operate and control professional sumo wrestling in Japan. ... Heya - The organization a sumo wrestler belongs to. ...


Relegation from ozeki

Like the other sanyaku ranks, but unlike a yokozuna, an ozeki may be relegated. For an ozeki, relegation is a two-step procedure. First, the ozeki must lose more bouts than he wins in a tournament; losing a majority of bouts is called makekoshi. At this point, the ozeki is called kadoban. If he wins a majority of bouts in the next tournament (which is called kachikoshi), he is restored to regular ozeki status. If, on the other hand, he loses a majority of bouts while kadoban, he is relegated to sekiwake. Sanyaku (三役) literally means the three ranks and represents the titleholder, or champion, ranks at the top of the sumo ranking system. ... In many sports leagues around the world (with North American and Australian professional leagues being the most notable exceptions), relegation (or demotion) means the mandated transfer of the least successful team(s) of a higher division into a lower division at the end of the season. ... Makekoshi (負け越し) means a majority of losses in a professional sumo championship. ... Kachikoshi (勝ち越し) means a majority of wins in a professional sumo championship. ... Sekiwake (関脇) is the third highest rank in professional sumo wrestling, and is one of the so-called sanyaku ranks. ...


In the tournament immediately following his relegation from ozeki, if a wrestler wins ten or more bouts, he is immediately restored to ozeki status. However, if he fails to win ten or more matches in his first tournament back as sekiwake, he is treated just like any other wrestler in further attempts at being promoted back to ozeki. This system has been in place since the Nagoya Tournament of 1969.


Benefits of being an ozeki

In addition to a salary increase there is a number of perks associated with reaching ozeki rank:

  • He is guaranteed a higher rank in the Sumo Association when he first retires
  • He will be given a three year temporary membership of the Sumo Association on his retirement if he does not yet own a share.
  • He will receive a special merit payment on his retirement (the amount decided by his strength and longevity as an ozeki)
  • He has a parking space in the Sumo Association headquarters
  • He can vote in the election of the Sumo Association Directors
  • Normally he will receive additional support from his stable in terms of junior wrestlers to act as his manservants.
  • He can wear purple fringed ceremonial aprons (kesho-mawashi)
  • An ozeki can normally act as a dewsweeper or swordbearer for a yokozuna ring entrance ceremony.
  • He may be called on to represent the wrestlers on formal occasions such as when VIPs visit a Sumo Tournament, or on formal visits to Shinto Shrines.

In sumo, a mawashi (Japanese: 廻し) is the belt that the rikishi (or sumo wrestler) wears during training or in competition. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ...

List of active ozeki

  • Chiyotaikai Ryūji - held rank since March 1999
  • Kaiō Hiroyuki - September 2000
  • Kotoōshū Katsunori - January 2006
  • Kotomitsuki Keiji - September 2007

Chiyotaikai Ryuji ), born Hiroshima Ryuji (廣嶋龍二) on April 29, 1976 in Chitose, Hokkaidō, is a Japanese sumo wrestler. ... Kaio Hiroyuki (魁皇博之, born July 24, 1972 as Hiroyuki Koga) is a professional sumo wrestler from Fukuoka, Japan. ... Kotooshu Katsunori ), (born Kaloyan Stefanov Mahlyanov (Bulgarian: ) on February 19, 1983 in Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria) is a professional sumo wrestler or rikishi. ... Kotomitsuki Keiji (琴光喜啓司, born April 11, 1976 as Keiji Tamiya) is a Japanese sumo wrestler from Okazaki City in Aichi Prefecture. ...

Sekiwake

Sekiwake (関脇 sekiwake?) is the third highest rank in professional sumo wrestling, and is one of the top three sanyaku ranks. It is believed to come from guarding the Ozeki (大関 or 関) at his side (脇). A Sumo match (Ozeki Kaio vs. ... Sanyaku (三役) literally means the three ranks and represents the titleholder, or champion, ranks at the top of the sumo ranking system. ...


It represents the highest rank a wrestler can achieve by continuously making a kachikoshi (majority of wins) in tournaments. Promotion to sekiwake depends on either a space being available, which is quite common, or having a record in the previous tournament that is very convincing, typically 10-5 or better as a komusubi. There are special promotion criteria for the next highest rank of Ozeki. Unlike the higher ranks of Ozeki and Yokozuna, one will lose the rank immediately after having a makekoshi tournament (more losses than wins). Kachikoshi (勝ち越し) means a majority of wins in a professional sumo championship. ... Komusubi (小結) literally means the little knot, the knot referring to the match up between two wrestlers. ... Yokozuna Asashoryu (center) performing the ring-entering ceremony while flanked by a sword bearer on the left and dew sweeper on the right. ... Makekoshi (負け越し) means a majority of losses in a professional sumo championship. ...


For many purposes this and the komusubi rank are treated together as the junior sanyaku ranks, as opposed to Ozeki and Yokozuna. For example records of number of tournaments ranked in junior sanyaku are often referred to in sumo publications.


For wrestlers reaching this rank the benefits are similar to that for a komusubi. The salary is higher than for a maegashira and also the wrestler is usually called to appear to flank the chairman of the Sumo Association during the speeches he makes on opening and closing days of the fifteen day tournaments that are held six times a year. He may also be called on to represent the wrestlers on behalf of the Sumo Association at other events, especially if the number of Ozeki and Yokozuna is low. If this is the highest rank a wrestler reaches, even if it is only for one tournament, he will always be referred to as "former sekiwake (ring name)" after his retirement, which is an indicator of a successful sumo career, whilst not achieving the exceptional standards of the highest two ranks.. Maegashira is a rank in sumo wrestling. ... The Japan Sumo Association (日本相撲協会 or Nihon Sumo Kyokai) is the body who operate and control professional sumo wrestling in Japan. ...


At any time there must be a minimum of two wrestlers ranked as sekiwake. If circumstances require, this can rise typically to three or four. The minimum of two requirement means that a certain amount of luck can lead to wrestlers achieving this rank on occasion, if the performance of other wrestlers leaves no obvious candidates to fill the rank. This luck factor is less common than it is for komusubi promotions.


Komusubi

Komusubi (小結 komusubi?) literally means "the little knot", the knot referring to the match up between two wrestlers. It is the fourth highest rank in sumo wrestling and is the lowest of the so called titleholder ranks, or sanyaku. A Sumo match (Ozeki Kaio vs. ... Sanyaku (三役) literally means the three ranks and represents the titleholder, or champion, ranks at the top of the sumo ranking system. ...


It is the lowest rank where achieving a kachikoshi (or majority of wins) is no longer sufficient to guarantee promotion to the next highest level, which is sekiwake. Promotion to sekiwake depends on either a space being available, which is quite common, or having a record in the previous tournament that is very convincing, typically 10-5 or better. Kachikoshi (勝ち越し) means a majority of wins in a professional sumo championship. ... Sekiwake (関脇) is the third highest rank in professional sumo wrestling, and is one of the so-called sanyaku ranks. ...


For many purposes this and the sekiwake rank are treated together as the junior sanyaku ranks, as opposed to Ozeki and Yokozuna where extremely stringent promotion criteria exist. For example records of number of tournaments ranked in junior sanyaku are often referred to in sumo publications. Yokozuna Asashoryu (center) performing the ring-entering ceremony while flanked by a sword bearer on the left and dew sweeper on the right. ...


For wrestlers reaching this rank the benefits are a salary increase and also appearing to flank the chairman of the Sumo Association during the speeches he makes on opening and closing days of the honbasho, fifteen-day tournaments that are held six times a year. He may also be called on to represent the wrestlers on behalf of the Sumo Association at other events, especially if the number of Ozeki and Yokozuna are low. If this is the highest rank a wrestler reaches, even if it is only for one tournament, he will always be referred to as "former komusubi (ring name)" after his retirement, which is an indicator of a fairly successful sumo career. The Japan Sumo Association (日本相撲協会 or Nihon Sumo Kyokai) is the body who operate and control professional sumo wrestling in Japan. ... A honbasho is the term given to any of the six official professional sumo tournaments held each year. ...


At any time there must be a minimum of two wrestlers ranked as komusubi. If circumstances require this can rise, typically to three or four. The minimum of two requirement means that a certain amount of luck can lead to wrestlers achieving this rank on occasion, if the performance of other wrestlers leaves no obvious candidates to fill the rank.


Before World War II, there were several instances of komusubi immediately advancing to Ozeki after a nearly winning the tournament but there have been few instances of this since then. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Maegashira

Maegashira (前頭) is the lowest of five ranks in the top Makuuchi division.


All the makuuchi wrestlers who are not ranked in sanyaku are ranked as maegashira, from one at the top downwards. In each rank there are two wrestlers, the higher ranked is given an east designation and the other the west. Sanyaku (三役) literally means the three ranks and represents the titleholder, or champion, ranks at the top of the sumo ranking system. ...


The number of wrestlers in makuuchi is fixed (at 42 in 2004) but the number in sanyaku is not. Thus the number of maegashira ranks can vary, but is typically between 15 and 17. (This gives a makuuchi division split of around 10 sanyaku and 32 maegashira). shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Movement within the maegashira ranks can be minor or extreme, depending on the wrestler's score in the previous 15 bout tournament. For example, an M-2 who has an 8-7 record might only be promoted one level to M-1 for the next tournament. An M-14 that wins the yusho (or division championship) could be promoted to the sanyaku rank of komusubi. Indeed, this happened in March 2000 when Takatoriki of Futagayama beya won the yusho with a 13-2 record. Komusubi (小結) literally means the little knot, the knot referring to the match up between two wrestlers. ...


When a maegashira defeats a yokozuna (a wrestler with the highest sumo rank), it is called a kinboshi and he is rewarded monetarily for the victory for the remainder of his career. Yokozuna Asashoryu (center) performing the ring-entering ceremony while flanked by a sword bearer on the left and dew sweeper on the right. ... Kinboshi, literally meaning gold star, is a term used in professional sumo wrestling to describe a maegashira victory over a yokozuna. ...


References

  1. ^ Gould, Chris (April 2007). Konishiki (English). sumofanmag.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-04.
  2. ^ Kuroda, Joe (December 2005). Rikishi of Old: Chiyonoyama (English). sumofanmag.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-04.
  3. ^ 双羽黒 光司
  4. ^ Haberman, Clive (88-02-01). Wrestler fails to keep hold on a honorable past (English). New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-07-04.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Japan Sumo Association

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sumo Questions (663 words)
Though all sumo rikishi are considered professionals, only the rikishi from the top two divisions (Makuuchi and Juryo) receive a monthly salary.
During the tournament, Makuuchi rikishi may also receive sponsor money (called a kensho) from winning their individual bouts.
Finally, Makuuchi rikishi are paid for winning the tournament (¥5,000,000) or winning one of three special prizes (¥2,000,000).
The Structure of Sumo (922 words)
Rikishi in the top two divisions--Makuuchi and Juryo--are called "sekitori." Sekitori are easily distinguished by their colorful mawashi (belts) and the topknot of their hair, which is fanned out into the shape of a ginkgo leaf.
Makuuchi, the top division in the sport, consists of different levels.
The remaining rikishi in the Makuuchi division are all called Maegashira and are all ranked from 1 to 15 or 16 depending on their performance at the previous tournament.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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