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Encyclopedia > Majority

A majority is a subset of a group that is more than half of the entire group. This should not be confused with a plurality, which is a subset having the largest number of parts. A plurality is not necessarily a majority, as the largest subset may be less than half of the entire group. A is a subset of B, and B is a superset of A. In mathematics, especially in set theory, the terms, subset, superset and proper (or strict) subset or superset are used to describe the relation, called inclusion, of one set being contained inside another set. ... A plurality (or relative majority) is the largest share of something, which may or may not be a majority. ...


For example, in a hypothetical group of 40 athletes there are:

In this group, a majority would consist of more than half the total number of athletes, or 21 athletes. The group of all ball sport players together (15 football players + 6 table tennis players = 21) comprise a majority. However, football players, 15 in number, comprise a plurality, not a majority. The striker (wearing red jersey) has run past the defender (in white jersey) and is about to take a shot at the goal, while the goalkeeper positions himself to stop the ball. ... Sprints are races in athletics. ... Modern day marathon runners The word marathon refers to a long-distance road running event of 42. ... Jan-Ove Waldner at the 2004 Olympics Table tennis (also known colloquially as ping pong) is a sport where two or four players hit a ball back and forth to each other. ...


Parliamentary rules

In parliamentary procedure (the "rules of order" concerning the conduct of business in a deliberative body), the term 'majority' refers to "more than half." As it relates to a vote, a majority is more than half of the votes cast (noting that an abstention is simply the refusal to vote). Rules of order, also known as standing orders or rules of procedure, are the written rules of parliamentary procedure adopted by a deliberative assembly, which detail the processes used by the body to make decisions. ... Rules of order, also known as standing orders or rules of procedure, are the written rules of parliamentary procedure adopted by a deliberative assembly, which detail the processes used by the body to make decisions. ... A deliberative body (or deliberative assembly) is an organization which collectively makes decisions after debate and discussion. ...


A common error is to list a majority as being "one more than half" or "fifty percent plus one". This is incorrect when there is an odd number of votes cast. When there are 51 votes cast, half is 25.5. A majority is more than 25.5, or 26; one more than half is 26.5, and since there must be at least that many votes on the winning side, and a half vote is not possible, that makes the requirement 27. It is a similar error to list a majority as "51%" or "50.1%".


In politics and political voting systems, there are several different popular concepts relating to a majority: Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Voters at the voting booths in the US in 1945 Voting systems are methods (algorithms) for groups of people to select one or more options from many, taking into account the individual preferences of the group members. ...

These concepts are not to be confused with the concept of a majority as understood in parliamentary procedure, which is a common error. While they do have counterparts in parliamentary procedure, in it they are undefined as termed, and their discussion is beyond the scope of this article. A simple majority is the most common requirement in voting for a measure to pass, especially in deliberative bodies and small organizations. ... A supermajority or a qualified majority is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level or type of support which exceeds a simple majority in order to have effect. ... Absolute majority is a supermajoritarian voting requirement which is stricter than a simple majority. ... A two-thirds majority is a common supermajoritarian requirement in elections, especially whenever minority rights can be changed (e. ... A plurality (or relative majority) is the largest share of something, which may or may not be a majority. ... A double majority is the name given to a vote which requires a majority of votes according to two separate criteria. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
PlanetMath: majorization (71 words)
Marshall and I. Olkin, Inequalities: Theory of Majorization and Its Applications, 1979, Acadamic Press, New York.
This is version 5 of majorization, born on 2004-07-28, modified 2006-11-11.
Object id is 6043, canonical name is Majorization.
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