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Encyclopedia > Maize
Maize
Cultivars of maize
Cultivars of maize
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Zea
Species: Z. mays
Binomial name
Zea mays
L.

Maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays; principally known as corn[1][2][3]) is a cereal grain that was domesticated in Mesoamerica and then spread throughout the American continents. Maize spread to the rest of the world after European contact with the Americas in the late 15th century and early 16th century. The term maize derives from the Spanish form (maíz) of the Arawak Native American term for the plant. However, it is commonly called corn in the United States, Canada and Australia. Corn is a shortened form of "Indian corn", i.e. the Indian grain. The English word "corn" originally referred to a granular particle, most commonly cereal grains. Hybrid maize is preferred by farmers over conventional varieties for its high grain yield, due to heterosis ("hybrid vigour"). Maize is the largest crop in all of the Americas (270 million metric tons annually in the U.S. alone). Maize may refer to: Maize or Indian corn, a cereal grain Maize (album), a 1994 album by the American band Pushmonkey Maize (color) Maize, Kansas, a U.S. city Maze Corn (disambiguation) Category: ... Look up corn in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1794x2670, 671 KB) Seven ears of corn. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Divisions Green algae land plants (embryophytes) non-vascular embryophytes Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses vascular plants (tracheophytes) seedless vascular plants Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongue ferns seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Liliopsida is the botanical name for a class. ... families see text Poales is a botanical name at the rank of order. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... species ssp. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... This article is about cereals in general. ... This article is about the culture area. ... Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... The term Arawak (from aru, the Lokono word for cassava flour), was used to designate the Amerindians encountered by the Spanish in the Caribbean. ... // This article is about a biological term. ... Heterosis is increased strength of different characteristics in hybrids; the possibility to obtain a better individual by combining the virtues of its parents. ...


While some maize varieties grow 7 metres (23 ft) tall at certain locations,[4] commercial maize has been bred for a height of 2.5 metres (8 ft). Sweetcorn is usually shorter than field-corn varieties. Husked sweetcorn Young sweetcorn The same rows of corn 41 days later at maturity. ...

Contents

Maize physiology

The stems superficially resemble chicken hips and the joints (nodes) can reach 20–30 centimetres (8–12 in) apart. Maize has a very distinct growth form; the lower leaves being like broad flags, 50–100 centimetres long and 5–10 centimetres wide (2–4 ft by 2–4 in); the stems are erect, conventionally 2–3 metres (7–10 ft) in height, with many nodes, casting off flag-leaves at every node. Under these leaves and close to the stem grow the ears. They grow about 3 centimetres a day. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A node is the place on a stem where a lateral meristem develops as either a lateral bud or a secondary shoot, often subtended by a leaf. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...

Corn plants showing ears
Corn plants showing ears
Young stalks
Young stalks

The ears are female inflorescences, tightly covered over by several layers of leaves, and so closed-in by them to the stem that they do not show themselves easily until the emergence of the pale yellow silks from the leaf whorl at the end of the ear. The silks are elongated stigmas that look like tufts of hair, at first green, and later red or yellow. Plantings for silage are even denser, and achieve an even lower percentage of ears and more plant matter. Certain varieties of maize have been bred to produce many additional developed ears, and these are the source of the "baby corn" that is used as a vegetable in Asian cuisine. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 49 KB)copied from German Wikipedia Bild:Maispflanze. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 49 KB)copied from German Wikipedia Bild:Maispflanze. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 3008 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 3008 pixel, file size: 3. ... Red clover inflorescence (spike) An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers on a branch of a plant. ... Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the outer, often visible part of the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ... Silage (hay) somewhere in Allschwil or Schönenbuch, near Basel, Switzerland. ... Asian cuisine is a term for the various cuisines of South, East and Southeast Asia and for fusion dishes based on combining them. ...


Maize is a facultative long-night plant and flowers in a certain number of growing degree days > 50 °F (10 °C) in the environment to which it is adapted.[5] Photoperiodicity can be eccentric in tropical cultivars, where in the long days at higher latitudes the plants will grow so tall that they will not have enough time to produce seed before they are killed by frost. The magnitude of the influence that long-nights have on the number of days that must pass before maize flowers is genetically prescribed and regulated by the phytochrome system.[6] Growing degree days (GDD) are a heuristic tool in phenology. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Phytochrome is a photoreceptor, a pigment that plants use to detect light. ...


The apex of the stem ends in the tassel, an inflorescence of male flowers. Each silk may become pollinated to produce one kernel of corn. Young ears can be consumed raw, with the cob and silk, but as the plant matures (usually during the summer months) the cob becomes tougher and the silk dries to inedibility. By the end of the growing season, the kernels dry out and become difficult to chew without cooking them tender first in boiling water. Modern farming techniques in developed countries usually rely on dense planting, which produces on average only about 0.9 ears per stalk because it stresses the plants. [7] Red clover inflorescence (spike) An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers on a branch of a plant. ...


The kernel of corn has a pericarp of the fruit fused with the seed coat, typical of the grasses. It is close to a multiple fruit in structure, except that the individual fruits (the kernels) never fuse into a single mass. The grains are about the size of peas, and adhere in regular rows round a white pithy substance, which forms the ear. An ear contains from 200 to 400 kernels, and is from 10–25 centimetres (4–10 inches) in length. They are of various colors: blackish, bluish-gray, red, white and yellow. When ground into flour, maize yields more flour, with much less bran, than wheat does. However, it lacks the protein gluten of wheat and therefore makes baked goods with poor rising capability. Species Elaeis guineensis Elaeis oleifera The oil palms (Elaeis) coomprise two species of the Arecaceae, or palm family. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... Mulberry is a kind of multiple fruit. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ... // wheat bran Bran is the hard outer layer of and consists of combined aleurone and pericarp. ... Wheat - a prime source of gluten Gluten is an amorphous mixture of ergastic (i. ...


A genetic variation that accumulates more sugar and less starch in the ear is consumed as a vegetable and is called sweetcorn. For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... A plate of vegetables Vegetable is a culinary term which generally refers to an edible part of a plant. ...


Immature maize shoots accumulate a powerful antibiotic substance, DIMBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one). DIMBOA is a member of a group of hydroxamic acids (also known as benzoxazinoids) that serve as a natural defense against a wide range of pests including insects, pathogenic fungi and bacteria. DIMBOA is also found in related grasses, particularly wheat. A maize mutant (bx) lacking DIMBOA is highly susceptible to be attacked by aphids and fungi. DIMBOA is also responsible for the relative resistance of immature maize to the European corn borer (family Crambidae). As maize matures, DIMBOA levels and resistance to the corn borer decline. A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Families There are 10 families: Adelgidae Anoeciidae Aphididae Drepanosiphidae Homomasagymibutae Greenideidae Hormaphididae Lachnidae Mindaridae Pemphigidae Phloeomyzidae Phylloxeridae Thelaxidae Aphids, also known as greenfly, blackfly or plant lice, are minute plant-feeding insects in the superfamily Aphidoidea in the homopterous division of the order Hemiptera. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Author: Latreille, 1810 Type species: Crambus pascuella Diversity: ? genera 11,630 species Subfamilies Cathariinae Crambinae Cybalomiinae Dichogaminae Evergestinae Glaphyriinae Linostinae Midilinae Musotiminae Noordinae Nymphulinae Odontiinae Pyraustinae Schoenobiinae Scopariinae Spilomelinae Wurthiinae The Crambidae are a family of Lepidoptera (moths). ...


Genetics

Corn male flower, a.k.a. corn tassel
Corn female flower, a.k.a. corn silk
Corn female flower, a.k.a. corn silk

Many forms of maize are used for food, sometimes classified as various subspecies: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1200, 870 KB)Corn male flower AKA corn tassel. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1200, 870 KB)Corn male flower AKA corn tassel. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1097, 836 KB)Corn female flower AKA corn silk. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1097, 836 KB)Corn female flower AKA corn silk. ...

  • Flour corn — Zea mays var. amylacea
  • PopcornZea mays var. everta
  • Dent corn — Zea mays var. indentata
  • Flint corn — Zea mays var. indurata
  • SweetcornZea mays var. saccharata and Zea mays var. rugosa
  • Waxy cornZea mays var. ceratina
  • AmylomaizeZea mays
  • Pod corn — Zea mays var. tunicata Larrañaga ex A. St. Hil.
  • Striped maize - Zea mays var. japonica

This system has been replaced (though not entirely displaced) over the last 60 years by multi-variable classifications based on ever more data. Agronomic data was supplemented by botanical traits for a robust initial classification, then genetic, cytological, protein and DNA evidence was added. Now the categories are forms (little used), races, racial complexes, and recently branches. For other uses, see Popcorn (disambiguation). ... Husked sweetcorn Young sweetcorn The same rows of corn 41 days later at maturity. ... Waxy corn or waxy maize is a maize variety with grains that have a waxy appearance when cut, and that contains only branched-chain starch. ... Amylomaize was a term coined by Robert P. Bear of Bear Hybrids Corn Company in Decatur, Illinois to describe his discovery and commercial breeding of a unique corn with high (>50%) amylose starch content. ... Agronomics is an agricultural science, that specifically deals with land usage. ... Cytology (also known as Cell biology) is the scientific study of cells. ...


Maize has 10 chromosomes (n=10). The combined length of the chromosomes is 1500 cM. Some of the maize chromosomes have what are known as "chromosomal knobs": highly repetitive heterochromatic domains that stain darkly. Individual knobs are polymorphic among strains of both maize and teosinte. Barbara McClintock used these knob markers to prove her transposon theory of "jumping genes", for which she won the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Maize is still an important model organism for genetics and developmental biology today. In genetics, a centimorgan (abbreviated cM) is a unit of recombinant frequency. ... Heterochromatin is a type of chromatin (the chromosomal material) that is darkly staining and tightly packaged or coiled throughout the cell cycle and that is, for the most part, genetically inactive. ... In biology, polymorphism can be defined as the occurrence in the same habitat of two or more forms of a trait in such frequencies that the rarer cannot be maintained by recurrent mutation alone. ... species ssp. ... Barbara McClintock (June 16, 1902 – September 2, 1992) was a pioneering American scientist and one of the worlds most distinguished cytogeneticists. ... Transposons are sequences of DNA that can move around to different positions within the genome of a single cell, a process called transposition. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... Views of a Foetus in the Womb, Leonardo da Vinci, ca. ...


There is a stock center of maize mutants, The Maize Genetics Cooperation — Stock Center, funded by the USDA Agricultural Research Service and located in the Department of Crop Sciences at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The total collection has nearly 80,000 samples. The bulk of the collection consists of several hundred named genes, plus additional gene combinations and other heritable variants. There are about 1000 chromosomal aberrations (e.g., translocations and inversions) and stocks with abnormal chromosome numbers (e.g., tetraploids). Genetic data describing the maize mutant stocks as well as myriad other data about maize genetics can be accessed at MaizeGDB, the Maize Genetics and Genomics Database.[8] The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the principal in-house research agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). ... A Corner of Main Quad The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC, U of I, or simply Illinois), is the oldest, largest, and most prestigious campus in the University of Illinois system. ... Polyploid (in Greek: πολλαπλόν - multiple) cells or organisms contain more than one copy (ploidy) of their chromosomes. ...


In 2005, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) formed a consortium to sequence the maize genome. The resulting DNA sequence data will be deposited immediately into GenBank, a public repository for genome-sequence data. Sequencing the corn genome has been considered difficult because of its large size and complex genetic arrangements. The genome has 50,000–60,000 genes scattered among the 2.5 billion bases – molecules that form DNA – that make up its 10 chromosomes. (By comparison, the human genome contains about 2.9 billion bases and 26,000 genes.) The logo of the National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. ... “USDA” redirects here. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... The GenBank sequence database is an annotated collection of all publicly available nucleotide sequences and their protein translations. ...


Origin

Two teosintes said to be the parents of maize
Two teosintes said to be the parents of maize

There are several theories about the specific origin of maize in Mesoamerica: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x1215, 2489 KB) Summary Two plants believed to be of the species hybridized to create maize. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x1215, 2489 KB) Summary Two plants believed to be of the species hybridized to create maize. ...

  1. It is a direct domestication of a Mexican annual teosinte, Zea mays ssp. parviglumis, native to the Balsas River valley of southern Mexico, with up to 12% of its genetic material obtained from Zea mays ssp. mexicana through introgression;
  2. It derives from hybridization between a small domesticated maize (a slightly changed form of a wild maize) and a teosinte of section Luxuriantes, either Z. luxurians or Z. diploperennis;
  3. It underwent two or more domestications either of a wild maize or of a teosinte;
  4. It evolved from a hybridization of Z. diploperennis by Tripsacum dactyloides. (The term "teosinte" describes all species and subspecies in the genus Zea, excluding Zea mays ssp. mays.) In the late 1930s, Paul Mangelsdorf suggested that domesticated maize was the result of a hybridization event between an unknown wild maize and a species of Tripsacum, a related genus. However, the proposed role of tripsacum (gama grass) in the origins of maize has been refuted by modern genetic analysis, negating Mangelsdorf’s model and the fourth listed above.

The third model (actually a group of hypotheses) is unsupported.[citation needed] The second parsimoniously explains many conundrums but is dauntingly complex.[citation needed] The first model was proposed by Nobel Prize winner George Beadle in 1939. Though it has experimental support, it has not explained a number of problems, among them: species ssp. ... The Balsas River is a river in south-central Mexico, and is one that countrys largest rivers, forming a large basin called the Balsas Basin. ... Introgression is a term used in genetics, particularly plant genetics, to describe the movement of a gene from one species into the gene pool of another by backcrossing an interspecific hybrid with one of its parents. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ) are awarded for Physics, Chemistry, Literature, Peace, and Physiology or Medicine. ... Beadle won a Nobel Prize in 1958 George Wells Beadle (October 22, 1903 - June 9, 1989) was an American scientist in the field of genetics. ...

  1. how the immense diversity of the species of sect. Zea originated,
  2. how the tiny archaeological specimens of 3500–2700 BCE (uncorrected) could have been selected from a teosinte, and
  3. how domestication could have proceeded without leaving remains of teosinte or maize with teosintoid traits until ca. 1100 BCE.
Guila Naquitz Cave, site of the oldest known remains of maize
Guila Naquitz Cave, site of the oldest known remains of maize

The domestication of maize is of particular interest to researchers—archaeologists, geneticists, ethnobotanists, geographers, etc. The process is thought by some to have started 7,500 to 12,000 years ago (corrected for solar variations). Recent genetic evidence suggests that maize domestication occurred 9000 years ago in central Mexico, perhaps in the highlands between Oaxaca and Jalisco.[9] The wild teosinte most similar to modern maize grows in the area of the Balsas River. Archaeological remains of early maize ears, found at Guila Naquitz Cave in the Oaxaca Valley, date back roughly 6,250 years (corrected; 3450 BCE, uncorrected); the oldest ears from caves near Tehuacan, Puebla, date ca. 2750 BCE. Little change occurred in ear form until ca. 1100 BCE when great changes appeared in ears from Mexican caves: maize diversity rapidly increased and archaeological teosinte was first deposited. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x620, 222 KB) Summary Guila Naquitz cave (or so I was told) Oaxaca, Mexico, the site of the oldest known remains of maize. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x620, 222 KB) Summary Guila Naquitz cave (or so I was told) Oaxaca, Mexico, the site of the oldest known remains of maize. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Ethnobotany is the study of the relationship between plants and people: Fromethno - study of people and botany - study of plants. ... Catedral de Santo Domingo The Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca or simply Oaxaca   is one of the 31 states of Mexico, located in the southern part of Mexico, west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 126 Largest City Guadalajara Government  - Governor Emilio González Márquez (PAN)  - Federal Deputies PAN: 18 PRI: 1  - Federal Senators Eva Contreras (PAN) Héctor Pérez (PAN) Ramiro Hernández (PRI) Area Ranked 6th  - State 79,085 km²  (30,534. ... The Balsas River is a river in south-central Mexico which forms a large basin called the Balsas Basin. ... Tehuacán is the second largest city in the state of Puebla, Mexico, with a population of 210,000. ...


Perhaps as early as 1500 BCE, maize began to spread widely and rapidly. As it was introduced to new cultures, new uses were developed and new varieties selected to better serve in those preparations. Maize was the staple food, or a major staple, of most the pre-Columbian North American, Mesoamerican, South American, and Caribbean cultures. The Mesoamerican civilization was strengthened upon the field crop of maize; through harvesting it, its religious and spiritual importance and how it impacted their diet. Maize formed the Mesoamerican people’s identity. During the 1st millennium CE (AD), maize cultivation spread from Mexico into the Southwest and a millennium later into Northeast and southeastern Canada, transforming the landscape as Native Americans cleared large forest and grassland areas for the new crop. The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the Americas continent. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Mesoamerica is the region extending from central Mexico south to the northwestern border of Costa Rica that gave rise to a group of stratified, culturally related agrarian civilizations spanning an approximately 3,000-year period before the European discovery of the New World by Columbus. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ... In the Gregorian calendar, the 1st millennium is the period of one thousand years that commenced with the year 1 Anno Domini. ... The Southwest region of the United States is drier than the adjoining Midwest in weather; the population is less dense and, with strong Spanish-American and Native American components, more ethnically varied than neighboring areas. ... The Northeastern United States is a region of the United States of America defined by the US Census Bureau. ...

Maize output in 2005
Maize output in 2005

It is unknown what precipitated its domestication, because the edible portion of the wild variety is too small and hard to obtain to be eaten directly, as each kernel is enclosed in a very hard bi-valve shell. However, George Beadle demonstrated that the kernels of teosinte are readily "popped" for human consumption, like modern popcorn. Some have argued that it would have taken too many generations of selective breeding in order to produce large compressed ears for efficient cultivation. However, studies of the hybrids readily made by intercrossing teosinte and modern maize suggest that this objection is not well-founded. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of maize output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (USA - 282,311,000 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of maize output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (USA - 282,311,000 tonnes). ... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ...


In 2005, research by the USDA Forest Service indicated that the rise in maize cultivation 500 to 1,000 years ago in the southeastern United States contributed to the decline of freshwater mussels, which are very sensitive to environmental changes.[10] “USDA” redirects here. ... Logo of the U.S. Forest Service. ... Subclasses Pteriomorpha (marine mussels) Palaeoheterodonta (freshwater mussels) Heterodonta (zebra mussels) The term mussel is used for several families of bivalve molluscs inhabiting lakes, rivers, and creeks, as well as intertidal areas along coastlines worldwide. ...


Cultivation

Top Maize Producers
in 2005
(million metric tons)
Flag of the United States United States 280
Flag of the People's Republic of China China 131
Flag of Brazil Brazil 35
Flag of Mexico Mexico 21
Flag of Argentina Argentina 20
Flag of Indonesia Indonesia 15
Flag of France France 13
Flag of India India 12
Flag of South Africa South Africa 12
Flag of Italy Italy 11
World Total 692
Source:
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation
(FAO)
[1]


Maize is widely cultivated throughout the world, and a greater weight of maize is produced each year than any other grain. While the United States produces almost half of the world's harvest, other top producing countries are as widespread as China, Brazil, France, Indonesia, India and South Africa. Worldwide production was over 600 million metric tons in 2003 — just slightly more than rice or wheat. In 2004, close to 33 million hectares of maize were planted worldwide, with a production value of more than $23 billion. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... FAO emblem With its headquarters in Rome, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that works to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10 000 square metres, commonly used for measuring land area. ...


Because it is cold-intolerant, in the temperate zones maize must be planted in the spring. Its root system is generally shallow, so the plant is dependent on soil moisture. As a C4 plant (a plant that uses C4 photosynthesis), maize is a considerably more water-efficient crop than C3 plants like the small grains, alfalfa and soybeans. Maize is most sensitive to drought at the time of silk emergence, when the flowers are ready for pollination. In the United States, a good harvest was traditionally predicted if the corn was "knee-high by the Fourth of July", although modern hybrids generally exceed this growth rate. Maize used for silage is harvested while the plant is green and the fruit immature. Sweet corn is harvested in the "milk stage", after pollination but before starch has formed, between late summer and early to mid-autumn. Field corn is left in the field very late in the autumn in order to thoroughly dry the grain, and may, in fact, sometimes not be harvested until winter or even early spring. The importance of sufficient soil moisture is shown in many parts of Africa, where periodic drought regularly causes famine by causing maize crop failure. Overview of C4 carbon fixation C4 carbon fixation is a metabolic pathway found in some land plants (C4 plants). ... Calvin cycle C3 carbon fixation is a metabolic pathway for carbon fixation in photosynthesis. ... For the Our Gang (Little Rascals) character, see Carl Switzer. ... Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... In the United States, Independence Day (commonly known as the “Fourth of July,” “July Fourth”, the “Glorious Fourth”, or simply the “Fourth”) is a federal holiday commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... // This article is about a biological term. ... Silage (hay) somewhere in Allschwil or Schönenbuch, near Basel, Switzerland. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ...

Field of maize in Liechtenstein
Field of maize in Liechtenstein

Maize was planted by the Native Americans in hills, in a complex system known to some as the Three Sisters: beans used the corn plant for support, and squashes provided ground cover to stop weeds. This method was replaced by single species hill planting where each hill 60–120 cm (2–4 ft) apart was planted with 3 or 4 seeds, a method still used by home gardeners. A later technique was checked corn where hills were placed 40 inches apart in each direction, allowing cultivators to run through the field in two directions. In more arid lands this was altered and seeds were planted in the bottom of 10–12 cm (4–5 in) deep furrows to collect water. Modern technique plants maize in rows which allows for cultivation while the plant is young, although the hill technique is still used in the cornfields of some Native American reservations. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 529 KB) Field, corn, Liechtenstein, Mountains, Alps, Vaduz, sky, clouds, landscape. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 529 KB) Field, corn, Liechtenstein, Mountains, Alps, Vaduz, sky, clouds, landscape. ... Brazilian Indian chiefs The scope of this indigenous peoples of the Americas article encompasses the definitions of indigenous peoples and the Americas as established in their respective articles. ... The Three Sisters are the three main agricultural crops of some Native American groups in North America: squash, maize, and climbing beans (typically tepary beans or common beans). ... For other uses, see Bean (disambiguation). ... Species - hubbard squash, buttercup squash - cushaw squash C. moschata- butternut squash C. pepo- most pumpkins, acorn squash, summer squash References: ITIS 223652002-11-06 Hortus Third Squashes are four species of the genus Cucurbita, also called pumpkins and marrows depending on variety or the nationality of the speaker. ...

A corn heap at the harvest site, India
A corn heap at the harvest site, India

In North America, fields are often planted in a two-crop rotation with a nitrogen-fixing crop, often alfalfa in cooler climates and soybeans in regions with longer summers. Sometimes a third crop, winter wheat, is added to the rotation. Fields are usually plowed each year, although no-till farming is increasing in use. Many of the maize varieties grown in the United States and Canada are hybrids. Over half of the corn area planted in the United States has been genetically modified using biotechnology to express agronomic traits such as pest resistance or herbicide resistance. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (896x672, 178 KB) Summary photographed by self Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (896x672, 178 KB) Summary photographed by self Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Satellite image of circular crop fields in Haskell County, Kansas in late June 2001. ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide)[1] useful for other chemical processes. ... For the Our Gang (Little Rascals) character, see Carl Switzer. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... Winter wheat is a cereal. ... No-till farming, also known as conservation tillage or zero tillage is a way of growing crops from year to year without disturbing the soil through tillage. ... Genetic engineering, genetic modification (GM), and gene splicing (once in widespread use but now deprecated) are terms for the process of manipulating genes in an organism, usually outside of the organisms normal reproductive process. ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ...


Before about World War II, most maize in North America was harvested by hand (as it still is in most of the other countries where it is grown). This often involved large numbers of workers and associated social events. Some one- and two-row mechanical pickers were in use but the corn combine was not adopted until after the War. By hand or mechanical picker, the entire ear is harvested which then requires a separate operation of a corn sheller to remove the kernels from the ear. Whole ears of corn were often stored in corn cribs and these whole ears are a sufficient form for some livestock feeding use. Few modern farms store maize in this manner. Most harvest the grain from the field and store it in bins. The combine with a corn head (with points and snap rolls instead of a reel) does not cut the stalk; it simply pulls the stalk down. The stalk continues downward and is crumpled in to a mangled pile on the ground. The ear of corn is too large to pass through a slit in a plate and the snap rolls pull the ear of corn from the stalk so that only the ear and husk enter the machinery. The combine separates out the husk and the cob, keeping only the kernels. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A LEXION Combine. ...


Pellagra

Multicolored varieties of maize
Multicolored varieties of maize
Main article: Pellagra

When maize was first introduced outside of the Americas it was generally welcomed with enthusiasm by farmers everywhere for its productivity. However, a widespread problem of malnutrition soon arose wherever maize was introduced. This was a mystery since these types of malnutrition were not seen among the indigenous Americans under normal circumstances.[11] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x667, 487 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Maize Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates User:Asbestos/Images Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Corn cobs Categories: Wikipedia featured picture candidates ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x667, 487 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Maize Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates User:Asbestos/Images Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Corn cobs Categories: Wikipedia featured picture candidates ... Pellagra is a vitamin deficiency disease caused by dietary lack of niacin (vitamin B3) and protein, especially proteins containing the essential amino acid tryptophan. ...


It was eventually discovered that the indigenous Americans learned long ago to add alkali — in the form of ashes among North Americans and lime (calcium carbonate) among Mesoamericans — to corn meal to liberate the B-vitamin niacin, the lack of which was the underlying cause of the condition known as pellagra. This alkali process is known by its Nahuatl (Aztec)-derived name: nixtamalization. In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qalyالقلوي, القالي ) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkali earth metal element. ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... Mesoamerica is the region extending from central Mexico south to the northwestern border of Costa Rica that gave rise to a group of stratified, culturally related agrarian civilizations spanning an approximately 3,000-year period before the European discovery of the New World by Columbus. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Pellagra is a vitamin deficiency disease caused by dietary lack of niacin (vitamin B3) and protein, especially proteins containing the essential amino acid tryptophan. ... Nixtamalization is the process whereby ripe maize grains are soaked and cooked in an alkaline solution, usually lime based, to cause the transparent outer hull, the pericarp, to separate from the grain. ...


Besides the lack of niacin, pellagra was also characterized by protein deficiency, a result of the inherent lack of two key amino acids in pre-modern maize, lysine and tryptophan. Nixtamalisation was also found to increase the lysine and tryptophan content of maize to some extent, but more importantly, the indigenous Americans had learned long ago to balance their consumption of maize with beans and other protein sources such as amaranth and chia, as well as meat and fish, in order to acquire the complete range of amino acids for normal protein synthesis. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ... Lysine is one of the 20 amino acids normally found in proteins. ... Tryptophan is an essential amino acid involved in human nutrition. ... This article is on the plant. ... For other uses, see Amaranth (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Salvia hispanica L. Chia (Salvia hispanica) is a plant of the genus Salvia of the mint family. ...


Since maize had been introduced into the diet of non-indigenous Americans without the necessary cultural knowledge acquired over thousands of years in the Americas, the reliance on maize elsewhere was often tragic. In the late 19th century pellagra reached endemic proportions in parts of the deep southern U.S., as medical researchers debated two theories for its origin: the deficiency theory (which turned out to be true) posited that pellagra was due to a deficiency of some nutrient, and the germ theory posited that pellagra was caused by a germ transmitted by stable flies. In 1914 the U.S. government officially endorsed the germ theory of pellagra, but rescinded this endorsement several years later as evidence grew against it. By the mid-1920s the deficiency theory of pellagra was becoming scientific consensus, and the theory was proved in 1932 when niacin deficiency was determined to be the cause of the illness.


Once alkali processing and dietary variety was understood and applied, pellagra disappeared. The development of high lysine maize and the promotion of a more balanced diet has also contributed to its demise.


Pests of maize

Insect pests

Exotic varieties of maize are collected to add genetic diversity when selectively breeding new domestic strains.
Exotic varieties of maize are collected to add genetic diversity when selectively breeding new domestic strains.
  • Corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea)
  • Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)
  • Common armyworm (Pseudaletia unipuncta)
  • Stalk borer (Papaipema nebris)
  • Corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis)
  • European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) (ECB)
  • Corn silkfly (Euxesta stigmatis)
  • Lesser cornstalk borer (Elasmopalpus lignosellus)
  • Corn delphacid (Peregrinus maidis)
  • Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte)

The susceptibility of maize to the European corn borer, and the resulting large crop losses, led to the development of transgenic expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin. "Bt corn" is widely grown in the United States and has been approved for release in Europe. Download high resolution version (1153x768, 195 KB)To increase the genetic diversity of U.S. corn, the Germplasm Enhancement for Maize (GEM) project seeks to combine exotic germplasm, such as this unusually colored and shaped maize from Latin America, with domestic corn lines. ... Download high resolution version (1153x768, 195 KB)To increase the genetic diversity of U.S. corn, the Germplasm Enhancement for Maize (GEM) project seeks to combine exotic germplasm, such as this unusually colored and shaped maize from Latin America, with domestic corn lines. ... Genetic diversity is a characteristic of ecosystems and gene pools that describes an attribute which is commonly held to be advantageous for survival -- that there are many different versions of otherwise similar organisms. ... Binomial name Helicoverpa zea Boddie, 1850 The larva of the moth Helicoverpa zea is a major agricultural pest for cotton, where it is known as the cotton bollworm, corn, where it is known as the corn earworm, tomatoes, where it is the tomato fruitworm, and many other crops. ... this insect is a europian insect whcich is a pest to maize ... The Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera, is a beetle. ... Transgenic plants are plants that have been genetically engineered, a breeding approach that uses recombinant DNA techniques to create plants with new characteristics. ... Binomial name Berliner 1915 Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive, soil dwelling bacterium of the genus Bacillus. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Diseases

  • Corn smut or common smut (Ustilago maydis): a fungal disease, known in Mexico as huitlacoche, which is prized by some as a gourmet delicacy in itself.
  • Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus
  • Stewart's Wilt (Pantoea stewartii)
  • Common Rust (Puccinia sorghi)
  • Goss's Wilt (Clavibacter michiganese)
  • Grey Leaf Spot
  • Mal de Río Cuarto Virus (MRCV)
  • Stalk and Kernal Rot

The following is a list of diseases effecting maize. ... Binomial name Ustilago maydis (Persoon) Roussel Corn smut is a disease of maize caused by the pathogenic plant fungus Ustilago maydis. ... Binomial name Pantoea stewartii Synonyms Stewarts Wilt is a bacterial disease caused by the bacterium Pantoea stewartii affecting plants, particularly maize. ... Binomial name Cercospora zeae-maydis Tehon & E.Y. Daniels 1925 Grey leaf spot is a cereal disease caused by the plant pahogenic fungi Cercospora zeae-maydis Categories: | | ...

Uses for maize

Corn shocks, or bundles, are a traditional harvest practice.
Corn shocks, or bundles, are a traditional harvest practice.

In the United States and Canada, the primary use for maize is as a feed for livestock, forage, silage or grain. "Feed corn" is also being increasingly used for heating; specialized corn stoves (similar to wood stoves) are available and use either feed corn or wood pellets to generate heat. Silage is made by fermentation of chopped green cornstalks. The grain also has many industrial uses, including transformation into plastics and fabrics. Some is hydrolyzed and enzymatically treated to produce syrups, particularly high fructose corn syrup, a sweetener, and some is fermented and distilled to produce grain alcohol. Grain alcohol from maize is traditionally the source of bourbon whiskey. Increasingly ethanol is being used at low concentrations (10% or less) as an additive in gasoline (gasohol) for motor fuels to increase the octane rating, lower pollutants, and reduce petroleum use. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 2495 KB) Photo I took 2006-10-21 of traditional corn shocks (bundled maize) in Forestville, Minnesota. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 2495 KB) Photo I took 2006-10-21 of traditional corn shocks (bundled maize) in Forestville, Minnesota. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... Silage (hay) somewhere in Allschwil or Schönenbuch, near Basel, Switzerland. ... Corn syrup is a syrup, made using corn starch as a feedstock, and composed mainly of glucose. ... Ethyl alcohol, also known as ethanol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ... Bourbon bottle, 19th century Bourbon is an American form of whiskey made from (pursuant to U.S. trade law) at least 51% corn, or maize, (typically about 70%) with the remainder being wheat and/or rye, and malted barley. ... “Petrol” redirects here. ... The use of alcohol as a fuel for internal combustion engines, either alone or in combination with other fuels, has been given much attention mostly because of its possible environmental and long-term economical advantages over fossil fuels. ... A gas station pump offering five different octane ratings. ...

Roasted corn on Charcoal, a common sight in Bangalore, India
Roasted corn on Charcoal, a common sight in Bangalore, India

Human consumption of corn and cornmeal constitutes a staple food in many regions of the world. Corn meal is made into a thick porridge in many cultures: from the polenta of Italy, the angu of Brazil, the mămăligă of Romania, to mush in the U.S. or the food called sadza, nshima, ugali and mealie pap in Africa. It is the main ingredient for tortillas, atole and many other dishes of Mexican food, and for chicha, a fermented beverage of Central and South America. The eating of corn on the cob varies culturally. It is common in the United States but virtually unheard of in some European countries. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2128 × 2832 pixel, file size: 906 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Rajesh Dangi,Bangalore,Jun2007, Corn on Charcol File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2128 × 2832 pixel, file size: 906 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Rajesh Dangi,Bangalore,Jun2007, Corn on Charcol File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ... Cornmeal products include tortillas and taco shells. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Fried polenta (left), with chicken and potatoes Polenta is a cornmeal dish popular in Italian, Savoyard, Swiss, Austrian, Croatian, Slovenian, Serbian, Romanian, Bulgarian, Corsican, Argentine, Brazilian, and Mexican cuisine, and it is a traditional staple food throughout much of northern Italy. ... Standard mămăligă. It is softer than the traditional, peasant-style mămăligă Cooking a pot of mămăligă Mămăligă (, cornmeal mush) is a Romanian dish made out of (yellow) maize. ... A thick cornmeal pudding (or porridge) usually boiled in water or milk; often then fried in butter after being cut up into flat squares or rectangles. ... Sadza is the Shona language name for a cooked pulverized grain meal that is the staple food in Zimbabwe. ... nshima Nshima is a cornmeal product and a staple food in Zambia. ... Ugali is a staple starch component of many African meals, especially in East Africa. ... Cornmeal is flour ground from dried maize (corn) with usage ranging from bread to pesticides. ... Two cooked tortillas made of wheat flour The Spanish word tortilla denotes two different classes of foods, depending on where the term is encountered. ... Traditional cornstarch-based Mexican hot drink. ... Mexican cuisine is a style of food that originated in Mexico. ... Chicha is a Spanish word for any variety of fermented beverage. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...

Sweetcorn (seeds only)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 90 kcal   360 kJ
Carbohydrates     19 g
- Sugars  3.2 g
- Dietary fiber  2.7 g  
Fat 1.2 g
Protein 3.2 g
Vitamin A equiv.  10 μg  1%
Thiamin (Vit. B1)  0.2 mg   15%
Niacin (Vit. B3)  1.7 mg   11%
Folate (Vit. B9)  46 μg  12%
Vitamin C  7 mg 12%
Iron  0.5 mg 4%
Magnesium  37 mg 10% 
Potassium  270 mg   6%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

Sweetcorn is a genetic variation that is high in sugars and low in starch that is served like a vegetable. Popcorn is kernels of certain varieties that explode when heated, forming fluffy pieces that are eaten as a snack. Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... Thiamine mononitrate Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17ClN4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Introduction Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... Husked sweetcorn Young sweetcorn The same rows of corn 41 days later at maturity. ... A plate of vegetables Vegetable is a culinary term which generally refers to an edible part of a plant. ... For other uses, see Popcorn (disambiguation). ...


Maize can also be prepared as hominy, in which the kernels are bleached with lye; or grits, which are coarsely ground corn. These are commonly eaten in the Southeastern United States, foods handed down from Native Americans. Another common food made from maize is corn flakes. The floury meal of maize (cornmeal or masa) is used to make cornbread and Mexican tortillas. Teosinte is used as fodder, and can also be popped as popcorn. Hominy or nixtamal is dried, treated maize (corn) kernels. ... Lye is a caustic solution used for glass and soap making. ... This article is about the corn-based Southern U.S. food. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Cornflakes in a bowl Cornflakes Boxed, 2007 Corn flakes are a popular breakfast cereal originally manufactured by Kelloggs through the treatment of corn. ... Cornmeal products include tortillas and taco shells. ... Masa, or masa nixtamalera, is a fine maize dough made from masa harina, ground hominy flour. ... Cornbread or Johnny cake is a generic name for any number of quick breads (a bread leavened chemically, rather than by yeast) containing cornmeal. ... A staple of Mexican and Central American cuisine, a tortilla is a kind of unleavened bread, made from maize corn or wheat flour. ... species ssp. ... Fodder growing from barley In agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any foodstuff that is used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, including cattle, goats, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs. ...


Some forms of the plant are occasionally grown for ornamental use in the garden. For this purpose, variegated and coloured leaf forms as well as those with colourful ears are used. Additionally, size-superlative varieties, having reached 31 ft (9.4m) tall, or with ears 24 inches (60cm) long, have been popular for at least a century.[12][13]


Corncobs can be hollowed out and treated to make inexpensive smoking pipes, first manufactured in the United States in 1869. Corncobs are also used as a biomass fuel source. Maize is relatively cheap and home-heating furnaces have been developed which use maize kernels as a fuel. They feature a large hopper which feeds the uniformly sized corn kernels (or wood pellets or cherry pits) into the fire. Youth with pipe by Hendrick Jansz Terbrugghen A pipe is a tool used for smoking. ... See biomass (ecology) for the use of the term in ecology, where it refers to the cumulation of living matter Switchgrass, a tough plant used in the biofuel industry in the United States Rice chaff. ... For other uses, see Cherry (disambiguation). ...


An unusual use for maize is to create a Maize Maze as a tourist attraction. This is a maze cut into a field of maize. The idea of a Maize Maze was introduced by Adrian Fisher, one of the most prolific designer of modern mazes, with The American Maze Company who created a maze in Pennsylvania in 1993. Traditional mazes are most commonly grown using yew hedges, but these take several years to mature. The rapid growth of a field of maize allows a maze to be laid out using GPS at the start of a growing season and for the maize to grow tall enough to obstruct a visitor's line of sight by the start of the summer. In Canada and the U.S., these are called "corn mazes" and are popular in many farming communities. Public hedge maze in the English Garden at Schönbusch Park, Aschaffenburg, Germany A small maze A maze is a tour puzzle in the form of a complex branching passage through which the solver must find a route. ... Adrian Fisher is internationally recognised as a leading maze designer. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Species Taxus baccata - European Yew Taxus brevifolia - Pacific Yew Taxus canadensis - Canadian Yew Taxus chinensis - Chinese Yew Taxus cuspidata - Japanese Yew Taxus floridana - Florida Yew Taxus globosa - Mexican Yew Taxus sumatrana - Sumatran Yew Taxus wallichiana - Himalayan Yew Yews are small coniferous trees or shrubs in the genus Taxus in the... In gardening a hedge is a row of woody plants, generally of one species, used to demarcate spaces. ... GPS redirects here. ...


Maize is increasingly used as a biomass fuel, such as ethanol, which as researchers search for innovative ways to reduce fuel costs has unintentionally caused a rapid rise in food costs. This has led to the 2007 harvest being one of the most profitable corn crops in modern history for farmers. A biomass gasification power plant in Strem near Güssing, Burgenland, Austria was begun in 2005. Research is being done to make diesel out of the biogas by the Fischer Tropsch method. See biomass (ecology) for the use of the term in ecology, where it refers to the cumulation of living matter Switchgrass, a tough plant used in the biofuel industry in the United States Rice chaff. ... Information on pump, California. ... Biomass gasification, a century old technology, is viewed today as an alternative to conventional fuel. ... Güssing ( in Hungarian Németújvár ) is a town in Burgenland, Austria The lords of Güssing (in Hungarian: Köszeg, in Slovak: Kysak) were a noble family in the frontier region of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary. ... Burgenland (Hungarian Várvidék, Őrvidék or FelsÅ‘Å‘rvidék, Croatian Gradišće, Slovenian Gradiščansko) is the easternmost and least populous state or Land of Austria. ... This article is about the fuel. ... Fischer-Tropsch Process for Synthetic Diesel Fuel The Fischer-Tropsch process is a catalyzed chemical reaction in which carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane are converted into liquid hydrocarbons of various forms. ...


Maize is also used as fish bait called "dough balls". It is particularly popular in Europe for coarse fishing. Bait is any substance used to attract prey, e. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article needs more context around or a better explanation of technical details to make it more accessible to general readers and technical readers outside the specialty, without removing technical details. ...


Stigmas from female corn flowers, known popularly as corn silk, are sold as herbal supplements.


Maize and art

Gold Maize. Moche Culture 300A.D. Larco Museum Lima, Peru
Gold Maize. Moche Culture 300A.D. Larco Museum Lima, Peru

Maize has been an essential crop in the Andes since the pre-Columbian Era. The Moche culture from Northern Peru made ceramics from earth, water, and fire. This pottery was a sacred substance, formed in significant shapes and used to represent important themes. Maize represented anthropomorphically as well as naturally.[14] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Larco Museum Lima, Peru The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the Americas continent. ... The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc. ...


See also

Wikispecies has information related to:

References

is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Zea+mays
  2. ^ http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ZEMA
  3. ^ http://www.museums.org.za/bio/plants/poaceae/zea_mays.htm
  4. ^ Sources: E.Lewis Sturtevant 1894 Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club Vol.21, Lancaster, PA August 20, No.8 Notes On Maize, page 1.
  5. ^ Sources: Coligado 1975, Salamini 1985, Poethig 1994, Paliwal 2000.
  6. ^ P.V.Nelson 1985.
  7. ^ http://www.farmersalmanactv.com/blogs/barnblog/2005/10/03/how-many-ears-of-corn-on-a-stalk/ reposting material originally from http://maize.agron.iastate.edu/ears.html
  8. ^ http://www.maizegdb.org/
  9. ^ http://www.maizegenetics.net/publications/Matsuoka2002PNAS.pdf
  10. ^ http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/ja/ja_peacock001.pdf
  11. ^ The origins of maize: the puzzle of pellagra. EUFIC > Nutrition > Understanding Food. The European Food Information Council (December 2001). Retrieved on September 14, 2006.
  12. ^ http://www.angelfire.com/un/giantcrops/maize.html
  13. ^ Sources: Eve. J. Wash. IA 1946, Kempton 1924.
  14. ^ Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York:Thames and Hudson, 1997.

Larco Museum Lima, Peru The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ...

External links

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Major model organisms in genetics
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Lambda phage | E. coli | Chlamydomonas | Tetrahymena | Budding yeast | Fission yeast | Neurospora | Maize | Arabidopsis | Medicago truncatula | C. elegans | Drosophila | Zebrafish | Rat | Mouse

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... Here are lists of fruits considered edible in some cuisine. ... This is a list of vegetables in the culinary sense, which means it includes some botanical fruits like pumpkins and doesnt include herbs, spices, cereals and most culinary fruits and culinary nuts. ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Enterobacteria phage λ (lambda phage) is a temperate bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli. ... E. coli redirects here. ... Binomial name Chlamydomonas reinhardtii P.A.Dang. ... Species T hegewischi Tetrahymena are non-pathogenic free-living ciliate protozoa. ... Binomial name Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... Binomial name Schizosaccharomyces pombe Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also called fission yeast, is a species of yeast. ... Binomial name Neurospora crassa Shear & B.O. Dodge Neurospora crassa is a type of red bread mold of the phylum Ascomycota. ... Binomial name Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ... Binomial name Medicago truncatula Gaertn. ... Binomial name Maupas, 1900 Caenorhabditis elegans (IPA: ) is a free-living nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, which lives in temperate soil environments. ... Binomial name Meigen, 1830[1] Drosophila melanogaster (from the Greek for black-bellied dew-lover) is a two-winged insect that belongs to the Diptera, the order of the flies. ... Binomial name Danio rerio (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822) The Zebra Danio or Zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio or Danio rerio) is a tropical fish, commonly kept in aquaria and used for scientific research, belonging to the minnow family (Cyprinidae). ... Binomial name (Berkenhout, 1769) Brown Rat range The brown rat, common rat, Norway rat, Norwegian rat or wharf rat (Rattus norvegicus) is one of the best-known and common rats, and also one of the largest. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The common House Mouse (Mus musculus) is one of the most numerous species of the genus Mus equivalent to the common term mouse. ...


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Maize Corporation - Welcome! (122 words)
All Maize Corporation repair parts will meet or exceed the OEM specifications.
We are not affiliated with Deere® nor are we representing our repair parts to be manufactured by Deere®.
Maize Corporation is a manufacturer of after market replacement parts.
NativeTech: Native American History of Corn (999 words)
Eventually the productivity of maize cultivation was great enough to make it possible and worthwhile for a family to produce food for the bulk of their diet for an entire year from a small area.
Although maize agriculture permitted a family to live in one place for an extended period of time, the commitment to agriculture involved demands on human time and labor and often restricted human mobility.
Maize was observed to grow in a series of segments, like other members of the grass family, which took approximately one phase of the moon to form, with approximately seven segments in all, from which ears were produced only at the joints of the segments.
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