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Encyclopedia > Maithili language
Maithili
मैथिली maithilī
Spoken in: India, Nepal 
Region: Bihar in India
Total speakers: 45 million 
Ranking: 40
Language family: Indo-European
 Indo-Iranian
  Indo-Aryan
   Eastern Group
    Bihari
     Maithili 
Writing system: Devanagari, Kaithi, Mithilakshar 
Official status
Official language in: Bihar state in India
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: bh (Bihari)
ISO 639-2: mai
ISO 639-3: mai
This page contains Indic text. Without rendering support you may see irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts. More...

Maithili (मैथिली Maithilī) is a language of the family of Indo-Aryan languages, which are part of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is spoken in the Indian state of Bihar and in the eastern Terai region of Nepal. Linguists consider Maithili to be an Eastern Indic language, and thus a different language from Hindi, which is Central Indic. Maithili has been considered a dialect of both Hindi and Bengali, and in fact was classified as a mother tongue of Hindi in the Census of India. In 2003 Maithili gained the status of an independent language in India. A movement to give the language official status through inclusion in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution so that it may be used in education, government, and other official contexts, resulted in Maithili being given official status in 2003. For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Eastern Indo-Aryan languages include some 210 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about many people in Asia; this language family is a part of the Indo-Aryan language family. ... Bihari is a name given to the western group of Eastern Indic languages, spoken in Bihar and neighboring states in India. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Mithilakshar (also known as Tirhuta) is the traditional script of the Maithili language, which is is spoken in the Indian state of Bihar and eastern Nepal. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... Bihari is a name given to a group of Indo-Aryan languages spoken in the Bihar region of India. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Example. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, descended from the BrāhmÄ« script of Mauryan India. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... The Terai, or Tarai (i. ... The Eastern Indo-Aryan languages include some 210 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about many people in Asia; this language family is a part of the Indo-Aryan language family. ... The Central Indo-Aryan languages include some 67 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by many people in Asia; this language family is a part of the Indo-Aryan language family. ... The Constitution of India, the worlds lengthiest written constitution (with 395 articles and 8 schedules) was passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949. ...


Maithili was traditionally written in the Maithili script (also known by the names Tirhuta and Mithilakshar, which has some resemblance with the Bengali script. It was also written in the Kaithi script, but the Devanagari script is the script most commonly used today for Maithili. An effort is underway to preserve the Maithili script and to develop it for use in digital media by encoding the script in the Unicode standard, for which a proposal, submitted by Anshuman Pandey, to allocate the script in the Unicode Roadmap has been submitted as the first step. Mithilakshar (also known as Tirhuta) is the traditional script of the Maithili language, which is is spoken in the Indian state of Bihar and eastern Nepal. ... Mithilakshar (also known as Tirhuta) is the traditional script of the Maithili language, which is is spoken in the Indian state of Bihar and eastern Nepal. ... It has been suggested that Robert B. Wray be merged into this article or section. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... च् + छ = च्छ Devanagari in Unicode The Unicode range for Devanagari is U+0900 . ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ...


The term Maithili comes from Mithila, which was an independent state in ancient times. Maithili is a separate language, having a large Maithili-speaking community (4.5 crore, or 45 million, people) with a rich literature. The most famous literary figure in Maithili is the poet Vidyapati. He is credited for raising the importance of 'people's language', i.e. Maithili, in the official work of the state by influencing the Maharaja of Darbhanga with the quality of his poetry. The state's official language used to be Sanskrit, which distanced common people from the state and its functions. The name Maithili is also one of the names of Sita, the consort of Rama. Mithila (Sanskrit: मिथिला, mithilā) was a kingdom in ancient India. ... Vidyapati (1352? – 1448?) was born in the village of Bisapi, Madhubani district, Bihar state, India. ... , Darbhangā is a city and a municipal corporation in and headquarters of Darbhanga district and Darbhanga Division in the state of Bihar, India. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Lord Rama (center) with wife Sita, brother Lakshmana and devotee Hanuman. ... Rama ( in IAST, in DevanāgarÄ«) or Ramachandra is a legendary or historical king of ancient India. ...

Contents

Maithili literature

It is a fact that scholars in Mithila used Sanskrit for their literary work and Maithili was the language of the common folk (Abahatta). The earliest work in Maithili appears to be Varn Ratnakar by Jyotirishwar Thakur dated about 1224 AD. Abahatta is a stage in the evolution of the Eastern group of Indo-Aryan languages such as Bangla, Maithili, Oriya. ...


The name Maithili is derived from the word Mithila, an ancient kingdom of which King Janaka was the ruler (See Ramayana). Maithili is also one of the names of Sita, the wife of King Rama and daughter of King Janaka. Mithila (Sanskrit: मिथिला, mithilā) was a kingdom in ancient India. ... In ancient India, Janaka (Sanskrit: जनक, janaka) or Raja Janaka (राजा जनक, rājā janaka) was the king of Mithila Kingdom. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Lord Rama (center) with wife Sita, brother Lakshmana and devotee Hanuman. ... Rama ( in IAST, in Devanāgarī) or Ramachandra is a legendary or historical king of ancient India. ... In ancient India, Janaka (Sanskrit: जनक, janaka) or Raja Janaka (राजा जनक, rājā janaka) was the king of Mithila Kingdom. ...


The Medieval age of Maithili appears to be during Karnat Dynasty when the names of the following scholars got prominence: Gangesh, Padmanabh, Chandeshwar, Vireshwar, Vidyapati, Vachaspati, Pakshadhar, Ayachi, Udayan, Shankar etc.


Vidyapati is said to have lived in the period 1350 to 1450. Vidyapati, though a Sanskrit scholar, wrote innumerable poems(songs) relating to Bhakti and Shringar in Maithili. Though equally accepted in Bengal and Mithila, his songs are the soul of Mithila and no celebration is complete without his songs. It will not be an exaggeration to say that his songs have survived in the throats of Maithil women folk. Verses of Vidhyapati are given religious importance in the culture of Mithila.


Theatrical writings in Medieval age are not less important. The following need mention: Umapati: (Parijat Haran), Jyotireeshwar: (Dhurt Samagam), Vidyapati: (Goraksha Vijay, Mani Manjari), Ramapati: (Rukmini Haran), Lal: (Gauri Swayambar), Manbodh: (Krishna Janma)


Maithili has been preferred by many authors to write humour and satire. Writers like Dr. Hari Mohan Jha took steps to bring about fundamental changes in the centuries old Mithila Culture. His work like Khatar Kaka Ke Tarang decorated mordern maithili Literature.


Maithili has now been listed in VIIIth schedule of the Indian Constitution and thus now it is one of the 22 National Languages of India. Maithali was accepted by Sahitya Academy and since its inclusion has won awards almost every year. A number of academy awards have been won for translation from other languages.



Modern Maithili came into its own after Sir George Abraham Grierson, Irish linguist and civil servant, tirelessly reasearched Maithili folklore and wrote its grammar. Sir George Abraham Grierson (7 January 1851, County Dublin, Ireland - 9 March 1941, Camberley, Surrey, United Kingdom) was a famous British civil servant who spent much of his life in British India. ...


Modern Maithili Writers

  • Parmeshwar Jha
  • Sitaram Jha
  • Kabishekhar Badrinath Jha
  • Murali Jha
  • Surendranath Jha Suman
  • Kashikant Mishra Madhup
  • Chandranath Mishra Amar
  • Kanchinath Jha Kiran
  • Prof. Hari Mohan Jha
  • Acharya Sarvnarayan jha
  • Ishnath Jha
  • Shri Shambhu Nath Jha
  • Brajkishore Verma "Manipadma"
  • Dr. Binod Bihari Verma
  • Prof. Radha Krishna Choudhary
  • Dr. Prem Shankar Singh
  • Suniti Kumar Chatterrjee
  • Acharya Surendra Jha 'Suman'
  • Baidyanath Mishra Yatri (Nagarjun)
  • Sudhanshu Shekhar Choudhary
  • Upendra Nath Jha Vyas
  • Prof. Radha Kant Jha
  • Mahamahopadhyay Umesh Mishra
  • Dr. Jayamant Mishra
  • Prof. Saryu Prasad Mishra 'Anand'
  • Prof. Krishna Kant Mishra
  • Kumar Ganganand Singh
  • Dr Chandra Nath Jha(Mangarauni)
  • Sri Gaya Nand Jha kaviji (Antour, Benipur)
  • Sri Hemant Kumar Jha (Antour, Benipur)
  • Dr. Ramanath Jha
  • Prof. Tantra Nath Jha
  • Acharya Ramlochan Saran
  • Dr. Laxman Jha Dr. Subhadra Jha
  • Achutanand Dutt
  • Bhola Lal Das
  • Baidyanath Jha
  • Yoganand Jha
  • Narendra Das
  • Rajeshwar Jha
  • Arsi Prasad Singh
  • Prof. Buddhidhari Singh Ramakar
  • Late Damodar Lal Das
  • Sri Brahmadeo Lal Das (Co-author of 'Maithili Shubh Samskar—Vidhi Vidhan Va Geet')
  • Sri Ratnesh Kumar Jha Kolkatiya
  • Prof. Uma Nath Jha and many more.
  • Man Mohan Jha
  • Professor Vijay Kumar Jha (Mahatma Gandhi Antarrashtriya Hindi Vishwavidyalaya, Wardha)
  • Babuaji Jha Ajnat
  • Shri Murali Madhusudan Thakur
  • Shri Vibhuti Anand Jha
  • Shri Ratnesh Kumar Jha.
  • Pt. Shri Deokant Mishra
  • Smt Bindeshwari Das (Co-author of 'Maithili Shubh Samskar—Vidhi Vidhan Va Geet')

Dr. Binod Bihari Verma Binod Bihari Verma(1937 - 2003) was a maithili literateur by soul, medical doctor by profession and a defence officer by career. ... Professor Radha Krishna Choudhary (15 February 1921 - 15 March 1985) was a historian, thinker and writer of Bihar. ... Nagarjun (Hindi:, Baba Nagarjun, Vaidya Nath Mishra, Yatri) (1911-1998), was a major Hindi and Maithili poet who has also penned a number of novels, short stories, literary biographies and travelogues. ... Dr. Jaymant Mishra is a renowned Maithili poet in India. ... Acharya Ramlochan Saran (1889 -1971) is a Hindi literateur, grammarian and publisher. ...

Maithili Books

  1. Maithili Karna Kayasthak Panjik Sarvekshan, A Survey of Panjis of Maithil Karna Kayasthas by Dr Binod Bihari Verma
  2. Nayanmani, Novel by Dr Binod Bihari Verma
  3. Balanak Bonihar O Pallavi, Short Story Collection by Dr Binod Bihari Verma
  4. Tapasa vai Ganga, Biography of renowned historian Prof. Radha Krishna Choudhary by Dr Binod Bihari Verma
  5. Adim Purkha, Translation of Gopinath Mohanty's Oriya novel Dadi Burha by Binod Bihari Verma
  6. Vedmurti Taponishth SriRam Sharma Acharya, Biography of Shriram Sharma Acharya by Dr Binod Bihari Verma

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1034x1678, 954 KB) Author: Rohitcadz, Coverpage of Maithili book Maithil Karna Kayasthak Panjik Sarvekshan written by Dr. Binod Bihari Verma and published by Shri Kranti Bihari Verma at Madhepura, Bihar. ... Maithil Karna Kayasthak Panjik Sarvekshan(A Survey of the Panji of the Karan Kayasthas of Mithila) is a book written by Dr.Binod Bihari Verma in Maithili. ... Panjis or Panji Prabandh are extensive genealogical records maintained among Maithil Brahmins and Karna Kayasthas of Mithila region of north Bihar, India. ... Dr. Binod Bihari Verma Binod Bihari Verma(1937 - 2003) was a maithili literateur by soul, medical doctor by profession and a defence officer by career. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1045x1600, 1189 KB) Author:Rohitcadz, Cover page of Maithili book Nayanmani written by Dr. Binod Bihari Verma, and published by him at Bhubaneswar. ... Nayanmani ( literally, Jewel of the Eye) is a novel written by Dr Binod Bihari Verma in Maithili. ... Dr. Binod Bihari Verma Binod Bihari Verma(1937 - 2003) was a maithili literateur by soul, medical doctor by profession and a defence officer by career. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1052x1706, 1473 KB) Author: Rohitcadz, Cover page of Maithili book, Balaanak bonihar O Pallavi, written by Dr. Binod Bihari Verma, and published by him at Bhubaneswar. ... Balanak Bonihar O Pallavi (The peasants on the banks of river Balan and Pallavi) is a Short Story collection, written by Dr Binod Bihari Verma, on the village life of Mithila on the banks of the Kosi River and its tributaries. ... Dr. Binod Bihari Verma Binod Bihari Verma(1937 - 2003) was a maithili literateur by soul, medical doctor by profession and a defence officer by career. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1083x1608, 1016 KB) Author:Rohitcadz, Cover page of Maithili Book Tapasa Vai Ganga written by Dr. Binod Bihari Verma, and published by him at Bhubaneswar I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Tapasa vai Ganga (Ganga was brought to the earth only by Tapa ie penance meaning which a great task can only be achieved by Tapa or Penance) is the biography Prof Radha Krishna Choudhary, an eminent historian and literateur of Mithila, written by Dr.Binod Bihari Verma. ... Dr. Binod Bihari Verma Binod Bihari Verma(1937 - 2003) was a maithili literateur by soul, medical doctor by profession and a defence officer by career. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1093x1702, 849 KB) Author: Rohitcadz,Cover page of Maithili translation of Gopinath Mohantys oriya book Dadi Burha. Published by Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Adim Purkha is the Maithili translation of Oriya novel Dadi Burha, written by Gopinath Mohanty and punlished by Sahitya Akademi. ... Oriya is the official language of the Indian state of Orissa. ... Dr. Binod Bihari Verma Binod Bihari Verma(1937 - 2003) was a maithili literateur by soul, medical doctor by profession and a defence officer by career. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (884x1386, 1357 KB) Author: Rohitcadz, Coverpage of Maithili book Sri Ram Sharma Acharya written by Dr. Binod Bihari Verma, and published by Smt. ... Vedmurti Taponishth SriRam Sharma Acharya (Jeevan Charit) is the biography of Shriram Sharma Acharya,an Indian seer, sage, a visionary of the New Golden Era and the Founder of the All World Gayatri Pariwar, in Maithili written by Binod Bihari Verma, published in 2005. ... Pundit Shriram Sharma Acharya (September 20, 1911 – June 2, 1990) was a seer, sage and a visionary of the New Golden Era - Founder of All World Gayatri Pariwar. ... Dr. Binod Bihari Verma Binod Bihari Verma(1937 - 2003) was a maithili literateur by soul, medical doctor by profession and a defence officer by career. ...

See also

Indian languages redirects here. ... Indian constitution recognizes 22 languages as National languages 1. ... Indian languages spoken by more than ten million people are given below. ...

References

Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ...

External links

[1]MaithiliView [1]


* Darbhanga , its people & Other stuffs


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