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Encyclopedia > Mainz

Coordinates: 50°0′N 8°16′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Mainz
Coat of arms of Mainz Location of Mainz in Germany

Country Germany
State Rhineland-Palatinate
District urban district
Population 192,170 (2005)
Area 97.75 km²
Population density 1,953 /km²
Elevation 85-285 m
Coordinates 50°0′ N 8°16′ E
Postal code 55001-55131
Area code 06131, 06136
Licence plate code MZ
Mayor Jens Beutel (SPD)
Website mainz.de

Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Mainz is located across the Rhine from Wiesbaden, in the western part of the Frankfurt Rhine Main Area. Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Mainz. ... Credit: Arne Klempert & Thomas Mack License: LGPL Source: http://www. ... This is an alphabetical list of countries of the world, including both internationally recognized and generally unrecognized independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... The Rhenish Palatinate (Rheinpfalz, sometimes Lower Palatinate or Niederpfalz) occupies rather more than a quarter of the German Bundesland (federal state) of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) and contains the towns of Ludwigshafen, Kaiserslautern, Neustadt an der Weinstrasse, Pirmasens, Landau and Speyer. ... There are 439 German districts (Kreise), administrative units in Germany. ... This is a list of urban districts in Germany. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... Basic Definition In geography, the elevation of a geographic location is its height above mean sea level (or some other fixed point). ... The metre, or meter (U.S.), is a measure of length. ... See Cartesian coordinate system or Coordinates (elementary mathematics) for a more elementary introduction to this topic. ... German Postleitzahl map of the first two digits Postal codes in Germany, known as Postleitzahl (pl. ... see also Telephone numbering plan of Germany for further codes including service numbers, cell phones etc. ... German car number plates (Kfz-Kennzeichen) show the place where the car carrying them is registered. ... now. ... SPD redirects here. ... This page as shown in the AOL 9. ... Chicago from the air. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... The Rhenish Palatinate (Rheinpfalz, sometimes Lower Palatinate or Niederpfalz) occupies rather more than a quarter of the German Bundesland (federal state) of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) and contains the towns of Ludwigshafen, Kaiserslautern, Neustadt an der Weinstrasse, Pirmasens, Landau and Speyer. ... Loreley At 1,320 kilometres (820 miles) and an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second, the Rhine (Dutch Rijn, French Rhin, German Rhein, Italian: Reno, Romansch: Rein, ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe. ... Wiesbaden is a city in central Germany. ... Skyscrapers in Downtown Frankfurt The Frankfurt Rhine Main Area, often referred to as Rhine Main Area (German: Rhein-Main Gebiet) or Greater Frankfurt is a Metropolitan Area located in central western Germany, that encompasses parts of three federal states: Hesse, Rhineland-Palatinate and Bavaria. ...

Contents

Introduction

Mainz is located on the left bank of the river Rhine, opposite the confluence of the Main river with the Rhine. Population (2002): 183,822 (an additional 18,619 people maintain a primary residence elsewhere but have a second home in Mainz). Mainz is easily reached from Frankfurt International Airport in 25 minutes by commuter railway (S-Bahn). Map showing the position of the Main in Germany The Main (pronounced in German like the English word mine) is a river in Germany, 524 km long (including White Main 574 km), and one of the more significant tributaries of the Rhine river. ... 19th century Cottages in the small hamlet of Crafton, Buckinghamshire A cottage is a small house of any period. ... Frankfurt International Airport Frankfurt International Airport (IATA: FRA, ICAO: EDDF), known in German as Rhein-Main-Flughafen or Flughafen Frankfurt am Main, is located in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. ... The S-Bahn is a suburban metro railway network in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. ...


The city consists of 15 districts: Altstadt, Neustadt, Mombach, Gonsenheim, Hartenberg-Münchfeld, Oberstadt, Bretzenheim, Finthen, Drais, Lerchenberg, Marienborn, Hechtsheim, Ebersheim, Weisenau, and Laubenheim. Until 1945, the districts of Bischofsheim (now an independent town), Ginsheim-Gustavsburg (which together are an independent town) belonged to Mainz. The former suburbs Amöneburg, Kastel, and Kostheim—in short AKK—now are administrated by the city of Wiesbaden (on the north bank of the river). The AKK was separated from Mainz when the Rhine was designated the boundary between the French occupation zone (the later state of Rhineland-Palatinate) and the US occupation zone (Hesse) in 1945. Hartenberg-Münchfeld, colloquially known as HaMü, is the student quarter of Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... Bischofsheim (Mainspitze) is a town of 13,000 residents on the left (south) bank of the Main river, not far from the confluence with the Rhine. ... The double community of Ginsheim-Gustavsburg in the northwest of Groß-Gerau district in Hesse has about 16,000 inhabitants. ... Wiesbaden is a city in central Germany. ... Loreley At 1,320 kilometres (820 miles) and an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second, the Rhine (Dutch Rijn, French Rhin, German Rhein, Italian: Reno, Romansch: Rein, ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe. ... The Rhenish Palatinate (Rheinpfalz, sometimes Lower Palatinate or Niederpfalz) occupies rather more than a quarter of the German Bundesland (federal state) of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) and contains the towns of Ludwigshafen, Kaiserslautern, Neustadt an der Weinstrasse, Pirmasens, Landau and Speyer. ... Hesse (German: Hessen) is a state of Germany with an area of 21,110 km² and just over six million inhabitants. ...

Administrative structure

Mainz Old Town View from the citadelle (2003)
Mainz Old Town View from the citadelle (2003)

The city of Mainz is divided into 15 local districts according to the main statute of the city of Mainz. Each local district has a district administration of 13 members and a directly elected mayor, who is the chairmen of the district administration. This local counsil is to be heard on all important questions, which affect the local district. However the final decision regarding a measure is to be made by the municipal council of the entire town Mainz. Image File history File linksMetadata Mainz_altstadt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mainz_altstadt. ...


In accordance with § 29 Par. 2 of Local Government Regulations, in municipalities with more than 150,000 inhabitants, the city council has 60 members.


Districts of the town:

  • Altstadt
  • Bretzenheim
  • Drais
  • Ebersheim
  • Finthen
  • Gonsenheim
  • Hartenberg-Münchfeld
  • Hechtsheim
  • Laubenheim
  • Lerchenberg
  • Marienborn
  • Mombach
  • Neustadt
  • Oberstadt
  • Weisenau


Hartenberg-Münchfeld, colloquially known as HaMü, is the student quarter of Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... Mainz-Laubenheim is the southernmost quarter of Mainz and is located south of the A60 autobahn and west of the B9 highway on the banks of the Rhine. ...


History

Roman Moguntiacum

Remains from a roman town gate from the late 4th century.
Remains from a roman town gate from the late 4th century.

The Roman stronghold of castrum Moguntiacum, the precursor to Mainz, was founded by the Roman general Drusus in 13 BC.[1]Although the city is situated opposite the mouth of the Main river, the name of Mainz is not from Main, the similarity being perhaps due to diachronic analogy. Main is from Latin Menus, the name the Romans used for the river. The many forms of Mainz make it clear that it is a simplification of Moguntiacum. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 212 KB) Beschreibung: Remains from a roman town gate from the late 4th century. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 212 KB) Beschreibung: Remains from a roman town gate from the late 4th century. ... In the Roman Empire, a castra (the plural form of castrum, castri, a fortification) was a Roman military camp. ... Bust of Nero Claudius Drusus, in the Musée du Cinquantinaire, Brussels Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, born Decimus Claudius Drusus and variously called Drusus, Drusus I or Drusus the Elder (14 January 38 - 9 BC) was the younger son of Livia, wife of Augustus Caesar, and her first husband, Tiberius... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 18 BC 17 BC 16 BC 15 BC 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC... Map showing the position of the Main in Germany The Main (pronounced in German like the English word mine) is a river in Germany, 524 km long (including White Main 574 km), and one of the more significant tributaries of the Rhine river. ...


The name appears to be Celtic and ultimately it is from the Celtic. However, it also had become Roman and was selected by the Romans with a special significance. The Roman soldiers defending Gallia had adopted the Gallic god Mogons (Mogounus, Moguns, Mogonino), for the meaning of which etymology offers two basic options: "the great one", similar to Latin magnus, which was used in aggrandizing names such as Alexander magnus, "Alexander the Great" and Pompeius magnus, "Pompey the great", or the god of "might" personified as it appears in young servitors of any type whether of noble or ignoble birth.[2] The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ... Gallia may mean several things: Gallia was the Latin name for Gaul. ... Mogons or Moguns was a Celtic god worshipped in Roman Britain and in Gaul. ...

The Drusus monument (surrounded by the 17th century citadel) raised by Drusus' men to commenorate him.
The Drusus monument (surrounded by the 17th century citadel) raised by Drusus' men to commenorate him.

To name the fort after this particular god was an ideological statement. It was placed in the territory of the Vangiones, a formerly Germanic tribe now Celticised and working for the Romans. Their capital was at Worms on the same side of the Rhine not far to the south. Dedications of their troops serving in Britain mention the god frequently. Germania Superior was a geographical gateway between Gaul and Germany. The Romans were saying in essence by placing the fort here and naming it that "You barbarians shall not pass into the civilized and international state because the might of its youth inspired by its ancient god will stop you." If the barbarians needed any example, the previous fate of the Vangiones, who had come as conquerors and were conquered, was before them. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (667x1001, 220 KB) The Drusus-Kenotaph or Drusus-Stein in the citadelle of Mainz, Germany. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (667x1001, 220 KB) The Drusus-Kenotaph or Drusus-Stein in the citadelle of Mainz, Germany. ... The Vangiones were a tribe of the Belgae originally from the Upper Rhine valley. ... // Worms (pronounced ) is a city in the southwest of Germany. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Ancient Roman provinces | German history | Germany | History of the Germanic peoples ...

All that remains of the Roman aquaduct.
Enlarge
All that remains of the Roman aquaduct.

Moguntiacum was an important military town throughout Roman times, probably due to its strategic position at the confluence of the Main and the Rhine. The town of Moguntiacus grew up between the fort and the river. The castrum was the base of Legio XIIII Gemina and XVI Gallica (AD 943), XXII Primigenia, IIII Macedonica (43–70), I Adiutrix (70-88), XXI Rapax (70-89), and XIIII Gemina (70–92), among others. Mainz was also the base of a Roman river fleet (the remains of Roman patrol boats and cargo barges from about 375/6 were discovered in 1982 and may now be viewed in the Museum für Antike Schifffahrt). The city was the provincial capital of Germania Superior, and had an important funeral monument dedicated to Drusus, to which people made pilgrimages for an annual festival from as far away as Lyon. Among the famous buildings were the largest theatre north of the Alps and a bridge across the rhine. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 393 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mainz Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 393 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mainz Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Legio XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix was a legion of the Roman Empire, levied by Octavian after 41 BC. The cognomen Gemina (twin in Latin) suggests that the legion resulted from fusion of two previous ones, one of them possibly being the Fourteenth legion that fought in the Battle of Alesia. ... Legio XVI Gallica (from Gallia) was a Roman legion. ...   This article is about the year 9. ... Events Aulus Plautius, with 4 legions, landed on Britain. ... Legio XXII Primigenia, was levied by emperor Caligula in 39, for his campaigns in Germania. ... Legio IIII Macedonica (from Macedonia), was a Roman legion levied by Julius Caesar in 48 BC with Italian legionaries. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s - 70s - 80s 90s 100s 110s 120s Years: 65 66 67 68 69 - 70 - 71 72 73 74 75 Events The building of the Colosseum starts (approximate date). ... Legio I Adiutrix (assistant), was a Roman legion formed in 68 AD, possibly by Galba under orders of Nero. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 Events Pope Clement I succeeded Pope Anacletus I Han Hedi succeeded Han Zhangdi as emperor of... Legio XXI Rapax, the predator, was a Roman legion levied in 31 BC by Augustus, probably from men previously enlisted in other legions. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 Events First year of Yongyuan era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ... Legio XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix was a legion of the Roman Empire, levied by Octavian after 41 BC. The cognomen Gemina (twin in Latin) suggests that the legion resulted from fusion of two previous ones, one of them possibly being the Fourteenth legion that fought in the Battle of Alesia. ... For other uses, see number 92. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Ancient Roman provinces | German history | Germany | History of the Germanic peoples ...   City flag City coat of arms Motto: (Arpitan: Forward, forward, Lyon the best) Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Rhône-Alpes Département Rhône (69) Subdivisions 9 arrondissements Intercommunality Urban Community of Lyon Mayor Gérard Collomb  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land... Roman theatre at Orange, France A Roman theatre is a theatre building built by the Romans for watching theatrical performances. ...


Alamanni forces under Rando sacked the city in 368. In last days of 406, the Siling and Asding Vandals, the Suebi, the Alans, and other Germanic tribes took advantage of the rare freezing of the Rhine to cross the river at Mainz and overwhelm the Roman defences. Christian chronicles relate that the bishop, Aureus, was put to death by the Alamannian Crocus. The way was open to the sack of Trier and the invasion of Gaul. This event is familiar to many from the historical novel, Eagle in the Snow, by Wallace Breem. The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were an alliance of warbands formed from Germanic tribes, first mentioned by Dio Cassius when they fought Caracalla in 213. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... Suebi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... The city of Trier (Latin: Augusta Treverorum; French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier; Italian: ; Spanish: ) is situated on the western bank of the Moselle River in a valley between low vine-covered hills of ruddy sandstone. ... Eagle in the Snow (ISBN 1590710118) is a modern classic of historical fiction. ... Wallace Breem (1926–1990) was a British librarian and author, the Librarian and Keeper of Manuscripts of the Inner Temple Law Library at his death, but perhaps more widely known for his historical novels, including the classic Eagle in the Snow (1970). ...


Throughout the changes of time, the Roman castra never seems to have been permanently abandoned as a military installation, which is a testimony to Roman military judgement. Different structures were built there at different times. The current citadel originated in 1660, but it replaced previous forts. It was used in World War II. One of the sights at the citadel is still the stone raised by his legionaries to commemorate Drusus.


Frankish Mainz

Through a series of incursions during the 4th century Alsace gradually lost its Belgic ethnic character of formerly Germanic tribes among Celts ruled by Romans and became predominantly influenced by the Alamanni. The Romans repeatedly reasserted control; however, the troops stationed at Mainz became chiefly non-Italic and the emperors had only one or two Italian ancestors in a pedigree that included chiefly peoples of the northern frontier. The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were an alliance of warbands formed from Germanic tribes, first mentioned by Dio Cassius when they fought Caracalla in 213. ...


The last emperor to station troops serving the western empire at Mainz was Valentinian III, who relied heavily on his Magister militum per Gallias, Flavius Aëtius. By that time the army included large numbers of troops from the major Germanic confederacies along the Rhine, the Alamanni, the Saxons and the Franks. The Franks were an opponent that had risen to power and reputation among the Belgae of the lower Rhine during the 3rd century and repeatedly attempted to extend their influence upstream. In 358 the emperor Julian bought peace by giving them most of Germania Inferior, which they possessed anyway, and imposing service in the Roman army in exchange. Solidus minted in Thessalonica to celebrate the marriage of Valentinian III to Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II. On the reverse, the three of them in wedding dresses. ... Depiction of Flavius Aëtius, from a relief in Monza. ... Map showing the Saxons homeland in traditional region bounded by the three rivers: Weser, Eider, and Elbe Src: Freemans Historical Geographys. The Saxons or Saxon people are (nowadays) part of the German people with its main areas of settlements in the German States of Schleswig-Holstein, Lower Saxony, Saxony... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... Julian can refer to several things. ... The Roman province of Germania Inferior, 120 AD Germania Inferior (in English: Lower Germany) was a Roman province located on the left bank of the Rhine, in todays southern Netherlands and western Germany. ...


The European chessboard in the time of master Aëtius included Celts, Goths, Franks, Saxons, Alamanni, Huns, Italians, and Alans as well as numerous minor pieces. Aëtius played them all off against one another in a masterly effort to keep the peace under Roman sovereignity. He used Hunnic troops a number of times. At last a day of reckoning arrived between Aëtius and Attila, both commanding polyglot, multi-ethnic troops. Attila went through Alsace in 451, devastating the country and destroying Mainz and Triers with their Roman garrisons. Shortly after he was stalemated by Aëtius at the Battle of Chalons, the largest of the ancient world. For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ... Combatants Western Roman Empire, Visigoths, Alans Huns, Ostrogoths, Burgundians Commanders Flavius Aëtius Theodoric Attila the Hun Strength 30,000–50,000 30,000–50,000 At the Battle of Chalons in 451 (also called the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields or the Battle of the Catalun) a Roman coalition...


Aëtius was not to enjoy the victory long. He was assassinated by his employer's own hand in 454, who was himself stabbed to death by friends of Aëtius in 455. As far as the north was concerned this was the effective end of the Roman empire there. After some sanguinary but relatively brief contention a former subordinate of Aëtius, Ricimer, became emperor, taking the name Patrician. His father was a Suebian; his mother, a princess of the Visigoths. Patrician did not rule the north directly but set up a client province there, which functioned independently. The capital was at Soissons. Even then its status was equivocal. Many insisted it was the Kingdom of Soissons. Ricimer monogram on the reverse of this coin by Libius Severus. ... The Visigoths, originally Tervingi, or Vesi (the noble ones), one of the two main branches of the Goths (of which the Ostrogothi were the other), were one of the loosely-termed Germanic peoples that disturbed the late Roman Empire. ... Soissons is a town and commune in the Aisne département, Picardie, France, located on the Aisne River, about 60 miles northeast of Paris. ... In the Late Classical period, two states in the area of modern-day northwest France were termed the Domain of Soissons. ...


Previously the first of the Merovingians, Clodio, had been defeated by Aëtius at about 430. His son, Merovaeus, fought on the Roman side against Attila, and his son, Childeric, served in the domain of Soissons. Meanwhile the Franks were gradually infiltrating and assuming power in this domain. They also moved up the Rhine and created a domain in the region of the former Germania Superior with capital at Cologne. They became known as the Ripuarian Franks as opposed to the Salian Franks. It is unlikely that much of a population transfer or displacement occurred. The former Belgae simply became Franks. There are other articles with similar names; see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... Clodio1 (c. ... Meroveus (c-411-456) (Mérovée in French, Merovech, sometimes Latinised as Meroveus or Merovius) was a chief of the Salian Franks from 448-456. ... Childeric was the name of several Frankish kings: Childeric I (c. ... Cologne (German:   ; Kölsch: Kölle /ˈkÅ“É«É™/) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... The Ripuarian Franks (river Franks) were a subgroup of the Franks. ... The Salian Franks were a subgroup of the Franks. ...


Events moved rapidly in the late 5th century. Clovis, son of Childeric, became king of the Salians in 481, ruling from Tournai. In 486 he defeated Syagrius, last governor of the Soissons domain, and took northern France. He extended his reign to Cambrai and Tongres in 490-491, and repelled the Alamanni is 496. Also in that year he converted to non-Arian Christianity. Tournai (in Dutch: Doornik in Latin: Tornacum) is a municipality located 85 kilometres southwest of Brussels, on the river Scheldt (in French: Escaut, in Dutch: Schelde), in the Belgian province of Hainaut. ... The captured Syagrius is brought before Alaric II who orders him sent to Clovis I Syagrius (died 487) was the son of Aegidius, the last Roman magister militum per Gallias, who had preserved a rump state around Soissons after the collapse of central rule in the western empire. ... Cambrai (Dutch: Kamerijk) is a French city and commune, in the Nord département, of which it is a sous_préfecture. ... Tongeren (French Tongres, German Tongern) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg near Hasselt. ...


After the Fall of the Roman Empire in 476, the Franks under the rule of Clovis I gained control over western Europe by the year 496. Clovis annexed the kingdom of Cologne in 508. Thereafter, Mainz, in its strategic position, became one of the bases of the Frankish kingdom. Mainz had sheltered a Christian community long before the conversion of Clovis. His successor Dagobert reinforced the walls of Mainz and made it one of his seats. A solidus of Theodebert I (534-548) was minted at Mainz. The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... Clovis I, King of the Franks. ... Events Battle of Tolbiac; Clovis I defeats the Alamanni accepts Catholic baptism at Reims. ... Dagobert can refer to: Dagobert (3rd century) Dagobert (4th century) Dagobert I (603-639), Frankish King Dagobert II (650-679), Frankish King Dagobert of Pisa, Archbishop of Pisa and first Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem The pseudonym of Arno Funke The German name of Disney character Scrooge McDuck This is a... Julian solidus, ca. ... Theodebert I (French Thibert Ier or Théodebert Ier), (circa 500 - 547 or 548), Merovingian king of Austrasia from 533 - 548, residence: Reims, now in northeast France. ...


The Franks united the Celtic and Germanic tribes of Europe. The greatest Frank of all was Charlemagne (768-814), who built a new empire in Europe, the Holy Roman Empire. Mainz from its central location became important to the empire and to Christianity. Meanwhile language change was gradually working to divide the Franks. Mainz spoke a dialect termed Ripuarian. On the death of Charlemagne, distinctions between France and Germany began to be made. Mainz was not central any longer but was on the border, creating a question of the nationality to which it belonged, which descended into modern times as the question of Alsace-Lorraine. A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... The Holy Roman Empire and from the 16th century on also The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was a political conglomeration of lands in Central Europe in the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... Ripuarian, Rhinish, or Middle Franconian is a western Germanic dialect group in Rhineland, eastern Belgium and southern Dutch Limburg from northwest of Düsseldorf and Cologne to Aachen in the west, and Siegen in the east. ...


Christian Mainz

Mainz cathedral, western main tower
Mainz cathedral, western main tower

In the early Middle Ages, Mainz was a centre for the Christianisation of the German and Slavic peoples. The first Archbishop in Mainz, Boniface, was killed in 754 while trying to convert the Frisians to Christianity and is buried in Fulda. Other early archbishops of Mainz include Rabanus Maurus, the scholar and author, and Willigis (9751011), who began construction on the current building of the Mainz Cathedral and founded the monastery of St. Stephan. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (675x900, 386 KB) Image: Mainz Cathedral: Western Main Tower; Author: de:Benutzer:Moguntiner; Date of creation: January 6, 2005 Licence: GNU-FDL File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (675x900, 386 KB) Image: Mainz Cathedral: Western Main Tower; Author: de:Benutzer:Moguntiner; Date of creation: January 6, 2005 Licence: GNU-FDL File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Middle age is a non-specific stage in life when a person is neither young nor old, but somewhere in between. ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen Ansgar, the 9th century apostle of the North in an 1830 drawing. ... Distribution of Slavic peoples by language Countries inhabited predominantly by Slavic peoples The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe. ... For the Roman general of this name, see Bonifacius. ... Events Pope Stephen III crowns Pepin the short King of the Franks at St. ... Fulda is a city in Hesse, Germany; it is located on the Fulda River and is the administrative seat of the Fulda district (Kreis). ... Rabanus Maurus (left) presents his work to Otgar of Mainz Rabanus Maurus Magnentius (c. ... Saint Willigis (died February 23, 1011), Archbishop of Mainz, was a model bishop of the 10th century, a statesman as well as a churchman. ... Events Coronation of King Edward the Martyr Births Deaths July 8 Edgar of England Categories: 975 ... Events Emperor Sanjo ascends to the throne of Japan. ... Mainz Cathedral sits to the right in this sketch (c. ...

Monument to St. Boniface before Mainz Cathedral
Monument to St. Boniface before Mainz Cathedral

From the time of Willigis until the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Archbishops of Mainz were archchancellors of the Empire and the most important of the seven Electors of the German emperor. Besides Rome, the diocese of Mainz today is the only diocese in the world with an episcopal see that is called a Holy See (sancta sedes). The Archbishops of Mainz traditionally were primas germaniae, the substitutes of the Pope north of the Alps. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (683x1024, 165 KB) Beschreibung: Denkmal des heiligen Bonifazius vor dem Mainzer Dom. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (683x1024, 165 KB) Beschreibung: Denkmal des heiligen Bonifazius vor dem Mainzer Dom. ... The Holy Roman Empire and from the 16th century on also The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was a political conglomeration of lands in Central Europe in the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Between 780/82 AD and 1802 AD the Archbishop of Mainz, was an influential ecclesiastic and secular prince of the middle ages. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 8th century BC Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,285 km²  (496. ... Between 780/82 AD and 1802 AD the Archbishop of Mainz, was an influential ecclesiastic and secular prince of the middle ages. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... A see (from the Latin word sedem, meaning seat) is the throne (cathedra) of a bishop. ... Primas germaniae is a historical title of honor for the most important Catholic bishop in Germany, who was seen as the Popes substitute north of the Alps. ... The current Pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Alois Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. ... The West face of the Petit Dru above the Chamonix valley near the Mer de Glace. ...

St. Stephen's church is famous for its Chagall windows
St. Stephen's church is famous for its Chagall windows

In 1244, Archbishop Siegfried III granted Mainz a city charter, which included the right of the citizens to establish and elect a city council. The city saw a feud between two Archbishops in 1461, namely Diether von Isenburg, who was elected Archbishop by the cathedral chapter and supported by the citizens, and Adolf II von Nassau, who had been named Archbishop for Mainz by the Pope. In 1462, the Archbishop Adolf II raided the city of Mainz, plundering and killing 400 inhabitants. At a tribunal, those who had survived lost all their property, which was then divided between those who promised to follow Adolf II. Those who would not promise to follow Adolf II (amongst them Johann Gutenberg) were driven out of the town or thrown into prison. The new Archbishop revoked the city charter of Mainz and put the city under his direct rule. Ironically, after the death of Adolf II his successor was again Diether von Isenburg, now legally elected by the chapter and named by the Pope. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (675x900, 328 KB) Bildmotiv: St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (675x900, 328 KB) Bildmotiv: St. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... This article incorporates text from the Catholic Encyclopedia, which is in the public domain. ... For other uses, see Nassau (disambiguation). ... The current Pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Alois Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. ... Events Settlers from Portugal begin to settle the Cape Verde islands. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ...


The early Jewish community

The Jewish community of Mainz dates to the 10th century CE. It is noted for its religious education. Rabbi Gershom ben Judah (960-1040) taught there, among others. He concentrated on the study of the Talmud, creating a German Jewish tradition. The Jews of Mainz, Speyer and Worms created a supreme council to set standards in Jewish law and education in the 12th century. Gershom ben Judah best known as Rabbeinu Gershom (in Hebrew: Our teacher Gershom) (c. ... The first page of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Speyer (English formerly Spires) is a city in Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate) with approx. ... // Worms (pronounced ) is a city in the southwest of Germany. ...


The city of Mainz responded to the Jewish population in a variety of ways, behaving, in a sense, in a bipolar fashion towards them. Sometimes they were allowed freedom and were protected; at other times, they were massacred or expelled. For example, they were expelled in 1462, invited to return and expelled again in 1474. Outbreaks of the Black Death were usually blamed on the Jews, at which times they were massacred. This unstable pattern went on up to World War II. Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ...


Nowadays the Jewish community is growing rapidly, thus thinking about the creation of a new synagogue.


The republic of Mainz

Main article: Republic of Mainz

During the French Revolution, the French Revolutionary army occupied Mainz in 1792; the Archbishop of Mainz, Friedrich Karl Josef von Erthal, had already fled to Aschaffenburg by the time the French marched in. On 18 March 1793, the Jacobins of Mainz, with other German democrats from about 130 towns in the Rhenish Palatinate, proclaimed the ‘Republic of Mainz’. Led by Georg Forster representatives of the Mainz Republic in Paris requested political affiliation of the Mainz Republic with France, but too late: As Prussia was not entirely happy with the idea of a democratic free state on German soil, Prussian troops had already occupied the area and besieged Mainz by the end of March, 1793. After a siege of 18 weeks, the French troops in Mainz surrendered on 22 July 1793; Prussians occupied the city and ended the Republic of Mainz. Members of the Mainz Jacobin Club were mistreated or imprisoned and punished for treason. The Republic of Mainz was the first democratic state on German territory. ... The French Revolution (1789–1799) was a pivotal period in the history of French, European and Western civilization. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Between 780/82 AD and 1802 AD the Archbishop of Mainz, was an influential ecclesiastic and secular prince of the middle ages. ... Aschaffenburg is a city in Bavaria, Germany. ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... It has been suggested that Jacobin/Sandbox be merged into this article or section. ... The Palatinate (German: Pfalz), historically also Rhenish Palatinate (German: Rheinpfalz), is a region in south-western Germany. ... The Republic of Mainz was the first democratic state on German territory. ... Image:Georg Forster masterbator. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... It has been suggested that Jacobin/Sandbox be merged into this article or section. ...

Tombstone of Jeanbon Baron de St. André, Prefect of Napoleonic Mainz
Tombstone of Jeanbon Baron de St. André, Prefect of Napoleonic Mainz

In 1797, the French returned. The army of Napoléon Bonaparte occupied the German territory to the west of the Rhine river, and the Treaty of Campo Formio awarded France this entire area. On 17 February 1800, the French Département du Mont-Tonnerre was founded here, with Mainz as its capital, the Rhine river being the new eastern frontier of la Grande Nation. Austria and Prussia could not but approve this new border with France in 1801. However, after several defeats in Europe during the next years, the weakened Napoléon and his troops had to leave Mainz in May 1814. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x683, 150 KB) Beschreibung: Grabmal von Jeanbon St. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x683, 150 KB) Beschreibung: Grabmal von Jeanbon St. ... Jean Bon Saint-André Jean Bon Saint-André (February 25, 1749 - December 10, 1813), French revolutionary, was born at Montauban (Tarn-et-Garonne), the son of a fuller. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Napoleon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Mediator of the Swiss Confederation and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Loreley At 1,320 kilometres (820 miles) and an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second, the Rhine (Dutch Rijn, French Rhin, German Rhein, Italian: Reno, Romansch: Rein, ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe. ... The Treaty of Campo Formio was signed on October 17, 1797 (26 Vendémiaire, Year VI of the French Republic) by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Ludwig von Cobenzl as representatives of France and Austria. ... February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1800 (MDCCC) was an exceptional common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. ... Mont-Tonnerre is the name of a département of the First French Empire in present Germany. ... Loreley At 1,320 kilometres (820 miles) and an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second, the Rhine (Dutch Rijn, French Rhin, German Rhein, Italian: Reno, Romansch: Rein, ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ...


Hessian Mainz

In 1816, the part of the former French Département which is known today as Rheinhessen was awarded to the Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, Mainz being the capital of the new Hessian province Rheinhessen. From 1816 to 1866, to the German Confederation Mainz was the most important fortress in the defence against France, and had a strong garrison of Austrian and Prussian troops. Rheinhessen (in English: Rhenish Hesse) refers to the part of the former Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt located west of the Rhine river and now part of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... A grand duchy is a territory whose head of state is a Grand Duke or Grand Duchess. ... The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt came into existence in 1568, as the portion of George, youngest of the four sons of Landgrave Philipp of Hesse. ... Hesse (German: Hessen) is a state of Germany with an area of 21,110 km² and just over six million inhabitants. ... Rheinhessen (in English: Rhenish Hesse) refers to the part of the former Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt located west of the Rhine river and now part of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ...


In the afternoon of 18 November 1857, a huge explosion rocked Mainz when the city’s powder magazine, the Pulverturm, exploded. Approximately 150 people were killed and at least 500 injured; 57 buildings were destroyed and a similar number severely damaged in what was to be known as the Powder Tower Explosion or Powder Explosion. November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


During the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, Mainz was declared a neutral zone. After the founding of the German Empire in 1871, Mainz no longer was as important a stronghold, because in the war of 1870/71 France had lost the territory of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany, and this defined the new border between the two countries. Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 40,000+ dead or wounded 37,000 dead... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I   Capital Berlin Language(s) German (official) Polish (Posen, Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871-1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Helmuth von Moltke Strength 500,000[citation needed] 550,000[citation needed] Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian [citation needed] 100,000 dead or wounded 200... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (French: Alsace-Lorraine; German: Elsaß-Lothringen) was a territory that used to be disputed between France and Germany, but is currently a part of France and has been since World War II. The territory, composed of Alsace and parts of Lorraine, belonged to...


Industrial expansion

For centuries the inhabitants of the fortress of Mainz had suffered from a severe shortage of space, which led to disease and other inconveniences; in 1872, Mayor Carl Wallau and the council of Mainz persuaded the military government to sign a contract for the expansion of the city. Beginning in 1874, the city of Mainz assimilated the Gartenfeld, an idyllic area of meadows and fields along the shore of the Rhine River to the north of the rampart. The city expansion more than doubled the urban area, which allowed Mainz to participate in the industrial revolution which had previously passed the city by for decades. 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Friedrich Carl Wallau (August 8, 1823–July 7, 1877 in Mainz). ... 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Rhine canyon (Ruinaulta) in Graubünden in Switzerland Length 1. ... A Watt steam engine in Madrid. ...

Mainz towards the Rhine river (around 1890)
Mainz towards the Rhine river (around 1890)

Eduard Kreyßig was the man who made this happen. Having been the master builder of the city of Mainz since 1865, Mr. Kreyßig had the vision of the new part of the town, the Mainz Neustadt; he also planned the very first sewer system (since Roman times) for the old part of the town, and it was he who persuaded the city government to relocate the railroad route from the Rhine side to the west end of the town. The Mainz master builder constructed a number of state-of-the-art public buildings, including the Mainz town hall — which was the largest one of its kind in Germany at that time — as well a synagogue, the Rhine harbor, and a number of public baths and school buildings. Mr. Kreyßig's last work was Christ Church (Christuskirche), the largest Protestant church in the city and the first building constructed especially for the use of a Protestant congregation. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (992x728, 189 KB) Original image Photochrom print (color photo lithograph) Created between 1890 and 1905 Source Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Photochrom Prints Collection, reproduction number LC-DIG-ppmsca-00838. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (992x728, 189 KB) Original image Photochrom print (color photo lithograph) Created between 1890 and 1905 Source Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Photochrom Prints Collection, reproduction number LC-DIG-ppmsca-00838. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Mainz in the 20th century

After the end of World War I, Mainz was occupied by the French between 1919 and 1930, according to the Treaty of Versailles, which went into effect June 28, 1919. The Rhineland (in which Mainz is located) was to be a demilitarized zone until 1935, and the French garrison, representing the Triple Entente, was to stay until reparations were paid. Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Central Powers and the German Empire. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany, although some consider the lands to the east of the river culturally distinct, jovially referring to them as Schäl Sick; the bad or wrong side... European military alliances in 1915. ...


The reparations were not paid and Germany preferred to wreck its economy through inflation than to pay them. In 1923 Mainz participated in the Rhineland separatist movement, which proclaimed a republic in the Rhineland. It collapsed in 1924. The French withdrew on June 30, 1930. Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany in January, 1933. His political opponents, especially those of the Social Democratic Party, were either incarcerated or murdered. Some were able to move away from Mainz in time. One was the political organizer for the SPD, Friedrich Kellner, who went to Laubach, where as the chief justice inspector of the district court he continued his opposition against the Nazis by recording their misdeeds in a 900-page diary. Hitler redirects here. ... Friedrich Kellner in Kaisers army 1914 During the First World War Friedrich Kellner was a soldier in a Hessian infantry regiment fighting in the trenches in France, getting wounded for Kaiser and Fatherland. ... August Friedrich Kellner (1885 - 1970) was a justice inspector in the courthouse in Mainz and a political activist for the Social Democratic Party of Germany between 1918 and 1933. ...


In March, 1933, a detachment from the National Socialist Party in Worms brought the party to Mainz. They hoisted the swastika on all public buildings and began to denounce the Jewish population in the newspapers. In 1936 the forces of the Third Reich reentered the Rhineland with a great fanfare, the first move of the Third Reich's meteoric expansion. The former Triple Entente took no action. The (German: Nazional- socialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) [National Socialist German Workers Party]); generally known in English as the Nazi Party, was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... // Worms (pronounced ) is a city in the southwest of Germany. ... The swastika (from Sanskrit , from su well, and asti being, thus good fortune or well-being) is an equilateral cross with its arms bent at right angles in either left-facing () or right-facing () direction. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


During World War II the citadel at Mainz hosted the Oflag XII-B prisoner of war camp. Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead...


The Bishop of Mainz formed an organization to help Jews escape from Germany.


During World War II, more than 30 air raids and bomb attacks destroyed about 80% of the inner city of Mainz, including most of the historic buildings. Mainz fell on March 22, 1945, to XII Corps, 90th Division, of the Third Army under the command of General George S. Patton, Jr. The forces of the 3rd Reich were defending it against a possible Rhine crossing there. It was the end of the Palatinate campaign. Patton used the ancient strategic gateway through Germania Superior to cross the Rhine south of Mainz, drove down the Danube through Czechoslovakia, ending the possibility of a Bavarian redoubt, and crossed the Alps into Austria, when the war ended. With regard to the Roman road over which Patton attacked Trier, he said: Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead...

"one could almost smell the coppery sweat and see the low dust clouds where those stark fighters moved forward into battle." (George S. Patton, War as I Knew It)

From 1945 to 1949, the city was part of the French zone of occupation. When the federal state of Rheinland-Pfalz was founded on 18 May 1947, Koblenz was the temporary capital; in 1950 Mainz became the capital of the new state. In 1962, the diarist, Friedrich Kellner, returned to spend his last years in Mainz. His life in Mainz, and the impact of the Friedrich Kellner Diary, is the subject of the Canadian documentary My Opposition: the Diaries of Friedrich Kellner. 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Rhineland-Palatinate (German Rheinland-Pfalz) is one of 16 Bundesländer of Germany. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Map of the Koblenz region Koblenz (also Coblenz in pre-1926 German spellings; French Coblence) is a city situated on both banks of the Rhine at its confluence with the Moselle, where the Deutsches Eck (German Corner) and its monument ( Emperor William I on horseback) are situated. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Friedrich Kellner in Kaisers army 1914 During the First World War Friedrich Kellner was a soldier in a Hessian infantry regiment fighting in the trenches in France, getting wounded for Kaiser and Fatherland. ... August Friedrich Kellner (1885 - 1970) was a justice inspector in the courthouse in Mainz and a political activist for the Social Democratic Party of Germany between 1918 and 1933. ...


Sights

  • Roman-Germanic central museum (Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum) – Roman, Medieval, and earlier artifacts
  • Antique Maritime Museum (Museum für Antike Schifffahrt) – the remains of five Roman boats from the late 4th century, discovered in the 1980s
  • Roman remains, like Jupiter's column, Drusus' mausoleum, the ruins of the theatre and the aqueduct
  • Mainz Cathedral of St. Martin (Mainzer Dom) – over 1,000 years old
  • The Iron Tower (Eisenturm, tower at the former iron market) – a tower from the 13th century
  • The Wood Tower (Holzturm, tower at the former wood market) – a tower from the 14th century
  • The Gutenberg Museum – exhibits an original Gutenberg Bible amongst many other printed books from the 15th century and later
  • The Mainz Old Town – what's left of it, the quarter south of the cathedral survived World War II
  • The Electoral Palace (Kurfürstliches Schloss) – residence of the prince-elector
  • Christ Church (Christuskirche) – built 1898–1903, bombed in ’45 and rebuilt in 19481954
  • The Church of St. Stephan – with post-war windows by Marc Chagall
  • citadel

Mainz Cathedral sits to the right in this sketch (c. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The electoral palace from south The Electoral Palace in Mainz (German: ) is the former city residenz of the Archbishop of Mainz, being in personal union also Prince-elector of the electorial state within the Holy Roman Empire. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Marc Chagall as photographed in 1941 by Carl Van Vechten. ... The Mainzer Zitadelle (Citadel of Mainz) is situated at the fringe of the Old Town in direct proximity to the railway station Südbahnhof . ...

Miscellaneous

After the last ice age, sand dunes were deposited in the Rhine valley at what was to become the western edge of the city. The Mainz Sand Dunes area is now a nature reserve with a unique landscape and rare steppe vegetation for this area. Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... The Mainz Sand Dunes (German: ) are a small, but geoecologically and botanical supra-regional important nature preserve in Mainz. ...


Johann Gutenberg, credited with the invention of the modern printing press with movable type, was born here and died here. The Mainz University, which was refounded in 1946, is named after Gutenberg; the earlier University of Mainz that dated back to 1477 had been closed down by Napoleon's troops in 1798. This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz (Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz) is a university in the city of Mainz, Germany. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Events January 5 - Battle of Nancy - Charles the Bold of Burgundy is again defeated, and this time is killed. ... 1798 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Mainz was one of three important centers of Jewish theology and learning during the Middle Ages. Known collectively as Shum, the cities of Speyer, Worms and Mainz played a key role in the preservation and propagation of Talmudic scholarship. (See also: Gershom ben Judah) The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Speyer (English formerly Spires) is a city in Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate) with approx. ... // Worms (pronounced ) is a city in the southwest of Germany. ... Gershom ben Judah best known as Rabbeinu Gershom (in Hebrew: Our teacher Gershom) (c. ...


Mainz is famous for its Carnival, the Mainzer Fassenacht or Fassnacht, which has developed since the early 19th century. Carnival in Mainz has its roots in the criticism of social and political injustices under the shelter of cap and bells; today, the uniforms of many traditional Carnival clubs still imitate and caricature the uniforms of the French and Prussian troops of the past. On The height of the carnival season is on Rosenmontag ("rose monday", before Ash Wednesday), there is a large parade in Mainz, more than 500,000 people are celebrating in the streets. Swabian-Alemannic carnival clowns in Wolfach, Germany A carnival is a public celebration or parade combining some elements of a circus and public street party, generally during the carnival season. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Western Christian calendar, Ash Wednesday is the first day of Lent. ...


The first ever Katholikentag, a festival-like gathering of German Catholics, was held in Mainz in 1848. Katholikentag ( Catholics Day) is a festival-like gathering in German-speaking countries organized by the Catholic laity. ...


The city is well-known in Germany as the seat of Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen ("Germany Channel 2", ZDF), one of two federal nationwide TV broadcasters. There are also a couple of radio stations based in Mainz. Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (Second German Television), ZDF, is a public service German-language television channel based in Mainz. ...


According to legend, Mainz is the supposed birthplace of Pope Joan (John Anglicus), the woman who, disguised as a man, was elected pope, and served for two years during the Middle Ages. The Papess, a Marseilles tarot card of the 18th century, depicts a female Pope. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


See also: List of mayors of Mainz This is a list of mayors of Mainz, including the Lord Mayors (Oberbürgermeister von Mainz) since 1800. ...


Twinning

Mainz is twinned with: This article is about partnerships between towns distant from each other; see Twin cities for the different concept of physically neighbouring cities. ...

and is a ‘Friendship city’ to: Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Watford is a town and district in Hertfordshire, England and is situated 27 km (17 miles) northwest of central London and within the bounds of the M25 motorway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Street in the center of Dijon Arc de triomphe known as the Porte Guillaume, on Place Darcy in the center of Dijon Dijon and suburbs Cathédrale St Bénigne - Dijon Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Dijon Dijon ( ) is a city in eastern France, the préfecture (administrative capital... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Races at Lonchamp - Édouard Manet, 1867 The Hippodrome de Longchamp, commonly referred to as Longchamp, is a 57 hectare horse-racing facility located on the Route des Tribunes in the Bois de Boulogne at Paris, France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Zagreb (pronounced: ) is the largest and capital city of Croatia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Map of Rodeneck in South Tyrol Rodeneck (German) or Rodengo (Italian) is a commune in northern Italy, situated in the province of South Tirol at the entrance to the Pustertal valley. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Location Coordinates : 39°29′ N 0°22′ W Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name València (Catalan) Spanish name Valencia Founded 137 BC Postal code 46000-46080 Website http://www. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel_(bordered). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Mariendom and the Severikirche Erfurt is a city in central Germany. ... GDR redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... Louisville redirects here. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Municipality: Baku Area: 1000 km² Altitude: -28 m Population: 2,074,300 census 2003 Population density: 1280 persons/km² Postal Code: +99450 Area code: 012 Municipality code: BA Latitude: 41° 01 52 N Longitude: 21° 20 25 E Weather types: 9 of 11 Mayor: Hajibala Abutalybov The Baku region. ...

Alternative names

Mainz is called by a number of different names in other languages and dialects. These include: Määnz (formerly Meenz) in the local West Middle German dialect, and Mentz in English or Mayence in French. The latter name was also used in English, but this usage of Mayence has almost completely disappeared. Other names for this city are: Magonza (Italian), Maguncia (Spanish), Majnc (Serbian), Mogúncia (Portuguese), Moguncja (Polish), Moguntiacum (Latin), and Mohuč (Czech, Slovak). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... West Middle German is a High German dialect family in the German language. ... // Onomastuics and disambiguational informations about the words (family names) Minz This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


Notes

  1. ^ The earliest certain evidence of the existence of Moguntiacum is the account of the death and funeral of Nero Claudius Drusus, brother of the future emperor, Tiberius, given in Suetonius' life of Drusus. Few leaders have been as loved and as popular as Drusus. He fell from his horse in 9 BCE, contracted gangrene and lingered several days. His brother Tiberius reached him in just a few days riding post-horses over the Roman roads and served as the chief mourner, walking with the deceased in a funeral procession from the summer camp where he had fallen to Moguntiacum, where the soldiers insisted on a funeral. The body was transported to Rome, cremated in the Campus Martis and the ashes placed in the tomb of Augustus, who was still alive, and wrote poetry and delivered a state funeral oration for him. If Drusus founded Moguntiacum the earliest date is the start of his campaign, 13 BCE. Some hypothesize that Moguntiacum was constructed at one of two earlier opportunites, one when Marcus Agrippa campaigned in the region in 42 BCE or by Julius Caesar himself after 58 BCE. Lack of evidence plays a part in favoring 13 BCE. No sources cite Moguntiacum before 13 BCE, no legions are known to have been stationed there, and no coins survive.
  2. ^ A second hypothesis suggests that Moguns was a wealthy Celtic person whose estate was taken for the fort and that a tax district was formed on the area parallel to other tax districts with a -iacum suffix (Arenacum, Mannaricium). One difficulty is that there is no evidence for the wealthy man or his estate, but there is plenty of evidence for the god. According to Carl Darling Buck in Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, -yo- and -k- are general Indo-European formative suffices and are not related to taxes. As the loyalty of the Vangiones was unquestioned and Drusus was campaigning over the Rhine, it is unlikely Moguntiacum would have been built to collect taxes from the Vangiones, who were not a Roman municipium.

Bust of Nero Claudius Drusus, in the Musée du Cinquantinaire, Brussels Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, born Decimus Claudius Drusus and variously called Drusus, Drusus I or Drusus the Elder (14 January 38 - 9 BC) was the younger son of Livia, wife of Augustus Caesar, and her first husband, Tiberius... Tiberius Caesar Augustus, born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16, 42 BC – March 16 AD 37), was the second Roman Emperor, from the death of Augustus in AD 14 until his own death in 37. ... This article is about the Roman historian. ... Augustus (Latin: IMP•CAESAR•DIVI•F•AVGVSTVS;[1] September 23, 63 BC–August 19, AD 14), known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (English Octavian; Latin: C•IVLIVS•C•F•CAESAR•OCTAVIANVS) for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, was the first and among the most important of... Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (63 BC-12 BC) was a Roman statesman and general, son-in-law and minister of the emperor Caesar Augustus. ... Gāius JÅ«lius Caesar (IPA: ;[1]), July 12 or July 13, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC) was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... Carl Darling Buck (October 2, 1866 _ 1955), American philologist, was born at Bucksport, Maine. ... The Vangiones were a tribe of the Belgae originally from the Upper Rhine valley. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • The official web site of the city of Mainz
  • Mogons
  • Singing and Laughing Mainz: During Carnival the city goes crazy!
  • The Mainz Sand Dunes
  • The Citadel


Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Flag of Rhineland-Palatinate
Urban and rural districts in the
Federal State of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany

Urban
districts
Image File history File links Flag_of_Rhineland-Palatinate. ... The Rhenish Palatinate (Rheinpfalz, sometimes Lower Palatinate or Niederpfalz) occupies rather more than a quarter of the German Bundesland (federal state) of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) and contains the towns of Ludwigshafen, Kaiserslautern, Neustadt an der Weinstrasse, Pirmasens, Landau and Speyer. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ...

Frankenthal | Kaiserslautern | Koblenz | Landau | Ludwigshafen | Mainz | Neustadt (Weinstraße)
Pirmasens | Speyer | Trier | Worms | Zweibrücken Political status Country: Germany Federal state: Rhineland-Palatinate Region: Rhine Neckar Area District: Independent municipality Facts Population: 47,564 (December 2003) Area: 43. ... This is the article about the city, for the district see Kaiserslautern (district)   is a city in southwest Germany, located in the Bundesland of Rheinland-Pfalz at the edge of the Palatine Forest (Pfälzer Wald). ... Map of the Koblenz region Koblenz (also Coblenz in pre-1926 German spellings; French Coblence) is a city situated on both banks of the Rhine at its confluence with the Moselle, where the Deutsches Eck (German Corner) and its monument ( Emperor William I on horseback) are situated. ... Landau or Landau in der Pfalz (pop. ... Map of Germany showing Ludwigshafen am Rhein Ludwigshafen am Rhein is a city in Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany, with about 166,000 inhabitants. ... Neustadt an der Weinstraße, otherwise known as Neustadt a. ... Pirmasens is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, near the border with France. ... Speyer (English formerly Spires) is a city in Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate) with approx. ... The city of Trier (Latin: Augusta Treverorum; French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier; Italian: ; Spanish: ) is situated on the western bank of the Moselle River in a valley between low vine-covered hills of ruddy sandstone. ... // Worms (pronounced ) is a city in the southwest of Germany. ... Zweibrücken is a city of Germany in Rhineland-Palatinate, on the Schwarzbach river at the border of the Palatine Forest. ...

Rural
districts

Ahrweiler | Altenkirchen | Alzey-Worms | Bad Dürkheim | Bad Kreuznach | Bernkastel-Wittlich | Birkenfeld | Bitburg-Prüm
Cochem-Zell | Daun | Donnersbergkreis | Germersheim | Kaiserslautern | Kusel | Mainz-Bingen
Mayen-Koblenz | Neuwied | Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis | Rhein-Lahn-Kreis | Rhein-Pfalz-Kreis
Südliche Weinstraße | Südwestpfalz | Trier-Saarburg | Westerwaldkreis Categories: Districts of Rhineland-Palatinate ... Categories: Districts of Rhineland-Palatinate ... Categories: Districts of Rhineland-Palatinate ... Bad Dürkheim is a district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... Categories: Districts of Rhineland-Palatinate ... Bernkastel-Wittlich is a district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... Birkenfeld is a district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... Bitburg-Prüm is a district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... Categories: Districts of Rhineland-Palatinate ... Daun is a district (Kreis) in the north-west of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... The Donnersbergkreis is a district (Kreis) in the middle of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... Germersheim is a district (Kreis) in the south-east of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... Kaiserslautern is a district (Kreis) in the south of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... Kusel is a district (Kreis) in the south of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... Mainz-Bingen is a district (Kreis) in the east of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... Mayen-Koblenz is a district (Kreis) in the north of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... Neuwied is a district (Kreis) in the north of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... Rhein-Hunsrück is a district (Kreis) in the middle of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... Rhein-Lahn is a district (Kreis) in the east of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... The Rhein-Pfalz-Kreis is a district (Kreis) in the east of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... Südliche Weinstraße is a district (Kreis) in the south of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... Südwestpfalz is a district (Kreis) in the south of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... Trier-Saarburg is a district in the west of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... The Westerwaldkreis is a district (Kreis) in the east of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mainz - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1991 words)
Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate.
Mainz is located on the left bank of the river Rhine, opposite the confluence of the Main river with the Rhine.
For centuries the inhabitants of the fortress of Mainz had suffered from a severe shortage of space which led to disease and other inconveniences; in 1872, Mayor Carl Wallau and the council of Mainz persuaded the military government to sign a contract for the expansion of the city.
Mainz - definition of Mainz in Encyclopedia (1707 words)
Mainz (French Mayence) is a city in Germany, which is the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate.
The Mainz master builder constructed a number of state-of-the-art public buildings, including the Mainz town hall — which was the largest one of its kind in Germany at that time — as well a synagogue, the Rhine harbor, and a number of public baths and school buildings.
Mainz is famous for its Carnival, the Mainz Fassenacht, which has developed since the early 19th century, and is celebrated in a fountain near the centre of the city.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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