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Encyclopedia > Mail
Collection of British Pillar boxes at the Inkpen Post Box Museum, near Taunton, Somerset
Collection of British Pillar boxes at the Inkpen Post Box Museum, near Taunton, Somerset

Mail is part of a postal system wherein written documents, typically enclosed in envelopes, and also small packages, are delivered to destinations around the world. Anything sent through the postal system is called mail or post.[1] Mail may refer to: Mail carried by a postal service Mail armor, commonly called chainmail Electronic mail Additionally, postal service may refer to the musical band officially known as The Postal Service. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... // Collection of British Pillar boxes at the Inkpen Post Box Museum, near Taunton,Somerset In the UK, a pillar box is a free-standing post box where mail is deposited to be collected by the Royal Mail and forwarded to the addressee. ... For other uses, see Taunton (disambiguation). ... This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ... For the similarly-named Surrealist journal, see Documents (journal). ... Front of an envelope mailed in the U.S. in 1906 contains postage stamp and address. ...


In principle, a postal service can be private or public. Governments often place restrictions on private postal delivery systems. Since the mid 19th century national postal systems have generally been established as government monopolies with a fee on the article prepaid. Proof of payment is often in the form of adhesive postage stamps, but postage meters are also used for bulk mailing. A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... A postage meter is a electro-mechanical device for producing evidence of postage (see mail). ...


Postal systems often have functions other than sending letters. In some countries, the postal system also has some authority over telephone and telegraph systems. In others, postal systems allow for savings accounts and handling applications for passports.

Contents

Early postal systems

Many early post systems consisted of fixed courier routes. Here, a post house on a postal route in 19th century Eastern Europe
Many early post systems consisted of fixed courier routes. Here, a post house on a postal route in 19th century Eastern Europe

The art of communication by written documents carried by an intermediary from one person or place to another almost certainly dates back nearly to the invention of writing. However, development of formal postal systems occurred much later. The first documented use of an organized courier service for the diffusion of written documents is in Egypt, where Pharaohs used couriers for the diffusion of their decrees in the territory of the State (2400 BC). This practice almost certainly has roots in the much older practice of oral messaging and may have been built on a pre-existing infrastructure. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 489 pixelsFull resolution‎ (985 × 602 pixels, file size: 176 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 489 pixelsFull resolution‎ (985 × 602 pixels, file size: 176 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Write redirects here. ... For other uses, see Courier (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ...


Persia (Iran)

The first credible claim for the development of a real postal system comes from Persia (present day Iran) but the point of invention remains in question. The best documented claim (Xenophon) attributes the invention to the Persian King Cyrus the Great (550 BC), while other writers credit his successor Darius I of Persia (521 BC). Other sources claim much earlier dates for an Assyrian postal system, with credit given to Hammurabi (1700 BC) and Sargon II (722 BC). Mail may not have been the primary mission of this postal service, however. The role of the system as an intelligence gathering apparatus is well documented, and the service was (later) called angariae, a term that in time turned to indicate a tax system. The Old Testament (Esther, VIII) makes mention of this system: Ahasuerus, king of Medes, used couriers for communicating his decisions. For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... Darius the Great (c. ... For the computer game, see Hamurabi. ... Sargon II, captor of Samaria, with a dignitary Sargon II (r. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... Esther (1865), by John Everett Millais Esther (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), born Hadassah, was a woman in the Hebrew Bible, the queen of Ahasuerus (commonly identified with either Xerxes I or Artaxerxes II), and heroine of the Biblical Book of Esther which is named after her. ... Xerxes I (خشایارشاه), was a Persian king (reigned 485 - 465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... Mede nobility. ...


The Persian system worked on stations, where the message carrier would ride to the next post, whereupon he would swap his horse with a fresh one, for maximum performance and delivery speed. Herodotus described the system in this way: "It is said that as many days as there are in the whole journey, so many are the men and horses that stand along the road, each horse and man at the interval of a day’s journey; and these are stayed neither by snow nor rain nor heat nor darkness from accomplishing their appointed course with all speed".[2] Persia redirects here. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ...


India

The use of the Scinde Dawk adhesive stamps to signify the prepayment of postage began on 1 July 1852 in the Scinde/Sindh district, as part of a comprehensive reform of the district's postal system.
The use of the Scinde Dawk adhesive stamps to signify the prepayment of postage began on 1 July 1852 in the Scinde/Sindh district,[3] as part of a comprehensive reform of the district's postal system.

The economic growth and political stability under the Mauryan empire (322–185 BC) saw the development of impressive civil infrastructure in ancient India. The Mauryans developed early Indian mail service as well as public wells, rest houses and other facilities for the common public.[4] Common chariots called Dagana were sometimes used as mail chariots in ancient India.[5] Image File history File links Red_Scinde_Dawk_stamp. ... Image File history File links Red_Scinde_Dawk_stamp. ... Scinde Dawk was a very old postal system of runners that served the Indus Valley of Sindh, an area of present-day Pakistan. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Sindh (Sind) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ...


Systems for collecting information and revenue data from the provinces are mentioned in Chanakya's Arthashastra (ca. 3rd century BC). Chānakya (Sanskrit: चाणक्य) (c. ... The Arthashastra (more precisely Arthaśāstra) is a treatise on statecraft and economic policy which identifies its author by the names Kautilya[1] and Viṣṇugupta,[2] who are traditionally identified with the Mauryan minister Cāṇakya. ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ...

In ancient times the kings, emperors, rulers, zamindars or the feudal lords protected their land through the intelligence services of specially trained police or military agencies and courier services to convey and obtain information through runners, messengers and even through pigeons. The chief of the secret service, known as the postmaster, maintained the lines of communication ... The people used to send letters to [their] distant relatives through their friends or neighbors.[6]

Early stamps of India were watermarked with an elephant's head.
Early stamps of India were watermarked with an elephant's head.

In South India, the Wodeyar dynasty (1399 - 1947) of the Kingdom of Mysore used mail service for espionage purposes thereby acquiring knowledge related to matters that took place at great distances.[7] Image File history File links Watermark_elephant_head. ... This article is about physical paper watermarks. ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... The Wodeyar dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled the Kingdom of Mysore from 1399 to 1947, until the independence of India from British rule and the subsequent unification of British dominions and princely states into the Republic of India. ... Flag of former princely state of Mysore. ...


By the end of the Eighteenth century the postal system in India had reached impressive levels of efficiency. According to British national Thomas Broughton, the Maharaja of Jodhpur sent daily offerings of fresh flowers from his capital to Nathadvara (320 km) and they arrived in time for the first religious Darshan at sunrise.[8] Later this system underwent complete modernization when the British Raj established it's full control over India. The Post Office Act XVII of 1837 provided that the Governor-General of India in Council had the exclusive right of conveying letters by post for hire within the territories of the East India Company. The mails were available to certain officials without charge, which became a controversial privilege as the years passed. On this basis the Indian Post Office was established on October 1, 1837.[9] (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Major-General H.H. Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh- al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Maharaja Sir Jagatjit Singh, Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala, GCSI , GCIE , GBE The word Mahārāja (also spelled maharajah) is Sanskrit for great king or high king (a karmadharaya from mahānt great... , Jodhpur   (जोधपुर), is the second largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan. ... Darshan is a Sanskrit and Hindu (also used to some extent in Urdu) term meaning sight (in the sense of an instance of seeing something or somebody), vision, apparition, or a glimpse. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


China

China 4-cent on 100-dollar silver overprint of 1949
China 4-cent on 100-dollar silver overprint of 1949

China enjoyed postal relay stations since the Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD), this network was vastly improved and extended during the Mongolian rule under Kublai Khan. Postal stations were used not only for the transmission and delivery of official mail, but were also available for traveling officials, military men, foreign dignitaries. These stations aided and facilitated the transport of foreign and domestic tribute, and trade in general. By the end of Kublai Khan's rule there were more than 1400 postal stations, which in turn had at their disposal about 50000 horses, 1400 oxen, 6700 mules, 400 carts, 6000 boats, over 200 dogs and 1150 sheep.[10] China 4c (silver yuan) stamp of 1949, scanned by User:Stan Shebs This image of a postage stamp may be copyrighted and/or have other restrictions on its reproduction imposed by the issuing authority. ... China 4c (silver yuan) stamp of 1949, scanned by User:Stan Shebs This image of a postage stamp may be copyrighted and/or have other restrictions on its reproduction imposed by the issuing authority. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ...


The stations were 15 to 40 miles apart and had reliable attendants working for the mail service. Foreign observers, such as Marco Polo have attested to the efficiency of this early postal system.[10] Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ...


Rome

The first well documented postal service is that of Rome. Organized at the time of Augustus Caesar (62 BC–AD 14), it may also be the first true mail service. The service was called cursus publicus and was provided with light carriages called rhedæ with fast horses. Additionally, there was another slower service equipped with two-wheeled carts (birolæ) pulled by oxen. This service was reserved to government correspondence. Another service for citizens was later added. For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Augustus Caesar Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius or Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was the first Roman Emperor and is traditionally considered the greatest. ... Events First year of tianfeng era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty. ... Cursus publicus was the courier service of the Roman Empire. ...


Other systems

Another important postal service was created in the Islamic world by the caliph Mu'awiyya; the service was called barid, by the name of the towers built to protect the roads by which couriers travelled. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ...


Well before the Middle Ages and during them, homing pigeons were used for pigeon post, taking advantage of a singular quality of this bird, which when taken far from its nest is able to find his way home due to a particularly developed sense of orientation. Messages were then tied around the legs of the pigeon, which was freed and could reach his original nest. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Homing pigeon The homing pigeon is a variety of domesticated Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) that has been selectively bred to be able to find its way home over extremely long distances. ... Pigeons with messages attached. ...


Mail has been transported by quite a few other methods throughout history, including dogsled, balloon, rocket, mule, pneumatic tubes and even submarine. This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... Dog sled A dog sled (or dogsled) is a sled pulled by one or more dogs used to travel over ice and through snow. ... For other uses, see Balloon (disambiguation). ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... For other uses, see Mule (disambiguation). ... Pneumatic post is system to deliver letters through pressurized air tubes. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ...


Charlemagne extended to the whole territory of his empire the system used by Franks in northern Gaul, and connected this service with the service of missi dominici. Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... A missus dominicus (plural missi dominici), Latin for Envoy of the Lord [ruler], also known as Sendgraf in German, Zendgraaf in Dutch, both meaning sent Graf, was an official commissioned by the Frankish king or emperor to supervise the administration, mainly justice, in a part of his dominions, not unlike...


Many religious orders had a private mail service, notably Cistercians' one connected more than 6,000 abbeys, monasteries and churches. The best organization however was created by the Knights Templar. The newly instituted universities too had their private services, starting from Bologna (1158). Cistercians coat of arms The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin: ), otherwise White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which a black scapular or apron is sometimes worn) is a Roman Catholic order of enclosed monks. ... Bold textTHIS IS THE PAGE THAT A.S. REALLY NEEDS!! THIS IS NOW MARKED!!! ] ps i like A.O. This article is about an abbey as a Christian monastic community. ... Monastery of St. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... For the food product, see Bologna sausage. ...


Popular illiteracy was accommodated through the service of scribes. Illiterates who needed to communicate dictated their messages to a scribe, another profession now quite generally disappeared. This is about scribe, the profession. ...


In 1505, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I established a postal system in the Empire, appointing Franz von Thurn und Taxis to run it. The Thurn and Taxis family, then known as Tassis, had operated postal services between Italian city states from 1290 onwards. Following the abolition of the Empire in 1806 the Thurn and Taxis postal system continued as a private organisation, continuing to exist into the postage stamp era before finally being absorbed into the postal system of the new German Empire after 1871. The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. ... The Princely House of Thurn und Taxis is a German family that was a key player in the postal (mail) services in Europe in the 16th century and is well known as owners of breweries and builders of countless castles. ...


It was around this time nationalization and centralization of most postal systems took place. Today, the study of mail systems is known as postal history. For a time after the Anschluss in 1938, letters from Austria to Germany were required to add German stamps, resulting in a mixed franking. ...


Etymology

The word mail comes from the Medieval English word male (spelt that way until the 17th century), which was the term used to describe a traveling bag or pack.[11] The French have a similar word, malle for a trunk or large box. In the 1600s the word mail began to appear as a reference for a bag that contained letters: "bag full of letter" (1654). Over the next hundred years the word mail began to be applied strictly to the letters themselves, and the sack as the mailbag. In the 19th century the British usually referred to mail as being letters that were being sent abroad (i.e. on a ship), and post as letters that were for localized delivery. The term e-mail (short for "electronic mail") first appeared in 1982. The term snail-mail is a retronym that originated in 1983 to distinguish it from the quicker e-mail. Middle English is the name given to an early form of the English language that was in common use from roughly the 12th to the 15th centuries— from after the Norman invasion by William the Conqueror in 1066 to around the introduction of the printing press by William Caxton... Snail mail is a derogatory retronym (named after the snail with its proverbially slow speed) used to refer to letters and missives carried by conventional postal delivery services, and refers to the inevitable lag-time between dispatch of a letter and its receipt relative to the virtually instantaneous despatch and... A retronym is a type of neologism coined for an old object or concept whose original name has come to be used for something else, is no longer unique, or is otherwise inappropriate or misleading. ...


Modern mail

Modern mail is organized by national and privatized services, which are reciprocally interconnected by international regulations, organizations and international agreements. Paper letters and parcels can be sent to almost any country in the world relatively easily and cheaply. The Internet has made the process of sending letter-like messages nearly instantaneous, and in many cases and situations correspondents use electronic mail where previously they would have used letters (though the volume of paper mail continues to increase.)[12]


Organization

In the United States, private companies such as FedEx and UPS compete with the federal government's United States Postal Service, particularly in package delivery. Different mailboxes are also provided for local and express service. (The USPS has a monopoly on First Class and Standard Mail delivery.)
In the United States, private companies such as FedEx and UPS compete with the federal government's United States Postal Service, particularly in package delivery. Different mailboxes are also provided for local and express service. (The USPS has a monopoly on First Class and Standard Mail delivery.)

Some countries have organized their mail services as public limited liability corporations without a legal monopoly. Image taken by User:Minesweeper on December 14, 2003 and released into the public domain. ... Image taken by User:Minesweeper on December 14, 2003 and released into the public domain. ... FedEx (NYSE: FDX), properly FedEx Corporation, is a company that offers overnight courier, ground, heavy freight, document copying and logistics services. ... United Parcel Service, Inc. ... USPS and Usps redirect here. ... Package delivery is the shipping of packages and parcels (and in some instances high value mail) as single shipments. ...


The world-wide postal system comprising the individual national postal systems of the world's self-governing states is co-ordinated by the Universal Postal Union, which among other things sets international postage rates, defines standards for postage stamps and operates the system of International Reply Coupons. The Universal Postal Union (UPU, French: Union postale universelle) is an international organization that coordinates postal policies between member nations, and hence the world-wide postal system. ... A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... An international reply coupon (IRC) is a coupon that can be exchanged for one or more postage stamps representing the minimum postage for an unregistered priority airmail letter sent to another Universal Postal Union (UPU) member country. ...


In most countries a system of codes has been created (they are called ZIP Codes in the United States, postcodes in the United Kingdom and Australia, and postal codes in most other countries), in order to facilitate the automation of operations. This also includes placing additional marks on the address portion of the letter or mailed object, called "bar coding." Bar coding of mail for delivery is usually expressed either by a series of vertical bars, usually called POSTNET coding, or a block of dots as a two-dimensional barcode. The "block of dots" method allows for the encoding of proof of payment of postage, exact routing for delivery, and other features. Mr. ... Postcodes are generally clearly visible outside Australia Post offices. ... This page may meet Wikipedia’s criteria for speedy deletion. ... Wikipedia encoded in Code 128 Wikipedia encoded in Code 93 Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia encoded in the DataMatrix 2D barcode For the taxonomic method, see DNA barcoding. ...

Zabrze (Poland) - post office.
Zabrze (Poland) - post office.

The ordinary mail service was improved in the 20th century with the use of planes for a quicker delivery (air mail). The first scheduled airmail service took place between the London suburbs of Hendon and Windsor on 9 September 1911. Some methods of airmail proved ineffective, however, including the United States Postal Service's experiment with rocket mail. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 363 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Zabrze (Poland) - post office Capture date: 2005-09-04 Photographer: stAn File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 363 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Zabrze (Poland) - post office Capture date: 2005-09-04 Photographer: stAn File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at... Zabrze (pronounced: [zabʒε]; German: , from 1915-1945 Hindenburg) is a city in southern Poland with 194,041 inhabitants (2004). ... Airmail (or air mail) is mail that is transported by aircraft. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A Regulus cruise missile was used for one attempt to deliver mail. ...


Receipts services were made available in order to grant the sender a confirmation of effective delivery.


Mail going to naval vessels is known as the Fleet Post Office. An army post office is a special military system to integrate the civil postal system to that of the military. ...


Payment

Worldwide the most common method of prepaying postage is by buying an adhesive postage stamp to be applied to the envelope before mailing; a much less common method is to use a postage-prepaid envelope. Franking is a method of creating postage-prepaid envelopes under licence using a special machine. They are used by companies with large mail programs such as banks and direct mail companies. A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... Front of an envelope mailed in the U.S. in 1906 contains postage stamp and address. ... Franking is also the passing of franking credits to shareholders in countries that have dividend imputation to reduce or eliminate double taxation of company profits. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... Direct marketing is a form of marketing that attempts to send its messages directly to consumers, often without the use of intervening media. ...


In 1998, the U.S. Postal Service authorised the first tests of a secure system of sending digital franks via the Internet to be printed out on a PC printer, obviating the necessity to license a dedicated franking machine and allowing companies with smaller mail programs to make use of the option; this was later expanded to test the use of personalised postage. The service provided by the U.S. Postal Service in 2003 allows the franks to be printed out on special adhesive-backed labels. In 2004 the Royal Mail in the United Kingdom introduced its SmartStamp Internet-based system, allowing printing on ordinary adhesive labels or envelopes. Similar systems are being considered by postal administrations around the world. USPS and Usps redirect here. ... Royal Mail is the national postal service of the United Kingdom. ...

Postal truck in Brazil
Postal truck in Brazil

When the pre-paid envelope or package is accepted into the mail by an agent of the postal service, the agent usually indicates by means of a cancellation that it is no longer valid for pre-payment of postage. The exceptions are when the agent forgets or neglects to cancel the mailpiece, for stamps that are pre-cancelled and thus do not require cancellation and for, in most cases, metered mail. (The "personalised stamps" authorised by the USPS and manufactured by Zazzle and other companies are in fact a form of meter label and thus do not need to be cancelled.) Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 803 KB) Information File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mail Mail truck Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 803 KB) Information File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mail Mail truck Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... A machine cancellation On mail, a cancellation (or cancel for short) is a postal marking applied to a postage stamp or postal stationery indicating that the item has been used. ...


Rules and etiquette

Documents cannot be read by anyone other than the receiver; for instance, in the United States it is a violation of federal law for anyone other than the receiver to open mail (though this was tested by the P22 mail art project by placing stamps at the bottom of "a clear box with a sliding top," necessitating the opening of the box for the stamps to be cancelled).[13] However, exceptions do exist, such as postcards, which can be read by the postman for the purpose of identifying the sender and receiver. For mail contained within an envelope, there are legal provisions in some jurisdictions allowing the recording identities.[14] The privacy of correspondence is guaranteed by the Mexican Constitution, and is alluded to in the European Convention of Human Rights[15] and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.[14] According to the laws in the relevant jurisdiction, correspondence may be openly or covertly opened or the contents determined via some other method, by the police or other authorities in some cases relating to their relevance to an alleged or suspected criminal conspiracy, although black chambers (largely in the past, though there is apparently some continuance of their use today) opened and open letters extralegally. Military mail to and from soldiers on active deployment is more often subject to strict censorship. International mail and packages are subjects to customs control. This article is about the current Political Constitution of the United Mexican States. ... The European Convention on Human Rights (1950) was adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe† to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms. ... The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ... The Black Chamber, otherwise known as MI-8, was Americas first peacetime cryptanalytic organization and a forerunner of the top-secret National Security Agency. ... An army post office is a special military system to integrate the civil postal system to that of the military. ... Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting customs duties and for controlling the flow of animals and goods (including personal effects and hazardous items) in and out of a country. ...


Control of private citizens' mail based on its content is a form of censorship and concerns social, political, and legal aspects of civil rights. Even though often illegal, there have been cases over the centuries of governments illegally opening and copying or photographing the contents of private mail.[14][16] While in most cases this censorship is exceptional, in the military, censorship of mail is routine and almost universally applied, particularly with respect to soldiers near a battlefront. For other uses, see Censor. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ...


Modern alternatives such as the telegraph, telephone, and e-mail have reduced the attractiveness of paper mail for many applications. Sometimes these modern alternatives are more attractive because, unlike paper mail, there is no concern about unfamiliar people learning your address from the return address on the outside of an envelope. Modern alternatives can be better than paper mail because vandalism can occur with mailboxes (although it can also be argued that paper mail does not allow for computer viruses). Also, dangerous hazards exist for mail carriers such as unfriendly pets or bad weather conditions. Due to hazards or inconveniences postal carriers may refuse, officially or otherwise, to deliver mail to a particular address (for instance, if a clear path to the door or mailbox is not present). Postal mail is, however, still widely in use for business (due to the particular legal standing of signatures in some situations and in many jurisdictions, etiquette, or transmission of things that cannot be done by computer, as a particular texture, or, obviously, items in packages) and for some personal communication. For example, wedding invitations in Western countries are customarily sent by mail. Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer without permission or knowledge of the user. ... For other uses, see Signature (disambiguation). ... Nuptial is the adjective of wedding. It is used for example in zoology to denote plumage, coloration, behavior, etc related to or occurring in the mating season. ...


Rise of electronic correspondence

Since the advent of e-mail, which is almost always faster (barring some extreme technical glitch, computer virus or the like), the postal system has come to be referred to in Internet slang by the retronym "snail mail". Occasionally, the term "white mail" or "the PaperNet" has also been used as a neutral term for postal mail. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Ttyl redirects here. ... A retronym is a type of neologism coined for an old object or concept whose original name has come to be used for something else, is no longer unique, or is otherwise inappropriate or misleading. ... Snail mail is a derogatory retronym (named after the snail with its proverbially slow speed) used to refer to letters and missives carried by conventional postal delivery services, and refers to the inevitable lag-time between dispatch of a letter and its receipt relative to the virtually instantaneous despatch and...


In modern times, mainly in the 20th century, mail has found an evolution in vehicles using newer technologies to deliver the documents, especially through the telephone network; these new vehicles include telegram, telex, facsimile (fax), e-mail, and short message service (SMS). There have been methods which have combined mail and some of these newer methods, such as INTELPOST, which combined facsimile transmission with overnight delivery. These vehicles commonly use a mechanical or electro-mechanical standardised writing (typing), that on the one hand makes for more efficient communication, while on the other hand makes impossible characteristics and practices that traditionally were in conventional mail, such as calligraphy. For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... Teletype machines in World War II A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY for TeleTYpe/TeleTYpewriter) is a now largely obsolete electro-mechanical typewriter which can be used to communicate typed messages from point to point through a simple electrical communications channel, often just a pair of wires. ... A Samsung fax machine Fax (short for facsimile, from Latin fac simile, make similar, i. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... SMS redirects here. ... Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ...


This epoch is undoubtedly mainly dominated by mechanical writing, with a general use of no more of half a dozen standard typographic fonts from standard keyboards. However, the increased use of typewritten or computer-printed letters for personal communication and the advent of e-mail, has sparked renewed interest in calligraphy, as a letter has become more of a "special event." Long before e-mail and computer-printed letters, however, decorated envelopes, rubber stamps and artistamps formed part of the medium of mail art.[citations needed] “Font” redirects here. ... This article is about vulcanized rubber stamps. ... Artistamp refers to a postage stamp-like artform. ... Mail art is art which uses the postal system as a medium. ...


In the 2000s with the advent of eBay and other online auction sites and online stores, postal services in industrialized nations have seen a major shift to item shipping. This has been seen as a boost to the system's usage in the wake of lower paper mail volume due to the accessibility of e-mail.[citations needed] This article is about the online auction center. ... The online auction business model is one in which participants bid for products and services over the internet. ...


Collecting

Postage stamps are also object of a particular form of collecting, and in some cases, when demand greatly exceeds supply, their commercial value on this specific market may become enormously greater than face value, even after use. For some postal services the sale of stamps to collectors who will never use them is a significant source of revenue for example postage stamps from Tokelau, South Georgia & South Sandwich Islands, Tristan da Cunha, Niuafo´ou and many others. Stamp collecting is commonly known as philately, although strictly the latter term refers to the study of stamps. This 1974 stamp from Japan depicts a Class 8620 steam locomotive. ... // The hobby of collecting consists of acquiring specific items based on a particular interest of the collector. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Close examination of the Penny Red, left, reveals a 148 in the margin, indicating that it was printed with plate #148. ...


Another form of collecting regards postcards, a document written on a single robust sheet of paper, usually decorated with photographic pictures or artistic drawings on one of the sides, and short messages on a small part of the other side, that also contained the space for the address. In strict philatelic usage, the postcard is to be distinguished from the postal card, which has a pre-printed postage on the card. The fact that this communication is visible by other than the receiver often causes the messages to be written in jargon. For the computer diagnostic tool, see POST card. ... For the computer diagnostic tool, see Postcard (computing). ... For the glossary of hacker slang, see Jargon File. ...


Letters are often studied as an example of literature, and also in biography in the case of a famous person. A portion of the New Testament of the Bible is composed of the Apostle Paul's epistles to Christian congregations in various parts of the Roman Empire. See below for a list of famous letters. For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... A 19th century picture of Paul of Tarsus Paul of Tarsus (originally Saul of Tarsus) or Saint Paul the Apostle (fl. ... An epistle (Greek επιστολη, epistolē, letter) is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of persons, usually a letter and a very formal, often didactic and elegant one. ...


A style of writing, called epistolary, tells a fictional story in the form of the correspondence between two or more characters. An epistolary novel is a book written using a literary technique in which a novel is composed as a series of letters, although diary entries, newspaper clippings and other documents are sometimes used. ...


A make-shift mail method after stranding on a deserted island is a message in a bottle. A message in a bottle is a form of communication whereby a message is sealed in a container (archetypically a glass bottle, but could be plastic) and released into the sea or ocean. ...


Deregulation

See also: New Zealand Post

Several countries, including Sweden (1 January 1993),[17][18] New Zealand (1998 and 2003) and Argentina have opened up the postal services market to new entrants. In the case of New Zealand Post Limited, this included (from 2003) its right to be the sole New Zealand postal administration member of the Universal Postal Union, thus the ending of its monopoly on stamps bearing the name New Zealand. New Zealand Post Limited is the dominant postal operator in New Zealand. ... New Zealand Post Limited is the dominant postal operator in New Zealand. ... The Universal Postal Union (UPU, French: Union postale universelle) is an international organization that coordinates postal policies between member nations, and hence the world-wide postal system. ...


Types of mail

Letters

Letter-sized mail comprises the bulk of the contents sent through most postal services. These are usually documents printed on A4 (210×297 mm), Letter-sized (8.5×11 inches), or smaller paper and placed in envelopes. A comparison of different paper sizes A4 is a standard paper size, defined by the international standard ISO 216 as 210×297 mm (roughly 8. ...


While many things are sent through the mail, interpersonal letters are often thought of first in reference to postal systems. Handwritten correspondence, while once a major means of communications between distant people, is now used less frequently due to the advent of more immediate means of communication, such as the telephone or e-mail. Traditional letters, however, are often considered to harken back to a "simpler time" and are still used when someone wishes to be deliberate and thoughtful about his or her communication.


Bills and invoices are often sent through the mail, like regular billing correspondence from utility companies and other service providers. These letters often contain a self-addressed, envelope that allows the receiver to remit payment back to the company easily. While still very common, many people now opt to use online bill payment services, which eliminate the need to receive bills through the mail. In economics, utility is a measure of the relative happiness or satisfaction (gratification) gained. ...


Bulk mail is mail that is prepared for bulk mailing, often by presorting, and processing at reduced rates. It is often used in direct marketing and other commercial solicitations sent by advertisers, although it has other uses as well. The senders of these messages sometimes purchase lists of addresses (which are sometimes targeted towards certain demographics) and then send letters advertising their product or service to all recipients. Other times, commercial solicitations are sent by local companies advertising local products, like a restaurant delivery service advertising to their delivery area or a retail store sending their weekly advertising circular to a general area. Bulk mail is also often sent to companies' existing subscriber bases, advertising new products or services. The United States Postal Service defines bulk mail broadly as quantities of mail prepared for mailing at reduced postage rates. ... CAR-RT SORT is a United States Postal Service marking appearing above the sendees address on traditional junk mail such as store circulars, coupon books, and other bound printed matter (BPD). ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Direct marketing is a discipline within marketing that involves contacting individual customers (business-to-business or consumer) directly and obtaining their responses and transactions for the purpose of developing and prolonging mutually profitable customer relationships. ... Generally speaking, advertising is the paid promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas by an identified sponsor. ... Demographics refers to selected population characteristics as used in government, marketing or opinion research, or the demographic profiles used in such research. ... For other uses, see Restaurant (disambiguation). ... Drawing of a self-service store. ...


There are a number of other things almost without any exception sent exclusively as letters through postal services, like wedding invitations.


First-class

First-class mail in the U.S. includes postcards, letters, large envelopes (flats) and small packages, providing each piece weighs 13 ounces or less. Delivery is given priority over second-class (newspapers and magazines), third class (bulk advertisements), and fourth-class mail (books and media packages.) First-class mail prices are based on both the shape and weight of the item being mailed. Pieces over 13 ounces can be sent as Priority Mail.[19]


Registered mail

Main article: Registered mail

Registered mail allows the location and in particular the correct delivery of a letter to be tracked. It is usually considerably more expensive than regular mail, and is typically used for legal documents, to obtain a proof of delivery. Registered mail sent from Baghdad to San Francisco in August 1945 Registered items of mail are letters which have their details recorded in a register to enable their location to be tracked. ...


Repositionable Notes

The United States Postal Service introduced a test allowing "repositionable notes" (for example, 3M's Post-it notes) to be attached to the outside of envelopes and bulk mailings,[20] afterwards extending the test for an unspecified period.[21]


Postal cards and postcards

Postal cards and postcards are small message cards which are sent by mail unenveloped; the distinction often, though not invariably and reliably, drawn between them is that "postal cards" are issued by the postal authority or entity with the "postal indica" (or "stamp") preprinted on them, while postcards are privately issued and require affixing an adhesive stamp (though there have been some cases of a postal authority's issuing non-stamped postcards). Postcards are often printed to promote tourism, with pictures of resorts, tourist attractions or humorous messages on the front and allowing for a short message from the sender to be written on the back. The postage required for postcards is generally less than postage required for standard letters; however, certain technicalities such as their being oversized or having cut-outs[3] may result in payment of the first-class rate being required. For the computer diagnostic tool, see Postcard (computing). ... For the computer diagnostic tool, see POST card. ...


Postcards are also used by magazines for new subscriptions. Inside many magazines are postage-paid subscription cards that a reader can fill out and mail back to the publishing company to be billed for a subscription to the magazine. In this fashion, magazines also use postcards for other purposes, including reader surveys, contests or information requests. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Postcards are sometimes sent by charities to their members with a message to be signed and sent to a politician (e.g. to promote fair trade or third world debt cancellation). // Legal definitions A charity is a trust, company or unincorporated association established for charitable purposes only. ... For other uses, see Fair trade (disambiguation). ... Third World debt is external debt incurred by Third World countries. ...

This antique "letter-box" style U.S. mailbox is both on display and in use at the Smithsonian Institution Building.
This antique "letter-box" style U.S. mailbox is both on display and in use at the Smithsonian Institution Building.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1344x1437, 1117 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1344x1437, 1117 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... The Castle The Smithsonian Institution Building, located on the National Mall in Washington, DC, houses the Smithsonian Institutions administrative offices and information center. ...

Other

Larger envelopes are also sent through the mail. These are often made of sturdier material than standard envelopes and are often used by businesses to transport documents that are not to be folded or damaged, such as legal documents and contracts. Due to their size, larger envelopes are sometimes charged additional postage.


Packages are often sent through some postal services, usually requiring additional postage than an average letter or postcard. Many postal services have limits on what can and cannot be sent inside packages, usually placing limits or bans on perishable, hazardous or flammable materials. Some hazardous materials in limited quantities may be shipped with appropriate markings and packaging, like an ORM-D label. Additionally, because of terrorism concerns, the U.S. Postal Service subjects their packages to various security tests, often scanning or x-raying packages for materials that might be found in mail bombs. ORM-D is a marking for mail or shipping in the United States that identifies Other Regulated Materials-Domestic. Packagages bearing this mark contain hazardous material in a limited quantity that presents a limited hazard during transportation, due to its form, quantity, and packaging. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... A mailbomb (or mail bomb), also called parcel bomb or letter bomb, is an explosive device sent via the postal service, and designed to explode when opened, injuring or killing the recipient, usually someone the sender has a personal grudge against, or more indiscriminately as part of a terrorist campaign. ...


Magazines are also sent through postal services. Many magazines are simply placed in the mail normally (but in the U.S., they are printed with a special bar code that acts as pre-paid postage - see POSTNET), but many are now shipped in shrinkwrap to protect the loose contents of the magazine. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This page may meet Wikipedia’s criteria for speedy deletion. ...


Hybrid mail, sometimes referred to as L-mail, is the electronic lodgement of mail from the mail generator’s computer directly to a Postal Service provider. The Postal Service provider is then able to use electronic means to have the mail piece sorted, routed and physically produced at a site closest to the delivery point. It is a type of mail growing in popularity with some Post Office operations and individual businesses venturing into this market. In some countries, these services are available to print and deliver emails to those unable to receive email, such as the elderly or infirmed. Mail A Letter is one such service in the USA; in the UK, Royal Mail offers a similar service. L-Mail, or Lmail is short for letter mail, and is a method of sending a real physical letter via an Internet web page. ...


See also

Airmail imprint on an envelope (Thailand) Airmail (or air mail) is mail that is transported by aircraft. ... Frank E. Webner, pony express rider c. ... Small-town post office and town hall in Lockhart, Alabama A post office is a facility (in most countries, a government one) where the public can purchase postage stamps for mailing correspondence or merchandise, and also drop off or pick up packages or other special-delivery items. ... Postcodes are generally clearly visible outside Australia Post offices. ... Mr. ... For other uses, see Courier (disambiguation). ... A Melbourne postie riding a motorbike A postwoman with her bicycle in China. ... In most postal systems Express mail refers to an accelerated delivery service for which the customer pays a surcharge and receives faster delivery. ... Electronic mail, abbreviated e-mail or email, is a method of composing, sending, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. ... Fan mail is mail sent to a public figure, especially a celebrity, by their admirers or fans. // Fan mail may be in the form of letters, cards, artworks, gifts, and so on; depending on the recipient, it may also be possible to send fan mail via E-mail. ... Hate mail (as electronic, postal, or otherwise) is a form of harassment, usually consisting of invective and potentially intimidating or threatening comments towards the recipient. ... “Love letters” redirects here. ... Snail mail is a derogatory retronym (named after the snail with its proverbially slow speed) used to refer to letters and missives carried by conventional postal delivery services, and refers to the inevitable lag-time between dispatch of a letter and its receipt relative to the virtually instantaneous despatch and... Irradiated mail is mail that has been deliberately exposed to radiation, typically in an effort to disinfect it. ... CBQ 1926, an RPO preserved at the Illinois Railway Museum. ... British Rail TPO vehicle NSA 80390 on display at Doncaster Works open day on 27th July 2003. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... Post offices and other mail service providers typically offer a mail forwarding service to redirect mail destined for one location to another — usually for a given period of time. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Address (geography). ...

Famous letters

Rainer Maria Rilke (4 December 1875 – 29 December 1926) is considered one of the German languages greatest 20th century poets. ... Letters To A Young Poet is a very influential compilation of letters by Rainer Maria Rilke. ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ... Martin Luther King Jr The Letter from Birmingham Jail or Letter from Birmingham City Jail, commonly but incorrectly rendered Letter from a Birmingham Jail, was an open letter on April 16, 1963 written by Martin Luther King, Jr. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Samantha Reed Smith (June 29, 1972 – August 25, 1985) was an American schoolgirl from Houlton, Maine who was called Americas Youngest Ambassador in the United States and the Goodwill Ambassador in the Soviet Union during her short lifetime. ... Andropov, then the LKSM KFSSR First Secretary, speaks at the May 9, 1945, victory celebrations Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Russian: , Jurij Vladimirovič Andropov) (June 15 [O.S. June 2] 1914 – February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death just... Is There A Santa Claus? was the headline that appeared over an editorial in the September 21, 1897 edition of the New York Sun. ... The original New York Sun began publication September 3, 1833, as a morning newspaper, and an evening edition began in 1887. ... Francis Pharcellus Church, writer of the famous editorial. ... The Zinoviev Letter is thought to have been instrumental in the Conservative Partys victory in the United Kingdom general election, 1924, which ended the countrys first Labour government. ... The 1924 UK general election was held on 29th October 1924. ... The Canuck Letter was a forged letter to the editor of the Manchester Union Leader, published 24 February 1972, two weeks before the New Hampshire primary. ...

List of national postal services

Africa

Country Company
Morocco BAM
Namibia NAMPOST
Nigeria Nipost
South Africa SAPO

The Nigerian Postal Service, abbreviated as Nipost, is a government-owned and operated corporation responsible for providing postal services in Nigeria. ... SAPO (Portuguese for male frog), Servidor de Apontadores Portugueses, is a brand and subsidiary company of Portugal Telecom Group. ...

Americas

Country Company
Argentina Correo Argentino
Brazil Correios
Canada Canada Post
Chile Correos de Chile
Costa Rica Correos de Costa Rica
Mexico Servicio Postal Mexicano
Perú Serpost
USA USPS
Venezuela IPOSTEL

Empresa Brasileira de Correios e Telégrafos (Brasilian Corporation of Post and Telegraph), also known simply as Correios, is the state-run national postal service of Brazil. ... Canada Post Corporation (French: Société canadienne des postes) is a Canadian postal service operated as a crown corporation. ... Servicio Postal Mexicano (Sepomex) is the national postal service of Mexico. ... - Peru (Spanish: República del Perú) is a country in western South America, bordering Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the east, south-east and south, Chile to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. ... A USPS Truck at Night A U.S. Post Office sign The United States Postal Service (USPS) is the United States government organization responsible for providing postal service in the United States and is generally referred to as the post office. ...

Asia

Country Company
China China Post
Hong Kong Hongkong Post
India Indian Postal Service
Indonesia Pos Indonesia
Iran IRI Post
Israel Israel Post
Japan Japan Post
Korea Korea Post
Malaysia Pos Malaysia
Philippines PhilPost
Singapore SingPost
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Post
Republic of China Taiwan Post
Thailand Thailand Post

Alternative meanings: The China Post, Chunghwa Post China Post (中国邮政) is the postal service operating in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Outlook of the General Post Office in Central, built 1976. ... Indian Postal Service functioning under the brand name India Post, is a government operated postal system in India; it is generally referred to within India as the post office. The Indian Postal Service, with 154,000 post offices, is the most widely distributed post office system in the world (China... Israel Post (‎) is an Israeli Hebrew language free daily newspaper based on the concept of Metro. ... Japan Post ) is a public corporation in Japan offering postal and package delivery services, banking services, and life insurance. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Korea Post is a direct subauthority of Ministry of Information and Communication. ... Pos Malaysia Berhad is a post services company in Malaysia. ... The Philippine Postal Corporation, or Philpost for short, is a government-owned and operated corporation responsible for providing postal services in the Philippines. ... Singapore Post Limited (SGX: S08) (Chinese: 新加坡邮政有限公司; or SingPost, Chinese: 新加坡邮局) is Singapores only postal company, providing local and international postal services. ... Sri Lanka Post is the main domestic postal operator in Sri Lanka. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... The Taiwan Post Co. ...

Europe

A German old-style-replica Postbriefkasten in use in Dresden
A German old-style-replica Postbriefkasten in use in Dresden
Oxford main post office, England
Oxford main post office, England
Spanish post truck and office, Spain
Spanish post truck and office, Spain
Country Company
Austria Österreichische Post
Azerbaijan Azərpoçt
Belgium De post
Bulgaria Bulgarian Posts
Czech Republic Česká pošta
Denmark Post Danmark
Faroe Island Postverk Føroya
Finland Suomen Posti
France La Poste
Germany Deutsche Post
Greece Ελληνικά Ταχυδρομεία
Hungary Magyar Posta
Iceland Íslandspóstur
Ireland An Post
Italy Poste Italiane
Jersey Jersey Post
Latvia Latvijas Pasts
Macedonia Makedonska Pošta
Netherlands TNT N.V.
Norway Posten
Poland Poczta Polska
Portugal CTT
Romania Poşta Română
Russia Russian Post
Serbia Pošta Srbije
Spain Correos
Sweden Posten
Swiss Swiss Post
Turkey PTT
United Kingdom Royal Mail
Ukraine Ukrposhta

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 431 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Mail ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 431 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Mail ... The Oxford Post Office in St Aldates, 2004-01-24, Copyright Kaihsu Tai File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Oxford Post Office in St Aldates, 2004-01-24, Copyright Kaihsu Tai File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 427 pixelsFull resolution (1376 × 734 pixel, file size: 552 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is a picture of a Spanish mail truck parked outside a Spanish post office. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 427 pixelsFull resolution (1376 × 734 pixel, file size: 552 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is a picture of a Spanish mail truck parked outside a Spanish post office. ... The Belgian Post Group is the Belgian origanization responsible for the delivery of mail, national and international. ... The Bulgarian Posts (Български пощи, Balgarski poshti) are the national postal service of Bulgaria. ... ÄŒeská poÅ¡ta is the postal company of the Czech Republic. ... Post Danmark A/S is the company responsible for the Danish postal service. ... Postverk Føroya [] is the postal service of the Faroe Islands and was founded on 1st April 1976 under the Home Rule of the Faroe Islands. ... Posti, or, in full, Suomen Posti Oyj (Finnish for The Finnish Post), is the Finnish state-owned postal service. ... La Poste is the mail service of France, which also operates postal services in the French Overseas Departments of Réunion, Guadeloupe, Martinique and French Guiana, and the territorial collectivities of Saint Pierre and Miquelon and Mayotte. ... Deutsche Post Tower in Bonn Deutsche Post AG (ISIN: DE0005552004, LSE: DPO) is a German post, logistics and courier headquartered in Bonn, previously the German state-owned mail monopolist. ... 1871 Lithographed Set Magyar Posta (Hungarian for Hungarian Post) is the post office of Hungary. ... Íslandspóstur is the national postal service of Iceland. ... The An Post logo An Post (English literal translation: The Post, English official title: The Post Office) is the State-owned provider of postal services in Ireland. ... Poste Italiane S.p. ... Jersey Post is the official state-owned mail service for the island of Jersey. ... VAS Latvijas Pasts is the company responsible for the Latvian postal service. ... Royal TPG Post wall box TNT N.V. (Euronext: TNT, NYSE: TP) is a provider of global express delivery, logistics, and mail services. ... Posten is the name of the Norwegian postal service. ... Mailbox in Jelenia Góra Poczta Polska is Polish public post service. ... CTT is a Portuguese mail company. ... PoÅŸta Română (Romanian Post) is the state-owned postal service of Romania. ... Logo Postal office at Arbat street, Moscow Russian Post (Russian: ), is the Unitary enterprise postal service of Russia. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... PoÅ¡ta Srbije is the national postal service for Serbia. ... Correos is the national postal service of Spain, as recognized by the International Postal Union. ... A Swedish postman in Husby, Stockholm. ... Swiss Post is the postal service of Switzerland. ... Royal Mail is the national postal service of the United Kingdom. ...

Oceania

Country Company
Australia Australia Post
New Zealand New Zealand Post

Australia Post is the government-owned postal service of Australia. ... New Zealand Post Limited is the dominant postal operator in New Zealand. ...

Notes

  1. ^ In Australia, Canada and the U.S., mail is commonly used both for the postal system and for letters and parcels; in New Zealand, post is more common for the postal system and mail for the material delivered; in the UK, post prevails in both senses. However, the British, American, Australian, and Canadian national postal services are called, respectively, Royal Mail, United States Postal Service, Australia Post, and Canada Post; in addition, such fixed phrases as post office or junk mail are found throughout the English-speaking world.
  2. ^ HERODOTUS, Herodotus, trans. A.D. Godley, vol. 4, book 8, verse 98, pp. 96–97 (1924).
  3. ^ [1] First Issues Collectors Club (retrieved 25 September)
  4. ^ Dorn 2006: 145
  5. ^ Prasad 2003: 104
  6. ^ Mazumdar 1990: 1
  7. ^ Aiyangar 2004: 302
  8. ^ Peabody 2003: 71
  9. ^ Lowe 1951: 134
  10. ^ a b Mote 1978: 450
  11. ^ "mail, n.2". Dictionary.com (Unabridged (v 1.1)). (2007). 
  12. ^ Direct Marketing Association article (registration required)
  13. ^ http://www.p22.com/projects/mail.html
  14. ^ a b c Back when spies played by the rules, Deccan Herald, Jan 17, 2006. Retrieved 29 Dec 2006.
  15. ^ Article 8(1): Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence. [2]PDF (179 KiB)
  16. ^ CIA Intelligence Collection About Americans (400 KB download)
  17. ^ City Mail, Sweden
  18. ^ Frycklund, Jonas Private Mail in Sweden, Cato Journal Vol. 13, No. 1 (1993)PDF (511 KiB)
  19. ^ http://www.usps.com/send/waystosendmail/senditwithintheus/firstclassmail.htm
  20. ^ USPS Press Release.
  21. ^ U.S. Postal Service Governors Issue Decision on Repositionable Notes.

Royal Mail is the national postal service of the United Kingdom. ... USPS and Usps redirect here. ... Australia Post is the government-owned postal service of Australia. ... Canada Post Corporation (French: Société canadienne des postes) is a Canadian postal service operated as a crown corporation. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

References

  • Peabody, Norman (2003). Hindu Kingship and Polity in Precolonial India. Cambridge University Press. ISBN ISBN 0521465486. 
  • Dorn, Harold; MacClellan, James E. (2006). Science and Technology in World History: An Introduction. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN ISBN 0801883598. 
  • Aiyangar, Sakkottai Krishnaswami; S. Krishnaswami A. (2004). Ancient India: Collected Essays on the Literary and Political History of Southern India. Asian Educational Services. ISBN ISBN 0801883598. 
  • Prasad, Prakash Chandra (2003). Foreign Trade and Commerce in Ancient India. Abhinav Publications. ISBN ISBN 8170170532. 
  • Lowe, Robson (1951). Encyclopedia of British Empire Postage Stamps (v. III). 
  • Mazumdar, Mohini Lal (1990). The Imperial Post Offices of British India. Calcutta: Phila Publications. 
  • Mote, Frederick W.; John K . Fairbank (1998). The Cambridge History of China. Cambridge University Press. ISBN ISBN 0521243335. 

John Harry Robson Lowe (7 January 1905 London – 19 August 1997 Bournemouth), Robbie to his friends, was a professional philatelist, stamp dealer and stamp auctioneer. ...

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Encyclopedia4U - E-mail - Encyclopedia Article (1257 words)
E-mail, or email, is short for "electronic mail" (as opposed to conventional mail, in this context also called snail mail) and refers to composing, sending, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems.
Thus, for example, the path...!bigsite!foovax!barbox!me directs people to route their mail to machine bigsite (presumably a well-known location accessible to everybody) and from there through the machine foovax to the account of user me on barbox.
Mails can be stored either on the client or on the server side.
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