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Encyclopedia > Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Mahmūd Ahmadinejād
محمود احمدی‌نژاد
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

Incumbent
Assumed office 
03 August 2005
Vice President Parviz Davoodi
Leader Ali Khamenei
Preceded by Mohammad Khatami

Born 28 October 1956 (1956-10-28) (age 51)
Aradan, Iran
Political party Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran
Religion Shia Islam

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad [1] (born October 28, 1956)[2] is the sixth and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. He became president on August 6, 2005 after winning the 2005 presidential election by popular vote.[3] Before becoming president, he was the mayor of Tehran. He is the highest directly elected official in the country; however, according to Article 113[4] of Constitution of Iran, he has less total power than the Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, who is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces of Iran and has the final word in all aspects of foreign and domestic policies.[4][5][6] Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Wikinews has related news: Iranian President Ahmadinejad speaks at Columbia University On June 29, 2005, shortly after Mahmoud Ahmadinejad won the Iranian presidential election, several major news outlets publicized various criticisms against him. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The President of Iran is the head of government. ... Open seat redirects here. ... August 3 is the 215th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (216th in leap years), with 150 days remaining. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Parviz Davoodi (born 1952 in Tehran) is the current First Vice President of Iran (since September 11, 2005). ... Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی کس ننه ای Ä€yatollāh Seyyed `AlÄ« ḤoseynÄ« KhāmeneÄ«) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamenei,[1] is the current Supreme Leader of Iran and was the president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ... Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی Seyyed Moḥammad KhātamÄ«), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Aradan is a village near the city of Garmsar in Semnan Province, central Iran. ... The Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran (ائتلاف آبادگران ایران اسلامی; Etelāf-e Ābādgarān-e Īrān-e Eslāmī), usually shortened to Abadgaran (آبادگران), is an alliance of some conservative Iranian political parties and organizations. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Mahmoud_Ahmadinejad. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The President of Iran is the head of government. ... Iran (Persian: ایران) is a Middle Eastern country located in southwestern Asia. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Iranian presidential election of 2005, the ninth presidential election in Iranian history, took place in two rounds, first on June 17, 2005, and then as a run-off on June 24. ... This article is about the political process. ... This is a list of Mayors of Tehran: Gholamhossein Karbaschi Morteza Alviri Ahmad Malekmadani Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Categories: Incomplete lists | Mayors of Tehran ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran The Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran[1] [2] abolished the Constitution of 1906. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: رهبر انقلاب, Rahbare Enqelab,[1] lit. ... For other uses, see Ayatollah (disambiguation). ... Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی کس ننه ای Ä€yatollāh Seyyed `AlÄ« ḤoseynÄ« KhāmeneÄ«) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamenei,[1] is the current Supreme Leader of Iran and was the president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... The Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: ) include the IRIA (Persian: ) , the IRGC (Persian: ) , and the Police Force[1] (Persian: ). These forces total about 545,000 active personnel. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... In government, domestic policy is the counterpart of foreign policy; it consists of all government policy decisions, programs, and actions that primarily deal with internal matters, as opposed to relations with other nation-states. ...


Ahmadinejad is a critic of the George W. Bush Administration and supports strengthened relations with Russia, Venezuela, Syria, and the Persian Gulf states.[7][8][9] He has said Iran's nuclear program is for peaceful purposes and has refused to end enrichment despite United Nations Security Council resolutions.[10] The Presidency of George W. Bush, also known as the George W. Bush Administration, began on his inauguration on January 20, 2001 as the 43rd and current President of the United States of America. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf. ... This article is about Irans nuclear power program. ... // Isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific isotopes of a chemical element by removing other isotopes, for example separating natural uranium into enriched uranium and depleted uranium. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ...


He has called for the dissolution of the state of Israel and its government, which he does not regard as legitimate or representative of the population,[11][12] and for free elections in the region. He believes that the Palestinians need a stronger voice in the region's future.[13][14] One of his most controversial statements was one in which, according to some translations, he called for Israel to be "wiped off the map," but interpretations of this statement vary widely.[15][16][17][18][19] He has also been condemned for describing the Holocaust as a myth.[15][20] which has led to accusations of anti-semitism.[21] In response to these criticisms, Ahmadinejad said “No, I am not anti-Jew, I respect them very much.”[22] The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... This article is about the political process. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... For the term Palestinian as applied to Jews, see Palestinian Jew. ... During his presidency, Mahmoud Ahmadinejads speeches and statements have contributed to increased tensions between Iran and Israel, and between Iran and a few Western nations. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ...


During his presidency, Ahmadinejad launched a gas rationing plan to reduce the country's fuel consumption and cut the interest rate for private and public banking facilities.[23][24] 2007 Gas Rationing Plan in Iran was launched by president Mahmoud Ahmadinejads cabinet to reduce that countrys fuel consumption. ... An interest rate is the price a borrower pays for the use of money he does not own, and the return a lender receives for deferring his consumption, by lending to the borrower. ...

Contents

Background

Mahmoud Saborjhian[25] the son of a blacksmith, was born near Garmsar in the village of Aradan[26] on October 28, 1956.[2] In the 1950s, Ahmadinejad and his family moved from Aradan to Tehran in search of more economic prosperity;[25] It was during this time period that the Saborjhian family changed its name to Ahmadinejad.[27] Garmsar (Persian: گرمسار) is a city in the Semnan province or Iran, located about 82km southeast of Tehran). ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ...


In 1976, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad took Iran's national university entrance exams (concours). He ranked 132nd out of 400,000 participants that year,[28] and soon enrolled in Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST) as an undergraduate student of civil engineering.[26] He was accepted to a Master of Science program at the same school in 1984[26] and received his doctorate in 1987[26] in engineering and traffic transportation planning.[26][29] During his doctoral studies at Tehran, he was the governor of Ardabil province. Ahmadinejad would eventually become a lecturer and faculty at the university in 1989.[27][30] The Iran University of Science and Technology (دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران) is a research institution and university of engineering and science in Iran, offering both undergraduate and postgraduate studies. ... In some educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelors degree. ... The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate course of one or two years in duration. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... Sheikh Safis Tomb Ardabil (Persian: اردبیل; also known as: Ardebil; ancient name: Artavil) is one of 30 provinces of Iran. ...


After the Islamic Revolution, he became a member of the Office for Strengthening Unity,[31] an organization developed to prevent students from sympathizing or allying with the budding Mojahedin-e Khalq.[31] After Saddam Hussein invaded Iran, Ahmadinejad joined the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution[29] and served in their intelligence and security apparatus.[29] Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... The Office for Strengthening Unity (Persian: دفتر تحکیم وحدت, Daftar-e Tahkim-e Vahdat), created in 1979, is a progressive Iranian student organization, supporting democracy and secularism in Iran. ... “MKO” redirects here. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ... The Islamic Revolutions Guards Corps (IRGC) (Persian: , Sepáh e Pásdárán e Enqeláb e Eslámi; literally: Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution), more commonly known in Iran as Sepah (Corps), also known as the Revolutions Guards (Pásdárán e...


Ahmadinejad is married, with two sons and one daughter.[32] One of his sons formerly studied at the Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic).[33] Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT, دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر), formerly named Tehran Polytechnic, is a leading research university in Iran. ...


Early political career

Ahmadinejad began his political career as governor to both Maku and Khoy in the West Azerbaijan province during the 1980s.[29] He eventually became the Governor General of Kurdistan for two years[27][30] and was appointed as the governor general of the Ardabil province in 1993.[27] In 1997, Mohammad Khatami removed Ahmadinejad from his position in Ardabil, and Ahmadinejad returned to teaching.[29] In 2003,[30] however, Ahmadinejad returned to the political scene after the City Council of Tehran appointed him to the position of mayor,[29] after a 12 percent turnout led to the election of Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran's conservative candidates in Tehran. Region of the old Armenia c. ... Khoy (Persian: , Azerbaijani: , Kurdish: ), also spelt Khoi or Khvoy, is a city in West Azarbaijan Province, Iran. ... Ardabil (Persian: اردبیل; Azeri: اردبيل; also known as Ardebil; Old Persian: Artavil) is a historical city in north-western Iran. ... Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی Seyyed Moḥammad KhātamÄ«), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ... The Islamic City Council of Tehran (شورای اسلامی شهر تهران) is the elected council that presides over the city of Tehran, elects the Mayor of Tehran, and budgets the Municipality of Tehran. ... This is a list of Mayors of Tehran: Gholamhossein Karbaschi (1988-1998) Morteza Alviri Ahmad Malekmadani Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (2003-2005) Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf (since 2005) This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran (ائتلاف آبادگران ایران اسلامی; Etelāf-e Ābādgarān-e Īrān-e Eslāmī), usually shortened to Abadgaran (آبادگران), is an alliance of some conservative Iranian political parties and organizations. ... Conservative may refer to: Conservatism, political philosophy A member of a Conservative Party Conservative extension, premise of deductive logic Conservativity theorem, mathematical proof of conservative extension Conservative Judaism britney spears Category: ...


During his mayorship, he reversed many of the changes put into effect by previous moderate and reformist mayors, putting religious emphasis on the activities of the cultural centers founded by previous mayors, going on the record with the separation of elevators for men and women in the municipality offices,[34] and suggesting that the bodies of those killed in the Iran-Iraq War be buried in major city squares of Tehran. Such actions were coupled with an emphasis on charity, such as distributing free soup to the poor. “Moderates” redirects here. ... Socialist Reformism is the belief that gradual democratic changes in a society can ultimately change a societys fundamental economic relations and political structures. ... For other uses, see Elevator (disambiguation). ... Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ... In the United States, a town square is an area in the middle of a traditional town consisting of a park or plaza and surrounded by small shops. ... Allegorical personification of Charity as a mother with three infants by Anthony van Dyck // The word charity entered the English language through the O.Fr word charite which was derived from the Latin caritas.[1] In Christian theology charity, or love (agapē), is the greatest of the three theological virtues...


After two years as mayor, Ahmadinejad was shortlisted in a list of 65 finalists for World Mayor in 2005.[35] Out of the 550 nominated mayors, nine were from Asia.[35] World Mayor is a now annual award organized by City Mayors, which intends to raise the profile of mayors worldwide, as well as honour those who have served their communities well and who have contributed to the well-being of cities, nationally and internationally. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


He was not widely known when he entered the presidential election campaign, although he had already made his mark for rolling back earlier reforms. After his election to the presidency, Ahmadinejad resigned from his post as the mayor of Tehran. His resignation was accepted on June 28, 2005. is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


He is a member of the Central Council of the Islamic Society of Engineers, but his key support is inside the Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran (Abadgaran).[36] The Islamic Society of Engineers (جامعهٔ اسلامی مهندسین), ISE, is a political organization in Iran, a member of the conservative alliance. ... The Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran (ائتلاف آبادگران ایران اسلامی; Etelāf-e Ābādgarān-e Īrān-e Eslāmī), usually shortened to Abadgaran (آبادگران), is an alliance of some conservative Iranian political parties and organizations. ...


Presidency

Presidential campaign

Ahmadinejad generally sent mixed signals about his plans for his presidency, which some US-based analysts considered to have been designed to attract both religious conservatives and the lower economic classes.[37] His campaign motto was, "It's doable and we can do it." For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ...


In his presidential campaign, Ahmadinejad took a populist approach, with emphasis on his own modest life, and compared himself with Mohammad Ali Rajai, the second president of Iran. Ahmadinejad said he had plans to create an "exemplary government for the people of the world" in Iran. He is a self-described "principlist"; that is, acting politically based on Islamic and revolutionary principles. One of his goals has been "putting the petroleum income on people's tables", referring to Iran's oil profits being distributed among the poor.[38] Look up Populism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mohammad Ali Rajai Mohammad Ali Rajai (محمد علی رجائی in Persian) (1933 – August 30, 1981) was the second elected President of Iran, after serving as Prime Minister under Abolhassan Banisadr. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Petro redirects here. ...


Ahmadinejad was the only presidential candidate who spoke out against future relations with the United States. In an interview with Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting a few days before the elections, Ahmadinejad accused the United Nations of being "one-sided, stacked against the world of Islam."[39] He has openly opposed the veto power given to the five permanent members of the UN Security Council. In the same interview, he stated, "It is not just for a few states to sit and veto global approvals. Should such a privilege continue to exist, the Muslim world with a population of nearly 1.5 billion should be extended the same privilege." He has defended Iran's nuclear program and has accused "a few arrogant powers" of attempting to limit Iran's industrial and technological development in this and other fields. IRIB is based in northern Tehran, adjacent to Mellat Park, where almost all studios and offices are centered at. ... UN redirects here. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ... The UN Security Council Veto Power is a power wielded solely by the 5 permanent members of the UN Security Council, enabling them to void any Security Council resolution regardless of the level of general support. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... This article is about Irans civilian nuclear program. ...


During his campaign for the second round, he said, "We didn't participate in the revolution for turn-by-turn government.…This revolution tries to reach a world-wide government." Also he has mentioned that he has an extended program on fighting terrorism in order to improve foreign relations and has called for greater ties with Iran's neighbours and ending visa requirements between states in the region, saying that "people should visit anywhere they wish freely. People should have freedom in their pilgrimages and tours."[40] Terrorist redirects here. ... Entry visa valid in Schengen treaty countries. ... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ...


As confirmed by Ahmadinejad, his ideological and spiritual mentor is Ayatollah Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi, a senior cleric from Qom. Mesbah is the founder of Haghani School of thought in Iran. He and his team strongly supported Ahmadinejad's campaign during presidential election in 2005.[41] In Iran many people believe that he was not completely elected by winning the election fairly and some vote rigging may have occurred. For other uses, see Ayatollah (disambiguation). ... Ayatollah Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi (Persian: محمد تقی مصباح یزدی) (born 1934) is an Iranian Shia cleric and politician. ... Haghani Circle is a school of thought in Iran made by a group of clerics based in the holy city of Qom and headed by Ayatollah Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi, an influential cleric and theologician. ...


Election and Term

Ahmadinejad became the sixth president of Iran on August 6, 2005, after winning 62 percent of the vote in the run-off poll, nearly twice that of former president Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani considering the fact that the population of voters have risen Three folds of the time of Mr Rafsanjani. He received the presidential authorization from Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei on August 3, 2005.[42] During the authorization ceremony he kissed Khamenei's hand in demonstration of his loyalty to him.[43][44] Ahmadinejad's current term will end in August 2009, but he will be eligible to run for one more term in office in the 2009 presidential elections. The Iranian presidential election of 2005, the ninth presidential election in Iranian history, took place in two rounds, first on June 17, 2005, and then as a run-off on June 24. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Runoff voting is a voting system used in single-seat elections. ... Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Persian: اکبر هاشمی رفسنجانی Akbar HāshemÄ« RafanjānÄ«), Hashemi Bahramani (هاشمی بهرمانی) born on August 25, 1934, is an influential Iranian politician, and is currently serving as the Chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council of Iran. ... The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: رهبر انقلاب, Rahbare Enqelab,[1] lit. ... Ayatollah Ali Khamenei Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی خامنه‌ای) (born July 15, 1939) is the Iran. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Presidential elections will be held in Iran in mid-2009, although if the Parliaments bill to amalgamate the parliamentary and presidential election (which was rejected by the Guardian Council) passes in the Expediency Council, they will take place in early 2009. ...


Cabinet

Ministry Candidate minister
Agricultural Mohammad Reza Eskandari
Commerce Masoud Mirkazemi
Communication and Information Technology Mohammad Soleimani
Cooperatives Alireza Ali-Ahmadi
Culture and Islamic Guidance Mohammad Hossein Saffar Harandi
Defense and Logistics Mostafa Mohammad-Najjar
Economy and Financial Affairs Samsami
Education
Energy Parviz Fattah
Foreign Affairs Manouchehr Mottaki
Health and Medical Education Kamran Bagheri Lankarani
Housing and Urban Development Mohammad Saeedikia
Industries and Mines
Intelligence Gholam Hossein Mohseni-Ejehei
Interior Mostafa Pourmohammadi
Justice Gholam Hossein Elham
Labour and Social Affairs Mohammad Jahromi
Petroleum Gholam Hossein Nozari
Roads and Transportation Mohammad Rahmati
Science, Research, and Technology Mohammad Mehdi Zahedi
Welfare and Social Security

Ahmadinejad was required to introduce his suggested ministers to Majlis for a vote of approval in 15 days, after which Majlis would have one week to decide about the ministers. Masoud Zaribafan, Ahmadinejad's campaign manager, mentioned that Ahmadinejad would probably introduce his cabinet on the same day of his vow, but that did not happen. The list was finally sent to the Majlis on August 14, 2005. Mohammad Reza Eskandari is the Minister of Agriculture of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... We dont have an article called Mohammad Soleimani Start this article Search for Mohammad Soleimani in. ... Mohammad-Hossein Saffar-Harandi is the new Minister of Culture and Islamic Guidance of Iran. ... Mostafa Mohammad Najjar (Persian: ) is the defense minister of Iran. ... Parviz Fattah is an Iranian-Azeri politician, former member of Revolutionary Guard and Irans Minister of Energy in Mahmoud Ahmadinejads cabinet. ... The first Minister of Foreign Affairs (or Foreign Minister) of Iran was Mirza Abdolvahhab Khan Motamed od-Dowleh Neshat who served between 1819 and 1824. ... Manouchehr Mottaki (Persian: منوچهر متکی) (born 1953 in Bandar Gaz) is the Iranian Minister of Foreign Affairs appointed by President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. ... Kamran Bagheri Lankarani, M.D. is Irans Minister of Health and Medical Education. ... The Ministry of Intelligence (وزارت اطلاعات), is the primary intelligence agency of Iran. ... Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Ejeie is the current head of the Ministry of Intelligence in Iran, also known as SVAMA and was appointed by the current president of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, on August 24, 2005. ... Hojatoll-Islam Mostafa Pour-Mohammadi is an important mullah and politician in the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Gholam-Hossein Elham, Ph. ... Mohammad Mehdi Zahedi (Born in 1953 Kerman) is an Iranian politician and the minister of science and technology in Mahmoud Ahmadinejads cabinet. ... Majlis (مجلس) is an Arabic term used to describe various types of formal legislative assemblies in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The parliament had held a private meeting on August 5, when Ahmadinejad presented a shortlist of three or four candidates for each ministry, to know the opinion of Majlis about his candidates. The final list was officially sent to the Majlis on August 14. After a few days of heavy discussions in Majlis, which started on August 21, 2005, Ahmadinejad's cabinet was voted for on August 24.[45] is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The new board of ministers held its first meeting on August 25 in Mashhad, promising to keep frequent meetings to cities other than Tehran. Mashhad (Persian: , literally the place of martyrdom) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shiah world. ...


2006 Councils and Assembly of Experts election

Main article: Iranian councils election, 2006

Ahmadinejad’s team lost the 2006 city council elections, and his spiritual mentor, Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi, was ranked sixth on the country's Assembly of Experts.[46] In the first nationwide election since Ahmadinejad took office, allies of the Iranian President failed to dominate election returns for the Assembly of Experts and local councils. Turnout of about 60 percent was reported, and the results suggested a voter shift toward more moderate policies. An editorial in the Kargozaran, an independent daily newspaper, remarked "The results show that voters have learned from the past and concluded that we need to support.. moderate figures." An Iranian political analyst said that "this is a blow for Ahmadinejad and Mesbah Yazdi's list."[47] The Iranian City and Village Councils election of 2006 took place on December 15, 2006. ... The Iranian Assembly of Experts election of 2006 is planned to take place on December 15, 2006. ... Ayatollah Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi (Persian: محمد تقی مصباح یزدی) (born 1934) is an Iranian Shia cleric and politician. ... The Assembly of Experts (also Assembly of Experts for the Leadership) of Iran (Persian: مجلس خبرگان رهبری, Majles-e-Khobregan), is a congressional body for selecting the Supreme Leader and supervising his activities. ... A newspaper is a lightweight and disposable publication (more specifically, a periodical), usually printed on low-cost paper called newsprint. ... Not to be confused with Mohammad Yazdi. ...


Domestic policy

Economic policy

See also: Economy of Iran

In Ahmadinejad's first two years as president, Iran's real GDP growth fell short of the 7.5 percent growth that was expected by the central bank, despite a highly educated and young labor force and a growing middle class. Inflation and unemployment have both increased and the government has continued a cycle of unsustainable spending and poor economic management.[48] The economy of Iran is a transition economy where a continuing strong labour force growth unmatched by commensurate real economic growth is driving up unemployment to a level considerably higher than the official estimate of 11%.[8] According to experts, annual economic growth above five per cent would be needed... In economics, the gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of the amount of the economic production of a particular territory in financial capital terms during a specific time period. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a group of workers who act collectively to address common issues. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ...


Ahmadinejad has increased spending by 25 percent and has supported subsidies for food and gasoline. He also refused a gradual increase of petrol prices, saying that after making necessary preparations, such as a development of public transportation system, the government will free up petrol prices after five years.[49] In June 2006, 50 Iranian economists wrote a letter to Ahmadinejad that criticized his price interventions to stabilize prices of goods, cement, government services, and his decree issued by the High Labor Council and the Ministry of Labor that proposed an increase of workers' salaries by 40 percent. Ahmadinejad publicly responded harshly to the letter and denounced the accusations.[50][51] In economics, a subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by a government to lower the price faced by producers or consumers of a good, generally because it is considered to be in the public interest. ... Petrol redirects here. ... A taxi serving as a bus Public transport comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. ... June 2006 : ← - January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Extraordinary renditions. ... Good. ... For other uses, see Cement (disambiguation). ...


Ahmadinejad has called for "middle-of-the-road" compromises with respect to Western-oriented capitalism and the socialist character of the Iranian Revolution. Current political conflicts with the United States has caused the central bank to fear increased capital flight due to global isolation. These factors have prevented an improvement of infrastructure and capital influx, despite high economic potential.[48] For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... This article outlines economic, trade, scientific and military Sanctions against Iran, which has been put forward by the U.S. government, or under U.S. pressure. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ...


A poll by Baztab showed that 62.5 percent of those that voted for Ahmadinejad would not elect him again.[citation needed] Among those that did not vote for him in the first election, only 3.5 percent said they would consider voting for him in the next election.[52] At one point in 2006, vegetables prices tripled and housing prices doubled within a matter of months, leading to calls by Iranians for Ahmadinejad to focus on the economy rather than disputes with the West.[citation needed] Mohammad Khoshchehreh, a member of Iranian parliament that campaigned for Ahmadinejad, said that his government "has been strong on populist slogans, but weak on achievement."[53] Iranian peoples are peoples who speak an Iranian language and/or belong to the Iranian stock. ... Mohammad Khoshchehreh is an Iranian economist and right-wing politician. ... مجلس شورای اسلامی - Iranian Parliament مجلس شورای اسلامی - Iranian Parliament The Majlis (مجلس), which means parliament or assembly in the Arabic language, was the lower house of the Iranian Legislature from 1906 to 1979. ...


President Ahmadinejad has changed almost all of his economic ministers, including oil, industry and economy, since coming to power in 2005. On April 2008, Davoud Danesh Jaafari who acted as minister of economy in President Ahmadinejad’s cabinet, harshly criticized Ahmadinejad’s economic policy: “During my time, there was no positive attitude towards previous experiences or experienced people and there was no plan for the future. Peripheral issues which were not of dire importance to the nation were given priority. Most of the scientific economic concepts like the effect of liquidity on inflation were put in question.", the minister said in an interview with Fars News Agency. [54] In response to these criticisms, Ahmadinejad accused his minister of not being "a man of justice" and declared that the solution to Iran’s economic problem is "the culture of martyrdom". [55]


Family planning and population policy

See also: Family planning in Iran

In October 2006, Ahmadinejad opposed encouraging families to limit themselves to just two children, stating that Iran could cope with 50 million more people than the current 70 million. In remarks that have drawn criticism, he told MPs he wanted to scrap existing birth control policies which discouraged Iranian couples from having more than two children. Critics said his call was ill-judged at a time when Iran was struggling with surging inflation and rising unemployment, estimated at around 11 percent. Ahmadinejad’s call for an increased birth rate is reminiscent of a call Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini made in 1979. The policy was effective in increasing population growth, but was eventually reversed in response to the resultant economic strain.[56] During the Iran-Iraq war between 1980 and 1988, a large population was viewed as a comparative advantage for Iran. ... October 2006 is the tenth month of that year and has yet to occur. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... For other uses, see Birth control (disambiguation). ... Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (Persian:  , RÅ«ullāh MÅ«sawÄ« KhumaynÄ«) (September 24, 1902[1][2] – June 3, 1989) was a senior Shia Muslim scholar, marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. ...


Housing

The first legislation to emerge from his newly formed government was a 12 trillion Rial (US$1.3 billion) fund called "Reza's Compassion Fund"[57] which was named after Shi'a Imam Ali al-Rida. By tapping into Iran's oil revenues, Ahmadinejad's government says that this fund will be used to help young people to get jobs and to afford marriage, as well to assist in purchasing their own homes. [58]The fund also sought charitable donations, and includes a boards of trustees in each of Iran's 30 provinces. The new plan is subject to the approval of the conservative-held Majlis, but is seen as unlikely to encounter strong opposition, given that deputies in the Majles have also shown an eagerness to focus on resolving economic problems. The legislation was in response to the costly housing in urban centres which is pushing up the national average marital age (currently around 25 years for women and 28 years for men). In 2006 the Iranian parliament rejected the fund. However, Ahmadinejad ordered the administrative council to execute the plan.[59] The Rial or Riyal (ريال in Arabic and Persian) most often refers to the currencies of Iran and several countries on the Arabian Peninsula: Iranian rial, the official currency of Iran Omani rial, the official currency of Oman Qatari riyal, the official currency of Qatar Saudi riyal, the official currency of... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam only with regards to the aspect of political leadership. ... Imām ˤAlī ibn-Mūsā ar-Riđā (Arabic: علي بن موسى الرضا) (January 1, 766 - May 26, 818) was the eighth Shīˤa Imām. ... Synthetic motor oil For other uses, see Oil (disambiguation). ... For the tax agency in Ireland of the same name, see Revenue Commissioners. ... The word trustee is a legal term that refers to a holder of property on behalf of a beneficiary. ... Image:DSC--Majlis5323. ...


Human rights

See also: Human rights in Islamic Republic of Iran

Several human rights organizations and many Western governments have criticized Ahmadinejad's human rights record. Today, the state of human rights in Iran continues to be generally considered a source of significant concern. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


According to Human Rights Watch, "Respect for basic human rights in Iran, especially freedom of expression and assembly, deteriorated in 2006. The government routinely tortures and mistreats detained dissidents, including through prolonged solitary confinement." Human Rights Watch described the source of human rights violations in contemporary Iran as coming from the Judiciary, accountable to Ali Khamenei, and from members directly appointed by Ahmadinejad. Again according to Human Rights Watch, "Since President Ahmadinejad came to power, treatment of detainees has worsened in Evin Prison as well as in detention centers operated clandestinely by the Judiciary, the Ministry of Information, and the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps."[60] Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Solitary confinement, colloquially referred to as the hole (or in British English the block), is a punishment in which a prisoner is denied contact with any other persons, excluding guards, chaplains and doctors. ... Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی کس ننه ای Ä€yatollāh Seyyed `AlÄ« ḤoseynÄ« KhāmeneÄ«) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamenei,[1] is the current Supreme Leader of Iran and was the president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ... Evin Prison (زندان اوین) is a prison in Iran, located in the north of Tehran. ...


Responses to dissent have varied. Human Rights Watch writes that "[t]he Ahmadinejad government, in a pronounced shift from the policy under former president Mohammed Khatami, has shown no tolerance for peaceful protests and gatherings." In December 2006, Ahmadinejad advised officials not to disturb students who engaged in a protest during a speech of his at the Amirkabir University of Technology in Tehran,[61][62] although speakers at other protests have included among their complaints that there had been a crackdown on dissent at universities since Ahmadinejad was elected.[63] President Khatami Hojjat ol-Eslam Seyyed Mohammad Khatami (Persian: حجت‌الاسلام سید محمد خاتمی; born October, 1943 in Ardakan) is the fifth and current President of Iran. ... December 2006 is the twelfth and final month of the year and will begin in 2 day(s). ... Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT, دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر), formerly named Tehran Polytechnic, is a leading research university in Iran. ...


In April 2007, the Tehran police, which is under Khamenei's supervision, began a crackdown on women with "improper hijab." This led to criticism from associates of Ahmadinejad.[64] Ahmadinejad summoned the head of the police and asked him to clarify the reasons for the act.[65] April 2007 is the fourth month of the year. ... “Higab” redirects here. ...


Universities

In 2006, the Ahmadinejad government reportedly forced numerous Iranian scientists and university professors to resign or to retire. It has been referred to as "second cultural revolution".[66][67] The policy has been said to replace old professors with younger ones.[68] Some university professors received letters indicating their early retirement unexpectedly.[69] In November 2006, 53 university professors had to retire from Iran University of Science and Technology.[70] Islamic Cultural Revolution was when the universities were shut down after the Islamic Revolution in 1979 in Iran for about two years to purge them of Western influences and bring them in line with Islam. ... 67 die and about 300,000 people are affected by floods in Ethiopias Somali Region of Ogaden after the Shabelle River bursts its banks. ... The Iran University of Science and Technology (دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران) is a research institution and university of engineering and science in Iran, offering both undergraduate and postgraduate studies. ...


In 2006, Ahmadinejad's government applied a 50 percent quota for male students and 50 percent for female students in the university entrance exam for medicine, dentistry and pharmacy. The plan was supposed to stop the growing presence of female students in the universities. In a response to critics, Iranian minister of health and medical education, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani argued that there are not enough facilities such as dormitories for female students. Masoud Salehi, president of Zahedan University said that presence of women generates some problems with transportation. Also, Ebrahim Mekaniki, president of Babol University of Medical Sciences, stated that an increase in the presence of women will make it difficult to distribute facilities in a suitable manner. Bagher Larijani, the president of Tehran University of Medical Sciences made similar remarks. According to Rooz Online, the quotas lack a legal foundation and are justified as support for "family" and "religion."[71] Look up quota in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This article is about the dental profession. ... For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ... Kamran Bagheri Lankarani, M.D. is Irans Minister of Health and Medical Education. ... Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Mazandaran province, Persia (Iran). ... Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), is the largest and most prestigious medical school of Iran. ... Rooz (Persian:روز, literally day) is a Persian and English news website. ...


Nuclear program

See also: Nuclear program of Iran

Ahmadinejad has been a vocal supporter of Iran's nuclear program, and has insisted that it is for peaceful purposes. He has repeatedly emphasized that building a nuclear bomb is not the policy of his government. He has said that such a policy is "illegal and against our religion."[72][73] He also added at a January 2006 conference in Tehran that a nation with "culture, logic and civilization" would not need nuclear weapons, and that countries that seek nuclear weapons are those which want to solve all problems by the use of force.[74] This article is about Irans nuclear power program. ... This article is about Irans nuclear power program. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... January 2006 : ← - January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad accuses European nations of trying to complete the Holocaust by creating a Jewish camp Israel in the Middle East. ...


In April 2006, Ahmadinejad announced that Iran had successfully refined uranium to a stage suitable for the nuclear fuel cycle. In a speech to students and academics in Mashhad, he was quoted as saying that Iran's conditions had changed completely as it had become a nuclear state and could talk to other states from that stand.[75] On April 13, 2006, Iranian news agency, IRNA, quoted Ahmadinejad as saying that the peaceful Iranian nuclear technology would not pose a threat to any party because "we want peace and stability and we will not cause injustice to anyone and at the same time we will not submit to injustice."[76] April 2006 : ← - January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Marcos Pontes, Brazils first astronaut, reaches the International Space Station. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, is the progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages. ... Mashhad (Persian: , literally the place of martyrdom) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shiah world. ... The Islamic Republic News Agency, or IRNA, is the official news agency of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ...


Despite Ahmadinejad's vocal support for the program, the office of the Iranian president is not responsible for nuclear policy. It is instead set by the Supreme National Security Council. The council includes two representatives appointed by the Supreme Leader, military officials and members of the executive, judicial, and legislative branches of government. It reports directly to Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, who issued a fatwa against nuclear weapons in 2005.[77] Supreme National Security Council is a body within the Islamic Republic of Iran the secretary whereof is Ali Larijani. ... Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی کس ننه ای Ä€yatollāh Seyyed `AlÄ« ḤoseynÄ« KhāmeneÄ«) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamenei,[1] is the current Supreme Leader of Iran and was the president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ... A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), is a considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ...


Khamenei usually refrains from speaking in public, but has criticized Ahmadinejad's "personalization" of the nuclear issue.[78] However, sources close to the president have said the article comes from Rafsanjani.[79] Ahmadinejad vowed on February 23, 2008, that Iran will not be held back from developing its peaceful nuclear program, and said the "nuclear technology is ... the sort of technology that has been monopolized by a few countries".[80] President Rafsanjani Akbar Hashemi Bahramani (Persian: اکبر هاشمی بهرمانی), famously known as Hashemi Rafsanjani (هاشمی رفسنجانی) (born August 25, 1934) is one of the most influential Iranian politicians, and the Chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council of Iran. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Domestic criticism of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

Accusations of corruption

Ahmadinejad has been criticized for attacking private “plunderers” and “corrupt officials,” while engaging in "cronyism and political favouritism". Many of his close associates have been appointed to positions for which they have no obvious qualifications, and "billion dollar no-bid contracts" have been awarded to the Islamic Revolution Guard Corps (IRGC), an organization that he is strongly associated with.[81] Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... The Islamic Revolutions Guards Corps (IRGC) (Persian: , Sepáh e Pásdárán e Enqeláb e Eslámi; literally: Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution), more commonly known in Iran as Sepah (Corps), also known as the Revolutions Guards (Pásdárán e...


Criticisms of statements and social issues

In 2005, Khamenei responded to Ahmadinejad's alleged remark that Israel should be "wiped off the map" by saying that "the Islamic Republic has never threatened and will never threaten any country."[82] Moreover, Khamenei's main adviser in foreign policy, Ali Akbar Velayati, refused to take part in Ahmadinejad's Holocaust conference. In contrast to Ahmadinejad's remarks, Velayati said that the Holocaust was a genocide and a historical reality.[83] During his presidency, Mahmoud Ahmadinejads speeches and statements have contributed to increased tensions between Iran and Israel, and between Iran and a few Western nations. ... Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty... Ali Akbar Velayati Ali Akbar Velayati (علی‌اکبر ولایتی; born June 25, 1945 in Tehran) is an Iranian politician and a pediatrician, currently an Advisor in International Affairs to the Supreme Leader. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ...


In June 2007, Ahmadinejad was criticized by some Iranian parliament members over his remark about Christianity and Judaism. According to Aftab News Agency, Ahmadinejad stated: "In the world, there are deviations from the right path: Christianity and Judaism. Dollars have been devoted to the propagation of these deviations. There are also false claims that these [religions] will save mankind. But Islam is the only religion that [can] save mankind." Some members of Iranian parliament criticized these remarks as being fuels to religious war.[84][85] June 2007 is the sixth month of that year. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Conservative MP Rafat Bayat has blamed Ahmadinejad for a decline in observance of the required hijab for women, calling him "not that strict on this issue".[86] Ahmadinejad has been also accused of indecency by people close to Rafsanjani,[87] after he publicly kissed the hand of a woman who used to be his school teacher.[88] “Higab” redirects here. ... President Rafsanjani Akbar Hashemi Bahramani (Persian: اکبر هاشمی بهرمانی), famously known as Hashemi Rafsanjani (هاشمی رفسنجانی) (born August 25, 1934) is one of the most influential Iranian politicians, and the Chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council of Iran. ...


His criticism of the West has been controversial among some members of Iranian Parliament, leading to attempts to compel him to go to the parliament to answer questions.[89]


Criticisms from other political parties

Many reformist and independent political parties, including some of those that boycotted the first round of the presidential election, have called for an alliance against Ahmadinejad, calling it "a national alliance against fascism."[citation needed] Critics, including some independent ones, have mentioned that while there are some similarities between the actions and rising of supporters of Ahmadinejad with those of fascism, the movement differs because it is neither nationalistic nor racist and lacks corporatism. Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence and seek to achieve a millenarian national rebirth by placing the interests of the individual as subordinate to that of the nation or race and promoting... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian: corporativismo) refers to a political or economic system in which power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, social, cultural, and professional groups. ...


Some dissident groups also accuse him of being a ruthless interrogator and torturer in the 1980s.[90]


December 2006 student protest

On December 11, 2006, some students disrupted a speech by Ahmadinejad at the Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic) in Tehran. According to the Iranian Student News Agency, students set fire to photographs of Ahmadinejad and threw firecrackers. The protesters also chanted "death to the dictator." It was the first major public protest against Ahmadinejad since his election. In a statement carried on the students' Web site,[citation needed] they announced that they had been protesting the growing political pressure under Ahmadinejad, also accusing him of corruption, mismanagement, and discrimination. The statement added that "the students showed that despite vast propaganda, the president has not been able to deceive academia." It was also reported that some students were angry about the International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust.[91] is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT, دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر), formerly named Tehran Polytechnic, is a leading research university in Iran. ... The Iranian Students News Agency (ISNA)[1] was established in 1999(1)In addition to reporting on issues important to students, it also reports on national topics. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ... Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ... Participants on the first day of the conference. ...


In response to the students' slogans, the president said: "We have been standing up to dictatorship so that no one will dare to establish dictatorship in a millennium even in the name of freedom. Given the scars inflicted on the Iranian nation by agents of the US and British dictatorship, no one will ever dare to initiate the rise of a dictator."[92] It was reported that even though the protesters broke the TV cameras and threw hand-made bombs at Ahmadinejad,[93] the president asked the officials not to question or disturb the protesters.[94] In his blog, Ahmadinejad described his reaction to the incident as "a feeling of joy" because of the freedom that people enjoyed after the revolution.[95]


One thousand students also protested the day before to denounce the increased pressure on the reformist groups at the university. One week prior, more than two thousand students protested at Tehran University on the country's annual student day,[96] with speakers saying that there had been a crackdown on dissent at universities since Ahmadinejad was elected.[97][91] The University of Tehran (دانشگاه تهران in Persian), also known as Tehran University, is the oldest and largest university of Iran. ...


Ahmadinejad-Haddad Adel conflict over Iranian constitution

In 2008, a serious conflict emerged between Iranian President and the head of parliament over three laws approved by Iranian parliament: "the agreement for civil and criminal legal cooperation between Iran and Kyrgyzstan", "the agreement to support mutual investment between Iran and Kuwait", and "the law for registration of industrial designs and trademarks". The conflict was so serious that the Iranian leader stepped in to resolve the conflict. Ahmadinejad wrote a letter to parliament speaker Gholam Ali Hadad Adel, furiously denouncing him for an "inexplicable act" in bypassing the presidency by giving the order to implement legislation in an official newspaper.[98] President Ahmadinejad accused the the head of parliament of violating Iranian constitutional law. He called for legal action against the Parliament speaker. [99][100] Haddad-Adel responded to Ahmadinejad accusing him of using inappropriate language in his remarks and letters. [101] Haddad-Adel Gholam Ali Haddad-Adel (غلامعلی حداد عادل in Persian) born in 1945 in Tehran, Iran, is the chairman of the Islamic Consultative Assembly. ...


Foreign relations

Relations with the United States

See also: United States-Iran relations
Ahmadinejad in New York

During Ahmadinejad's presidency, Iran and US have had the most high-profile contact in almost 30 years. Iran and the US froze diplomatic relations in 1980 and had no direct diplomatic contact until May 2007.[102] Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Political relations between Iran (Persia) and the United States began when the Shah...


While the U.S has linked its support for a Palestinian state to acceptance of Israel's "right to exist," Iran's President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad has retorted that Israel be moved to Europe instead.[103] The U.S. has sent clear signals to Iran that its posturing against Israel's right to exist is unacceptable, leading to increased speculation of a U.S. led attack on Iran's nuclear facilities. Even though Iran has denied involvement in Iraq, President Bush has warned of "consequences," sending a clear message to Iran that the U.S may take military action against it.[104] The Bush administration considers Iran to be the world's leading state supporter of terrorism. Iran has been on the U.S. list of state sponsors of international terrorism since 1984,[105][106][107] a claim that Iran and Ahmadinejad have denied. Right to exist, Israel’s Supporters of the state of Israel argue that Jews constitute a nation and are entitled to a homeland in which they are a majority, that Israel is the only such state, and that hence Israel has “a right to exist as a Jewish state” articulated... The Bush administration includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ... The U.S. list of state sponsors of international terrorism is a list, compiled by the U.S. State Department, of countries that the United States sees as sponsoring terrorism. ...


On May 8, 2006, Ahmadinejad sent a personal letter to President Bush to propose "new ways" to end Iran's nuclear dispute.[108] U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and National Security Adviser Stephen Hadley both reviewed the letter and dismissed it as a negotiating ploy and publicity stunt that did not address U.S. concerns about Iran's nuclear program.[109] A few days later at a meeting in Jakarta, Ahmadinejad said, "the letter was an invitation to monotheism and justice, which are common to all divine prophets."[110] Wikisource has original text related to this article: Mahmoud Ahmadinejads letter to George W. Bush (8 May 2006) On May 8, 2006, Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad sent a letter directly to United States President George W. Bush that proposed new ways to end the dispute over Irans development... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... Stephen J. Hadley Stephen John Hadley (born February 13, 1947 in Toledo, Ohio) is the current U.S. Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (commonly referred as National Security Advisor) for President George W. Bush. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ...


Ahmadinejad invited President George W. Bush to a debate at the United Nation General Assembly, which was to take place on September 19, 2006. The debate was to be about Iran's right to enrich uranium. The invitation was promptly rejected by White House spokesman Tony Snow, who said "There's not going to be a steel-cage grudge match between the President and Ahmadinejad."[111] George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... UN redirects here. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. ... Robert Anthony Tony Snow (born June 1, 1955) was the third White House Press Secretary for President George W. Bush, succeeding Scott McClellan and Ari Fleischer in that role. ... A bloodied Kane inside a current style WWE cage. ...


On November 2006, Ahmadinejad wrote an open letter to the American people,[112] representing some of his anxieties and concerns. He stated that there is an urgency to have a dialog because of the activities of the US administration in the Middle East, and that the US is concealing the truth about current realities.[113]


The United States Senate passed a resolution warning Iran about attacks in Iraq 97-0. On September 26, 2007, the United States Senate passed a resolution 76-22 and labeled an arm of the Iranian military as a terrorist organization, which, according to Senator Jim Webb, gives the Bush administration de facto authorization to use military force against Iran. De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


In September 2007 Ahmadinejad visited New York to address the General Assembly of the United Nations. Prior to this he gave a speech at the Columbia University, where the university president Lee Bollinger — clearly stung by criticism for hosting Ahmadinejad — used his introduction to excoriate the Iranian leader as everything from a "cruel and petty dictator" to "astonishingly uneducated." Taking questions from Columbia faculty and students who attended his address, Ahmadinejad answered a query about the treatment of gays in Iran by saying: "We don't have homosexuals like in your country. We don't have that in our country. We don't have this phenomenon; I don't know who's told you we have it."


In a speech given in April 2008, Ahmadinejad described the September 11, 2001 attacks as a "suspect event." He minimized the attacks by saying all that had happened was, "a building collapsed." He claimed that the death toll was never published, that the victims' names were never published, and that the attacks were used subsequently as pretext for the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. [114] A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...


Relations with Russia

See also: Iran-Russia relations

Ahmadinejad has moved to strengthen relations with Russia, setting up an office expressly dedicated to the purpose in October 2005. He has worked with Vladimir Putin on the nuclear issue, and both Putin and Ahmadinejad have expressed a desire for more mutual cooperation on issues involving the Caspian Sea.[115] More recently, Iran has been increasingly pushed into an alliance with Moscow due to the controversy over Iran's nuclear program. By late December 2007, Russia began to deliver enriched batches of nuclear fuel to Iran as a way of persuading Iran to end self-enrichment. Relations between Russia and Persia (pre-1935 Iran), officially commenced in 1592, with the Safavids in power. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


Relations with Venezuela

See also: Iran-Venezuela relations

Ahmadinejad has sought to develop ties with other world leaders that are also opposed to American hegemony and influence like Hugo Chavez of Venezuela.[116] Venezuela voted in favor of Iran's nuclear program before the United Nations,[117] and both regimes have sought to develop more bilateral trade.[118] As of 2006, the ties between the two countries are strategic rather than economic;[116] Venezuela is still not one of Iran's major trading partners.[119] Since the Elections of Hugo Chavez in 1999. ... American military intervention since 1950. ... President Hugo Chávez Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (born July 28, 1954) has been the President of Venezuela since 1999. ... UN redirects here. ...


Regional relations

Immediately after the Islamic Revolution, Iran's relations with most of its neighbors, particularly those with large Shiite minorities, were severely strained.[120] Ahmadinejad's priority in the region has been to improve ties with most of Iran's neighbors in order to strengthen Iran's status and influence in both the Middle East and Greater Muslim World.[121][122] Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...


Turkey has always been an important ally in the region due to its ties to the West through NATO, Israel,[123] and its potential entry into the European Union. Ahmadinejad made a visit to Ankara in order to reinforce relations with Turkey immediately after the 2007 NIE report was released.[124] Relations were briefly strained after President Abdullah Gul had stated that he wants the atomic threat to be eliminated from the region, perhaps a hint to Iran;[125] however, business has remained cordial between the two countries.[126] Despite US disapproval, Turkey recently signed a multibillion dollar gas line deal with Tehran in late 2007.[126][127] This article is about the military alliance. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after İstanbul. ... The Islamic Republic of Irans nuclear program goes back many decades. ... Abdullah Gül (José Cruz/ABr, 2006) Abdullah Gül with US National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice while visiting the White House in July 2003 Abdullah Gül (born 29 October 1950) is a Turkish politician. ...


Iran's relations with the Arab states have been complex, partly due to the Islamic Revolution[120] of decades ago, as well as more recent efforts by the United States to establish a united front against Iran over the nuclear issue and War on Terror.[128] Ahmadinejad has sought reconciliation with the Arab states by encouraging bilateral trade and posturing for Iranian entry into the Gulf Cooperation Council.[129] Outside of the Gulf, Ahmadinejad has sought to reestablish relations with other major Arab states, most notably Egypt.[130] As of 2007, Iran did not have an open embassy there.[130] Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... The Islamic Republic of Irans nuclear program goes back many decades. ... This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11, 2001. ... ...


Iran's ties to Syria have been most notable in the West. Both nations have had to deal with international and regional isolation.[131] Further, they both have cordial ties to the militant group, Hezbollah,[132] and concerns over Iran-Syria relations were further exacerbated following the 2006 Lebanon War,[133] which both Ahmadinejad and President Assad claimed as a victory over Israel.[132] Iranian-Arab relations have always been very mixed. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... Belligerents Hezbollah Amal[1] LCP[2] PFLP-GC[3] Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Imad Mughniyeh Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[4] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ... Bashar al_Assad Bashar al_Assad (بشار الاسد) (born September 11, 1965) is the current President of Syria and the son of former President Hafez al-Assad. ...


Ahmadinejad has also attempted to develop stronger, more intimate ties with both Afghanistan and Pakistan to the East in order to ensure "regional stability."[134] In particular, Ahmadinejad is interested in more bilateral talks between Iran and both Afghanistan and Pakistan.[134] Moreover, Ahmadinejad's administration has taken part in establishing the "peace pipeline"; a pipeline from Iran that will eventually fuel both Pakistan and India. In theory, the plan will help to integrate South Asian economies, and, by consequence, calm tensions between Pakistan and India.[135] The Iran-India gas pipeline dubbed the Peace pipeline is a proposed 2,775 km gas pipeline project to deliver gas from Iran to Pakistan and India. ... Puxi side of Shanghai, China. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...


Ahmadinejad met foreign minister Elmar Mammadyarov of Azerbaijan in order to discuss increased cooperation between the two nations.[136] Mammadyarov also expressed desire to expand the North-South corridor between Iran and Azerbaijan and to launch cooperative projects regarding power plant construction.[136] Iran has also redoubled efforts to forge ties with Armenia; during Ahmadinejad's visit in October 2007 the discussions were focused on developing energy ties between the two countries.[137] A power station (also power plant) is a facility for the generation of electric power. ...


Iraq

Ahmadinejad is the first Iranian president to visit Iraq.[138] Ahmadinejad, in Baghdad March 2, 2008 for the start of a historic two-day trip, said "visiting Iraq without the dictator (Saddam Hussein) is a good thing."[139]Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, heading home after a two-day visit to Iraq, again touted his country's closer relations with Iraq and reiterated his criticism of the United States.[140] is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... , sometimes also transcribed into English as Mahmud, Mahmood, Ahmadinezhad, Ahmadi-Nejad, Ahmadi Nejad (Persian: ; born October 28, 1956), is the sixth president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ...


Holocaust denial and accusations of antisemitism

Ahmadinejad expressing his gratitude to a Rabbi from Hamedan
See also: Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Israel

On December 2005, Ahmadinejad made several controversial statements about the Holocaust, calling it "a myth" and criticizing European laws against Holocaust denial.[141] In an interview with Der Spiegel Ahmadinejad again questioned the Holocaust several times, insisting there were "two opinions" on it. When asked if the Holocaust was a myth, he responded "I will only accept something as truth if I am actually convinced of it."[142] In an appearance at Columbia University, he stated that the Holocaust should be left open to debate and research like any other historical event.[143] Alongside with his statements, he said "In a war like WWII, such casualties should be inevitable. Why would the 6 million deaths of the Jews be more significant than the casualties of the other races?" Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان , Kurdish: Ekbatan) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ... Wikinews has related news: Iranian President Ahmadinejad speaks at Columbia University On June 29, 2005, shortly after Mahmoud Ahmadinejad won the Iranian presidential election, several major news outlets publicized various criticisms against him. ... During his presidency, Mahmoud Ahmadinejads speeches and statements have contributed to increased tensions between Iran and Israel, and between Iran and a few Western nations. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ...


In response to these statements and actions, a variety of sources, including the U.S. Senate,[144][verification needed] have accused Ahmadinejad of antisemitism. On December 11, 2006 the "International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust" opened with widespread condemnation.[145] The conference, called for by and held at the behest of Ahmadinejad,[146] was described in Western media as a "Holocaust denial conference" or a "meeting of Holocaust deniers",[147] though Iran maintained that it was not a Holocaust denial conference.[148] The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... Participants on the first day of the conference. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ...


See also

The politics and government of Iran takes place in the framework of a republic with Islamist ideology. ... Haghani Circle is a school of thought in Iran made by a group of clerics based in the holy city of Qom and headed by Ayatollah Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi, an influential cleric and theologician. ... Ayatollah Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi (Persian: محمد تقی مصباح یزدی) (born 1934) is an Iranian Shia cleric and politician. ... On May 19, 2006, the National Post of Canada published pieces by Amir Taheri and Chris Wattie claiming that the Iranian parliament had passed a sumptuary law mandating a national dress code for all Iranians, Muslim and non-Muslim alike. ...

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    • "Statement on Holocaust Denial Conference Sponsored by Iranian Regime", The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, December 12, 2006.
  148. ^ "Berlin Counters Holocaust Conference" Spiegel Online. Accessed 27-12-2006.

Farsi redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... ... 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Further reading

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  • Harris, David [11] (2004). The Crisis: the President, the Prophet, and the Shah—1979 and the Coming of Militant Islam. Little, Brown. 

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... David Harris was a prominent anti-Vietnam War protestor, president of the Associated Students of Stanford University, and later, the leader of many anti-draft groups. ...

External links

  • Video Archive of President Ahmadinejad
  • Official website of the President of Iran
  • Blog of President Ahmadinejad
  • Why Ahmadinejad Loves New York on Time.com (a division of TIME Magazine)
  • Interview with Ahmadinejad in TIME Magazine
  • Biography by CIDOB Foundation
  • Time.com's People Who Mattered 2006 Photoessay "Iranian Paradox"
Political offices
Preceded by
Mohammad Khatami
President of Iran
2005 – present
Incumbent
Persondata
NAME Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION 6th President of Iran
DATE OF BIRTH October 28, 1956
PLACE OF BIRTH Aradan, Iran
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH

Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی Seyyed Moḥammad KhātamÄ«), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ... The President of Iran is the head of government. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Iranian presidential election of 2005, the ninth presidential election in Iranian history, took place in two rounds, first on June 17, 2005, and then as a run-off on June 24. ... Wikinews has related news: Iranian President Ahmadinejad speaks at Columbia University On June 29, 2005, shortly after Mahmoud Ahmadinejad won the Iranian presidential election, several major news outlets publicized various criticisms against him. ... Participants on the first day of the conference. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Mahmoud Ahmadinejads letter to George W. Bush (8 May 2006) On May 8, 2006, Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad sent a letter directly to United States President George W. Bush that proposed new ways to end the dispute over Irans development... The President of Iran is the head of government. ... Abolhassan Banisadr Abolhassan Banisadr (Persian: ابوالحسن بنی‌صدر;born March 22, 1933) was the first elected President of Iran after the 1979 Iranian Revolution. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی کس ننه ای Ä€yatollāh Seyyed `AlÄ« ḤoseynÄ« KhāmeneÄ«) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamenei,[1] is the current Supreme Leader of Iran and was the president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ... Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Persian: اکبر هاشمی رفسنجانی Akbar HāshemÄ« RafanjānÄ«), Hashemi Bahramani (هاشمی بهرمانی) born on August 25, 1934, is an influential Iranian politician, and is currently serving as the Chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council of Iran. ... Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی Seyyed Moḥammad KhātamÄ«), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... The President of Iran is the head of government. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Aradan is a village near the city of Garmsar in Semnan Province, central Iran. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Mystical Menace of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad - article by Daniel Pipes (1521 words)
Ahmadinejad appears to have in 2004 secretly instructed the city council to build a grand avenue to prepare for the Mahdi.
Ahmadinejad flummoxed his audience of world political leaders by concluding his address with a prayer for the Mahdi's appearance: "O mighty Lord, I pray to you to hasten the emergence of your last repository, the Promised One, that perfect and pure human being, the one that will fill this world with justice and peace."
Ahmadinejad, the top priority is to challenge America, and specifically to create a powerful model state based on "Islamic democracy" by which to oppose it.
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Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad has described the Holocaust as "a myth" and suggested that Israel be moved to Europe, the United States, Canada or Alaska.
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad is the sixth president of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Ahmadinejad was appointed mayor of Tehran on May 3, 2003 and was elected president on June 24, 2005.
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