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Encyclopedia > Mahayana
Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. Jiuhua in China's Anhui province. The image's many arms represent the bodhisattva's limitless capacity and commitment to helping other beings.
Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. Jiuhua in China's Anhui province. The image's many arms represent the bodhisattva's limitless capacity and commitment to helping other beings.

Mahayana (Sanskrit: mahāyāna "Great Vehicle", Chinese: 大乘, Dàshèng; Japanese: 大乗, Daijō; Korean: 대승, Dae-seung; Vietnamese: Đại Thừa; Tibetan: theg-pa chen-po; Mongolian: yeke kölgen) is a classification of Buddhism used in several different senses. Download high resolution version (489x744, 159 KB)Image of a bodhisattva, relief, from Jiuhuashan in Chinas Anhui province. ... Download high resolution version (489x744, 159 KB)Image of a bodhisattva, relief, from Jiuhuashan in Chinas Anhui province. ... Kuan Yin (觀音; Pinyin: Guān YÄ«n) is the bodhisattva of compassion as venerated by East Asian Buddhists, usually as a female. ... Jiuhuashan is one amongst the four holiest mountains of China associated with Buddha. ... Anhui (Chinese: 安徽; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: An-hui; Postal System Pinyin: Ngan-hui, Anhwei or An-hwei) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ...

  1. The most common, found in English dictionaries, is as one of two major branches of Buddhism existing today, the other being Theravada (上座部).
  2. However, the normal usage in the Mahayana in sense 1 is to refer to a level of spiritual motivation and practice,[1] namely the Bodhisattvayana, the Bodhisattva's vehicle.[2].
  3. The term Mahayana is also often used in a sense exclusive of the Vajrayana, which is itself used in a variety of senses.

The source of the name Mahayana is polemical[3], having its origin in a debate about what were the real teachings of the Buddha[4]. Although the Mahayana movement claims that it was founded by the Buddha himself, the consensus of the evidence indicates that it originated in South India in the first century CE[5]. It was propagated through China by Kushan Lokaksema (Ch: 支谶, Zhi Chan), the first translator of a Mahayana sutra into Chinese. A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Look up Polemic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Media:Example. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... SÅ«tra (sex) (Sanskrit) or Sutta (Pāli) literally means a rope or thread that holds things together, and more metaphorically refers to an aphorism (or line, rule, formula), or a collection of such aphorisms in the form of a manual. ...


The earliest mention of "Mahayana" occurs in the Lotus Sutra between the first century BCE and the first century CE.[6] Mahayana scriptures are based on the belief that Buddha is still teaching and, announced in the Lotus Sutra, that a Buddha is immortal. The earliest Mahayana scriptures probably originated during the first century CE in the Indian subcontinent, and spread to China during the second century CE.[7] Only in the fifth century CE did Mahayana become an influential school in India.[8] In the course of its history, Mahayana spread throughout East Asia. The main countries in which it is practiced today are China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. The Lotus Sutra or Sutra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma (Sanskrit: Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra; 妙法蓮華經 Chinese: Miàofǎ Liánhuā Jīng; Japanese: Myōhō Renge Kyō; Korean: Myobeomnyeonhwagyeong) is one of the most popular and influential Mahāyāna sutras in East Asia and... Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that were originally put in writing starting in the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools. ... The Lotus Sutra or Sutra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma (Sanskrit: Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra; 妙法蓮華經 Chinese: Miàofǎ Liánhuā Jīng; Japanese: Myōhō Renge Kyō; Korean: Myobeomnyeonhwagyeong) is one of the most popular and influential Mahāyāna sutras in East Asia and... Look up immortal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that were originally put in writing starting in the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ...


From the point of view of Tantric Buddhism, Mahayana is part of what the Tantricists deem to be exoteric Buddhism. From Mahayana developed the esoteric Vajrayana found mainly in Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, and Mongolia, but also in adjacent areas of China, Japan, India, and Russia. The Vajrayana school claims to encompass all previous schools. Exoteric knowledge is knowledge that is publicly available, in contrast with esoteric knowledge, which is kept from everyone except the initiated. ... Etymology Esoteric is an adjective originating during Hellenic Greece under the domain of the Roman Empire; it comes from the Greek esôterikos, from esôtero, the comparative form of esô: within. It is a word meaning anything that is inner and occult, a latinate word meaning hidden (from which... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


The most complete Mahayana canon today exists in the Chinese language, mostly in translation from Sanskrit originals. In East Asia, Mahayana scriptures and terminology are traditionally written in Classical Chinese. Two mainstream subsets of Mahayana Buddhism today are Amidism, or Pure Land (淨土宗), and Zen Buddhism (禪/禅宗). Look up canon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that began to be compiled from the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools, and survive predominantly in primary translations in Chinese and Tibetan from original texts in Sanskrit or Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. ... Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese is a traditional style of written Chinese based on the grammar and vocabulary of very old forms of Chinese , making it very different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. ... The Buddha Amitabha, 13th century, Kamakura, Japan. ... The Buddha Amitabha, 13th century, Kamakura, Japan. ... A woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, (Japan, 1887) depicting Bodhidharma the founder of Chinese Zen. ...

Contents

Doctrine

Part of a series on
Buddhism
A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ...



Image File history File links Lotus-buddha. ...

History of Buddhism
The History of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ...

Timeline of Buddhism
Buddhist councils
563 BCE: Siddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini, Ancient India. ... // Main article: First Buddhist council Ananda reciting the Sutta Pitaka According to the scriptures of all Buddhist schools, the first Buddhist Council was held soon after the nirvana of the Buddha under the patronage of king Ajatasatru, and presided by the monk Mahakasyapa, at Rajagaha (todays Rajgir). ...

Foundations
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...

Four Noble Truths
Noble Eightfold Path
Buddhist Precepts
Nirvāṇa · Three Jewels
The Four Noble Truths (Pali: Cattāri ariyasaccāni, Sanskrit: Catvāri āryasatyāni, Chinese: Sìshèngdì, Thai: อริยสัจสี่, Ariyasaj Sii) are one of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings. ... The Dharma wheel, often used to represent the Noble Eightfold Path The Noble Eightfold Path (Pāli: Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo; Sanskrit: Ārya ṣṭāṅga mārgaḥ; Chinese: 八正道, Bāzhèngdào; Japanese: 八正道, Hasshōdō, Thai: อริยมรรคแปด, Ariya Mugg Paad, Mongolian qutuɣtan-u naiman gesigün-ü mör) is, in... Śīla (Sanskrit) or sīla (Pāli) is usually rendered into English as behavioral discipline, morality, or ethics. ... This article is about the Buddhist concept. ... Symbol of the triratna, as seen in the Sanchi stupa, 1st century BCE. The Three Jewels, also rendered as Three Treasures, Three Refuges or Triple Gem are the three things that Buddhists give themselves to, and in return look toward for guidance, in the process known as taking refuge. ...

Key Concepts
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...

Three marks of existence
Skandha · Cosmology
Saṃsāra · Rebirth · Dharma
Dependent Origination · Karma
According to the Buddhist tradition, all phenomena (dharmas) are marked by three characteristics, sometimes referred to as the Dharma seals, that is dukkha (suffering), anicca (impermanence), and anatta (non-Self). ... The skandhas (Sanskrit: Pāli: Khandha; literally: heap or bundle) are the five constituents or aggregates through which the functioning and experience of an individual is created according to Buddhist phenomenology. ... Buddhist cosmology is the description of the shape and evolution of the universe according to the canonical Buddhist scriptures and commentaries. ... Saṃsāra, the Sanskrit and Pāli term for continous movement or continuous flowing refers in Buddhism to the concept of a cycle of birth (jāti) and consequent decay and death (jarāmaraṇa), in which all beings in the universe participate and which can only be escaped... Rebirth in Buddhism is the doctrine that the consciousness of a person (as conventionally regarded), upon the death or dissolution of the aggregates (skandhas) which make up that person, becomes one of the contributing causes for the arising of a new group of skandhas which may again be conventionally considered... Dharma (Sanskrit: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pāli: धम्म) in Buddhism has two primary meanings: the teachings of the Buddha which lead to enlightenment the constituent factors of the experienced world In East Asia, the character for Dharma is 法, pronounced fǎ in Mandarin and hō in Japanese. ... The doctrine of Pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit: प्रतित्यसमुत्पादा) or Paticcasamuppāda (Pāli: पतिचसमुपादा; Tibetan: ; Chinese:緣起) Dependent Arising is an important part of Buddhist metaphysics. ... Karma (Sanskrit: कर्मन karman, Pāli: कमा Kamma) means action or doing; whatever one does, says, or thinks is a karma. ...

Major Figures
A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ...

Gautama Buddha
Disciples · Later Buddhists Image:StandngBuddha. ... A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ...

Practices and Attainment

Buddhahood · Bodhisattva
Four Stages of Enlightenment
Paramitas · Meditation · Laity
Media:Example. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... The four stages of enlightenment in Buddhism are the four degrees of approach to full enlightenment as an Arahant which a person can attain in this life. ... Pāramitā or PāramÄ« (Sanskrit and Pāli respectively): Perfection or Transcendent. In Buddhism & Jainism, the Paramitas refer to the perfection or culmination of certain practices. ... Buddhist meditation encompasses a variety of meditation techniques that develop mindfulness, concentration, tranquility and insight. ... In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ...

Regions
Buddhist beliefs and practices vary according to region. ...

Southeast Asia · East Asia
India · Sri Lanka · Tibet
Bhutan · Western Countries
Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... The Aomori Daibutsu (Big Buddha), Aomori, Japan. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... The Indo-Greek king Menander (155-130 BCE) is the first Western historical figure documented to have converted to Buddhism. ...

Branches

Theravāda · Mahāyāna
Vajrayāna · Early schools
Pre-sectarian Buddhism Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ... The term pre-sectarian Buddhism is used to refer to the Buddhism that existed before the various subsects of Buddhism came into being. ...

Texts
There are a great variety of Buddhist texts. ...

Pali Canon · Mahayana Sutras
Tibetan Canon Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that began to be compiled from the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools, and survive predominantly in primary translations in Chinese and Tibetan from original texts in Sanskrit or Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. ... The Tibetan Buddhist canon is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various sects of Tibetan Buddhism. ...

Comparative Studies
Culture · List of topics
Portal: Buddhism
The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include: Buddhist cuisine Buddhist art Buddharupa Art and architecture of Japan Greco-Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist sacred art Buddhist music Buddhist chant Shomyo Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Ahimsa Ajahn Ajahn Chah Ajanta Aksobhya Alexandra David-Néel...

Image File history File links Dharma_wheel. ...

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M a h a y a n a

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2448 pixel, file size: 2. ...

B u d d h i s m A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ...

Lands

Bhutan • China • Korea
Japan • Tibet • Vietnam
Taiwan • Mongolia

Doctrine The grounds of Koreas Buryeongsa Temple. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ...

Bodhisattva • Bodhicitta
Karuna • Prajna
Sunyata • Buddha Nature
Trikaya • Eternal Buddha

Mahayana Sutras Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... In Buddhist thought, bodhicitta (Ch. ... For the army colonel see Colonel Karuna. ... Prajñā (Sanskrit; Pali: paññā; Tibetan: shes rab, Chinese: 般若, banruo) meaning wisdom, cognitive acuity; or know-how -- but especially the Buddhist wisdom that is based on a realization of dependent origination, not-self, emptiness, etc. ... Śūnyatā, शून्यता (Sanskrit, Pali: suññatā), or Emptiness, is a term for a concept or set of concepts playing an important role in some versions of the Buddhist metaphysical critique, but also having important implications for Buddhist epistemology and phenomenology. ... Buddha-nature (originally in Sanskrit, Buddha-dhatu - Buddha Element, Buddha-Principle) is a doctrine important for many schools of Mahayana Buddhism. ... The Trikaya doctrine (Sanskrit, literally Three bodies or personalities; 三身 Chinese: Sānshén, Japanese: sanjin) is an important Buddhist teaching both on the nature of reality, and what a Buddha is. ... A stone image of the Buddha. ... Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that began to be compiled from the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools, and survive predominantly in primary translations in Chinese and Tibetan from original texts in Sanskrit or Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. ...

Prajnaparamita Sutra
Avatamsaka Sutra
Lotus Sutra
Nirvana Sutra
Vimalakīrti Sutra
Lankavatara Sutra

History Perfection of Wisdom is a translation of the Sanskrit term prajñā pāramitā (Hanzi. ... The Avataṃsaka SÅ«tra (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is one of the most influential scriptures in East Asian Buddhism. ... The Lotus Sutra or Sutra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma (Sanskrit: Saddharma PuṇḍarÄ«ka SÅ«tra; 妙法蓮華經 Chinese: MiàofÇŽ Liánhuā JÄ«ng; Japanese: Myōhō Renge Kyō; Korean: Myobeomnyeonhwagyeong) is one of the most popular and influential Mahāyāna sutras in East Asia and... See Mahaparinibbana Sutta for the sutta of the Pali Canon. ... Chinese :   維摩詰經 Sanskrit :   विमलकीर्ति-निर्देश-सूत् Vimalakirti Sutra This scripture is considered one of the most profound, as well as literarily excellent of the Indian Mahāyāna Buddhist sutras. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Silk Road • Nagarjuna
Asanga • Vasubandhu
Bodhidharma
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Few things can be said with certainty about Mahayana Buddhism, especially its early Indian form, other than that the Buddhism practiced in China, Korea, Tibet, and Japan is Mahayana Buddhism.[9][10] Mahayana can be described as a loosely bound bundle of many teachings, which was thus able to contain the various contradictions found between those differing teachings of whose elements it is comprised.[11] Blue-eyed Central Asian and East-Asian Buddhist monks, Bezaklik, Eastern Tarim Basin, 9th-10th century. ... For other uses, see Nagarjuna (disambiguation). ... Asanga (also called Aryasanga), born around 300 C.E., was a great exponent of the Yogacara. ... Vasubandhu (Sanskrit. ... Bodhidharma (early 6th century CE) was the Buddhist monk traditionally credited as founder of Zen. ...


Mahayana is a vast religious and philosophical structure. It constitutes an inclusive faith characterized by the adoption of new Mahayana sutras, in addition to the traditional Pali canon or Agama texts, and a shift in the basic purpose and concepts of Buddhism. Mahayana sees itself as penetrating further and more profoundly into the Buddha's Dharma. In the Mahaparinirvana Sutra, for instance, the Buddha tells of how his initial teachings on suffering, impermanence and non-Self were given to those who were still like "small children", unable to digest the full "meal" of Truth, whereas when those spiritual students "grow up" and are no longer satisfied by the preliminary ingredients of the Dharmic meal fed to them and require fuller sustenance, they are then ready to assimilate the full and balanced fare of the Mahayana teachings (Mahaparinirvana Sutra). For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ... Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that were originally put in writing starting in the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools. ... Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... Nirvana Sutra or Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra (Chinese: Niepan Jing (涅槃經); Japanese: Nehangyō (涅槃経)) is one of the major texts of Mahāyāna Buddhism. ... Nirvana Sutra or Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra (Chinese: Niepan Jing (涅槃經); Japanese: Nehangyō (涅槃経)) is one of the major texts of Mahāyāna Buddhism. ...


Mahayana Buddhist schools de-emphasize the traditional Theravada ideal of the release from individual Suffering (Dukkha) and attainment of Awakening (Nirvana). In Mahayana, the Buddha is seen as an eternal, immutable, inconceivable, omnipresent being. In addition, most Mahayana schools believe in a pantheon of quasi-divine Bodhisattvas (菩薩) that devote themselves to personal excellence, ultimate knowledge, and the salvation of humanity and all other sentient beings (animals, ghosts, demigods, etc.). Zen Buddhism is a school of Mahayana which often de-emphasizes the pantheon of Bodhisattvas and instead focuses on the meditative aspects of the religion. In Mahayana, the Buddha is seen as an idealized example, present in all times, in all beings, and in all places, and the Bodhisattvas come to represent the universal ideal of altruistic excellence. Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ... Dukkha (Pāli दुक्ख ; according to grammatical tradition from Sanskrit uneasy, but according to Monier-Williams more likely a Prakritized form of unsteady, disquieted) is a central concept in Buddhism, the word roughly corresponding to a number of terms in English including sorrow, suffering, affliction, pain, anxiety, dissatisfaction, discomfort, anguish, stress... Dukkha (Pāli दुक्ख ; according to grammatical tradition from Sanskrit uneasy, but according to Monier-Williams more likely a Prakritized form of unsteady, disquieted) is a central concept in Buddhism, the word roughly corresponding to a number of terms in English including sorrow, suffering, affliction, pain, anxiety, dissatisfaction, discomfort, anguish, stress... This article is about the Buddhist concept. ... This article is about the Buddhist concept. ... Prince Siddhartha Gautama as a bodhisattva, before becoming a Buddha. ... For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ... Prince Siddhartha Gautama as a bodhisattva, before becoming a Buddha. ... Prince Siddhartha Gautama as a bodhisattva, before becoming a Buddha. ...


The fundamental principles of Mahayana doctrine were based around the possibility of universal liberation from suffering for all beings (hence "great vehicle") and the existence of Buddhas and Bodhisattva embodying transcendent Buddha-nature (佛性) (the eternal Buddha essence present, but hidden and unrecognised, in all beings). Some Mahayana schools simplify the expression of faith by allowing salvation to be alternatively obtained through the grace of the Buddha Amitabha (阿彌陀佛) by having faith and devoting oneself to chanting to Amitabha. This devotional lifestyle of Buddhism is most strongly emphasized by the Pure Land schools and has greatly contributed to the success of Mahayana in East Asia, where spiritual elements traditionally relied upon chanting of a Buddha's name, of mantras or dharanis; reading of Mahayana Sutras and mysticism. Look up Liberation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Buddha-nature (originally in Sanskrit, Buddha-dhatu - Buddha Element, Buddha-Principle) is a doctrine important for many schools of Mahayana Buddhism. ... Amitabha Buddha pictured in the Ushiku Daibutsu in Japan Amitābha (Sanskrit: अमिताभः, Amitābhaḥ; Chinese: 阿彌陀佛, Ä’mítuó Fó; Japanese: 阿弥陀如来, Amida Nyorai; Vietnamese: 阿彌陀佛, A Di Ðà Phật; Tibetan: འོད་དཔག་མེད་; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Mongolian: CaÉ£lasi ügei gerel-tü) is a celestial buddha described in the scriptures of the Mahāyāna school... Nianfo (念佛. Chinese pinyin nian fo; Japanese: nembutsu; Korean: yeombul), literally mindfulness of the Buddha. ... The Buddha Amitabha, 13th century, Kamakura, Japan. ... In Tibet, many Buddhists carve mantras into rocks as a form of devotion. ... Dharani Kūkai advanced a general theory of language based on his analysis of two forms of Buddhist ritual language: dharani (dhāra. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


There is a tendency in Mahayana sutras to regard the adherence to Mahayana sutras as generating spiritual benefits greater than those which arise from being a follower of the non-Mahayana approaches to Dharma. Thus in the Srimala Sutra it is asserted by the Buddha that devotion to Mahayana is inherently superior in its virtues to the following of the Sravaka or Pratyekabuddha path: The Śrīmālā Sūtra (full title: ) is one of the main early Mahayana Buddhist texts that taught the theories of tathagatagarbha and the Single Vehicle, through the words of the Indian Queen Śrīmālā. It was translated to... Sravaka (Sanskrit śrāvaka; Tibetan nyan thos; Pali sāvaka) is a hearer, a term applied to the personal disciples of the Buddha, distinguished as mahā-śrāvaka; it is also applied to hearers, or disciples in general; but its general connotation relates it... A Pratyeka Buddha (Sanskrit pratyekabuddha; Pali pacceka-buddha) is one of three types of enlightened beings according to some schools of Buddhism (the others being the śrāvakas and Samyaksam-Buddhas). ...


" ...just as the magnificence of the finest thorough-bred among cattle outshines the rest of the herd in height and weight and so on, so even to uphold the Saddharma [True Dharma] of the Mahayana, even a little, is greater and vaster than all the wholesome dharmas of the Shravaka and Pratyekabuddha yanas [vehicles]." (The Shrimaladevi Sutra, tr. by Dr. Shenpen Hookham, Longchen Foundation, Oxford 1998, p.27).


Mahayana Buddhism can in general be characterized by:

“Philosophical” Mahayana tends to focus on the first three characteristics (universalism, enlightened wisdom, compassion) and, in some schools, the Buddha-nature, without showing much interest in supernatural constructions, while “devotional” Mahayana focuses mainly on salvation towards other-worldly realms (see, for example, the Sukhavati sutras). The Lotus Sutra or Sutra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma (Sanskrit: Saddharma PuṇḍarÄ«ka SÅ«tra; 妙法蓮華經 Chinese: MiàofÇŽ Liánhuā JÄ«ng; Japanese: Myōhō Renge Kyō; Korean: Myobeomnyeonhwagyeong) is one of the most popular and influential Mahāyāna sutras in East Asia and... See Mahaparinibbana Sutta for the sutta of the Pali Canon. ... Perfection of Wisdom is a translation of the Sanskrit term prajñā pāramitā (Hanzi. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... Buddha-nature (originally in Sanskrit, Buddha-dhatu - Buddha Element, Buddha-Principle) is a doctrine important for many schools of Mahayana Buddhism. ... Nirvana Sutra or Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra (Chinese: Niepan Jing (涅槃經); Japanese: Nehangyō (涅槃経)) is one of the major texts of Mahāyāna Buddhism. ... The Angulimaliya Sutra is a Buddhist scripture belonging to the Tathagatagarbha class of sutras, which teaches the reality of the Tathagatagarbha (Buddha-Essence) immanent within all beings and, indeed, within all phenomena. ... The Śrīmālā Sūtra (full title: ) is one of the main early Mahayana Buddhist texts that taught the theories of tathagatagarbha and the Single Vehicle, through the words of the Indian Queen Śrīmālā. It was translated to... The Tathagatagarbha Sutra is an influential and doctrinally striking Mahayana Buddhist scripture which treats of the existence of the Tathagatagarbha (Buddha-Matrix, Buddha-Embryo) within all sentient creatures. ... Buddha-nature (originally in Sanskrit, Buddha-dhatu - Buddha Element, Buddha-Principle) is a doctrine important for many schools of Mahayana Buddhism. ... Sukhavati can refer to: Pure Land, a branch of Buddhism. ...


Universalism

Mahayana traditions generally consider that attainment of the level of an arhat is not final. This is based on a subtle doctrinal distinction between the Mahayana and the early Buddhist schools concerning the issues of nirvana-with-remainder and nirvana-without-remainder. A Chinese Luohan statue from the Liao Dynasty in Hebei Province, China In the sramanic traditions of ancient India (most notably those of Mahavira and Gautama Buddha) arhat (Sanskrit) or arahant (Pali) signified a spiritual practitioner who had—to use an expression common in the tipitaka—laid down the burden... Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ...


The early schools considered that nirvana-without-remainder always follows nirvana-with-remainder (buddhas first achieve enlightenment and then, at 'death', mahaparinirvana) and that nirvana-without-remainder is final; whereas the Mahayana traditions consider that nirvana-without-remainder is always followed by nirvana-with-remainder – the state of attainment of the Hinayana arhat is not final, and is eventually succeeded by the state of buddhahood, or total Awakening. The death of the Buddha, or Mahaparinirvana, Gandhara 2-3rd century. ... Hinayana (Sanskrit: inferior vehicle; Chinese:小乘, Xiǎoshèng; Japanese: Shōjō) is a term coined by the Mahayana, which appeared publicly around the 1st century CE. There are differing views on the use and meaning of the term, both among scholars and within Buddhism. ... A stone image of the Buddha. ...


This distinction is most evident regarding doctrinal concerns about the capability of a buddha after nirvana (which is identified by the early schools as being nirvana-without-remainder). Most importantly, amongst the early schools, a samyaksambuddha is not able to directly point the way to nirvana after death. This is a major distinction between the early schools and the Mahayana, who conversely state that once a samyaksambuddha arises, he or she continues to directly and actively point the way to nirvana until there are no beings left in samsara (輪迴). Because the views of early schools and Mahayana differ in this respect, this is exactly why the Mahayana do not talk about a bodhisattva postponing nirvana, and exactly why the early schools do. This article is about the Buddhist concept. ... For other uses, see Samsara (disambiguation). ...


For example, the early schools held that Maitreya (彌勒菩薩) will not attain nirvana while Gautama Buddha's teachings still exist. In contrast, some Mahayana schools hold that Maitreya will be the next buddha manifest in this world and will introduce the dharma when it no longer exists; he is not postponing his nirvana to do so, and when he dies (or enters mahaparinirvana), he will likewise continue to teach the dharma for all time. Moreover, some Mahayana schools argue that although it is true that for this world-system, Maitreya will be the next buddha to manifest, there are an infinite number of world-systems, many of which have currently active buddhas or buddhas-to-be manifesting. This article is about the Buddhist bodhisattva Maitreya. ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ...


So, based on the doctrinal distinctions between the early schools and the Mahayana concerning the meaning of nirvana-without-remainder, we see two distinct views concerning the path of the bodhisattva, with the early schools stating that bodhisattvas postpone their own nirvana, whereas the Mahayana schools state that bodhisattvas attempt to reach nirvana as soon as possible, just as sravakas do, but with the motive to continue to effortlessly benefit all beings for all time due to the distinction of views regarding the ability of a buddha after mahaparinirvana. Sravaka (Sanskrit śrāvaka; Tibetan nyan thos; Pali sāvaka) is a hearer, a term applied to the personal disciples of the Buddha, distinguished as mahā-śrāvaka; it is also applied to hearers, or disciples in general; but its general connotation relates it...


Because the Mahayana traditions assert that eventually everyone will achieve samyaksambuddhahood or total enlightenment, the Mahayana is labelled universalist, whereas because the Nikaya traditions assert that there are three routes to nirvana, which are distinct, they are considered not to be universalist. Media:Example. ...


Bodhicitta

According to most Mahayana followers, pursuing only the basic path of Hinayana Buddhism is too narrow an aspiration, as it lacks the ultimate moral motivation (from the Mahayana perspective) of actively resolving to liberate all other beings from samsara, as well as oneself. Such a Hinayana approach to Dharma tends to focus on an ascetic, individual orientation towards the attainment of nirvana (rather than the ulta-altruistic quest of the Bodhisattva): suppression of desire, removal from the world, solitude. Its followers are referred to as śrāvakas (聲聞) and pratyekabuddhas (緣覺) in the Mahayana sutras. from http://www. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Hinayana (Sanskrit: inferior vehicle; Chinese:小乘, Xiǎoshèng; Japanese: Shōjō) is a term coined by the Mahayana, which appeared publicly around the 1st century CE. There are differing views on the use and meaning of the term, both among scholars and within Buddhism. ... For other uses, see Samsara (disambiguation). ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... Sravaka (Sanskrit śrāvaka; Tibetan nyan thos; Pali sāvaka) is a hearer, a term applied to the personal disciples of the Buddha, distinguished as mahā-śrāvaka; it is also applied to hearers, or disciples in general; but its general connotation relates it... A Pratyeka Buddha (Sanskrit pratyekabuddha; Pali pacceka-buddha) is one of three types of enlightened beings according to some schools of Buddhism (the others being the śrāvakas and Samyaksam-Buddhas). ...


The primary focus of some Mahayana schools is bodhicitta (菩提心), the vow to strive for buddhahood or awakened mind both for oneself and for the benefit of all other sentient beings. Being a high-level bodhisattva involves (according to Mahayana teachings) possessing a mind of great compassion conjoined with insight into reality (prajna, 般若), realizing emptiness (shunyata, 空), and/or the tathagatagarbha (buddhic essence of all things, 如來藏). With this mind the practitioner will realize the final goal of full Awakening, or buddhahood: an omniscient, blissful mind completely free from suffering and its causes, that is able to work tirelessly for the benefit of all living beings. Six virtues or perfections (paramitas) are listed for the bodhisattva: generosity, morality, patience, energy, meditation, and wisdom. In Buddhist thought, bodhicitta (Ch. ... Prajñā (Sanskrit; Pali: paññā; Tibetan: shes rab, Chinese: 般若, banruo) meaning wisdom, cognitive acuity; or know-how -- but especially the Buddhist wisdom that is based on a realization of dependent origination, not-self, emptiness, etc. ... Śūnyatā, शून्यता (Sanskrit), Suññatā (Pāli), stong pa nyid (Tibetan), Kuu, 空 (Japanese) qoÉ£usun (Mongolian), generally translated into English as Emptiness or Voidness, is a concept of central importance in the teaching of the Buddha, as a direct realization of Sunyata is required to achieve liberation from the cycle of... The Tathagatagarbha doctrine says that each sentient being contains the potential to become a Buddha. ... Media:Example. ... Pāramitā (Sanskrit) or Parami (Pāli): Perfection or Transcendent (lit. ... Dana is a Sanskrit and Pali word meaning generosity or giving. ... In Sanskrit, śīla is a term in Indian-derived systems such as Hinduism and Buddhism which is usually rendered into English as behavioral discipline, morality, or ethics (Tibetan tshul khrims). ... Kshanti or ká¹£anti (Sanskrit), (Khanti in Pali) often translated as patience, tolerance, forbearance, acceptance, or endurance, is one of the paramitas of Buddhism. ... Dhyāna is a term in Sanskrit which refers to a type or aspect of meditation. ... Prajñā (Sanskrit; Pali: paññā; Tibetan: shes rab, Chinese: 般若, banruo) meaning wisdom, cognitive acuity; or know-how -- but especially the Buddhist wisdom that is based on a realization of dependent origination, not-self, emptiness, etc. ...


Many “philosophical” schools and sutras of Mahayana Buddhism have focused on the nature of enlightenment and nirvana itself, from the Madhyamika (中観派) and its rival, Yogacara (瑜伽行), to the Tathagatagarbha (如來藏) teachings and Zen (禪宗). Madhyamaka is a Buddhist philosophical tradition that asserts that all phenomena are empty of self-nature or essence (Sanskrit: Svabhāva), that they have no intrinsic, independent reality apart from the causes and conditions from which they arise. ... Yogācāra (Sanskrit: yoga practice), also spelled yogāchāra, is an influential school of philosophy and psychology that developed in Indian Mahayana Buddhism starting sometime in the fourth to fifth centuries C.E., also commonly known as consciousness-only or mind-only (Sanskrit: cittamātra) (although scholars increasingly... The Tathagatagarbha doctrine says that each sentient being contains the potential to become a Buddha. ... For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ...


Compassion

Compassion, or Karuna (悲), is the other key concept of Mahayana, and is a necessity to Bodhicitta. Compassion is important in all schools of Buddhism, but is particularly emphasized in Mahayana. It is also linked to the idea that acquired merit can be transmitted to others. For the army colonel see Colonel Karuna. ...


The bodhisattvas are the main actors of compassion, Avalokitesvara (known in East Asia as Guan Yin, 觀音菩薩) being foremost among them. Although having reached enlightenment, bodhisattvas usually make a vow to postpone entering into nirvana (涅槃) until all other beings have also been saved. They devote themselves to helping others reach enlightenment. Avalokitesvara with a 1,000 arms, part of the Dazu Stone Carvings at Mount Baoding, Dazu County, Chongqing, China. ... For the Chen Dynasty empress whose Buddhist nun name was Guanyin, see Empress Shen Wuhua. ... This article is about the Buddhist concept. ...


The Mahayana idea that liberation is universal (see below) also allows for one to focus less on the release of personal suffering and more on humanity's salvation, and is consequently described to be more universally compassionate and caring for the welfare of others than other traditions of Buddhism.[citation needed]


A comparison between Hinayana (the name given by Mahayanists to the earlier Buddhist traditions) and Mahayana made by the 10th century Tibetan author Jé Gampopa in The Jewel Ornament of Liberation follows: Hinayana (Sanskrit: inferior vehicle; Chinese:小乘, Xiǎoshèng; Japanese: Shōjō) is a term coined by the Mahayana, which appeared publicly around the 1st century CE. There are differing views on the use and meaning of the term, both among scholars and within Buddhism. ... Gampopa or Dakpo Rinpoche (1016-1053) was the formost student of the Tibetan Buddhist teacher Milarepa. ...

‘Clinging to the well-being of mere peace' signifies the lower capacity [Hinayana] attitude wherein the longing to transcend suffering is focused on oneself alone. This precludes the cherishing of others and hence there is little development of altruism. [...] When loving kindness and compassion become part of one, there is so much care for other conscious beings that one could not bear to liberate oneself alone. [...] Master Manjushriikiirti has said: ‘A Mahayana follower should not be without loving kindness and compassion for even a single moment', and ‘It is not anger and hatred but loving kindness and compassion that vouchsafe the welfare of others'.

Expedient Means

The term Expedient Means (upāya) is first coined in the Lotus Sutra, but is generally accepted in all Mahayana schools of thought. It refers to any effective method which aids the attainment of Awakening. It does not necessarily mean that that particular method is "untrue", but simply refers to any means or stratagem that is conducive to spiritual growth and which leads the various types of beings to Awakening and Nirvana. An expedient means could thus be certain motivational words for a particular listener or even the noble Eightfold Path itself. Basic Buddhism (what Mahayana would term sravaka-yana or pratyekabuddha-yana) is an expedient method for getting people started on the noble Buddhic path and allowing them to advance quite far. But the path is not wholly traversed (according to the Mahayana) until the practitioner has striven for, and attained, Buddhahood for the liberation from unhappiness of all other sentient beings. In an ultimate sense, all of verbalised Dharma is an "expedient means", since Dharma or Truth cannot really be compressed into words or concepts. Anything that effectively points the way to Buddhic Truth can be termed an "expedient means" - an effective method for awakening beings from the sleep of spiritual ignorance. Upaya is a term in Mahayana Buddhism which is often translated as means, though literally expedient would be more accurate[citation needed], as upaya (from upa√i) refers to something which goes or brings you up to something (i. ... The Lotus Sutra or Sutra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma (Sanskrit: Saddharma PuṇḍarÄ«ka SÅ«tra; 妙法蓮華經 Chinese: MiàofÇŽ Liánhuā JÄ«ng; Japanese: Myōhō Renge Kyō; Korean: Myobeomnyeonhwagyeong) is one of the most popular and influential Mahāyāna sutras in East Asia and... Åšrāvakayāna is one of the three yānas known to Mahāyāna Buddhism. ...


Although the term upaya as such does not feature in the scriptures of Early Buddhism, scholars have stated that the exercise of skill to which it refers, the ability to adapt one's message to the audience, is of enormous importance in the Pali Canon[12]. The term Early Buddhism can refer to: Pre-sectarian Buddhism, which refers to the Teachings and monastic organization and structure, founded by Gautama Buddha. ...


Salvation

“Devotional” Mahayana developed a rich cosmography, with various supernatural Buddhas and Bodhisattvas residing in paradisiacal realms. The concept of trinity, or trikaya (三身), supports these constructions, making the Buddha himself into a transcendental god-like figure. The Trikaya doctrine (Sanskrit, literally Three bodies or personalities; 三身 Chinese: Sānshén, Japanese: sanjin) is an important Buddhist teaching both on the nature of reality, and what a Buddha is. ...


Under various conditions, these realms could be attained by devotees after their death so that when reborn they could strive towards buddhahood in the best possible conditions. Depending on the sect, this salvation to “paradise” can be obtained by faith, imaging, or sometimes even by the simple invocation of the Buddha’s name. This approach to salvation is at the origin of the mass appeal of devotional Buddhism, especially represented by the Pure Land (浄土宗). The Buddha Amitabha, 13th century, Kamakura, Japan. ...


This rich cosmography also allowed Mahayana to be quite syncretic and accommodating of other faiths or deities. Various origins have been suggested to explain its emergence, such as “popular Hindu devotional cults (bhakti), and Persian and Greco-Roman theologies, which filtered into India from the northwest” (Tom Lowenstein, “The vision of the Buddha”). This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Bhakti (DevanāgarÄ«: भक्ति) is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning devotion and also the path of devotion itself, as in Bhakti-Yoga. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... In modern Olympic and amateur wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling is a particular style and variation. ...


Transcendental Immanence

The teaching of a "Buddha Principle" (Buddha-dhatu) or "Buddha Nature" innate to and inseparable from all sentient beings is a doctrine which is indicated by the Buddha in a number of Mahayana sutras to constitute the "absolutely final culmination" of his Dharma (see Nirvana Sutra). The essential idea (articulated in the Tathagatagarbha sutras, but not accepted by all Mahayana) is that no being is without a concealed but indestructible interior link to Awakening (bodhi), and that this link is an uncreated element [dhatu] or principle deep inside each being which constitutes nothing less than the deathless, diamond-like "essence of the Self" (Nirvana Sutra). In the Mahaparinirvana Sutra, the Buddha declares: "The essence of the Self (atman) is the subtle Tathagatagarbha ..." Buddha-nature (originally in Sanskrit, Buddha-dhatu - Buddha Element, Buddha-Principle) is a doctrine important for many schools of Mahayana Buddhism. ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... See Mahaparinibbana Sutta for the sutta of the Pali Canon. ... The Tathagatagarbha doctrine says that each sentient being contains the potential to become a Buddha. ... Bodhi (बोधि) is the Pāli and Sanskrit word for the awakened or knowing consciousness of a fully liberated yogi, generally translated into English as enlightenment. It is an abstract noun formed from the verbal root budh (to awake, become aware, notice, know or understand), corresponding to the verbs bujjhati (P... Nirvana Sutra or Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra (Chinese: Niepan Jing (涅槃經); Japanese: Nehangyō (涅槃経)) is one of the major texts of Mahāyāna Buddhism. ... The Tathagatagarbha doctrine says that each sentient being contains the potential to become a Buddha. ...


"The Buddha-dhatu [Buddha Principle, "Buddha Nature"] of beings inheres / abides within the five skandhas [transitory components of the being]." The skandhas (Sanskrit: Pāli: Khandha; literally: heap) are the five constituents or aggregates through which the functioning and experience of an individual, ego, or soul (possibly atman) is created according to Buddhist phenomenology. ...


"The Buddha-dhatu is the True Self and, like a diamond, for example, it cannot be destroyed".


The actual "seeing and knowing" of this Buddha-dhatu (co-terminous with the Dharmakaya or Self of Buddha) is said to usher in nirvanic Liberation. This Buddha-dhatu or Tathagatagarbha is revealed to be both immanent (found in every single person, ghost, god and creature, etc.) and transcendental (it is uncreated, deathless and ultimately beyond rational grasping or conceptualisation). Yet it is this already real and present, hidden internal element of bodhi (Awakeness) which, according to the Tathagatagarbha sutras, prompts beings to seek after Liberation from worldly suffering and enables them to attain the spotless bliss which lies at the heart of their being. Once the veils of negative thoughts, feelings and unwholesome behaviour (the kleshas) have been eliminated from the mind and character, the indwelling Buddha-dhatu (Buddha Principle / "Buddha Nature") is enabled to shine forth unimpededly and to transform the seer of it into a Buddha. Thus the Buddha-dhatu teaching is both an ontological and a soteriological doctrine: it reveals the immortal, Buddhic "True Self" (as the Buddha in the Mahaparinirvana Sutra repeatedly terms it) which is found to lie at the core of each being when all the obscuring, transient elements of the false ego are seen through and transcended, and it further verbalises the liberative and transformative power inherent in the Tathagatagarbha when once that vision of the innermost essence or svabhava of oneself and all other beings has been secured. The Trikaya doctrine (Sanskrit, literally Three bodies or personalities; 三身 Chinese: Sānshén, Japanese: sanjin) is an important Buddhist teaching both on the nature of reality, and what a Buddha is. ... The Tathagatagarbha doctrine says that each sentient being contains the potential to become a Buddha. ... Bodhi (बोधि) is the Pāli and Sanskrit word for the awakened or knowing consciousness of a fully liberated yogi, generally translated into English as enlightenment. It is an abstract noun formed from the verbal root budh (to awake, become aware, notice, know or understand), corresponding to the verbs bujjhati (P... In Buddhism, the Pali word kilesa (Sanskrit: kleÅ›a or klesha) is used to mean defilements or corruptions. Three main kinds of kilesa are: lobha: greed, lust (rāga), attachment. ... This article is about ontology in philosophy. ... Soteriology is the study of salvation. ... Svabhava is a Sanskrit term encountered in Buddhism which literally means own-being or own-becoming. It might more meaningfully be rendered as intrinsic nature, essential nature or essence. Much of Buddhism denies that such a svabhava exists within any being; but the Buddha in the Tathagatagarbha sutras (notably the...


This immanentist and essentialist doctrine is by no means universal in Mahayana Buddhism and has long been a subject of vigorous debate.


Mahayana Scriptures

Main article: Mahayana Sutras

Like Theravāda Buddhism, Mahāyāna Buddhism takes the basic teachings of the Buddha as recorded in early scriptures as the basis of its teachings, such as those concerning the Four Noble Truths, the Middle Way and the Eightfold Path. Whereas these basic teachings are preserved in the Pali Canon, transmitted by the Theravādin tradition, Mahāyāna Buddhists use different recensions of these discourses in compilations known as the Agamas, which largely overlap with the Pali Canon in content. Different schools within Mahāyāna were familiar with various versions of the Agamas, but that which was most popular was affiliated to the Sarvāstivādin school. In addition to accepting the scriptures of the various early Buddhist schools as valid, Mahāyāna Buddhism also maintains large additional collections of sutras not found or recognized in Theravāda Buddhism. In Mahayana Buddhism, these Mahayana sutras have a greater importance than the Agamas. Although these scriptures claim to be the factual words of the Buddha, many scholars believe that they were written by monks who felt the need to restate and change the doctrines of Early Buddhism[13]. Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that began to be compiled from the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools, and survive predominantly in primary translations in Chinese and Tibetan from original texts in Sanskrit or Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. ... Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... For the Buddhist texts called the Agamas, see Nikaya. ... Sarvastivada is a school of Buddhism. ... Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ... Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that began to be compiled from the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools, and survive predominantly in primary translations in Chinese and Tibetan from original texts in Sanskrit or Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. ... The term Early Buddhism can refer to: Pre-sectarian Buddhism, which refers to the Teachings and monastic organization and structure, founded by Gautama Buddha. ...


The first of the Mahayana-specific writings were written probably around the 1st century BCE or 1st century CE. Some of the Mahayana Sutras, such as certain parts of the Perfection of Wisdom sutras (般若波羅蜜多經), are presented as actual sermons of the Buddha that had been hidden. By some accounts, these sermons were passed on by oral tradition, as with other sutras; other accounts state that they were hidden and then revealed several centuries later by some mythological route. In addition to sutras, some Mahayana texts are essentially commentaries. (Redirected from 1st century BCE) (2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century - other centuries) The 1st century BC starts on January 1, 100 BC and ends on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st... (Redirected from 1st century CE) (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 99. ... Perfection of Wisdom is a translation of the Sanskrit term prajñā pāramitā (Devanagari: प्रज्ञा पारमिता, Chinese: 般若波羅蜜多/般若波罗蜜多, Pinyin: bānruò-bōluómìduō, Japanese: hannya-haramita), which is one of the aspects of a bodhisattvas personality called the paramitas. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... There are a great variety of Buddhist texts. ...


Among the earliest major Mahayana scriptures attested to historically are the Perfection of Wisdom (Prajna-Paramita) sutras, the Avatamsaka Sutra (華嚴經), the Lotus Sutra (妙法蓮華經), the Vimalakīrti Sutra (維摩詰經), and the Nirvana Sutra (涅槃經). The Avataṃsaka SÅ«tra (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is one of the most influential scriptures in East Asian Buddhism. ... The Lotus Sutra or Sutra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma (Sanskrit: Saddharma PuṇḍarÄ«ka SÅ«tra; 妙法蓮華經 Chinese: MiàofÇŽ Liánhuā JÄ«ng; Japanese: Myōhō Renge Kyō; Korean: Myobeomnyeonhwagyeong) is one of the most popular and influential Mahāyāna sutras in East Asia and... Vimalakirti Sutra (Chinese 維摩經 wéimó jing, Japanese 維摩経 yuima-gyō, Korean 유마경 yuma-gyeong, Sanskrit विमलकीर्ति-निर्देश-सूत्र VimalakÄ«rti-nirdeÅ›a-sÅ«tra. ... See Mahaparinibbana Sutta for the sutta of the Pali Canon. ...


The Mahayana sometimes classify Shakyamuni Buddha's teachings into three hierarchical categories, based on levels of understanding the nature of reality, known as "turnings of the wheel of dharma (truth)": those sutra discourses containing the basic doctrines supposedly aimed at the initial disciples or Śrāvakas, the emptiness teachings associated with Madhyamika and the Prajna Paramita sutras (般若波羅蜜多經), and the doctrines associated with Yogācāra which present the most accurate view of reality according to this scheme. The Tathagatagarbha (如來藏) teachings are normally included in the third turning of the wheel if the need arises to classify them. Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE. Gautama Buddha was a South Asian spiritual leader who lived between approximately 563 BCE and 483 BCE. Born Siddhartha Gautama in Sanskrit, a name meaning descendant of Gotama whose aims are achieved/who is efficacious in achieving aims, he... For other uses, see Emptiness (disambiguation). ... Madhyamaka is a Buddhist philosophical tradition that asserts that all phenomena are empty of self-nature or essence (Sanskrit: Svabhāva), that they have no intrinsic, independent reality apart from the causes and conditions from which they arise. ... The statue of Prajñāpāramitā the Goddess of transcendental wisdom from Singhasari, East Java. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Tathagatagarbha doctrine says that each sentient being contains the potential to become a Buddha. ...


The Mahayana canon was further expanded somewhat after Buddhism was transmitted to other countries such as China and Tibet, where the existing texts were translated. New texts, such as the Platform Sutra (六祖壇經) and the Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment (圓覺經) were explicitly not of Indian origin, but were widely accepted as valid scriptures on their own merits. Other later writings included the Linji Lu (臨済錄), a commentary by Chán (禪宗) master Linji Yixuan (臨済義玄). In the course of the development of Korean Buddhism and Japanese Buddhism, further important commentaries were composed. These included, for example, in Korea, some of the writings of Jinul, and in Japan, works such as Dogen's Shobogenzo. This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... The Platform Sutra (more fully, the Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch) is a Buddhist scripture that was composed in China. ... Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment Buddhist Sūtra, original Chinese title is Yuanjue jing; 1 fasc. ... Japanese painting of Linji Yixuan (Jap. ... Chán is a major school of Chinese Mahāyāna Buddhism. ... Japanese painting of Linji Yixuan (Jap. ... The grounds of Koreas Buryeongsa Temple. ... Japanese Buddhist priest c. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... Jinul (1158-1210) was a Korean monk of the Goryeo period, who is considered to be the most influential figure in the formation of Korean Seon Buddhism. ... Dōgen Zenji Dōgen Zenji (道元禅師; also Kigen Dōgen 希玄道元) (19 January 1200–22 September 1253) was a Japanese Zen Buddhist teacher born in Kyōto, and the founder of the Sōtō school of Zen in Japan. ... The Shōbōgenzō (正法眼蔵), lit. ...


Origins

Mahayana's exact origin is unknown. However, a number of common elements and background are suggested by various scholars and theologians. The earliest origins of Mahayana-like thinking can be placed in the 1st century BCE (approximately 400 years after the Buddha), as a few of the Mahayana Sutras contain some text dated to this period[citation needed]. Some scholars posit that Mahayana scriptures were transmitted in a somewhat evolved form from India to China in the second century CE. Image:StandngBuddha. ... Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that began to be compiled from the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools, and survive predominantly in primary translations in Chinese and Tibetan from original texts in Sanskrit or Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...


Buddhism became increasingly fragmented due to the many splits in the Sangha into the various early Buddhist schools. This might have led to a widening distance between laity and sangha, who were increasingly preoccupied with theological Abhidhammic speculation. The Mahayana movement, on the other hand, was ecumenical, reflecting a wide range of theology from both the Sthaviravada (上座部) and Mahasanghika (大眾部) sects[14]. Early Mahayana did not have a taboo regarding the composition of new sutras. With the creation of new Mahayana Sutras, the Mahayana movement was rejected by the Theravada schools as heretical. Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ... Sangha (संघ saṃgha) is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly or community. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... Abhidharma (Sanskrit: अभिधर्मा) Sinhala: අභිධර්ම) or Abhidhamma (Pāli: अभिधमा) is a category of Buddhist scriptures that attempts to use Buddhist teachings to create a systematic, abstract description of all worldly phenomena. ... Sthaviravāda (Sanskrit; Chinese 上座部) literally means Teaching Of The Elders. It was one of the two main movements in early Buddhism, the other being that of the Mahāsāṅghika. ... The Mahāsaṃghika (Majority) sect of Buddhism was formed in the first Buddhist schism around 320 BCE. It split from the Sthaviravāda (Elders) school. ... Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that were originally put in writing starting in the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools. ...


Another important element is the lay practice of stupa devotion, which was actively encouraged by Ashoka. According to Akira Hirakawa (A History of Indian Buddhism: From Sakyamuni to Early Mahayana), stupas — which were initially mere monuments to Gautama Buddha — increasingly became the place of devotion and of spreading Buddhism to the masses, the majority of whom were illiterate Hindus. On the inside wall of the stupa, pictures were drawn or sculpted depicting the life of Buddha and his previous lives as a bodhisattva. This has given rise to devotion to the transcendent omnipresent and always-present Buddha and the bodhisattvas [citation needed], distinct from the purely monastic sangha (see Early Buddhist schools). The Great Stupa at Sanchi. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ...


Epigraphical evidence

An early Mahayana Buddhist triad. From left to right, a Kushan devotee, the Bodhisattva Maitreya, the Buddha, the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, and a Buddhist monk. 2nd-3rd century CE, Gandhara.
An early Mahayana Buddhist triad. From left to right, a Kushan devotee, the Bodhisattva Maitreya, the Buddha, the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, and a Buddhist monk. 2nd-3rd century CE, Gandhara.

The earliest stone inscription containing a recognizably Mahayana formulation and a mention of the Buddha Amitabha was found in the Indian subcontinent in Mathura, and dated to around 180 CE. Remains of a statue of a Buddha bear the Brahmi inscription: ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1587x970, 653 KB) Summary An early Buddhist triad. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1587x970, 653 KB) Summary An early Buddhist triad. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... This article is about the Buddhist bodhisattva Maitreya. ... Avalokitesvara with a 1,000 arms, part of the Dazu Stone Carvings at Mount Baoding, Dazu County, Chongqing, China. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... , Mathura   (Hindi: मथुरा, Urdu: متھرا) is a holy city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... BrāhmÄ« refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 3rd century BC. The best known and earliest dated inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka. ...

"Made in the year 28 of the reign of king Huvishka, ... for the Buddha Amitabha" (Mathura Museum).

However, this image was in itself marginal and extremely isolated in the overall context of Buddhism in India at the time, and had no lasting or long-term consequences[15] Gold coin of the Kushan emperor Huvishka (126-164). ... Amitabha Buddha pictured in the Ushiku Daibutsu in Japan Amitābha (Sanskrit: अमिताभः, Amitābhaḥ; Chinese: 阿彌陀佛, Ēmítuó Fó; Japanese: 阿弥陀如来, Amida Nyorai; Vietnamese: 阿彌陀佛, A Di Ðà Phật; Tibetan: འོད་དཔག་མེད་; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Mongolian: Caɣlasi ügei gerel-tü) is a celestial buddha described in the scriptures of the Mahāyāna school...


The epigraphical evidence for Mahayana in the period before the 5th century is very limited in comparison to the multiplicity of Mahayana writings transmitted from Central Asia to China at that time[16] [17]. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


Scriptures

The first known Mahayana texts are translations made into Chinese by the Kushan monk Lokaksema (支娄迦谶) in the Chinese capital of Luoyang, between 178 and 189 CE[18]. But, to equate evidence for the presence of a body of Mahayana scripture with the existence at the time of Mahayana as a religious movement, has been described as being an assumption leading to a serious misstep[19]. Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Lokaksema (Ch: 支谶, Zhi Chan). ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ...


Lokaksema's work includes the translation of the Pratyutpanna Sutra, containing the first known mentions of the Buddha Amitabha and his Pure Land, said to be at the origin of Pure Land practice in China, and the first known translations of the Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra, a founding text of Mahayana Buddhism. The Pratyutpanna Sutra (also Pratyutpanna Samadhi Sutra, lit. ... Amitabha Buddha pictured in the Ushiku Daibutsu in Japan Amitābha (Sanskrit: अमिताभः, Amitābhaḥ; Chinese: 阿彌陀佛, Ä’mítuó Fó; Japanese: 阿弥陀如来, Amida Nyorai; Vietnamese: 阿彌陀佛, A Di Ðà Phật; Tibetan: འོད་དཔག་མེད་; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Mongolian: CaÉ£lasi ügei gerel-tü) is a celestial buddha described in the scriptures of the Mahāyāna school... The Buddha Amitabha, 13th century, Kamakura, Japan. ... Perfection of Wisdom is a translation of the Sanskrit term prajñā pāramitā (Devanagari: प्रज्ञा पारमिता, Chinese: 般若波羅蜜多/般若波罗蜜多, Pinyin: bānruò-bōluómìduō, Japanese: hannya-haramita), which is one of the aspects of a bodhisattvas personality called the paramitas. ...


Expansion (5th c.CE–10th c.CE)

From the 5th century CE Mahayana was a strong movement in India, possibly owing to support by the Gupta dynasty. It spread from India to South-East Asia, and towards the north to Central Asia, China, Korea and Japan. The influence of Mahayana in China seems to have been reached at an earlier time than in India, where Mahayan remained an obscure group until the 5th century. Gupta (Hindi: गुप्ता) is a surname of Indian origin. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ...


Buddhism (and Mahayana) disappeared from India during the 11th century, and consequently lost its influence in South-East Asia where it was replaced by Theravada Buddhism from Sri Lanka. Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Mahayana currently has more followers than Theravada, the other remaining Buddhist school, and is thus the most followed of the Buddhist doctrines to this day in Eastern Asia and the world.


Notes

  1. ^ Harvey, Introduction to Buddhism, Cambridge University Press, 1990, page 94
  2. ^ The Mahayana, 'Great Vehicle' or 'Great Carriage' (for carrying all beings to nirvana), is also, and perhaps more correctly and accurately, known as the Bodhisattvayana, the bodhisattva's vehicle. Indian Buddhism, AK Warder, 3rd edition, 1999, p.338
  3. ^ ‘The later school which arrogated to itself the title Mahayana’. Indian Buddhism, AK Warder, 3rd edition 1999, p.4
  4. ^ It is certain that the term Mahayana (which means “great or large vehicle”) was in origin a polemical label used by only one side — and perhaps the least significant side — of a protracted, if uneven, Indian debate about what the real teachings of the Buddha were, Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004, page 492
  5. ^ The Mahayana movement claims to have been founded by the Buddha himself. The consensus of the evidence, however, is that it originated in South India in the 1st century CE’ – Indian Buddhism, AK Warder, 3rd edition, 1999, p. 335.
  6. ^ Theravada - Mahayana Buddhism Ven. Dr. W. Rahulahttp://www.budsas.org/ebud/ebdha125.htm
  7. ^ The most important evidence — in fact the only evidence — for situating the emergence of the Mahayana around the beginning of the common era was not Indian evidence at all, but came from China. Already by the last quarter of the second century C.E. there was a small, seemingly idiosyncratic collection of substantial Mahayana sutras translated into what Erik Zürcher calls “broken Chinese” by an Indoscythian, whose Indian name has been reconstructed as Lokaksema., Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004, page 492
  8. ^ Certainly, we have for this period an extensive body of inscriptions from virtually all parts of India. ... But nowhere in this extensive body of material is there any reference, prior to the fifth century, to a named Mahayana. There are, on the other hand, scores of references to what used to be called Hinayana groups — the Sarvastivadins, Mahasamghikas, and so on. From this point of view, at least, this was not “the period of the Mahayana,” but “the period of the Hinayana.”, Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004, page 493
  9. ^ There are, it seems, very few things that can be said with certainty about Mahayana Buddhism, Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004, page 492
  10. ^ But apart from the fact that it can be said with some certainty that the Buddhism embedded in China, Korea, Tibet, and Japan is Mahayana Buddhism, it is no longer clear what else can be said with certainty about Mahayana Buddhism itself, and especially about its earlier, and presumably formative, period in India., Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004, page 492
  11. ^ It has become increasingly clear that Mahayana Buddhism was never one thing, but rather, it seems, a loosely bound bundle of many, and — like Walt Whitman — was large and could contain, in both senses of the term, contradictions, or at least antipodal elements., Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004, page 492
  12. ^ ‘’It is true that the term translated 'skill in means', upaya-kausalya , is post-canonical, but the exercise of skill to which it refers, the ability to adapt one's message to the audience, is of enormous importance in the Pali Canon.’’ How Buddhism Began, Richard F. Gombrich, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1997, p. 17
  13. ^ ‘Sometime after the founding of the Purva Saila school in the 1st century B.C. certain monks felt the need not simply for new interpretations of the original sutras (such as, for example, the new Abhidharma texts of the schools …), but for wholesale restatements of the doctrine. For this purpose they rewrote the sutras, or wrote new sutras.’ AK Warder, Indian Buddhism, 3rd edition, p. 335.
  14. ^ Paul Williams, "Mahayana Buddhism", 1989
  15. ^ In other words, once nontextual evidence is taken into account the picture changes dramatically. Rather than being datable to the beginning of the common era, this strand of Mahayana Buddhism, at least, appeared to have no visible impact on Indian Buddhist cult practice until the second century, and even then what impact it had was extremely isolated and marginal, and had no lasting or long-term consequences — there were no further references to Amitabha in Indian image inscriptions. Almost exactly the same pattern occurs (concerning Mahayana) on an even broader scale when nontextual evidence is considered., Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004, page 493
  16. ^ Certainly, we have for this period an extensive body of inscriptions from virtually all parts of India. ... But nowhere in this extensive body of material is there any reference, prior to the fifth century, to a named Mahayana., Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004, page 493
  17. ^ What is particularly disconcerting here is the disconnect between expectation and reality: We know from Chinese translations that large numbers of Mahayana sutras were being composed in the period between the beginning of the common era and the fifth century. But outside of texts, at least in India, at exactly the same period, very different — in fact seemingly older — ideas and aspirations appear to be motivating actual behavior, and old and established Hinayana groups appear to be the only ones that are patronized and supported., Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004, page 494
  18. ^ The most important evidence — in fact the only evidence — for situating the emergence of the Mahayana around the beginning of the common era was not Indian evidence at all, but came from China. Already by the last quarter of the second century C.E. there was a small, seemingly idiosyncratic collection of substantial Mahayana sutras translated into what Erik Zürcher calls “broken Chinese” by an Indoscythian, whose Indian name has been reconstructed as Lokaksema., Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004, page 492
  19. ^ But even apart from the obvious weaknesses inherent in arguments of this kind there is here the tacit equation of a body of literature with a religious movement, an assumption that evidence for the presence of one proves the existence of the other, and this may be a serious misstep., Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004, page 493

Bibliography

  • Paul Williams, Mahayana Buddhism, Routledge, 1989
  • Schopen, G. "The inscription on the Kusan image of Amitabha and the character of the early Mahayana in India", Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 10, 1990
  • ”The Vision of the Buddha”, Tom Lowenstein, ISBN 1-903296-91-9
  • Kevin Lynch, The Way Of The Tiger: A Buddhist's Guide To Achieving Nirvana, Yojimbo Temple, 2005

Older works

  • Beal, Catena of Buddhist Scriptures from the Chinese, (London, 1871)
  • J. J. M. de Groot, Le code de Mahayana en Chine, (Amsterdam, 1893)
  • S. Kuroda, Outline of Mahayana, (Tokyo, 1893)
  • D. T. Suzuki, Outline of Mahayana Buddhism, (London, 1907)
  • Asvaghosa, Sutralamkasa trad. sur la version chinoise par Huber, (Paris, 1908)
  • Haas, Amida Buddha unsere Zuflucht, (from the Japanese, Leipzig, 1910)
  • Murdoch, History of Japan, volume i., (Yokohama, 1910)
  • Walleser, Die mittlere Lehre des Nagarjuna, (translated from the Tibetan, Heidelberg, 1911; from the Chinese, ib., 1912)
  • D. T. Suzuki, in The Monist, volume xxiv, (Chicago, 1914). The Monist was edited by Paul Carus.

The Monist: An International Quarterly Journal of General Philosophical Inquiry is an American learned journal in the field of philosophy. ... Paul Carus (1852‑1919). ...

See also

The History of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ... Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that began to be compiled from the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools, and survive predominantly in primary translations in Chinese and Tibetan from original texts in Sanskrit or Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. ... Blue-eyed Central Asian and East-Asian Buddhist monks, Bezaklik, Eastern Tarim Basin, 9th-10th century. ... Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ... There are many divisions and subdivisions of the schools of Buddhism. ... According to Buddhism, there is a cycle of death and rebirth that can be transcended by the practice of the Eightfold Path. ... Śūnyatā, शून्यता (Sanskrit), Suññatā (Pāli), stong pa nyid (Tibetan), Kuu, 空 (Japanese) qoɣusun (Mongolian), generally translated into English as Emptiness or Voidness, is a concept of central importance in the teaching of the Buddha, as a direct realization of Sunyata is required to achieve liberation from the cycle of... Buddha-nature (originally in Sanskrit, Buddha-dhatu - Buddha Element, Buddha-Principle) is a doctrine important for many schools of Mahayana Buddhism. ... The Tathagatagarbha doctrine says that each sentient being contains the potential to become a Buddha. ... See Mahaparinibbana Sutta for the sutta of the Pali Canon. ... Buddhism is usually regarded as a religion without an absolute God who created the universe ex nihilo (from nothing) and to whom devotion and worship are due (although veneration and worship of the Buddhas do play a major role in both Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism). ... Faith (saddha/ sraddha) is an important constituent element of the teachings of the Buddha - both in the Theravada tradition as in the Mahayana. ... The Lotus Sutra or Sutra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma (Sanskrit: Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra; 妙法蓮華經 Chinese: Miàofǎ Liánhuā Jīng; Japanese: Myōhō Renge Kyō; Korean: Myobeomnyeonhwagyeong) is one of the most popular and influential Mahāyāna sutras in East Asia and... The Buddha Amitabha, 13th century, Kamakura, Japan. ... For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the primordial state as considered in Tibetan Buddhism and Bon. ... Tendai (Japanese: 天台宗, Tendai-shū) is a Japanese school of Mahayana Buddhism, a descendant of the Chinese Tiantai or Lotus Sutra school. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Ahimsa Ajahn Ajahn Chah Ajanta Aksobhya Alexandra David-Néel... The History of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ... 563 BCE: Siddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini, Ancient India. ... There are many divisions and subdivisions of the schools of Buddhism. ... There are a great variety of Buddhist texts. ... Buddhism - Percentage by country The percentage of Buddhist population of each country was taken from the US State Departments International Religious Freedom Report 2004 [1]. Other sources used were CIA Factbook [2] and adherents. ... The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include: Buddhist cuisine Buddhist art Buddharupa Art and architecture of Japan Greco-Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist sacred art Buddhist music Buddhist chant Shomyo Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ... Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya Buddhist temples, monasteries, stupas, and pagodas sorted by location. ...

External links

  • The Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra: complete text and analysis.
  • E-Sangha Mahayana Buddhism Forum
  • American Buddhist Net: Buddhist News & Forums
  • Mahayana Buddhism: News Aggregator

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mahayana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2026 words)
Among the earliest major Mahayana scriptures that are attested to historically are the Perfection of Wisdom (Prajna-Paramita) Sutras, the Avatamsaka Sutra, the Lotus Sutra, the Vimalakīrti Sutra, and the Nirvana Sutra.
Mahayana as a distinct movement began around the 1st century BCE in the area around Kushan Empire (now area within Pakistan) before it was transmitted in a highly evolved form to China in the second century CE.
From the 1st century CE and in the space of a few centuries, Mahayana was to flourish and spread in the East from India to South-East Asia, and towards the north to Central Asia, China, Korea, and Japan, culminating with the introduction of Buddhism in Japan in 538 CE.
Mahayana - definition of Mahayana in Encyclopedia (1309 words)
The Mahayana was not a rival school, and therefore it was not the consequence of a schism (sanghbheda).
Mahayana and non-Mahayana monks could live without discord in the same monastery, so long as they held the same code, though we have reason to believe that the non-Mahayana monks may have viewed with some scorn the beliefs and private practices of their Mahayana brethren.
Mahayana departs from the Nikaya tradition (sometimes referred to as the Hinayana schools) in its acceptance of the Mahayana sutras.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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