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Encyclopedia > Mahavira
Idol of Lord Mahavira at Shri Mahaveerji (the holy town in Rajasthan named after Mahavira.) Thousands of worshipers visit Shri Mahaveerji Temple daily to catch a glimpse of this famous statue.
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Jainism


Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 414 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (482 × 697 pixel, file size: 202 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo taken at Shri Mahavirji Temple of Lord Mahaviras statue which was excavated at that very spot centuries ago. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 414 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (482 × 697 pixel, file size: 202 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo taken at Shri Mahavirji Temple of Lord Mahaviras statue which was excavated at that very spot centuries ago. ... Idol of Lord Mahavira at Shri Mahaveerji. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

History of Jainism
Timeline
Jainist councils

Foundations
Ahimsa · Moksha · Asteya
Brahmacharya · Satya
Nirvana · Aparigraha
Anekantvada Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ... Moksha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Asteya is a Sanskrit word meaning avoidance of stealing or non-stealing. In Jainism, it is one of the five vows that all sravakas and shravikas as well as sadhus and sadhvis must take. ... Brahmacharya (pronounced /brʌmatʃərɪə/) is a Sanskrit word. ... Satya is a true badman. ... ( Sanskrit: ; Pali: निब्बान Nibbāna; Vietnamese: Niết bàn; Chinese: 涅槃; Mandarin Pinyin: nièpán, Cantonese: nihppùhn; Japanese: nehan ); Korean: 열반, yeolbhan; Thai: nibpan นิพพาน); Tibetan mya-ngan-las-das-pa; Mongolian ɣasalang-aca nögcigsen), is a Sanskrit word that literally means to cease blowing (as when a candle flame... Aparigraha is the Jain concept of non-possessiveness. ... Anekantvada is the Jain concept of multiplicity of viewpoints and open-mindedness. ...

Key Concepts
Kevalgnan · Cosmology
Samsara · Karma
Dharma · Reincarnation
Swadhyay
Enlightenment (or brightening) broadly means the acquisition of new wisdom or understanding enabling clarity of perception. ... According to Jain beliefs, the universe was never created, nor will it ever cease to exist. ... The Wheel of Life as portrayed within Buddhism, showing the cycle of Samsara, or reincarnation. ... Karmic Theory The Jain religion places great emphasis on the theory of Karma. ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... Reincarnation, literally to be made flesh again, is a doctrine or mystical belief that some essential part of a living being (in some variations only human beings) survives death to be reborn in a new body. ... In Hinduism, Svadhyaya is the incorporation of the message of the Bhagavad Gita in ones life. ...

Major Figures
The 24 Tirthankaras
Lord Rishabh to Mahavira
Acharyas · Ganadhars
Siddhasen Divakar · Haribhadra
The 24 Jinas carved on a rock in Ginjee, Tamilnadu In Jainism, a Tirthankar (Fordmaker) (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a human who by adopting asceticism achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge), thus becoming a Jina (one who has conquered his inner enemies - anger, pride, deceit, desire etc. ... In Jainism, Lord Rishabh (also transliterated as Rishabanath and as Rushabh) was the first Tirthankar of Jainism. ... An acharya (आचार्य) is a prominent guru, teacher and scholar who teaches by his own example (from Sanskrit achara, behavior). ... Siddhasen Diwakar(Fifth century B.C.)(आचार्य सिद्दसैन दिवाकर) was highly intelligent Jain acharya of his time. ... Haribhadra Suri was an 8th Century Jainist author. ...

Practices and Attainment
Four Stages of Enlightenment
Paramis · Meditation
The four stages of enlightenment in Buddhism are the four degrees of approach to full enlightenment as an Arahant which a person can attain in this life. ... Pāramitā (Sanskrit) or Parami (Pāli): Perfection or Transcendent (lit. ...

Jainism by Region
India · Western

Sects of Jainism
Svetambara · Digambara
Terapanthi · Early schools
Sthanakvasi · Bisapantha
Deravasi
The Shvetambara (White-Clad) are a Jainist sect. ... The Digambara (Sky-Clad) are a Jainist sect, these are the followers of Bhadrabahu. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Terapanth. ... Sthanakvasi is a sect of Jainism that believes that God is nirakar (i. ... Bisapantha is sub-sect of the Digambar sect of Jainism. ... Deravasi is a term for a sect of Jainism which includes all members of the Shvetambar sect who are not members of the Sthanakvasi division of the sect. ...

Texts
Navakar Mantra · Kalpasutra
Agama (text) · Tattvartha Sutra
Sanmatti Prakaran
Jainism puts great stress on learning. ... Navakar Mantra, also called the Namokar Mantra or the Namaskar Mantra, is the most important prayer used in Jainism. ... Kalpasutra is a Jain ancient text book containing the biography of the last two Jain Tirthankars, Parshvanath and Mahavira. ... Agama (Sanskrit:आगम) literally means that which has come down (i. ... Tattvartha Sutra (also known as Tattvarth-adhigama-sutra or Moksh-Shastra) is a Jaina text written by Acharya Umasvati or Umasvami. ...

Comparative Studies
Culture · List of Topics
Portal: Jainism
Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Acaranga Sutra Adipurana Agama (text) Antakrddaasah Anuttaraupapātikadaśāh Arya Asteya Category: ...

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This article is about Jainism. For the mathematician Mahavira Acharya, see Mahavira (mathematician).

Mahavira (lit. Great Hero) (599527 BC, though possibly 549477 BC) is the name most commonly used to refer to the Indian sage Vardhamana (Sanskrit, "increasing") who established what are today considered to be the central tenets of Jainism. According to Jain tradition, he was the 24th and the last Tirthankara. He is also known in texts as Vira or Viraprabhu, Sanmati, Ativira, and Gnatputra. In the Theravada Buddhist scriptures he is referred to as the Niggantha Nathaputta - 'the naked ascetic of the Jñātr clan.' Mahavira was a 10th century Indian mathematician from Gulbarga who asserted that the square root of a negative number did not exist. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC 540s BC Events and Trends 598 BC - Jehoaichin succeeds Jehoiakim as King of Judah 598 BC - Babylonians capture Jerusalem... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC Events and Trends 548 BC -- Croesus, Lydian king, defeated by Cyrus. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC Years: 482 BC 481 BC 480 BC 479 BC 478 BC - 477 BC - 476 BC 475 BC... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Tenet is a Canadian heavy metal band, started by Strapping Young Lad guitarist Jed Simon and drummer Gene Hoglan. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... In Jainism, a Tirthankara (Fordmaker) is a human who achieved enlightenment, became a Jiva, and whose religious teachings have formed the canon of Jainism; although not Gods, statues of Tirthankaras are found in temples. ... Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... Nirgrantha is a term found in Pali Buddhist literature meaning Freed from all ties. ...

Contents

Overview of Mahavira's life

Birth of Prince Vardhaman

In a place called Kundalpur belonging to the ancient kingdom of Vaishali (in modern day Bihar, India), Mahavira was born to King Siddartha and Queen Trishala on the 13th day under the rising moon of Chaitra {April 12 according to the Gregorian calendar). While still in his mother's womb it is believed he brought wealth and prosperity to the entire kingdom, which is why he was also known as Vardhaman. An increase of all good things, like the abundant bloom of beautiful flowers, was noticed in the kingdom after his conception. Tradition states that after his birth, Indra bathed him in celestial milk with rituals befitting a future Tirthankar and he was returned to his mother, Trishala. Many Jains believe that Vardhaman was actually conceived by the Brahmin Devananda[1] but was transferred to the womb of Trishala by Indra because all Tirthankars had to be born into the Kshatriya caste. Kundalpur(Sanskrit: कुण्‍डलपुर) is a historical site in India. ... Vaishali is one of the districts of Bihar state, India. ... , Bihar (Hindi: बिहार, Urdu: بہار, IPA: ,  ) is a state of the Indian union situated in north India. ... King Siddartha was the father of Mahavira. ... Trishala also known as Queen Trishala, Mother Trishala, Trishala Devi, Priyakarini, or Trishala Mata was the Mother of Mahavira, the 24th Jain Tirthankara. ... The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ... Idol of Lord Mahavira at Shri Mahaveerji (the holy town in Rajasthan named after Mahavira. ... Indra (Sanskrit: इन्द्र or इंद्र, indra) is the god of weather and war, and lord of Svargaloka in Hinduism. ... The 24 Jinas carved on a rock in Ginjee, Tamilnadu In Jainism, a Tirthankar (Fordmaker) (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a human who by adopting asceticism achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge), thus becoming a Jina (one who has conquered his inner enemies - anger, pride, deceit, desire etc. ... Trishala also known as Queen Trishala, Mother Trishala, Trishala Devi, Priyakarini, or Trishala Mata was the Mother of Mahavira, the 24th Jain Tirthankara. ... This page deals with the Hindu varnas. ... For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ...


Queen Trishala had 14 (16 in Digambara Sect) auspicious dreams before giving birth to Vardhaman, signs foretelling the advent of a great soul. These symbols were The Digambara (Sky-Clad) are a Jainist sect, these are the followers of Bhadrabahu. ...

  1. Elephant
  2. Bull
  3. Lion
  4. Laxmi
  5. Garland of Flowers
  6. Full Moon
  7. Sun
  8. Large Flag
  9. Silver Urn
  10. Lotus Lake
  11. Milky Sea
  12. Celestial Airplan
  13. Gems
  14. Smokeless Fire
  15. Dream of a pair of fish (Digambara)
  16. Dream of a throne (Digambara)

Vardhaman's birthday is celebrated as Mahavir Jayanti, the most important religious holiday of Jains around the world. Mahavir Jayanti is celebrated with prayers, decorations, processions and festivity. In Jainism, Mahavir Jayanti is the most important religious holiday. ...


Early Years

As King Siddartha's son, he lived as a prince. However, even at that tender age he exhibited a virtuous nature. He started engaging in meditation and immersed himself in self-contemplation. He was interested in the core beliefs of Jainism and started to get further away from worldly matters. King Siddartha was the father of Mahavira. ...


12 years of Spiritual Pursuit

At the age of thirty, Mahavira renounced his kingdom and family, gave up his worldly possessions, and spent twelve years as an ascetic. During these twelve years he spent most of his time meditating. He gave utmost regard to other living beings, including humans, animals and plants, and avoided harming them. He had given up all worldly possessions including his clothes, and lived an extremely austere life. He exhibited exemplary control over his senses while enduring the penance during these years. His courage and braveness gave him the name Mahavira. These were the golden years of his spiritual journey, at the end of which he achieved Keval Gyan. He was now a person of infinite harmony, knowledge and self-control. The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ...


Later years

Mahavira devoted the rest of his life to preaching the eternal truth of spiritual freedom to people around India. He traveled barefoot and without clothes, in the hardest of climates, and people from all walks of life came over to listen to his message. At one point, Mahavira had over 400,000 followers. Mahavira's preaching and efforts in spreads of Jain philosophy is considered the real catalyst to the spread of this ancient religion throughout India and into the mainstream.


In 527 BCE at age 72, he left his body in the area known as Pawapuri on the last day of the Hindu and Jain calendars, Dipavali. Jains celebrate this as the day he attained liberation and enlightenment, Moksh. Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 529 BC - Cambyses II started to rule. ... Pawapuri is located 38 kilometers from Rajgir and 90 kilometers from Patna, India. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Diwali taking place in a rural area Dīpãvali (also transliterated Deepavali; Sanskrit: row of lights) or Diwãli (contracted spelling) is the Hindu festival of lights, held on the final day of the Vikram calendar, one type of a Hindu calendar that is followed by North Indians. ... Moksha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Jains believe Mahavira lived from 599-527 BCE, though some scholars prefer 549-477 BCE.[2]


Awakening and enlightenment

After renouncing his kingdom, he spent the next twelve and half years in deep silence and meditation and disciplined himself by conquering his desires, feelings, and attachments. He carefully avoided harming or disturbing other living beings, including animals, birds, and plants. He went without food for long periods. His enduring calm, peaceful demeanour against hardships and his dedicated search for what is real, led others to call him Mahavira (a Sanskrit word, meaning 'great hero'). During this period, he attained keval-jnana, or perfect enlightenment, that is when spiritual powers are fully developed and perfect perception, knowledge, power, and bliss completely realized. For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ...


Mahavira spent the next thirty years travelling around India preaching about the eternal truth. His ultimate objective was to show how to attain total freedom from birth, life, pain, and death, and such temporary joy or misery, and achieve permanent bliss, recognize one's self, or Moksha, Sanskrit for "liberation". Moksha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Mahavira's philosophy

The Jina, or Mahavir, as Guru folio from a manuscript,Gujarat, India, Circa 1411

As diction comprises eight parts of speech, Mahavira's philosophy has eight principal cardinals - three metaphysical and five ethical. The objective is to elevate the quality of life. These independent principles reveal exceptional unity of purpose, and aim at achieving spiritual excellence by ethically sound behavior and metaphysical thought. Mahavira's metaphysics consist of three principles - Anekantavada, Syadvada, and Karma; and his Panchavrats, five codes of conduct - Ahimsa, Satya, Asteya, Brahmacharya, and Aparigraha. He talks of Tri-ratnas - three gems, which are the means and the goal. Image File history File links S1985. ... Image File history File links S1985. ... The 24 Jinas carved on a rock in Ginjee, Tamilnadu In Jainism, a Tirthankar (Fordmaker) (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a human who by adopting asceticism achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge), thus becoming a Jina (one who has conquered his inner enemies - anger, pride, deceit, desire etc. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... Anekantavada is a basic principle of Jainism dealing with the fact that reality may be percieved diferently from different points of views. ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ... Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ... Satya is a true badman. ... Asteya is a Sanskrit word meaning avoidance of stealing or non-stealing. In Jainism, it is one of the five vows that all sravakas and shravikas as well as sadhus and sadhvis must take. ... Brahmacharya (pronounced /brʌmatʃərɪə/) is a Sanskrit word. ... Aparigraha is the Jain concept of non-possessiveness. ...


Mahavira preached that from eternity, every living being (soul) is in bondage of karmic atoms accumulated by good or bad deeds. Under karma, the soul seeks temporary and illusory pleasure in materialistic possessions, which are the deep rooted causes of self-centered violent thoughts, deeds, anger, hatred, greed, and other vices. These result in further accumulation of karmas. The soul, according to many religious and philosophical traditions, is the self-aware essence unique to a particular living being. ... Karmic is Nada Surfs demo EP. All the demos recorded in early 1995 and released in the same year. ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ...


To liberate one's self, Mahavira taught the necessity of right faith (samyak-darshana), right knowledge (samyak-jnana), and right conduct (samyak-charitra'). At the heart of right conduct for Jains lie the five great vows: The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahinsa, meaning non-injury and nonviolence. ...

As taught by Mahavir, Jains believe these vows cannot be fully implemented without accepting the philosophy of non-absolutism (Anekantvada) and the theory of relativity (Syadvada, also translated "qualified prediction"). Monks and nuns follow these vows strictly, while common people follow them as far as possible. Nonviolence (or non-violence) can be both a political strategy or moral philosophy that rejects the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political change. ... Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ... Honesty, the quality of being honest, is a value which can be defined in multiple ways. ... Satya is a true badman. ... The term steal can mean either: Look up steal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Asteya is a Sanskrit word meaning avoidance of stealing or non-stealing. In Jainism, it is one of the five vows that all sravakas and shravikas as well as sadhus and sadhvis must take. ... Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling. ... Brahmacharya (pronounced /brʌmatʃərɪə/) is a Sanskrit word. ... Aparigraha is the Jain concept of non-possessiveness. ... Anekantvada is the Jain concept of multiplicity of viewpoints and open-mindedness. ... Syādvāda (Syadvada) is the Doctrine of Postulation of Jainism. ...


For spiritual advancement, Mahavira stated both men and women are equal and that both may renounce the world in search of moksh or ultimate happiness.


Mahavira attracted people from all walks of life, rich and poor, men and women, touchable and untouchable. He organized his followers into a fourfold order, namely monk (Sadhu), nun (Sadhvi), layman (Shravak), and laywoman (Shravika). This order is known as Chaturvidh Jain Sangh. In the Indian caste system, a Dalit, often called an untouchable,or an outcaste, is a person who according to traditional Hindu belief does not have any varnas. Varna refers to the Hindu belief that most humans were supposedly created from different parts of the body of the divinity Purusha. ...


Lord Mahavira's sermons were orally compiled by his immediate disciples in the Agam Sutras. These Agam Sutras were orally passed on to future generations. In the course of time, many Agam Sutras have been lost, destroyed, or modified. About one thousand years later the Agam Sutras were recorded on Tadpatris (leafy paper used in those days to preserve records for the future). Swetambar Jains accept these sutras as authentic teachings while Digambar Jains use them as a reference. The Agam Sutras are 12 scriptures written or recorded from the Jain Tirthankars, mainly the twenty fourth, Mahavira. ... Tadpatri is a city and a municipality in Anantapur district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... The Svetambara (also spelt Svetambar, Shvetambara, Shvetabmbar or Swetambar) is one of the two main sects of Jainism, the other being Digambar. ... Digambar, also spelt Digambara is one of the two main sects of Jainism, the other being Svetambar. ...


Jainism existed before Mahavir, and his teachings were based on those of his predecessors. Thus, Mahavira was a reformer and propagator of an existing religion rather than the founder of a new faith. He followed the well established creed of his predecessor Tirthankar Parshvanath. However, Mahavira did reorganize the philosophical tenets of Jainism to correspond to his times. The 24 Jinas carved on a rock in Ginjee, Tamilnadu In Jainism, a Tirthankar (Fordmaker) (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a human who by adopting asceticism achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge), thus becoming a Jina (one who has conquered his inner enemies - anger, pride, deceit, desire etc. ... A 1097 representation of Parshvanath from Smithsonian Institute’s collections In Jainism, Parshva (877-777 B.C.E.), (more correctly Parshvanatha; occasionally spelled Parswanath) was the twenty-third Tirthankara. ...


A few centuries after Mahavira's death, the Jain religious order (Sangh) grew more and more complex. There were schisms on minor points, although they did not affect Mahavira's original doctrines. Later generations saw the introduction of rituals and complexities that some criticize as placing Mahavira and other Tirthankars on the throne similar to those of Hindu deities. The term Sangh or Sangha means an assembly or congregation. ... The 24 Jinas carved on a rock in Ginjee, Tamilnadu In Jainism, a Tirthankar (Fordmaker) (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a human who by adopting asceticism achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge), thus becoming a Jina (one who has conquered his inner enemies - anger, pride, deceit, desire etc. ...


Mahavira in visual arts

Replica of Pavapuri temple at Pansara. Mahavira attained Nirvana at Pava.
Replica of Pavapuri temple at Pansara. Mahavira attained Nirvana at Pava.

Images of Mahavira came to be sculpted more than six hundred years after his 'nirvana'. His images, or rather all Tirthankara images, were a votive necessity of Jain devotees. Hence, instead of aiming at discovering their real likenesses the prime thrust of such images was their spiritual and aesthetic modeling under prescribed norms. Image File history File links PavaPansara. ... Image File history File links PavaPansara. ... Pawapuri is located 38 kilometers from Rajgir and 90 kilometers from Patna, India. ... ( Sanskrit: ; Pali: निब्बान Nibbāna; Vietnamese: Niết bàn; Chinese: 涅槃; Mandarin Pinyin: nièpán, Cantonese: nihppùhn; Japanese: nehan ); Korean: 열반, yeolbhan; Thai: nibpan นิพพาน); Tibetan mya-ngan-las-das-pa; Mongolian ɣasalang-aca nögcigsen), is a Sanskrit word that literally means to cease blowing (as when a candle flame...


Their images were largely the images of mind transformed into stone, metal or colors. With locks of hair falling on his shoulders and serpent hood behind his head the images of Rishabhadeva and Parshvanatha respectively have a distinct iconography, but such distinction, except some regional variations and a few minor and remote features, is not seen in other Tirthankara images. Rishabhdev (Lord Rishab) was the first of the Jain Tirthankaras , the founder of Jainism in the present half cycle of time, in this part of the universe. ... A 1097 representation of Parshvanath from Smithsonian Institute’s collections In Jainism, Parshva, (more correctly Parshvanatha; occasionally spelled Parswanath) was the twenty-third Tirthankara. ...


Besides his lion emblem and a slightly different modeling of head, the images of Mahavira are largely identical to those of other Tirthankara. In most images - at least the ancient ones which alone are in thousands, the pedestals, which contained emblems of different Tirthankaras, are not intact. Hence, identity of a Tirthankara image is difficult to discern. In Jainism, a Tirthankara (Fordmaker) is a human who achieved enlightenment, became a Jiva, and whose religious teachings have formed the canon of Jainism; although not Gods, statues of Tirthankaras are found in temples. ...


Mahavira's images are mostly either in 'kayotsarga-mudra' or in 'padmasana'. Other postures have not been preferred - not even the 'godohana-mudra', which Mahavira had when he attained 'keval gyan'. His images rendered for devotees of Digambara sect are not only without clothes but also without every kind of ornamentation. Images rendered for Svetambara devotees are represented as wearing garments, jewels and even a crown. They are represented as seated in a throne much like a monarch. Episodes from his life do not, or little figure in visual arts. Both sculptors and painters have shown some interest in rendering his birth, sometimes as mother Trishala lying on a bed with a number of maids attending upon her, and sometimes as dreaming with sixteen auspicious signs around. A symbolic representation of Mahavira's 'tri-ratnas' is also found in various sculptural panels. Similarly, the diagram of his 'samavasarana' has been the theme of a number of miniatures and wall paintings. The Lotus Posture The Lotus Position (Sanskrit: Padmasanam -- lotus posture) is a cross-legged sitting posture which originated in representations and meditative practices of Hinduism. ... The Digambara (Sky-Clad) are a Jainist sect, these are the followers of Bhadrabahu. ... The Shvetambara (White-Clad) are a Jainist sect. ... Samavasarana (or Samosharana) is a Jain term which refers to the first speech given by a Tirthankar after attaining perfect knowledge, or kevalgnan. ...


Biographies of Mahavira

There are various Jain text describing life of Lord Mahavira. Most notable of them is Kalpasutra by Acharya Bhadrabahu I. Kalpasutra is a Jain ancient text book containing the biography of the last two Jain Tirthankars, Parshvanath and Mahavira. ... Acharya Bhadrabahu (433 B.C. - 357 B.C. ?) was a Jain monk. ...


Honours

Mahavira was ranked #100 on Michael H. Hart's list of the most influential figures in history.
Michael H. Hart (born April 28, 1932 in New York City) is an American astrophysicist turned author and activist. ... The cover of the 1992 edition. ...


Quotes

  • "Once when he sat [in meditation]...they cut his flesh...tore his hair...picked him up and...dropped him...the Venerable One bore the pain." (from the Akaranga Sutra)

“Hurting” redirects here. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ http://www.dalsabzi.com/Message/mahavira.htm
  2. ^ The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. Keith Crim, editor. Harper & Row Publishers: New York, 1989. 451.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mahavira and Jainism by Sanderson Beck (5519 words)
Mahavira criticized Ajita's philosophy for encouraging people to kill, burn, destroy, and enjoy the pleasures of life, but actually Ajita taught people to respect life and honor the living while they are alive rather than death and those who are dead.
Mahavira was assigned a hut with a thatched roof.
Mahavira replied that he would live on, but that Gosala would be struck by his own magical power and die from fever in seven days, which came to pass.
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