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Encyclopedia > Mahathir bin Mohamad
Yang Amat Berbahagia Tun Dr.
 Mahathir bin Mohamad
Mahathir bin Mohamad

In office
July 16, 1981 – October 31, 2003
Monarch Sultan Ahmad Shah (1979 - 1984)
Sultan Iskandar Al-haj (1984 - 1989)
Sultan Azlan Shah (1989 - 1994)
Tuanku Jaafar Tuanku Abdul Rahman (1994 - 1999)
Tuanku Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah (1999 - 2001)
Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin (2001 - 2006)
Deputy Musa Hitam (1981 - 1986)
Ghafar Baba (1986 - 1993)
Anwar Ibrahim (1993 - 1998)
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi (1998 - 2003)
Preceded by Tun Hussein bin Dato' Onn
Succeeded by Abdullah Ahmad Badawi

In office
September 15, 1978 – July 16, 1981
Preceded by Tun Hussein bin Dato' Onn
Succeeded by Tun Musa Hitam

In office
February 25, 2003 – October 31, 2003
Preceded by Thabo Mbeki
Succeeded by Abdullah Ahmad Badawi

Born 20 December 1925 (1925-12-20) (age 82)
Alor Star, Kedah Darul Aman
Political party None (formerly Barisan Nasional, UMNO)[1]
Spouse Tun Dr. Siti Hasmah
Occupation Doctor of Medicine
Religion Islam

Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad (IPA[maˈhɑ.ðe bin moˈhɑ.mat̚]) was the fourth Prime Minister of Malaysia. He held the post for 22 years from from 1981 to 2003, making him Malaysia's longest-serving Prime Minister, and one of the longest-serving leaders in Asia.[2] During his term in office, he was credited for engineering Malaysia's rapid modernization[3] and promoting non-individualistic "Asian values".[4] Tun Mahathir is also known for his criticisms of western and developed countries.[5] The Malay language has a complex system of titles and honorifics which is still extensively used in Malaysia and Brunei. ... Doctor of Medicine (M.D. or MD, from the Latin Medicinae Doctor meaning Teacher of Medicine,) is an academic degree for medical doctors. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mm_un. ... The Prime Minister of Malaysia (in Malay Perdana Menteri) is the indirectly elected head of government of Malaysia. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In full, Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Mustain Billah ibni Almarhum Sultan Sir Abu Bakar Riayatuddin Al-Muadzam Shah (born October 24, 1930 at Istana Mangga Tunggal, Pekan) was the seventh Yang di-Pertuan Agong (roughly equivalent to King) of Malaysia from March 29, 1979... In full, Duli Yang Maha Mulia Baginda Al-Mutawakkil Alallah Sultan Iskandar Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Sir Ismail Al-Khalidi (born April 8, 1932) in Johor Bahru was the eighth Yang di-Pertuan Agong (roughly equivalent to King) of Malaysia from April 26, 1984 to April 25, 1989, and... Duli Yang Maha Mulia Paduka Seri Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Yusuff Izzuddin Shah Ghafarullahu-Lah (born April 19, 1928) is the current Sultan of Perak. ... Tuanku Jaafar ibni Almarhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman (born July 19, 1922) in Klang, Selangor was the tenth Yang di-Pertuan Agong (roughly equivalent to King) of Malaysia from April 26, 1994 to April 25, 1999 and fourth Yang di-Pertuan Besar of modern Negeri Sembilan. ... Almarhum Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Sir Hisamuddin Alam Shah Al-Haj (March 8, 1926 - November 21, 2001) was the eleventh Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia and seventh Sultan of Selangor. ... In full, Duli Yang Maha Mulia Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin ibni Almarhum Tuanku Syed Putra Jamalullail (born 1943) is the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King) of Malaysia, and Raja of Perlis. ... Tan Sri Musa bin Hitam aka Moses Black received his Bachelors degree from the University of Malaya and his Masters degree from the University of Sussex. ... Tun Ghafar Baba (February 18, 1925–April 23, 2006) was a Malaysian politician from Melaka and a former Deputy Prime Minister. ... Dato Seri Anwar bin Ibrahim (born August 10, 1947) is a former deputy prime minister and finance minister of Malaysia. ... Datuk Seri Abdullah bin Haji Ahmad Badawi[1] (born November 26, 1939 in Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang) is the 5th Prime Minister of Malaysia. ... Tun Hussein bin Dato Onn (February 12, 1922-May 29, 1990)who is of 3/4 Malay & 1/4 Turkish(of Circassian extraction) ancestry was the third Prime Minister of Malaysia, ruling from 1976 to 1981. ... Datuk Seri Abdullah bin Haji Ahmad Badawi[1] (born November 26, 1939 in Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang) is the 5th Prime Minister of Malaysia. ... Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia (Timbalan Perdana Menteri in Malay) is the second highest political post in Malaysia. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Tun Hussein bin Dato Onn (February 12, 1922-May 29, 1990)who is of 3/4 Malay & 1/4 Turkish(of Circassian extraction) ancestry was the third Prime Minister of Malaysia, ruling from 1976 to 1981. ... Tan Sri Musa bin Hitam aka Moses Black received his Bachelors degree from the University of Malaya and his Masters degree from the University of Sussex. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki ,KStJ [2][3] (born June 18, 1942)[2] is the current President of the Republic of South Africa. ... Datuk Seri Abdullah bin Haji Ahmad Badawi[1] (born November 26, 1939 in Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang) is the 5th Prime Minister of Malaysia. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Website: http://www. ... State anthem: Allah Selamatkan Sultan Mahkota Capital Alor Star Royal capital Anak Bukit Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim  - Menteri Besar Mahdzir Khalid History    - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 9,426 km² Population  - 2003 estimate 1,778,188  - Density... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The dacing, symbol of Barisan Nasional Barisan Nasional (National Front or BN) is a major political coalition in Malaysia. ... The United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu in Malay, is the largest political party in Malaysia and a founding member of the Barisan Nasional coalition, which has ruled the country uninterrupted since independence. ... The Malay language has a complex system of titles and honorifics which is still extensively used in Malaysia and Brunei. ... Doctor means teacher in Latin. ... Dr. Siti Hasmah bint Mohamad Ali is the wife of Mahathir, the former Prime Minister of Malaysia. ... Doctor of Medicine (M.D. or MD, from the Latin Medicinae Doctor meaning Teacher of Medicine,) is an academic degree for medical doctors. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Malay language has a complex system of titles and honorifics which is still extensively used in Malaysia and Brunei. ... This article is about the use and history of doctor as a title. ... The Prime Minister of Malaysia (in Malay Perdana Menteri) is the indirectly elected head of government of Malaysia. ... Modernization (also Modernisation) is a concept in the sphere of social sciences that refers to process in which society goes through industrialization, urbanization and other social changes that completely transforms the lives of individuals. ... Asian values was a concept that came into vogue in the 1990s, predicated on the belief in the existence in Asian countries of a unique set of institutions and political ideologies which reflected the regions culture and history. ...


During his administration, he was considered as one of Asia's most influential leaders.[6] Mahathir is also noted in the Western world as an outspoken critic of Western civilization. [7]

Contents

Early life

Personal

Mahathir was born on December 20, 1925, in Alor Star, the capital of the northern state of Kedah. His father was a school teacher of Indian origin, specifically Malayalee (people who speak Malayalam, not to be confused with Malay), having migrated from the southern state of Kerala, while his mother was a Malay. Despite being only half Malay and having acknowledged his Indian heritage, Mahathir generally considers himself to be Malay, and is known for the use of fiery rhetoric designed to invoke feelings of Malay nationalism, most recently using the term Ketuanan Melayu, or "Malay Supremacy/Lordship" to argue that the Malays were losing out to the minority Chinese and Indian races after the Barisan Nasional coalition's relatively poor showing in Malaysia's 12th general election. [8] is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Website: http://www. ... State anthem: Allah Selamatkan Sultan Mahkota Capital Alor Star Royal capital Anak Bukit Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim  - Menteri Besar Mahdzir Khalid History    - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 9,426 km² Population  - 2003 estimate 1,778,188  - Density... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


During World War II, he sold pisang goreng (banana fritters) and other snacks to supplement his family income during the Japanese occupation of Malaya. Mahathir attended a Malay vernacular school before continuing his education at the Sultan Abdul Hamid College in Alor Star. Mahathir then attended the King Edward VII Medical College in Singapore, where he edited a medical student magazine called The Cauldron; he also contributed to the The Straits Times newspaper anonymously under the nickname "Che Det". Mahathir was also President of the Muslim Society in the college.[9] Upon graduation in 1953, Mahathir joined the then Malayan government service as a medical officer. He married Siti Hasmah Mohd Ali—a fellow doctor and former classmate in college—on 5 August 1956, and left government service in 1957 to set up his own private practice in Alor Star. Mahathir thrived in private practice, and allowed him to own by 1959 a Pontiac Catalina and employ an ethnic Chinese chauffeur (at the time, almost all chauffeurs in Malaysia were Malays, owing to the economic dominance of the ethnic Chinese).[10] Some critics have suggested this foreshadowed a later hallmark of Mahathir's politics, which focused on the "cultivation of such emblems of power".[11] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Pisang goreng (Malay: fried banana) is a banana fried in batter and eaten as a snack food. ... Throughout much of the Second World War, British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak were under Japanese occupation. ... British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ... Edward VII King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Emperor of India His Majesty King Edward VII (Albert Edward) (9 November 1841–6 May 1910) was the first British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... The Straits Times is an English-language broadsheet newspaper based in Singapore, currently owned by the Singapore Press Holdings (SPH). ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1964 Pontiac Catalina 2-door hardtop The Pontiac Catalina was part of Pontiacs full-sized automobile line. ... A chauffeur in Japan A driver in Kerala A chauffeur is one who drives an automobile as a job. ...


In 1956, Mahathir married Siti Hasmah binti Haji Mohamad Ali, another medical doctor. They have five children,[12] three sons and two daughters.[13] Both Mukhriz and Mokhzani Mahathir[14] are involved in business as well as in politics while their eldest daughter Marina Mahathir is a prominent local writer and AIDS activist.[15] A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mukhriz Mahathir is the son of former Prime Minister of Malaysia Mahathir Mohamad. ... Mokhzani Mahathir is the second son of former Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohammed. ...


He successfully underwent a heart bypass operation in 1989 at age 63.[13] Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


Political career

Active in politics since 1945, beginning with his involvement in the Anti-Malayan Union Campaign, Mahathir joined the United Malays National Organization (UMNO) at its inception in 1946. As State Party Chairman, and Chairman of the Political Committee, he inadvertently angered some quarters with his proposal that the selection of candidates be based on certain qualifications for the 1959 general election. Hurt by accusations that he was scheming to put up candidates who were strongly allied to him, Mahathir refused to take part in the national election that year. Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Malayan Union was formed on April 1, 1946 by the British. ... The United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu in Malay, is the largest political party in Malaysia and a founding member of the Barisan Nasional coalition, which has ruled the country uninterrupted since independence. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Elections in Malaysia gives information on election and election results in Malaysia. ...


In the third general election of 1964, Mahathir was elected Member of Parliament for Kota Setar Selatan[16] defeating the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party's (PAS) candidate with a 60.2% majority. He lost the seat in the following general election in 1969 by a mere 989 votes to PAS's candidate, Haji Yusoff Rawa[17] after he categorically declared that he did not need Chinese votes to win.[18] Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... The Pan Malaysian Islamic Party (Malay: Parti Islam SeMalaysia), commonly known as PAS or Pas, is an Islamist political party in Malaysia and is currently headed by Datuk Seri Abdul Hadi Awang. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...


Following the race riots of 13 May 1969, Mahathir was sacked from the UMNO Supreme Council on 12 July, following his widespread distribution to the public of his letter to Tunku Abdul Rahman, the Prime Minister at that time. In his letter, he had criticised the manner in which Tunku Abdul Rahman had handled the country's administration which was believed to favour the ethnic Chinese. Mahathir was subsequently relieved of his party membership on 26 September.[17] The May 13 Incident saw numerous cases of arson in the Malaysian capital city of Kuala Lumpur. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Hamid Shah (February 8, 1903–December 6, 1990) usually known as the Tunku (a princely title in Malaysia), and also called Bapa Kemerdekaan (Father of Independence) or Bapa Malaysia (Father of Malaysia), was Chief Minister of the Federation of Malaya...


While in the political wilderness, Mahathir wrote his book, "The Malay Dilemma"[17] in which he sought to explain the causes of the May 13 Incident in Kuala Lumpur and the reasons for the Malays' lack of economic progress within their own country. He then proposed a politico-economic solution in the form of "constructive protection", worked out after careful consideration of the effects of heredity and environmental factors on the Malay race. The book, published in 1970, was promptly banned by the Tunku Abdul Rahman government.[17] However, some of the proposals in this book had been used by Tun Abdul Razak, Tunku Abdul Rahman's successor, in his "New Economic Policy" (NEP) that was principally geared towards affirmative action economic programs to address the nation's economic disparity between the Malays and the non-Malays. The ban on his book was eventually lifted after Mahathir became Prime Minister in 1981.[17] The Malay Dilemma is a controversial book written by Mahathir bin Mohamad in 1970. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ... The ancients had a variety of ideas about heredity: Theophrastus proposed that male flowers caused female flowers to ripen; Hippocrates speculated that seeds were produced by various body parts and transmitted to offspring at the time of conception, and Aristotle thought that male and female semen mixed at conception. ... The nature versus nurture debates concern the relative importance of an individuals innate qualities (nature) versus personal experiences (nurture) in determining or causing individual differences in physical and behavioral traits. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tun Abdul Razak bin Haji Dato Hussein Al-Haj (March 11, 1922-January 14, 1976) was the second Prime Minister of Malaysia, ruling from 1970 to 1976. ... Under the Malaysian New Economic Policy, Bumiputras are given discounts on real estate. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...


Mahathir rejoined UMNO on 7 March 1972, and was appointed as Senator in 1973. He relinquished the senatorship post in 1974 in order to contest in the general elections where he was returned unopposed in the constituency of Kubang Pasu, and was appointed as the Minister of Education.[17] In 1975, he became one of the three vice-presidents of UMNO, after winning the seat by 47 votes. Tun Hussein Onn appointed Mahathir as Deputy Prime Minister on 15 September 1978, and in a Cabinet reshuffle, appointed him concurrently as the Minister of Trade and Industry. is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Dewan Negara is the Malaysian Senate. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tun Hussein bin Dato Onn (February 12, 1922-May 29, 1990)who is of 3/4 Malay & 1/4 Turkish(of Circassian extraction) ancestry was the third Prime Minister of Malaysia, ruling from 1976 to 1981. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... In the parliamentary system a cabinet shuffle is an informal term for an event that occurs when a Head of Government rotates or changes the composition of ministers in his or her cabinet. ...


Mahathir has announced that he has resigned from UMNO, the backbone of the ruling party, the Barisan National on 19 May 2008 which coincides with the Wesak Day celebration. This decision has sent the politic scenario in Malaysia to wilderness


Prime Minister

Mahathir became the Prime Minister of Malaysia on 16 July 1981 when Tun Hussein Onn stepped down due to health reasons. He was the nation's first Prime Minister that came from a modest social background, whereas the first three prime ministers were members of the royal or elite families.[13] is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...


After 22 years in office, Mahathir retired on October 31, 2003, making him one of Asia's longest-serving political leaders. Upon his retirement on 31 October 2003, Mahathir was awarded a "Tun"-ship, Malaysia's highest civilian honour. is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A politician is an individual involved in politics. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Malay language has a complex system of titles and honorifics which is still extensively used in Malaysia and Brunei. ...


Major constitutional changes

In 1983 and 1991, he took on the federal and state monarchies, removing the royal veto and royal immunity from prosecution.[11] Prior to this amendment of the law, royal assent was required in order for any bill to pass into law. With effect of this amendment, approval by parliament could be legally considered as royal assent after a period of 30 days, notwithstanding the views of the monarchs. However, this only applied to secular laws and the various sultans continued to enjoy the right to make Islamic law in their own jurisdictions. For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Immunity, also known as transactional immunity, confers a status on a person or body that places them beyond the law and makes that person or body free from otherwise legal obligations such as, for example, liability for torts or damages or prosecution under criminal law for criminal acts. ... The prosecutor is the chief legal representative of the prosecution in countries adopting the common law adversarial system or the civil law inquisitorial system. ... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... A bill is a proposed new law introduced within a legislature that has not been ratified, adopted, or received assent. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... The Malaysian Houses of Parliament in Kuala Lumpur. ... This article is about secularism. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 1988 when the future of the ruling party UMNO was about to be decided in the Supreme Court (it had just been deregistered as an illegal society in the High Court), he was believed to have engineered the dismissal of the Lord President of the Supreme Court, Salleh Abas, and three other supreme court justices who tried to block the misconduct hearings. The series of incidents in 1988 has been widely viewed as the end of the Malaysian judiciary's independence from the executive. The Sultan Abdul Samad Building, as were surrounding colonial buildings near the Merdeka Square, had formerly housed all of the countrys judicial branches for decades. ... The Sultan Abdul Samad Building, as were surrounding colonial buildings near the Merdeka Square, had formerly housed all of the countrys judicial branches for decades. ... Lord President of the Federal Court of Malaysia was formerly the title of the head of the judiciary in Malaysia, from the formation of Malaysia in 1963 until 1994. ... -1... The Sultan Abdul Samad Building housed the Supreme Court at the time of the 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis. ...


Economic policies

During his term in office, Mahathir turned Malaysia into a regional high-tech manufacturing, financial, and telecommunications hub through his economic policies based on corporate nationalism, known as the various "Malaysia Plans" which set out the government middle-term objectives. These policies with strong Keynesian tendency remained in effect almost to the end of his tenure in office. Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... Financial services is a term used to refer to the services provided by the finance industry. ... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... National capitalism or corporate nationalism is a political and economic philosophy that expects private enterprise to work mainly towards the national good, rather than solely for profit maximization. ... Keynesian economics, or Keynesianism, is an economic theory based on the ideas of John Maynard Keynes, as put forward in his book The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, published in 1936 in response to the Great Depression of the 1930s. ...


His pet projects have included Perwaja Steel, an attempt to emulate South Korea and Japan, the Proton car company, and Astro, a satellite television service. Perwaja Steel Sdn Bhd is Malaysias largest steel producer. ... Proton Holdings Berhad is the holding company for the Malaysian national carmaker Proton (Malay acronym for Perusahaan Otomobil Nasional, National Automobile Enterprise), which was established in 1983 under the direction of the former Prime Minister, Tun Mahathir Mohamad. ... Astro may refer to: Astronomy Astrology Astro (Motorola), used to describe the digital voice radios produced by Motorola Astro (satellite TV), a Malaysian subscription-based multi-channel satellite TV & radio service Astro Nusantara, Indonesia subscription-based multi-channel TV service Astro (The Jetsons), a dog on the animated television series... Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television. ...


Mahathir is credited with spearheading the phenomenal growth of the Malaysian economy, now one of the largest in South East Asia. Growth between 1988 and 1997 averaged over ten percent and living standards rose twentyfold, with poverty relatively almost eradicated and social indicators such as literacy levels and infant mortality rates becoming almost on par with developed countries. Malaysia is a growing and relatively open economy. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... A boy from Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... The Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) is a concept in green economics and welfare economics that has been suggested as a replacement metric for gross domestic product (GDP) as a metric of economic growth. ... Children reading. ... is the death of infants in the first year of life. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ...


During this period, Mahathir embarked on various large scale national projects, such as the North-South Expressway, Multimedia Super Corridor, the planned capital city of Putrajaya, Johor's Port of Tanjung Pelepas, Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA), the Bakun Dam in Sarawak, and the Petronas Twin Towers. Situated in Malaysia, the Multimedia Super Corridor is a Government designated zone, designed to leapfrog Malaysia into the information and knowledge age. ... Motto: Bandar raya Taman, Bandar raya Bestari (English :Garden City, Intelligent City ) Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1995, October 19th Made into Federal Territory 2001, February 1st Government  - Administered by Perbadanan Putrajaya Putrajaya Corporation  - Chairman Samsudin Osman Area  - City 46 km²  (17. ... The Port of Tanjung Pelepas is Malaysias newest port for container ships, located near the tip of continental Asia, in southwest Malaysia. ... For other uses, see Kuala Lumpur International Airport (disambiguation). ... The Bakun Hydroelectric Project is located in Sarawak, Malaysia on the Balui River. ... The Petronas Towers The Petronas Towers (also known as the Petronas Twin Towers), in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (, ), were once the worlds tallest buildings when measured from the level of the main entrance to the structural or architectural top. ...


While such projects have their benefits, corresponding high costs have made some Malaysians reluctant to engage in more of such ventures, believing that the money can be better spent on other areas of development.[19] On the other hand, Mahathir has always argued that such projects yield a direct return to the economy, apart from just serving the national pride, as government spendings in turn create jobs along with other multiplier effects. Mahathir has also been criticised for the failures and inefficiency of some of his pet projects. Perwaja Steel eventually failed and had to be rescued by a corporate white knight. Its chairman, Eric Chia, faced charges of corruption in 2004. Proton eventually had to be bought by Petronas when its parent DRB-HICOM found itself over-extended, and is still currently fighting to become profitable. Astro enjoyed a monopoly on pay television services in Malaysia until 2005 when it ended with the granting of a licence to a rival MiTV Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Petronas, short for Petroliam Nasional Berhad, is a Malaysian owned oil and gas company that was founded on August 17, 1974. ... DRB-HICOM (MYX: 1619) Berhad is Malaysias single largest totally integrated automotive company, with operations in the manufacturing, assembly and distribution of passenger and commercial vehicles. ... This article is about the economic term. ... Pay television, or pay-TV, usually refers to subscription-based television services, usually provided by both analogue and digital cable and satellite, but also increasingly by digital terrestrial methods. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... MiTV Corporation Sdn Bhd is Malaysias second pay television operator. ...


The Bakun Dam project was to be managed by a local construction firm, Ekran Berhad. It issued a 1-for-1 on time rights issue which was 63% undersubscribed (the first time in Malaysia for an event of this magnitude). Ekran's chairman, Ting Pek King, had to purchase all unsubscribed shares at a cost of $500 million ringgit due to his agreement with the underwriters. Subsequently the dam project was taken back by the government which was obliged to pay Ekran for the work already completed. The Bakun Hydroelectric Project was originally conceived in 1993 by then-Prime Minister Mahathir. ... In equities, a rights issue can be made when a company wants to issue new shares. ... Ringgit (Malay for jagged) mostly refers to the Malaysian ringgit, which is the local currency in Malaysia, but it can also refer to the Singapore dollar and Brunei dollar in the Malay language. ... Underwriting refers to the process that a large financial service provider (bank, insurer, investment house) uses to assess the eligibility of a customer to receive their products like equity capital, insurance, mortgage or credit to a customer. ... This article is about structures for water impoundment. ...


1997 Asian financial crisis

During the Asian financial crisis of 1997, IMF had prescribed a recovery package for Malaysia, but Mahathir defied international pressure, his then Deputy Anwar Ibrahim, and conventional wisdom, in rejecting the package. Though economic prosperity has been mixed since then, Mahathir argued that Malaysia's recovery was relatively faster and better, as compared to many other Asian countries affected. After the financial crisis, the IMF and World Bank acknowledged that Mahathir's approach had worked.[20] The East Asian Financial Crisis was a period of economic unrest (or financial contagion) that started in July 1997 in Thailand with the financial collapse of the Thai Baht, and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in a number of Asian countries. ...


Financial speculation

During Mahathir's administration, there are a few speculation activities made by the administration which caused losses for Malaysia. Between 1981 and 1982, Malaysian businesses became involved in the international tin venture. The activity caused the price of the commodity to skyrocket, resulting in the collapse of the the export market for tin. This venture cost Malaysia USD 80 million or MYR 209 million in losses.[21] Speculation involves the buying, holding, and selling of stocks, bonds, commodities, currencies, collectibles, real estate, derivatives or any valuable financial instrument to profit from fluctuations in its price as opposed to buying it for use or for income via methods such as dividends or interest. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... ISO 4217 Code MYR User(s) Malaysia Inflation 2. ...


In 1990, Bank Negara Malaysia became involved in the Pound Sterling speculation. The speculation activity failed and costs the central bank USD 4 billion.[22] In 1994, the bank continued to pursue the speculation activity and further lost USD 2.2 billion. Finally, in 1994, the central bank technically become insolvent and was bailed out by the Ministry of Finance.[23][24] This article is about the year. ... Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) is the Malaysian central bank. ... GBP may be: short for Game Boy Player the ISO currency code for the British Pound Sterling. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...


Sacking of Anwar Ibrahim

In 1998, the government brought charges of sexual misconduct and abuse of power charges against the former finance minister and deputy prime minister, Anwar Ibrahim. Anwar claimed that he was being set up because he had tried to turn corruption and nepotism into major political issues, with Mahathir and his associates as the targets. Mahathir's supporters believe that it was Anwar's attempt to replace Mahathir as the Prime Minister, upon seeing the downfall of Indonesia's Suharto, that has led him to be removed from politics altogether. Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Dato Seri Anwar bin Ibrahim (born August 10, 1947) is a former deputy prime minister and finance minister of Malaysia. ... Look up nepotism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Politicized issues are social, economic, theological, spiritual, medical or legal issues which have gone through a process of becoming political - that is, that people have become politically active about that issue. ... Suharto GCB (born June 8, 1921) is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ...


The government included the statements of the purported victims of Anwar's sexual assaults, evidence that was alleged by some to be tainted.[25][26] Furthermore, the prosecution was unable to accurately decide on a date that the alleged acts of anal sex had occurred - the government originally alleged that a sodomy had occurred inside a building that had not been constructed at the time of the alleged event. When the anomaly was pointed out, the prosecution amended the date of the alleged acts to a date after the building was built. Mahathir himself went as far as to go on television to declare Anwar guilty of sodomy and homosexual acts, even as the trial still was underway. There was widespread condemnation of the trial from human rights groups and the Malaysia bar association, who expressed serious doubts about its fairness. Mahathir then ordered a crackdown on the media and opposition parties who protested the trial. Anwar Ibrahim was sentenced to six years in prison for corruption and nine years prison for sodomy, to be served consecutively.[27][28] Dato Seri Anwar bin Ibrahim (born August 10, 1947) is a former deputy prime minister and finance minister of Malaysia. ...


The Anwar crisis sparked protests by some Malaysians, of all ethnic groups, and some of Anwar's supporters from UMNO regrouped around the intellectual-Muslim "Parti Keadilan Nasional" (National Justice Party). It garnered widespread support from Malaysians, however it managed to win only five parliamentary seats in the 1999 elections. [29] In the subsequent 2004 elections, with Anwar's release and conviction overturned, the party was nearly wiped out, with Wan Azizah, the wife of Anwar, winning one seat by a narrow margin. This article is about the Peoples Justice Party of Malaysia. ... The 1999 Malaysian General Election was held on 29 November 1999 as stipulated by the laws of Malaysia for general elections. ... General elections were held in Malaysia on March 21, 2004. ... Wan Azizah is the wife of Datuk Sri Anwar Ibrahim,the 4th Deputy Prime Minister in Datuk Sri Dr.Mahathir Mohammad (now Tun Dr.Mahathir Mohammad) term. ...


Educational system

Further information: Education in Malaysia

In 1974, Mahathir was appointed Minister of Education.[30][31] He had always believed in the need for "education for the masses", with greater emphasis on maths and science, at high school level, in order to achieve his dream of a developed Malaysia. He continued to strongly promote his agenda of quantity-and-quality higher education during his term as prime minister.[citation needed]-1... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Official logo The Malaysian Ministry of Education is a government ministry responsible for Malaysian educational matters. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ...


In those days, English, Chinese and Tamil-medium schools were fully run by private and missionary organizations. Students from these school sat for the respective overseas examinations set by the board of school committees and associations. For instance, Overseas Cambridge School Certificate (OSC) was set for English schools.[citation needed] Under the former Prime Minister's order, he drafted the KBSM syllabus in order to make Malay a compulsory subject to be taught in all subjects in these schools. Overseas examinations were subsequently abolished one after another throughout the years. Schools which converted to the national type received heavy fundings from the government. Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) and Sijil Rendah Pelajaran (SRP) were fully introduced as national examinations.[citation needed] Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ...


In order to cater for the lower income indigenous population, boarding schools were promoted and constructed. Through government scholarships, tens of thousands of students were sent yearly to universities in the United States], United Kingdom, and Australia—western-type countries that Mahathir aspired to achieve par development with. Middle- and higher-income groups from non-Bumiputera Malaysians who were unable to get a place in the local universities, due to the restrictive quota system and limited government scholarships, also independently sent their children to these universities. This has led Malaysia to have the third largest number of students going to western-type countries to pursue higher education, after China and India.[citation needed] The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... A boarding school is a usually fee-charging school where some or all pupils not only study, but also live during term time, with their fellow students and possibly teachers. ... This article is about scholarship (noun) and scholarship as a form of financial aid. ... Bumiputra or Bumiputera (Malay, from Sanskrit Bhumiputra; translated literally, it means son of the soil), is an official definition widely used in Malaysia, embracing ethnic Malays as well as other indigenous ethnic groups such as the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia and the tribal peoples in Sabah and Sarawak. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...


In 1980, education quota was introduced as part of the National Economic Policy.[32] Mahathir who became the acting prime minister, introduced the quota system to all economic sectors in Malaysia including the education system, whereby a designated percentage of undergraduate seats of higher institutions were reserved for Bumiputra (natives) citizens. Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...


Towards his later years, Mahathir promoted the liberalization of university start-ups, leading to branch campuses being built or the formation of permanent tie-ups with some of the most prestigious universities in the world. Amongst others, these led to the construction of the University of Nottingham in Malaysia (in partnership with the University of Nottingham, U.K.), Malaysia University of Science and Technology (M.U.S.T.), in partnership with M.I.T. (U.S.) and Motorola) , Monash University Malaysia (in partnership with Monash University, Australia) and Curtin University of Technology, Sarawak Campus (in partnership with Curtin University of Technology, Australia) In general, liberalization refers to a relaxation of previous government restrictions, usually in areas of social or economic policy. ... The University of Nottingham in Malaysia or UNiM was established in 2000 as the Malaysia campus of the University of Nottingham, England. ... The University of Nottingham is a leading research university in the city of Nottingham, in the East Midlands of England. ... “UK” redirects here. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Motorola Inc. ... Robert Menzies Building at the Clayton Campus Monash University is a public university with campuses located in Australia, Malaysia and South Africa. ... Curtin University of Technology - Building 408, with adjacent 3. ...


Private companies with a long running history in Malaysia like Intel and AMD were also encouraged to set up, and run partnerships and/or higher education centres and centres of excellence. Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ...


In the year before his retirement, he announced that Mathematics and Science subjects must be taught in English in all primary and secondary schools with aim to increase competitiveness of Malaysian students.[33]


Foreign relations

During Mahathir's tenure in office, Malaysia's relationship with the West was generally fine despite being known to be an outspoken critic towards them.[5] Early during his tenure, a small disagreement with the United Kingdom over university tuition fees sparked off a boycott of all British goods led by Mahathir, in what became known as the "Buy British Last" campaign. It also led to a search for development models in Asia, most notably Japan. This was the beginning of his famous "Look East Policy". Although the dispute was later resolved by Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, Mahathir continued to emphasize Asian development models over contemporary Western ones. Occident redirects here. ... Tuition means instruction, teaching or a fee charged for educational instruction especially at a formal institution of learning. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants. ...


United States

Mahathir has always been an outspoken critic of the United States[7] and yet the United States was the biggest source of foreign investment, and was Malaysia's biggest customer during Mahathir's rule. Furthermore, Malaysian military officers continued to train in the US under the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program. Invest redirects here. ... Military education and training is a process which intends to establish and improve the capabilities of military personnel in their respective roles. ...


Some say that relations with the United States took a turn for the worse in 1998,[34] when US Vice President Al Gore stated at the APEC conference hosted by Malaysia: This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... APEC redirects here. ...

"Democracy confers a stamp of legitimacy that reforms must have in order to be effective. And so, among nations suffering economic crises, we continue to hear calls for democracy, calls for reform, in many languages - People Power, doi moi, reformasi. We hear them today - right here, right now - among the brave people of Malaysia."

Al Gore left immediately after making that statement, probably as a form of protest.[citation needed] The word legitimacy is often interpreted in a normative or a positive way. ... Socialist Reformism is the belief that gradual democratic changes in a society can ultimately change a societys fundamental economic relations and political structures. ...


Al Gore and the United States were critical of the trial of Mahathir's former deputy Anwar Ibrahim, going as far to label it as a "show trial". The trial itself was a tawdry spectacle. The government included the statements of the purported "victims" of Anwar's sodomy attacks, evidence that was widely considered to be tainted. Furthermore, the prosecution was unable to accurately decide on a date that the alleged acts of anal sex had occurred - the government originally alleged that a sodomy had occurred inside a building that had not been constructed at the time of the alleged event. Mahathir himself went as far as to go on television to declare Anwar guilty of sodomy and homosexual acts, even as the trial still was underway. In response to widespread condemnation of the trail from human rights groups and the Malaysia bar association, he ordered a crackdown on the media and opposition parties who protested the trial. Many of the "reformasi" supporters who were against Mahathir at that time were arrested by the FRU and Special Branch and were detained without trial under the ISA. Some of them were opposition supporters, and some of them were former academics. Dato Seri Anwar bin Ibrahim (born August 10, 1947) is a former deputy prime minister and finance minister of Malaysia. ...


Also, Anwar Ibrahim was the preeminent Malaysian spokesperson for the economic policies preferred by the IMF, which included interest rate hikes, among others. An article in Malaysia Today commented that "Gore's comments constituted a none-too-subtle attack on Malaysia's Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad and more generally on governments, including Japan, that resist US demands for further market reforms."[35] Gore's endorsement for the reformasi (reformation) asking for (among other things) the ouster of Mahathir, was anathema to Mahathir, and he remarked that "I've never seen anybody so rude". This also summed up the Malaysian expectation that one who is a guest should not show such discourtesy to the host.[36] The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ...

Mahathir greeting U.S. Secretary of Defense William Cohen in Kuala Lumpur in 1998.
Mahathir greeting U.S. Secretary of Defense William Cohen in Kuala Lumpur in 1998.

However, Mahathir's views were already firmly entrenched before this event. For example, before the ASEAN meeting in 1997, he made a speech condemning the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, calling it an oppressive instrument by which the United States and other countries try to impose their values on Asians. He went on to share his view that Asians need stability and economic growth more than civil liberties. These remarks did not endear him to U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, who was a guest at the meeting. William Sebastian Cohen (1940- ) is an author and American politician from the U.S. state of Maine. ... Hymn The ASEAN Hymn Jakarta, Indonesia Membership 10 Southeast Asian states Leaders  -  Secretary General Ong Keng Yong Area  -  Total 4,497,4931 km²  Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character , sq mi  Population  -   estimate 566. ... The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ... Asian people[1] is a demonym for people from Asia. ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová, IPA: , on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. ...


The relationship was stormy both ways. Following Anwar Ibrahim's sacking and subsequent imprisonment, Madeleine Albright paid a visit to Anwar's wife. Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová, IPA: , on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. ...


Yet Mahathir has not hesitated to point to America for justification of his own actions. In speaking of arbitrary detention without trial of prisoners of conscience in Malaysia, he said: "Events in the United States have shown that there are instances where certain special powers need to be used in order to protect the public for the general good." Detention generally refers to a state or government holding a person in a particular area, either for interrogation, as punishment for a wrong, or as a precautionary measure while investigating a potential threat posed by that person. ... In legal parlance, a trial is an event in which parties to a dispute present information (in the form of evidence) in a formal setting, usually a court, before a judge, jury, or other designated finder of fact, in order to achieve a resolution to their dispute. ... Prisoner of conscience (POC) is a term coined by the human rights pressure group Amnesty International in the early 1960s. ...


At the other end of the spectrum, the United States government has previously criticised the Malaysian government for implementing the ISA, most recently in 2001 when President George W. Bush said "The Internal Security Act is a draconian law. No country should any longer have laws that allow for detention without trial." In 2004, however, Bush reversed his stance and claimed "We cannot simply classify Malaysia’s Internal Security Act as a draconian law." George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


In 2003 Mahathir spoke to the Non-Aligned Movement in Kuala Lumpur, and as part of his speech, said: Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ...

"If innocent people who died in the attack on Afghanistan and those who have been dying from lack of food and medical care in Iraq are considered collaterals, are the 3,000 who died in New York, and the 200 in Bali also just collaterals whose deaths are necessary for operations to succeed?"[clarify] A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... Collateral damage is a U.S. Military term for unintended or incidental damage during a military operation. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... The 2002 Bali bombings occurred on 12 October 2002 in the tourist district of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali. ...

Marie Huhtala, the American ambassador to Malaysia responded with a statement: For other uses, see Ambassador (disambiguation). ...

"These are not helpful statements by any standard, and I'm here to tell you that Washington does take note of them. They are bound to have a harmful effect on the relationship." United States Government redirects here. ...

More recently, the 2003 Invasion of Iraq caused additional friction between the two countries; Mahathir was highly critical of President Bush for acting without a United Nations mandate. This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... UN redirects here. ... In international law, a mandate is a binding obligation issued from an inter-governmental organization like the United Nations to a country which is bound to follow the instructions of the organization. ...


In spite of all this, Malaysia's relationship with the US has been strong. A 2003 house subcommittee hearing (Serial No. 108–21) on US Policy policy towards South East Asia sums it up as "Despite sometimes blunt and intemperate public remarks by Prime Minister Mahathir, U.S.-Malaysian cooperation has a solid record in areas as diverse as education, trade, military relations, and counter-terrorism". Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ...


Even after retirement, Mahathir was not hesitant about his criticisms of the United States. In 2004, (The Star, October 18, 2004), he was quoted as having said "The American people are, by and large, very ignorant and know nothing about the rest of the world.... Yet they are the people who will decide who will be the most powerful man in the world". In the same interview, he also predicted George W. Bush's victory in the 2004 United States Presidential Election, in which he was later proven correct. In another October 2006 interview with Associated Press, he predicted that the Republicians will retain both chambers in the 2006 mid-term elections because "American voters are not astute and will be fooled by President George W. Bush's propaganda." The Star is the leading English-language newspaper in Malaysia. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Presidential election results map. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The 2006 United States midterm elections were held on Tuesday, November 7, 2006. ...


Australia

Mahathir at the APEC forum in Bogor, Indonesia in November 1994 with heads of government (from left to right) Jim Bolger (NZ), Hamish Macleod (HK), Julius Chan (PNG), Paul Keating (AU), Mahathir, Jiang Zemin (PRC) and Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle (Chile). Paul Keating's batik shirt features Australia's Coat of Arms in its intricate pattern.

Mahathir's relationship with Australia (the closest country in the Anglosphere to Malaysia, and the one whose foreign policy is most concentrated on the region), and his relationship with Australia's political leaders, has been particularly rocky. Mahathir regularly took offense at portrayals of Malaysia in the Australian media (which criticized Mahathir's belligerence and outspokeness), calling on the government to intervene in this (an action that would be politically unthinkable in Australia). Relationships between Mahathir and Australia's leaders reached a low point in 1993 when Paul Keating described Mahathir as "recalcitrant" for not attending the APEC summit. (It is thought that Keating's description was a linguistic gaffe, and that what he had in mind was "intransigent".)[37] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... APEC redirects here. ... Nickname: Kota Hujan (City of Rain) Location of Bogor in Indonesia Coordinates: Government  - Mayor Diani Budiarto Time zone WIB (UTC+7) Area code(s) 0251 Website: www. ... The Right Honourable James Brendan Jim Bolger, ONZ, (born 31 May 1935) was Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1990 to 1997. ... Sir Julius Chan GCL, GCMG, KBE (陳仲民 Pinyin: Chén Zhòngmín) (born 29 August 1939) was Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea in 1980–1982 and 1994–1997. ... For other persons named Paul Keating, see Paul Keating (disambiguation). ... Jiāng Zémín (Traditional Chinese: 江澤民, Simplified Chinese: 江泽民, Hanyu Pinyin: Jiāng Zémín, Wade-Giles: Chiang Tse-min, Cantonese (Jyutping): gong1 zaak6 man4) (born August 17, 1926) was the core of the third generation of Communist Party of China leaders, serving as General Secretary of the Communist... Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle (born June 24, 1942) was President of Chile from 1994 to 2000. ... This article is about the textile dyeing technique. ... Australian Coat of Arms (since 1912) The Coat of Arms of Australia is the official symbol of Australia. ... Definitions of the Anglosphere vary: Countries in which English is the first language of a large fraction of the population are shown in blue. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... For other persons named Paul Keating, see Paul Keating (disambiguation). ...


Mahathir, along with other Malaysian politicians (and many other Asian leaders) also heavily criticized Keating's successor, John Howard, whom he believed had encouraged Pauline Hanson, whose views were widely perceived in Asia[citation needed] (and Australia[38]) as racist. Australian politicians then pointed out Mahathir's farcical trial of Anwar Ibrahim, saying that the prosecution was using homophobic overtones. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ... Pauline Hanson at a book signing, 2007 Pauline Lee Hanson (née Seccombe; born May 27, 1954) is an Australian politician and former leader of the One Nation Party, a party with a populist, anti-immigration platform. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Dato Seri Anwar bin Ibrahim (born August 10, 1947) is a former deputy prime minister and finance minister of Malaysia. ...


Mahathir has valued the right of a nation to do whatever it wants within its borders, which he calls "sovereignty". This was articulated in the ASEAN policy of non-interference. In 2000, Mahathir was quoted as saying: "If Australia wants to be a friend to Asia, it should stop behaving as if it is there to teach us how to run our country. It is a small nation in terms of numbers and it should behave like a small nation and not be a teacher." He also said, "This country stands out like a sore thumb trying to impose its European values in Asia as if it is the good old days when people can shoot aborigines without caring about human rights". “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Languages Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religions Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including Islam and various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


Mahathir also made remarks to the effect that John Howard was trying to be America's 'Deputy Sheriff' in the Pacific region. This was in response to John Howard's statement that they would pursue terrorists over the borders of their neighbours. John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ... Look up Sheriff in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The USS Abraham Lincoln Battle Group along with ships from Australia, Chile, Japan, Canada, and Korea speed towards Honolulu in RIMPAC 2000. ...


His perception of Howard has not softened after retirement. In an interview, he stated: "They (accepted) Blair, and I am sure they will accept Bush. They have already accepted Howard who told a blatant lie", a reference to the "Children overboard" scandal during the run-up to the 2001 Australian elections. For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... The refugee laden SIEV-4, the boat that sparked the affair The children overboard affair is an Australian political scandal, first appearing on the eve of the 2001 legislative elections. ...


Despite this supposed non-interference policy, Malaysia during Mahathir's premiership had been constantly criticising Singapore, but would take the slightest unfavourable comment coming from Singapore as an attempt to interfere in the domestic affairs of Malaysia.[citation needed]


Middle East

Under Mahathir, Malaysia was a staunch supporter of the Palestinian cause, and established diplomatic relations with the Palestine Liberation Organization. (Israeli citizens remain banned from entering Malaysia and Malaysian citizens from Israel without special government permission.) In 1986, a major diplomatic row erupted with neighbouring Singapore when Chaim Herzog, the President of Israel, paid a state visit. The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... This article is about negotiations. ... PLO redirects here. ... Chaim Herzog (‎, born Vivian Herzog, September 17, 1918 – April 17, 1997) served as the sixth President of Israel (1983–1993), following a distinguished career in both the British Army and the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). ... The President of the State of Israel (‎, Nesi HaMedina, lit. ...


Mahathir's antisemitic remarks about Jews date back as early as 1970 when he wrote in his controversial book The Malay Dilemma: "The Jews for example are not merely hook-nosed, but understand money instinctively."[39][40] The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster Anti-Semitism (alternatively spelled antisemitism) is hostility towards or prejudice against Jews (not, in common usage, Semites in general — see the Scope section below). ... The Malay Dilemma is a controversial book written by Mahathir bin Mohamad in 1970. ...


In 1997, during the financial crisis, he attributed the collapse of the Malaysian ringgit to a conspiracy of Jews against a prosperous Muslim state: "The Jews robbed the Palestinians of everything, but in Malaysia they could not do so, hence they do this, depress the ringgit." Under strong international criticism, he issued a partial retraction, but not in Malay language media sources.[41] Ringgit (Malay for jagged) mostly refers to the Malaysian ringgit, which is the local currency in Malaysia, but it can also refer to the Singapore dollar and Brunei dollar in the Malay language. ...


On October 16, 2003, shortly before he stepped down as prime minister, Mahathir said during a summit for the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) in Putrajaya, that: is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The flag of the Organ of the Islamic Conference (OIC) Membership in the OIC:  Member Members once temporarily suspended Withdrew Observer Attempted to join but blocked OIC redirects here. ... Motto: Bandar raya Taman, Bandar raya Bestari (English :Garden City, Intelligent City ) Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1995, October 19th Made into Federal Territory 2001, February 1st Government  - Administered by Perbadanan Putrajaya Putrajaya Corporation  - Chairman Samsudin Osman Area  - City 46 km²  (17. ...

We [Muslims] are actually very strong, 1.3 billion people cannot be simply wiped out. The Nazis killed 6 million Jews out of 12 million [during the Holocaust]. But today the Jews rule the world by proxy. They get others to fight and die for them. They invented socialism, communism, human rights and democracy so that persecuting them would appear to be wrong so they may enjoy equal rights with others. With these they have now gained control of the most powerful countries. And they, this tiny community, have become a world power.[42]

He also named Israel as "the enemy allied with most powerful nations." Israel strongly criticized the remarks. The speech was also condemned by most nations from the West. Speaking on behalf of the European Union, Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini said that Dr Mahathir had employed "expressions that were gravely offensive, very strongly anti-Semitic and... strongly counter to principles of tolerance, dialogue and understanding'." At the same time, Mahathir's speech was defended by several Muslim leaders and politicians, including Egyptian foreign minister Ahmed Maher and Afghanistan's President Hamid Karzai.[43][40][44] United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice said Bush considered the comments "reprehensible and hateful."[45] The Muslim Public Affairs Council condemned Mahathir's remarks as "extremely offensive, anti-Semitic comments."[40] The Malaysian prime minister's comments were also condemned by Jewish organizations and the government of Israel. Franco Frattini (born 14 March 1957) is an Italian politician, currently serving as European Commissioner for Justice, Freedom and Security. ... Ahmed Maher (Arabic: احمد ماهر ) (born 1935) was the foreign minister of Egypt from 2001 until 2004. ... Hamid Karzai (Persian: حامد کرزى and Pashto: حامد کرزي) (b. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... The Muslim Public Affairs Council (MPAC) is an American Muslim public service & policy organization headquartered in Los Angeles and with offices in Washington D.C. MPAC was founded in 1988. ...


His comments were widely criticized in the West, but the issue was ignored in Asia and Islamic countries, which felt that his remark had been taken out of context. Mahathir later defended his remarks, saying: "I am not anti-Semitic ... I am against those Jews who kill Muslims and the Jews who support the killers of Muslims." He tagged the West as "anti-Muslim", for double standards by "protecting Jews while allowing others to insult Islam." He also said "But when somebody condemns the Muslims, calls my prophet, "terrorist", did the European Union say anything?"[46] The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Islamophobia is a neologism that according to the 2003 edition of the New Oxford Dictionary of English refers to hatred or fear of Islam or Muslims, especially as a political force. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


Singapore

Mahathir is an alumnus of the National University of Singapore (previously named University of Malaya). He graduated as a physician from then King Edward VII Medical College in 1953, during British rule. He is held in high regard by his alma mater, and regularly attends reunions. An alumnus (masculine) or alumna (feminine) of a college, university, or school is a former student. ... Malay name Malay: Universiti Nasional Singapura Tamil name Tamil: சிங்கப்பூர் தேசிய பல்கலைக்கழகம் University Cultural Centre The National University of Singapore (Abbreviation: NUS) is Singapores oldest university. ... The University of Malaya (or Universiti Malaya in Malay; commonly abbreviated as UM) is the oldest university in Malaysia, and is situated on a 750 acre (3. ... For other uses, see Alma mater (disambiguation). ...


However, relations with Singapore under Mahathir's tenure have been stormy. Many disputed issues raised during his administration have not been resolved, and in fact have been exaggerated. Many of these international issues have been raised up under Mahathir's Premiership term, but no significant headway had been made then to resolve them bilaterally. Issues have included:

Both sides had stubbornly refused to compromise, with the result of bilateral relations turning frosty.[citation needed] The absurdity of the whole situation was illustrated by Mahathir's proposal to replace the Malaysian portion of the Causeway with half a bridge, with the end result, a structure which would symbolise Singapore's uncompromising attitude.[citation needed] Under Prime Minister Abdullah, relations have begun to thaw, and inter-citizen relations have gone on much as they have before in that they are totally independent of political bickering. Many Singaporeans and Malaysians have relatives on the both sides of the Causeway, and despite the bickering of both governments over different issues, relations between citizens of both countries remained unaffected. The Johor-Singapore Causeway, as viewed from the Woodlands Checkpoint in Singapore, facing towards Johor Bahru, Malaysia. ... A suspension bridge is a type of bridge where the main load-bearing elements are hung from suspension cables. ... Geography The Straits of Johor (also known as the Tebrau Strait, Johor Strait, Selat Johor, Selat Tebrau, and Tebrau Reach) is a narrow stretch of water that separates Johor state, Malaysia from Singapore. ... Datuk Seri Abdullah bin Haji Ahmad Badawi[1] (born November 26, 1939 in Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang) is the 5th Prime Minister of Malaysia. ... Land reclamation is either of two distinct practices. ... The Port of Tanjung Pelepas is Malaysias newest port for container ships, located near the tip of continental Asia, in southwest Malaysia. ... Airspace means the portion of the atmosphere controlled by a particular country on top of its territory and territorial waters or, more generally, any specific three-dimensional portion of the atmosphere. ... The Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF, Chinese: 新加坡空军部队; Malay Angkatan Udara Republik Singapura) is the air force branch of the Singapore Armed Forces, established in 1968 as the Singapore Air Defence Command (SADC). ... Jet aircraft are aircrafts with jet engines. ... Pedra Branca or Pulau Batu Puteh (both meaning white rock in Portuguese and Malay respectively) is an outcrop of rocks situated where the Singapore Strait, specifically Straits of Johor, meets the South China Sea, measuring at its longest, during low water spring tide, a mere 137 meters. ... See also International Commission of Jurists Peace Palace, seat of the ICJ. Org type Principal Organ Acronyms ICJ, CIJ Head President of the ICJ Dame Rosalyn Higgins DBE Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ... Malaysia-Singapore Points of Agreement of 1990 (POA) is a agreement between the two Southeast Asian countries regarding the future of railway land own by the Malaysian government through Malayan Railways (Keretapi Tanah Melayu or KTM) in Singapore. ... Bilateralism is a term referring to trade or political relations between two states. ... Datuk Seri Abdullah bin Haji Ahmad Badawi[1] (born November 26, 1939 in Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang) is the 5th Prime Minister of Malaysia. ...


Recently, the issue of replacement of the Causeway with a bridge and the use of Malaysian airspace by the RSAF have been successfully solved by Mahathir's successor Abdullah, an issue that has been heavily criticised by Mahathir. Datuk Seri Abdullah bin Haji Ahmad Badawi[1] (born November 26, 1939 in Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang) is the 5th Prime Minister of Malaysia. ...


People's Republic of China

Though an anti-communist in his early career, Mahathir highly approves of the new directions adopted by the People's Republic of China (PRC) after Deng Xiaoping's ascension to power. Malaysia and the PRC maintained a close relationship since the late 1990s, when doubts and suspicions of China's ambition in ASEAN region were cleared, and Mahathir and Chinese leaders found many common grounds in their authoritarian style of ruling and their opposition to Western interference in regional matters. Mahathir is keen that the rise of PRC could to some extent balance the American influence in Southeast Asia, as well as benefiting Malaysia from the PRC's economic prosperity. Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ... Deng Xiaoping   (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904 â€“ February 19, 1997) was a prominent Chinese politician, pragmatist and reformer, as well as the late leader of the Communist Party of China (CPC). ... ASEAN[1], pronounced // (AH-SEE-AHN) in English, or the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is a geo-political and economic organization of 10 countries located in Southeast Asia, which was formed on August 8, 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand[2] as a display of solidarity... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Bosnia-Herzegovina

In Bosnia-Herzegovina, Mahathir has been noted as a particular ally and sympathetic co-religionist of that nation. He visited Sarajevo in June, 2005 to open a bridge near Bosmal City Center signifying friendship between Malaysians and Bosnians. Bosnia and Herzegovina (also variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Bosmal City Centar Bosmal City Centar (BCC) is a skyscraper in the neighbourhood of Hrasno in Sarajevo the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


He made another 3-day visit to Visoko to see the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun in July 2006. He made another visit a few months later. Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity Federation Canton Zenica - Doboj Land area 232 km² Population (1991 census) 46,130 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 32 Mayor Munib Alibegović (SDA) Website http://www. ... Visočica overlooking Visoko, photo taken in 1973 Visočica overlooking Visoko, today A site known as Visočica hill (), in the Bosnia-Herzegovina town of Visoko, northwest of Sarajevo, became the focus of international attention in October 2005, following controversial claims that it is actually an ancient man-made...


In February 2007, four non-governmental organizations: the Sarajevo School of Science and Technology, the Congress of Bosniak Intellectuals, and two Christian organizations: the Serb Civil Council and the Croat National Council, nominated Mahatir for the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize for his work during the conflict.[47] Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...


On June 22, 2007, he made another visit to Sarajevo with a group of Malaysian businessmen to explore the investment opportunities in the country. is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ...


Russian Federation

Before the fall of the Soviet Union, Malaysia had relations with the Communist state. When the Soviets invaded Afghanistan in 1979, the Malaysian government and other Islamic states sided with the mujahideen. Since the 1990s however, relations beteween Russia and Malaysia have improved significantly. In 2002 Mahathir made his visit to Moscow. He made the statement that Russia can be the rival to the United States and Israel and he praised Russian President Vladimir Putin.[citation needed] The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: Russian pronunciation: ) (born October 7, 1952, in Leningrad, U.S.S.R., now Saint Petersburg, Russia) is a Russian politician who was the 2nd President of the Russian Federation from 2000 to 2008. ...


Developing world

Among some developing and Islamic countries, Mahathir is generally respected,[5] particularly for Malaysia's relatively high economic growth as well as for his support towards liberal Muslim values.[48] Foreign leaders, such as Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbayev, praised him and have been trying to emulate Mahathir's developmental formulae. He was one of the greatest spokesmen on Third World issues, and strongly supported the bridging of the North-South divide, as well as exhorting the development of Islamic nations. He was dedicated to various Third World blocs such as ASEAN, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organization of Islamic Nations, and most recently, the G22 at the latest WTO talks at Cancún. Islamic countries may be defined as either the countries which have Muslims making up more than half of their population, or as countries which have Islam as an official religion or countries where the most popular religion is Islam. ... Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev (Kazakh: Нұрсұлтан Әбішұлы Назарбаев [Nûrsûltan Äbîshûlâ Nazarbayev]; Russian: Нурсултан Абишевич Назарбаев [Nursultan Abishyevic Nazarbayev] (born 6 July 1940 in Chemolgan, Kazakh SSR, Soviet Union) has served as the President of Kazakhstan since the Fall of the Soviet Union and the nations independence in 1991. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... The updated view of the north-south divide based on its accurate definition of the north. ... ASEAN[1], pronounced // (AH-SEE-AHN) in English, or the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is a geo-political and economic organization of 10 countries located in Southeast Asia, which was formed on August 8, 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand[2] as a display of solidarity... G77 can refer to: the Group of 77 the GNU Compiler Collection This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... The establishment on a temporary basis of the Group of 22 (referred to also as the Willard Group) was announced by President Clinton and the other leaders of APEC countries at their meeting in Vancouver in November 1997, when they agreed to organize a gathering of finance ministers and central... For other uses of the initials WTO, see WTO (disambiguation). ... Location of Cancún Location of Cancún Coordinates: , Country Mexico State Municipality Benito Juárez Foundation April 20, 1970 Government  - Mayor Francisco Antonio Alor Quezada (PRI) Highest elevation 10 m (30 ft) Lowest elevation 0 m (0 ft) Population (2005)  - Total 572,973  - Demonym Cancunense Time zone CST (UTC...


Retirement

Mahathir at the 50th Merdeka National Day celebrations.
Mahathir at the 50th Merdeka National Day celebrations.

In 2002 a tearful[49] Mahathir announced his resignation to a surprised UMNO General Assembly. He was persuaded to stay on for a further eighteen months, in a carefully planned handover that ended in October 2003. On his retirement, he was granted Malaysia's highest honour, which entitles him to the title Tun from his original Datuk Seri. Since retirement, he has been serving as an advisor to the Malaysian national oil company Petronas and the Malaysian national car company Proton, an original core national project initiated by Mahathir during his premiership. He is also the head of the Perdana Leadership Foundation, a foundation whose aim is to preserve, develop and spread materials regarding or written by previous Malaysian Prime Ministers. While he has retired from all political offices, he remains very outspoken regarding national policies. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 399 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (681 × 1024 pixels, file size: 306 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 399 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (681 × 1024 pixels, file size: 306 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Petronas, short for Petroliam Nasional Berhad, is a Malaysian owned oil and gas company that was founded on August 17, 1974. ... Proton is the Malaysian national carmaker (Malay acronym for Perusahaan Otomobil Nasional, National Automobile Enterprise), which was established in 1983 under the direction of the former Prime Minister, Tun Mahathir Mohamad. ... Image:Plead. ...


In 2005 Mahathir brought up the issue of excessive awarding of Approved Permits (APs) to import cars, stating that they were creating too much competition for Proton, causing friction between him and Rafidah Aziz, the Minister for International Trade and Industry, who oversaw the awarding of APs. His successor, Abdullah, then announced that a National Automotive Policy (NAP) would be created to appropriately handle the issue. Later, when touching on the issue, Mahathir lamented the government's majority in Parliament, saying, "I believe that the country should have a strong government but not too strong. A two-thirds majority like I enjoyed when I was prime minister is sufficient but a 90% majority is too strong....We need an opposition to remind us if we are making mistakes. When you are not opposed you think everything you do is right".[50] Proton Holdings Berhad is the holding company for the Malaysian national carmaker Proton (Malay acronym for Perusahaan Otomobil Nasional, National Automobile Enterprise), which was established in 1983 under the direction of the former Prime Minister, Tun Mahathir Mohamad. ... This is a Malay name; the name Aziz is a patronymic, not a family name, and the person should be referred to by his or her given name, Rafidah. The Arabic word bin () or binti/binte (/), if used, means son of or daughter of respectively. ... The Malaysian Houses of Parliament in Kuala Lumpur. ...


Mahathir has also ventured into a bakery business with a Japanese partner. Together they established a Japanese-style bakery and bistro outlet called "The Loaf". As of October 2007, there are two outlets in Malaysia, one in Langkawi and one in Kuala Lumpur. They are planning expand their business into other coutries in Southeast Asia.[51] In May 2008, Mahathir started a blog under his old pseudonym, which reached a million visitors within the span of one month.[52][53] Bakery foods A baker is someone who bakes and sells bread, cakes and similar foods. ... Langkawi is an archipelago of 99 islands in the Andaman Sea, some 30 km off the mainland coast of northwestern Malaysia. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ... May 2008 is the fifth month of the current leap year. ...


Criticism of his successor

In 2006 Mahathir's relationship with his successor started to get strained. In a press conference on 7 June 2006 at the Perdana Leadership Foundation, which he heads, Mahathir said that Abdullah Ahmad Badawi was not his first choice as successor but it was the current Deputy Prime Minister, Najib Tun Razak, instead. He said that he felt hurt by allegations that he "finished all the government's money, and that the government was bankrupt" because of the mega-projects initiated by him during his tenure as prime minister.[54] Mahathir added that he has "...a habit of choosing the wrong people" when he was answering the question whether Abdullah had stabbed him in the back.[54] He has also criticised the present government's decision to scrap the plan to replace Malaysia's side of the Johor-Singapore Causeway. In his opinion, Malaysia does not need to seek the approval to build a bridge on its own soil. This and other such issues have led many to believe that UMNO is under the threat of splitting into Mahathir and Badawi factions. A statement was issued by UMNO to reassure the public that they wholeheartedly supported Badawi, although as of yet, no stand has been taken over the issue of Mahathir's membership in the party. Minister in the Prime Minister's Department, Nazri Aziz, suggested that Mahathir "wants to force him (Abdullah) to quit. He needs to be told he is no longer Prime Minister. His campaign is not for the sake of the country but for himself."[55] Image:Plead. ... Datuk Seri Abdullah bin Haji Ahmad Badawi[1] (born November 26, 1939 in Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang) is the 5th Prime Minister of Malaysia. ... Dato Sri Mohd Najib Bin Tun Haji Abdul Razak (born July 23, 1953, in Kuala Lipis, Pahang) is a Malaysian politician and has been the countrys Deputy Prime Minister since January 7, 2004. ... The Johor-Singapore Causeway, as viewed from the Woodlands Checkpoint in Singapore, facing towards Johor Bahru, Malaysia. ... Datuk Seri Mohamed Nazri Abdul Aziz is a Malay Malaysian politician from the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), and is as of 2005 a Minister in the Prime Ministers Department. ...


To make his voice heard, Mahathir decided to bid to become a delegate from Kubang Pasu for the 2006 UMNO general assembly. This move, if successful, would bring great chagrin to Abdullah who seemed to use every form of censorship available to shut Mahathir up. He failed in his bid to be elected as a representative which is surprising given the fact that Kubang Pasu is his stronghold for over three decades.[56] Later, an angry Mahathir claimed that the "establishment" (in reference to the present government) were doing everything in their power including, but not limited to using government machine that is normally reserved for general elections, to ensure that he didn't get elected. Mahathir even went as far as to allege — albeit, without proof — that the interested party paid RM200 for every vote casted against him. Mahathir also challenged the government to throw him in jail if the government wanted him to shut his mouth.[57]


On, October 22, 2006, Mahathir had a private meeting with Abdullah, in which he voiced his dissatisfactions face-to-face for the first time with Abdullah. This meeting was highly anticipated by members of UMNO and other Malaysians to be an opportunity to narrow the differences between both of them. is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


However, Mahathir continued his criticisms of Abdullah after the meeting, saying that he was not satisfied with Abdullah's answers to his views.[58]


In a press conference after the meeting, Mahathir revealed one of his dissatisfactions; he felt that his civil liberties to voice his opinions and meeting with people were curtailed by the government. This is a quote from the press conference on this topic.

  • "And I pointed out to him that firstly, this has become a police state. Because every time anybody invites me to give a talk, they would be called up by the police and warned, called up by the police and told to withdraw the invitation. Someone was not allowed to hold any meeting at all which involves me. This happened to many people. They were very shy to tell me about it but they were called up by the police and of course they were also called up by the mentri besar as well... But I consider this a police state. And I consider also that my civic right has been taken away from me because I have every right to talk to Umno people, university people, civil servants and that’s my right".[58]

Mahathir also voiced certain conducts of Abdullah and his relatives (before and after Abdullah became Prime Minister) that would amount to corruption although Mahathir did not explicitly accuse Abdullah of that. Mahathir expressed his disappointment regarding Abdullah's role in the oil-for-food programme with Iraq; Abdullah's name was listed as a beneficiary in a report published by the US government regarding the programme. Abdullah's son-in-law, Khairy Jamaluddin, and his son had also been accused by Mahathir of offering contracts to their connections, which amounts to corruption. This is a Malay name; the name Jamaluddin is a patronymic, not a family name, and the person should be referred to by his or her given name, Khairy. Khairy Jamaluddin Abu Bakar (born January 10, 1976) is a Malaysian politician, with a background in journalism and investment banking. ...


Mahathir had also criticised Abdullah's handling of the Approved Permits (AP) issue, expressing his surprise that Rafidah Aziz was still retained as a Cabinet member although two people on the list of persons issued with highest number of APs were linked to Rafidah.[58] This is a Malay name; the name Aziz is a patronymic, not a family name, and the person should be referred to by his or her given name, Rafidah. The Arabic word bin () or binti/binte (/), if used, means son of or daughter of respectively. ... The Cabinet of Malaysia is the executive branch of Malaysias government. ...


He continued his criticisms of Abdullah for being responsible for the ruling party's disastrous performance in the recent general elections. Mahathir accused Abdullah of corruption, nepotism and weakness in his administration and said they were reasons voters snubbed the UMNO-led coalition.[59]


Resignation from UMNO

Mahathir announced his resignation from UMNO on May 19, 2008 (Monday) at 12.35pm before 1,000 Kedah UMNO members in Alor Star and urged other members to follow suit as a way of pressuring Abdullah to step down. However, he resists to join any other party and would only rejoin UMNO after Abdullah steps down. His departure raises the possibility of large-scale desertions by loyalists, which could split the party and bring down the government.[1] is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Website: http://www. ...


His son Mukhriz, the Jerlun member of Parliament, and a contender for the UMNO youth chief post in the next party election, however stays put but nevertheless urges Abdullah to quit immediately.


Other controversies

Former Malaysia Airlines chief executive officer, Tajudin Ramli claimed that he (Tajudin) was "forced" to buy out the shares of Malaysia Airlines by Mahathir during a period when the national carrier suffered financial difficulties. However, Mahathir denied this claim and said that he only asked if Tajudin was interested in the shares.[60] Malaysia Airlines (Abbreviated: MAS, Malay: Penerbangan Malaysia) is the national airline of Malaysia, operating scheduled services to over 100 destinations worldwide. ...


In 2006 he had a 2-hour talk with James W. Walter and William Rodriguez with regards to the US Government involvement in the 9/11 attacks.[61]He urged the world's 1.3 billion Muslims to boycott Dutch products following the release of the anti-Islam movie Fitna by the Dutch politician Geert Wilders, it was reported on March 30, 2008. [62] James (Jimmy) W. Walter is an American venture capitalist and political activist. ... Rodriguez & US President George W Bush William Rodríguez is a former janitor who was at the North Tower of the World Trade Center who pulled several people to safety during the September 11, 2001 attacks. ... The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Geert Wilders (IPA: , []; born 6 September 1963) is a Dutch politician. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


On January 17, 2008, Mahathir was brought before a Royal Commission that is looking into alleged manipulation of top judicial appointments during his admnistration, a scandal that has cast doubts about the independence of Malaysia's judiciary. He was made to testify before a government inquiry into a secretly recorded video clip that showed a man believed to be a prominent lawyer, V.K. Lingam, boasting that he could get key judicial appointments made with Mahathir's help. Throughout the inquiry Mahathir feign ignorance and forgot key timelines.[63] The Royal Commission of Inquiry into the Lingam video clip finally found that it was former Chief Justice Tun Ahmad Fairuz Sheikh Abdul Halim who was talking to prominent lawyer Datuk V.K. Lingam on the telephone. Sources said the five-man panel also found that the video clip was authentic and that the conversation was true in substance. They said the commission also found that it was lawyer Loh Mui Fah who Lingam was speaking to after his telephone conversation with Fairuz. Commission chairman Tan Sri Haidar Mohamed Noor presented a two-volume report on the findings to the Yang di-Pertuan Agong Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin at the Istana Negara here yesterday. [64] The Cabinet has ordered the attorney-general to immediately direct agencies to investigate on allegations levelled against six prominent individuals identified in the Lingam video clip. The six are former prime minister Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad, retired chief justices Tun Mohd Eusoff Chin and Tun Ahmad Fairuz Sheikh Abdul Halim, former minister in the Prime Minister’s Department Datuk Seri Tengku Adnan Tengku Mansor, tycoon Tan Sri Vincent Tan and prominent lawyer Datuk V.K. Lingam. [65] is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... In states that are Commonwealth Realms a Royal Commission is a major government public inquiry into an issue. ... Duli Yang Maha Mulia Al-Wathiqu Billah Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin Ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah is the 16th Sultan of the state of Terengganu, Malaysia, and the 13th Yang di-Pertuan Agong, or King, of Malaysia. ... Tan Sri Vincent Tan Chee Yioun (born 1952; 陳志远, pinyin: Chén ZhìyuÇŽn), commonly known as Vincent Tan, is a businessmen prominent in Malaysia. ...

See also: Royal Commission of Inquiry into the Lingam Video Clip

Health

The former Prime Minister has a history of heart attack. He had a coronary artery bypass in 1989. On November 9 2006, he was admitted into Institut Jantung Negara (National Heart Institute) in Kuala Lumpur after suffering a mild heart attack that was caused by a clot in his arteries and has since recovered.[66] On 14 May 2007, Mahathir was admitted to the intensive care unit of a hospital in Langkawi after suffering from breathing difficulties at 1600 (MST). The former premier's condition was reported to be stable.[67] Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ... For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... ICU room An Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or Critical Care Unit (CCU) is a specialised department in a hospital that provides intensive care medicine. ... Langkawi is an archipelago of 99 islands in the Andaman Sea, some 30 km off the mainland coast of northwestern Malaysia. ... // Malaysian Standard Time Malaysian Standard Time (MST) is a standard time used in Malaysia after Japan formally surrendered in Singapore after their occupation in British Malaya. ...


Mahathir, 82, underwent a second heart bypass on September 4, 2007 in a specialist cardiac hospital in Kuala Lumpur Sunday.[68] He is recovering in the intensive care unit and was already conscious National Hearth Institute where he was operated by a team of surgeons, including a US specialist.[69] A coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or heart bypass is a surgical procedure performed in patients with coronary artery disease (see atherosclerosis) for the relief of angina and possible improved heart muscle function. ... This page is about the muscular organ, the Heart. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ... Intensive care medicine or critical care medicine is concerned with providing greater than ordinary medical care and observation to people in a critical or unstable condition. ...


On September 23, 2007, Mahathir Mohamad, underwent further surgery at the National Heart Institute due to an infection of the surgical wound in his chest.[70] He has since come out of the hospital and appears to be healthy, even appearing in the V. K. Lingam public inquiry on January 17, 2008 as a witness.[71] is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


Legacy

Mahathir was featured on the facade of Telekom Tower in Kuala Lumpur during the national day celebrations in 2004.
Mahathir was featured on the facade of Telekom Tower in Kuala Lumpur during the national day celebrations in 2004.

For his efforts to promote the economic development of the country, Mahathir has been granted the soubriquet of Bapa Pemodenan (Father of Modernisation).[3] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Menara Telekom Menara Telekom is the headquartes of Telekom Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur. ...


Since his resignation, there are signs that his influence is on the wane, notably the cancellation of a Mahathir-approved double tracking rail project on grounds of cost. For the sound recording technique, see doubletracking. ...


Mahathir's official residence, Sri Perdana, where he resided from 23 August 1983 to 18 October 1999, was turned into a museum (Galeria Sri Perdana). In keeping with the principle of heritage conservation, the original design and layout of the Sri Perdana has been preserved. For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ...


Books

  • The Malay Dilemma (1970) ISBN 9812043551
  • The Challenge (1986) ISBN 9679780910
  • Regionalism, Globalism, and Spheres of Influence: ASEAN and the Challenge of Change into the 21st Century (1989) ISBN 9813035498
  • The Pacific Rim in the 21st century (1995)
  • The Challenges of Turmoil (1998) ISBN 9679786528
  • The Way Forward (1998) ISBN 0297842293
  • A New Deal for Asia (1999)
  • Islam & The Muslim Ummah (2001) ISBN 9679787389
  • Globalisation and the New Realities (2002)
  • Reflections on Asia (2002) ISBN 967978813X
  • The Malaysian Currency Crisis: How and why it Happened (2003) ISBN 9679787567
  • Achieving True Globalization (2004) ISBN 9679789047
  • Islam, Knowledge, and Other Affairs (2006) ISBN 9833698034

The Malay Dilemma is a controversial book written by Mahathir bin Mohamad in 1970. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b "Malaysia's Mahathir quits ruling party", Yahoo, 19-05-2008. 
  2. ^ "Profile: Mahathir Mohamad", BBC. Retrieved on 2008-01-06. 
  3. ^ a b Chaudhuri, Pramitpal (November 17-18, 2006). Visionary, who nurtured an Asian ‘tiger’. Leadership Summit (speech). Hindustan Times. Retrieved on 2008-01-15.
  4. ^ Jones, David Martin (2000). What Mahathir Has Wrought. The National Interest. Retrieved on 2008-01-25.
  5. ^ a b c "Mahathir to launch war crimes tribunal", The Star (Associated Press), January 31, 2007. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  6. ^ Asia's 20 Most Influential Figures. Business Asia (September 13, 1999). Retrieved on 2008-02-01.
  7. ^ a b Commanding Heights: Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad. PBS.org. Retrieved on 2008-02-01.
  8. ^ Anjum, Zafar. "Indian Discontent in Malaysia", Asia Sentinel, 2007-11-26. Retrieved on 2008-01-04. 
  9. ^ Tan, Chee Khoon & Vasil, Raj (ed., 1984). Without Fear or Favour, pp. 49, 50. Eastern Universities Press. ISBN 967-908-051-X
  10. ^ "Not the Retiring Type", Time Magazine. Retrieved on 2008-02-01. 
  11. ^ a b Beech, Hannah. "Not the Retiring Type", TIME, October 30, 2006, p. 2. 
  12. ^ "It All Began With Simple Request To Mahathir's Son", The Straits Times, October 20, 2006. Retrieved on 2008-01-15. 
  13. ^ a b c "Datuk Seri Mahathir Mohamad." Encyclopedia of World Biography. Vol. 10. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 134-135. 23 vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale. 11 May. 2008
  14. ^ Shameen, Assif. "Mokhzani Mahathir That's my boy!", Asiaweek, 2001-05-11. Retrieved on 2008-01-12. 
  15. ^ England, Vaudine. "Mahathir's daughter makes her own mark", International Herald Tribune, 2005-05-04. Retrieved on 2008-01-12. 
  16. ^ Tan & Vasil, p. 50
  17. ^ a b c d e f Tan & Vasil, p. 51
  18. ^ "Mahathir's Party a Big Loser in Malaysian Vote", International Herald Tribune. Retrieved on 2008-02-01. 
  19. ^ Einhorn, Bruce; Prasso, Sheri. "Mahathir's High-Tech Folly", BusinessWeek. Retrieved on 2008-04-10. 
  20. ^ Landler, Mark. "INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS: The Ostrich That Roared; Did Malaysia, Its Head in the Sand, Duck the Asian Crisis?", The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-01-15. 
  21. ^ "Malaysia Loss In Tin Venture", New York Times, November 12, 1986. 
  22. ^ "NO SECOND THOUGHTS", Asiaweek. 
  23. ^ [Millman (p. 229)]
  24. ^ White paper on RM 30 billion Bank Negara forex losses. DAP Malaysia. Retrieved on 2008-02-01.
  25. ^ "Diplomat 'tried to frame Anwar'", BBC, April 3, 2000. Retrieved on 2008-01-15. 
  26. ^ "Anwar's brother: Threats forced sex confession", BBC, June 30, 1999. Retrieved on 2008-01-15. 
  27. ^ Malaysia: Double injustice heaped on Anwar Ibrahim. Amnesty International (Press Release) (April 18, 2003). Retrieved on 2008-02-01.
  28. ^ Human Rights Watch Monitors Second Anwar Trial. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved on 2008-01-06.
  29. ^ 10th General Elections in Malaysia - An analysis. South Asia Analysis Group. Retrieved on 2008-04-10.
  30. ^ Melina Nathan. Strongman Who Goes His Own Way. Tun Mahathir.com. Retrieved on 2008-01-20.
  31. ^ The Malay Nationalist (1965 - 1981). Prime Minister Project.doubleukay.com. Retrieved on 2008-01-20.
  32. ^ Regional Outlook: Southeast Asia 2003-2004 By Russell Hiang-Khng Heng, Denis Hew
  33. ^ "Mahathir's Change of Heart?", Business Week, July 29, 2002. Retrieved on 2008-01-25. 
  34. ^ World: Asia-Pacific Reform protests follow Gore's Malaysia speech
  35. ^ Symonds, Peter. "What Anwar Ibrahim means by "reformasi" in Malaysia", Malaysia Today
  36. ^ Shattered Summit: A high-handed speech by Al Gore started this year's APEC meeting on the wrong foot. It never recovered
  37. ^ Joseph Masilamany. "Mending fences", theSun, 2006-06-29. Retrieved on 2006-08-10. 
  38. ^ Nicolas Rothwell. "Upsetter tips the apple cart", The Australian, 1998-07-16, p. 4. 
  39. ^ http://www.adl.org/Anti_semitism/Malaysian_1.asp
  40. ^ a b c The Boston Globe: Rousing Muslim bigotry
  41. ^ Mahathir Suspects Link to Ringgit's Fall : Malaysian Leader Sees Hidden Jewish 'Agenda' International Herald Tribune, October 11, 1997.
  42. ^ ""Malaysian Leader: 'Jews Rule World by Proxy'", Fox News, October 16, 2003. Retrieved on 2008-01-26. 
  43. ^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0WDQ/is_2003_Oct_20/ai_109021654
  44. ^ "Malaysia defends speech on Jews", BBC News, October 17, 2003.
  45. ^ U.S.: Comments raise specter of religious clash within terror war RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty
  46. ^ "Mahathir hits back in Jewish row", CNN News, October 21, 2003.
  47. ^ "Dr M nominated for Nobel Prize", The Star, February 4, 2007.
  48. ^ Bowring, Philip. "Twin Shocks Will Leave Their Mark on Malaysia", International Herald Tribune, September 23, 1998. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  49. ^ "It's My Party...", Time, June 24, 2002.
  50. ^ Krishnamoorthy, M. (Dec. 11, 2005) "Dr M: Stand up and speak out" The Star (Malaysia)
  51. ^ "Mahathir plans to take on the world with his gourmet bread", Kyodo News. Retrieved on 2008-01-25. 
  52. ^ [Mahathir starts his own blog http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2008/5/2/nation/21127697&sec=nation], The Star (Malaysia), 2 May 2008
  53. ^ 1 million hits for Dr M's blog in just 30 days, Florence A. Samy, The Star (Malaysia), 2 May 2008
  54. ^ a b "Dr M slams Pak Lah but BN leaders rally behind the PM", The Star (Malaysia), 2006-06-08. 
  55. ^ Beech, Hannah (Oct. 30, 2006). Not the Retiring Type (page one). TIME.
  56. ^ "Dr M Fails In Bid To Be Kubang Pasu Umno Delegate", Bernama, September 9, 2006. Retrieved on 2008-01-15. 
  57. ^ "Dr M's Bribery Allegation In Kubang Pasu Polls 'Very Serious' - PM", Bernama, September 12, 2006. Retrieved on 2008-01-15. 
  58. ^ a b c "Transcript of Tun Mahathir's press conference", The Star (Malaysia), 2006-10-24. 
  59. ^ "Malaysia's duelling leaders lock horns over poll losses", Yahoo, 06-03-2008. 
  60. ^ Putting the lid on Pandora's box
  61. ^ "Group Seeks Dr Mahathir's Assistance To Reopen 9-11 Investigation", Bernama, June 12, 2006. pictures
  62. ^ http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/03/30/malaysia.fitna.ap/index.html
  63. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20080117/ap_on_re_as/malaysia_judicial_scandal_1
  64. ^ "Panel finds Lingam video clip authentic", TheStar, May 10, 2008. 
  65. ^ "Royal Commission on Lingam video clip: Cabinet orders probe on Dr M, ex-CJs", The News Straits Times, May 16, 2008. 
  66. ^ Bernama, Mahathir Admitted To IJN For Mild Heart Attack, November 9 2006.
  67. ^ Ex-Malaysian premier Mahathir hospitalised, Channel NewsAsia, May 14 2007
  68. ^ "Malaysia ex-PM Mahathir set for heart surgery - son", Reuters. Retrieved on 2008-01-26. 
  69. ^ Reuters, Malaysia's Mahathir recovering after heart surgery
  70. ^ Malaysia ex-PM Mahathir back on respirator, but in stable condition.
  71. ^ "Mahathir Denies Judicial Corruption", The Associated Press, January 17, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-01-26. 

Yahoo! - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Asia Sentinel is a web-based regional publication that covers news, business, arts and culture focused on Asia. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sun (now branded as theSun) is Malaysias first national free daily newspaper in tabloid form. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Boston Globe (and Boston Sunday Globe) is the most widely circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and New England. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Star is the leading English-language newspaper in Malaysia. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Star is the leading English-language newspaper in Malaysia. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Yahoo! - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... 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Other references

  • Greider, William (1997). One World, Ready or Not. Penguin Press. ISBN 0-7139-9211-5.
  • Hong, Carolyn (Oct. 31, 2005). "Mahathir dismisses talk of comeback". Straits Times.
  • Kamarudin, Raja Petra (Nov. 9, 2005). "The Anwar Factor". Malaysia Today.
  • Kamaruddin, Raja Petra (Nov. 4, 2005). "The true meaning of political doublespeak". Malaysia Today.
  • "Malaysia auto plan seen as another wake-up call to Proton". Associated Press.
  • Mydans, Seth (Oct. 16, 1997). "Malaysian Premier Sees Jews Behind Nation's Money Crisis" The New York Times
  • Nazri, Syed (Nov. 6, 2005). "When will Dr M tell all?" New Sunday Times, p. 19.
  • Lahiri, Imankalyan. "Mahathir's Islam: A Socio-Political Construal", Ekush Satak, Kolkata, 2005

The Straits Times is an English-language broadsheet newspaper based in Singapore. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Not to be confused with The Straits Times, the Singaporean newspaper. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Mahathir Mohamad
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Mahathir bin Mohamad
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Former Malaysian prime minister suffers heart attack

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Home pages

  • Dr Mahathir Mohamad's Blog

Others

  • BBC Profile: Mahathir Mohamad
  • Mahathir hospitalised after heart attack
  • Turkish Daily News, from Mahathir's final days in office
  • Islam the Misunderstood Religion by Dr. Mahathir Mohamad
  • Perdana Leadership Foundation website on Malaysia’s past Prime Ministers.
  • BBC News: Mahathir in his own words
  • Dr Mahathir uses YouTube to speak out about the dangers of war
  • BBC News: In Pictures: Mahathir steps down
  • BBC News: Malaysia defends speech on Jews
  • Asiaweek: Al Gore's rebuke of APEC host Mahathir
  • Text of Dr Mahathir's speech to the OIC on Oct 16, 2003
  • Dr M slams Pak Lah but BN leaders rally behind the PM
Preceded by
Hussein Onn
Deputy Prime Ministers of Malaysia
1978-1981
Succeeded by
Musa Hitam
Preceded by
Hussein Onn
Prime Ministers of Malaysia
1981-2003
Succeeded by
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
Preceded by
Thabo Mbeki
Secretary General of Non-Aligned Movement
2003
Succeeded by
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi


Tun Hussein bin Dato Onn (February 12, 1922-May 29, 1990)who is of 3/4 Malay & 1/4 Turkish(of Circassian extraction) ancestry was the third Prime Minister of Malaysia, ruling from 1976 to 1981. ... Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia (Timbalan Perdana Menteri in Malay) is the second highest political post in Malaysia. ... Tan Sri Musa bin Hitam aka Moses Black received his Bachelors degree from the University of Malaya and his Masters degree from the University of Sussex. ... Tun Hussein bin Dato Onn (February 12, 1922-May 29, 1990)who is of 3/4 Malay & 1/4 Turkish(of Circassian extraction) ancestry was the third Prime Minister of Malaysia, ruling from 1976 to 1981. ... The Prime Minister of Malaysia (in Malay Perdana Menteri) is the indirectly elected head of government of Malaysia. ... Datuk Seri Abdullah bin Haji Ahmad Badawi[1] (born November 26, 1939 in Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang) is the 5th Prime Minister of Malaysia. ... Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki ,KStJ [2][3] (born June 18, 1942)[2] is the current President of the Republic of South Africa. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... Datuk Seri Abdullah bin Haji Ahmad Badawi[1] (born November 26, 1939 in Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang) is the 5th Prime Minister of Malaysia. ...

Prime Ministers of Malaysia Flag of Malaysia
Tunku Abdul Rahman | Abdul Razak | Hussein Onn | Mahathir Mohamad | Abdullah Badawi
Persondata
NAME Mahathir bin Mohamad
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Dr. M (sobriquet); Mahathir Mohamad (alternate form)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Prime Minister of Malaysia
DATE OF BIRTH December 20, 1925
PLACE OF BIRTH Alor Star, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia
DATE OF DEATH living
PLACE OF DEATH

The Prime Minister of Malaysia (in Malay Perdana Menteri) is the indirectly elected head of government of Malaysia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Hamid Shah (February 8, 1903–December 6, 1990) usually known as the Tunku (a princely title in Malaysia), and also called Bapa Kemerdekaan (Father of Independence) or Bapa Malaysia (Father of Malaysia), was Chief Minister of the Federation of Malaya... Tun Abdul Razak bin Haji Dato Hussein Al-Haj (March 11, 1922-January 14, 1976) was the second Prime Minister of Malaysia, ruling from 1970 to 1976. ... Tun Hussein bin Dato Onn (February 12, 1922-May 29, 1990)who is of 3/4 Malay & 1/4 Turkish(of Circassian extraction) ancestry was the third Prime Minister of Malaysia, ruling from 1976 to 1981. ... Datuk Seri Abdullah bin Haji Ahmad Badawi[1] (born November 26, 1939 in Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang) is the 5th Prime Minister of Malaysia. ... The Prime Minister of Malaysia (in Malay Perdana Menteri) is the indirectly elected head of government of Malaysia. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Website: http://www. ... State anthem: Allah Selamatkan Sultan Mahkota Capital Alor Star Royal capital Anak Bukit Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim  - Menteri Besar Mahdzir Khalid History    - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 9,426 km² Population  - 2003 estimate 1,778,188  - Density...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Commanding Heights : Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad | on PBS (6162 words)
MAHATHIR BIN MOHAMAD: It's quite obvious that when the Eastern bloc was still there, it was a bustle between capitalism and communism.
MAHATHIR BIN MOHAMAD: I think the perception is all wrong, and the reasoning behind it is also wrong.
MAHATHIR BIN MOHAMAD: The globalization extremists are the people coming from the very rich countries who see in the form of globalization that they propose opportunities for making huge sums of money for themselves.
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