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Encyclopedia > Maharaja of Travancore
Flag for former princely state of Travancore
Flag for former princely state of Travancore

Travancore or Thiruvithaamkoor (Malayalam: തിരുവിതാങ്കൂര്‍ [Tiruvitāńkūr], തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ [Tiruvitāṃkūr], തിരുവിതാങ്കോട് [Tiruvitāńkoṭ]) or Tamil திருவிதாங்கூர் was a princely state in India with its capital at Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram). The state comprised most of south Kerala and the modern Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu and it had a 19-gun salute in the British Empire. Its flag was red with a silver dextrally coiled sacred conch shell (Turbinella pyrum Linnaeus). Travancore was merged with the other Malayalam-speaking state of Cochin on 1 July 1949 to form Travancore-Cochin, and later with the Malabar district of Madras State on 1 November 1956 to form the south Indian state of Kerala. Image File history File links Travancore. ... Image File history File links Travancore. ... Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... A princely state is any state under the reign of a prince, both terms being taken in the broad sense. ... Thiruvananthapuram (Malayalam: തിരുവനന്തപുരം), formerly known as Trivandrum, is the capital of the Indian state of Kerala and the headquarters of Thiruvananthapuram District. ... Kerala ( (Anglicised) or (native); Malayalam: േകരളം, — ) is a state on the tropical Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... The Tiruvalluvar statue The Vivekananda memorial The Gandhi Mandepam Kanyakumari is a town and a cape at the southernmost tip of the Indian peninsula. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Species Strombus gigas Strombus pugilis A conch (pronounced konk (IPA: ) or konch (IPA: )) is a sea-dwelling mollusk, and more specifically, a marine gastropod. ... It has been suggested that Gosree be merged into this article or section. ... (Redirected from 1 July) July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Thiru-Kochi, formerly known as Travancore-Cochin, is a former state of India. ... Malabar District was an administrative district of British India and independent Indias Madras State. ... Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... South India is a region of India that includes the entire Indian Peninsula, south of the Vindhya ranges. ... Kerala ( (Anglicised) or (native); Malayalam: േകരളം, — ) is a state on the tropical Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ...

Contents


Geography

Travancore was located in Southern Kerala. According to native legend, Kerala was formed when Parasurama threw his axe into the sea. The rulers of this state were named Sree Padmanabhadasan, after the deity Padmanabha Swamy an aspect of Vishnu. In Hinduism, Parashurama (axe-wielding Rama) is the sixth avatar of Vishnu, and a son of Jamadagni. ... For other uses of the name Vishnu, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ...


The former kingdom's geography is defined by three natural terrains - a coastal area to the west, a midland in the centre and mountain peaks as high as 9,000 feet on the east.


History

Early history of the Region

The region was ruled by the Ay Dynasty during the first Sangham age (circa 300 BC – 600 AD) and was the scene of many battles between the Kulashekaras and the Cholas during the second Sangham age (circa 850–1400 AD), when Vizhinjam, the capital, was sacked by the Cholas. Later the area was termed Venad, and the rulers were weak, facing external threats from Nayaks of Madurai,Nayak dynasty or facing internal rebellions from the powerful feudal land lords (Ettuveetil pillamar and the Yogakaar). Madurai (மதுரை in Tamil) is a city and a municipal corporation situated on the banks of River Vaigai in Madurai district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... It was a fall from eternal glory to deep abyss for Madurai when the Tamil Kingdoms disintegrated, and its wealth was plundered by the ravaging armies of Delhis Muslim Rulers. ...


Eighteenth century

Marthanda Varma

The modern history of Travancore begins with Marthanda Varma who inherited the kingdom of Venad, and expanded it into Travancore during his reign 17291758. He signed a treaty with the British East India company and destroyed the power of the feudal land lords (Ettuveetil pillamar). In successive battles, he defeated and absorbed the kingdoms right up to Cochin including Attingal, Kollam, Kayamkulam, Kottarkara and Ambalapuzha. He succeeded in defeating the Dutch East India Company during the Travancore–Dutch war, the most decisive engagement of which was the Battle of Colachel (10 August 1741) in which the Dutch Admiral De Lennoy was captured.On January 3, 1750 AD, (Makaram 5, 725 KE), he dedicated his kingdom to his tutelary deity Sri. Padmanaabha of Trivandrum (the Trippadidaanam) and from then on the rulers of Travancore ruled the kingdom as the servants of Sri. Padmanabha (Padmnabhadasan). In 1753, the Dutch signed a peace treaty with the Maharajah. With the battle of Ambalapuzha (3 January 1754) in which he defeated the union of the deposed kings and the Raja of Cochin, Marthanda Varma crushed all opposition to his rule. In 1757 AD, a treaty was concluded between Travancore and Cochin, ensuring peace and stabilty on the Northern border. He organised the tax system and constructed many irrigation works. Admiral De Lennoy,who was captured as a Prisoner of war in the famous Battle of Colachel was given appointment as the Senior Admiral (Valiya kappithan).He modernised the Travancore army by introducing firearms and artillery. He made the 'maravan pada' as his personal security guard and a special security force based on colachel serving the Travancore kingdom. Marthanda Varma (1706 - 1758) was the son of the Rani of Attingal. ... Events July 30 - Baltimore, Maryland is founded. ... 1758 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Dutch colonial possessions, with the Dutch East India Company possessions marked in a paler green, surrounding the Indian Ocean plus Saint Helena in the mid-Atlantic. ... The naval Battle of Kulachal took place on 10 August 1741 (31 July OS) [1], when forces of Marthanda Varma, the Raja of the erstwhile Indian State of Travancore (also known as Tiruvitamkur) defeated forces of the Dutch East India Company (also known as VOC), and the allied Rani of... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 2 - Small earthquake in London, England April 4 - Small earthquake in Warrington, England August 23 - Small earthquake in Spalding, England September 30 - Small earthquake in Northampton, England November 16 – Westminster Bridge officially opened Jonas Hanway is the first Englishman to use an umbrella James Gray reveals her sex... Indian Coffee House Thiruvananthapuram or Thiruvanathapuram (formerly known as Trivandrum) is the capital (population - 889,191 (2001)) of the state of Kerala, India. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The naval Battle of Kulachal took place on 10 August 1741 (31 July OS) [1], when forces of Marthanda Varma, the Raja of the erstwhile Indian State of Travancore (also known as Tiruvitamkur) defeated forces of the Dutch East India Company (also known as VOC), and the allied Rani of...


Dharma Raja

His successor Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma who was popularly known as Dharma Raja, shifted the capital in 1795 from Padmanabhapuram (see also Padmanabhapuram Palace) to Thiruvananthapuram. RamaVarma's period is considered as a golden age in the history of Travancore. He not only retained the territorial gains of his predecessor Marthanda Varma, but also improved and encouraged social developments. He was greatly assisted by a very efficient administrator, Raja Kesavadas, who was the Diwan of Travancore. 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Padmanabhapuram was the old capital of the princely state Travancore in India. ... Padamanabhapuram Palace complex is located in a small village Padmanabhapuram, around 65 km from Trivandrum, Kerala, India, en route to Kanyakumari, Tamilnadu. ... Thiruvananthapuram (Malayalam: തിരുവനന്തപുരം), formerly known as Trivandrum, is the capital of the Indian state of Kerala and the headquarters of Thiruvananthapuram District. ...


During his reign, Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Mysore attacked Travancore in A.D.1791. The Travancore forces withstood the Sultan for 6 months, and the Maharajah appealed to the British East India Company for aid, starting a precedent which led to the installation of a British resident in the country. The British resident, Colonel Macaulay, managed to engage the ruler in treaties which effectively made the state a protectorate of the East India Company and ended its autonomy. Tipu Sultan was defeated and he did not trouble Travancore anymore till his death in 1799 during the Fourth Mysore War. The Dharma Raja improved trade in the country. A potrait of Tipu Sultan by Edward Orme (1774 -1822). ... Mysore (Kannada: ಮೈಸೂರು) is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was a joint-stock company which was granted an English Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intention of favouring trade privileges in India. ... A resident is a person who lives in a particular place permanently, or for an extended period of time, i. ... A protectorate is, in international law, a political entity (a sovereign state or a less developed native polity, such as a tribal chiefstainship or feudal princely state) that formally agrees (voluntarily or under pressure) by treaty to enter into an unequal relationship with another, stronger state, called the protector, which...


Balarama Varma

On his death in 1798, Balarama Varma took over at the age of sixteen. During his reign Velu Thampi emerged as an able divan or minister. A mutiny of a section of the army in 1805 against Velu Thampi was put down by British troops, at his request. But the demands by the Company for the payment of compensation for their involvement in the 1791 Travancore-Mysore war led to enmity between the Diwan and the Resident. Velu Thampi and the minister of Cochin, Paliath Achan, organised an ill-fated revolt against the British in A.D.1809. The British defeated Velu Thampi at battles near Nagercoil and Kollam and the Maharajah, who had till then refused to take any active open part in the fight, turned against Velu Thampi. Velu Thampi committed suicide to avoid capture by the british soldiers. Paliath Achan surrendered to the British and was exiled to Madras. 1798 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Balarama Varma (c. ... At various points in Indian history, the title of diwan has been associated with differing, though similar functions. ...


19th and early 20th Century

Balarama Varma was succeeded by Rani Gowri Lakshmi Bai in AD 1810–1815 with the blessings of the British. When a boy was born to her in 1813, the infant was declared the King, but the Rani continued to rule as the regent. On her death in 1815, Rani Parvathi Bai continued as regent. The regencies saw great progress in social issues and in education. Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma assumed the throne in 1829. He was a famous exponent of Carnatic and Hindustani music. He abolished many unnecessary taxes, and started an English school and a charity hospital in Trivandrum in 1834. Balarama (left) with his brother Krishna Krishna-Balarama Mandir, Vrindavan, India // Introduction In mainstream Hindu tradition, Balarama (phonetically Balarāma - his other names include Baladeva, Balabhadra and Halayudha) is the name of the elder brother of Sri Krishna. ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Sri Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma (April 16, 1813 - December 25, 1846) was a South Indian king of the state of Travancore, in India. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Timeline and Samples Genres Classical (Carnatic and Hindustani) - Rock - Pop - Hip hop Awards Bollywood Music Awards - Punjabi Music Awards Charts Festivals Sangeet Natak Akademi – Thyagaraja Aradhana – Cleveland Thyagaraja Aradhana Media Sruti, The Music Magazine National anthem Jana Gana Mana, also national song Vande Mataram Music of the states Andaman and... Hindustani (हिन्‍दुस्‍थानी) classical music is an Indian classical music tradition originating in the North of the Indian subcontinent circa the 13th and 14th centuries CE. Developing a strong and diverse tradition over several centuries, it has contemporary traditions established primarily in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. ... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


The next ruler Maharajah Utharadam Tirunal Marthanda Varma AD 1847–1860 abolished slavery in the kingdom in 1853, and restrictions on the dress codes of certain castes in 1859. He started the postal system in 1857 and a school for girls in 1859. He was succeeded by Aayilyam Tirunal AD 1860–1880, during whose rule, agriculture, irrigation works and road ways were promoted. Humane codes of law were enforced in 1861 and a college was established in 1866. He also built many charity hospitals including a lunatic asylum. Rama Varma Visakham Tirunal ruled from AD 1880–1885. 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1859 (MDCCCLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1859 (MDCCCLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


The reign of Sri Mulam Tirunal Rama Varma AD 1885–1924 saw the establishment of many colleges and schools. When Jawaharlal Nehru visited the area in the 1920's, he remarked that the education was superior to British India. The medical system was reorganised and Legislative Council, the first of its kind in an Indian state, was established in 1888. The principle of election was established and women too were allowed to vote. Jawaharlal Nehru (जवाहरलाल नेहरू, Javāharlāl NehrÅ«) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964), also called Pandit (Scholar, Teacher) Nehru, was one of the most important leaders of the Indian Independence Movement and, as the head of the Indian National Congress, became the first Prime Minister of India when India won its... 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Sethu Lakshmi Bai ruled as the regent from AD 1924–1931. She abolished animal sacrifice and replaced the matrilineal system of inheritance with the patrilineal one.

Suseendram temple under Travancore
Suseendram temple under Travancore

The last ruler of Travancore was Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma AD 1931–1949. He made the temple entry proclamation on 12 November 1936, which opened all the Kshetrams (Hindu temples in Kerala) in Travancore to all Hindus, a privilege reserved to only the upper caste Hindus till then. This act won him praise from across India, most notably from Mahatma Gandhi. He also started the industrialisation of the state. His minister Sir C. P. Ramaswami Iyer was unpopular among the general public of Travancore. When the British decided to grant independence to India, the minister declared that Travancore would remain as an independent country. The tension between the people and the minister led to revolts in various places of the country. In one such revolt in Punnapara-Vayalar in AD 1946, the Communists established their own government in the area. This was brutally crushed by the Travancore army and navy leading to hundreds of deaths. This led to further disturbances and an attempt was made on the life of Sir C.P. Ramaswamy Iyer following which he resigned . After this, the Maharajah agreed to join India and Travancore was absorbed into the Indian union. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x631, 62 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Travancore ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x631, 62 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Travancore ... Maharaja Chithira Thirunal Shri Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma (November 7, 1912 –July 19, 1991) was the last maharajah (ruler) of the Indian princely state of Travancore before Indias independence. ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Kshetram is a malayalam transalation for Temple. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to world attention. ... Dewan Sir C.P. Ramaswami Iyer (1879–1966) was the last Dewan of Travancore from 1936 to 1947. ... This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ...

Kovalam Beach at the southern tip of Thiruvithaamcoore, in South India
Kovalam Beach at the southern tip of Thiruvithaamcoore, in South India

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Postcolonial Travancore

The movement for the unification of the lands where Malayalam was spoken as the mother tongue took concrete shape at the State People's Conference held in Ernakulam in April 1928, and a resolution was passed therein calling for Aikya Kerala ("United Kerala"). On July 1, 1949 A.D., the State of Travancore-Cochin was established, with the Maharajah of Travancore as the Rajapramukh of the new State. A number of popular ministries were elected and fell and in A.D. 1954, the Travancore Tamilnadu Congress launched a campaign for the merger of the Tamil speaking regions of Southern Travancore with the neighbouring area of Madras. The agitation took a violent turn and some police and many local people were killed in the riots at Marthandam and Puthukkada, irrepairably alienating the entire Tamil speaking population from merger into Kerala. Under the State Reorganisation Act of 1956, the four southern taluks of Travancore, namely Tovala, Agasteeswaram, Kalkulam and Vilavancode and a part of the Chencotta Taluk was merged with Madras state. The State of Kerala came into existence on November 1, 1956 A.D. with a Governor, appointed by the President of India, as the head of the State instead of the Maharajah. Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... Ernakulam (Malayalam : എറണാകുളം ) refers to the western part of the mainland of Kochi city in Kerala, India. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Thiru-Kochi, formerly known as Travancore-Cochin, is a former state of India. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Maharajah was stripped of all his ranks and privileges according to the twenty-sixth amendment of the Indian constitution act of July 31, 1971 A.D. He died on July 19, 1991 A.D. July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ... July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


External links

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Travancore
Dutch overseas empire
Former colonies
Africa: Arguin Island | Cape Colony | Lydsaamheid fort & factory in Delagoa Bay | Dutch Gold Coast | Gorée | Mauritius

The Americas: Berbice | New Holland (in Brazil) (part) | Dutch Guiana & | Demerara | Essequibo annex Pomeroon | New Netherland (New Amsterdam, New Sweden) | Tobago | Virgin Islands (part) Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Dutch Empire. ... Arguin is an island off the west coast of Mauritania in the Bay of Arguin, at 20° 36 N., 16° 27 W. It is 6 km long by 2 broad. ... Official language English and Dutch1 Capital Cape Town Largest City Cape Town Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st 569,020 km² (1910) Negligible Population  - Total (1911)  - Density Ranked 1st 2,564,965 4. ... Maputo Bay from space, January 1990 Maputo Bay (Baia de Maputo), formerly Delagoa Bay (Port. ... The Dutch Gold Coast, or Dutch Guinea, was a part of the sector of Guinea (coastal West Africa) known in the colonial era as the Gold Coast (in present Ghana), gradually colonized by the Dutch since 1598. ... ÃŽle de Gorée (i. ... Berbice is the Second largest of the three counties in Guyana and is known as the ancient county. ... // The Age of Exploration The discovery of Brazil was preceded by a series of treaties between the kings of Portugal and Castille, the last of them is the Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in 1494, creating the Tordesillas Meridian, that divided the world between that two kingdoms. ... // Native American period The history of Suriname dates from 3000 BCE, when Native Americans first inhabited the area. ... Demerara was one of the original British colonies that was joined into the colony of British Guiana, now Guyana. ... Essequibo is the name of a Dutch colony founded in 1616 and located in the region of the Essequibo River. ... River in Guyana, South America. ... Map based on Adriaen Blocks 1614 expedition to New Netherland, featuring the first use of the name. ... New Amsterdam (Dutch: Nieuw Amsterdam) was the name of the 17th century fortified settlement on Manhattan Island in the New Netherland territory (1614-1674) situated originally between 38 and 42 degrees latitude. ... New Sweden, or Nya Sverige, was a small Swedish settlement along the Delaware River on the Mid-Atlantic coast of North America. ... Castara village beach looking south, Tobago Tobago is the smaller of the two main islands that make up the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ...


Dutch colonization of the Americas During the 17th century, Dutch traders established trade posts and plantations throughout the Americas; actual colonization, with Dutch settling in the new lands was not as common as with settlements of other European nations. ...


Asia: Ceylon | Dutch India (Dutch Bengal - Coromandel Coast - Malabar Coast) | Deshima island in Japan | Dutch East Indies | Malacca | Taiwan Dutch India refers to the Dutch colonial possessions on the Indian subcontinent, while Dutch Indies refers to the far wider notions of the Dutch West Indies (in the Americas) and especially the Dutch East Indies (mainly present Indonesia, the colonial jewel in the Dutch crown, confusingly often informally called Indi... Dutch India refers to the Dutch colonial possessions on the Indian subcontinent, while Dutch Indies refers to the far wider notions of the Dutch West Indies (in the Americas) and especially the Dutch East Indies (mainly present Indonesia, the colonial jewel in the Dutch crown, confusingly often informally called Indi... The Coromandel Coast is the name given to the southeastern coast of the Indian peninsula. ... Malabar Coast, Kerala Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala The Malabar Coast also known as the Malabarian Coast, is a long and narrow south-western shore line of the mainland Indian subcontinent. ... View of Dejima in Nagasaki Bay Scale model of Dutch trading post on display in Dejima (2003) Edo-era boundaries of Dejima island (outlined in red) within the modern city of Nagasaki. ... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands-Indië) was the name of the colonies set up by the Dutch East India Company, which came under administration of the Netherlands during the 19th century (see Indonesia). ... State motto: Bersatu Teguh (Malay, United We Stand) Capital Malacca Town Governor Tun Datuk Seri Utama Mohd Khalil Yaakob Chief Minister Datuk Seri Haji Mohd Ali Mohd Rustam Area 1,650 km2 Population  - Estimated 648,500 State anthem Melaka Maju Jaya This article is about a state in Malaysia. ...


Arctic & Oceania: Netherlands New Guinea (Indonesian Irian Jaya) | Smeerenburg on Amsterdam island Dutch New Guinea was a common name of western New Guinea while it was a colonial possession of the Netherlands. ... The settlement of Smeerenburg on Amsterdam Island in north-west Svalbard, originated with Dutch whalers before 1620: one of Europes northernmost outposts. ... Official language Norwegian Capital Longyearbyen King Harald V Governor Per Sefland Area  - Total Ranked 122nd 62,049 km² Population  - Total (2004)  - Density Ranked 230th 2,756 0. ...

See also: Dutch East India Company | Dutch West India Company
Present colonies (only Caribbean)
Kingdom of the Netherlands: Netherlands Antilles | Aruba

 
 

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