FACTOID # 20: Statistically, Delaware bears more cost of the US Military than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Mahabharata" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Mahabharata
For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film).
Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra
Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra

The Mahābhārata (Devanagari: महाभारत) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Ramayana. Peter Stephen Paul Brook CH CBE (born 21 March 1925) is a highly influential British theatrical producer and director. ... The Mahabharata is a 1989 film version of the Hindu epic, directed by Peter Brook. ... Image File history File links Kurukshetra. ... Image File history File links Kurukshetra. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The ancient Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, laid the cornerstone for much of Hindu religion. ... The History of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1700 BC. This Bronze Age civilization was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ...


With more than 74,000 verses, long prose passages, and about 1.8 million words in total, it is one of the longest epic poems in the world.[1] Including the Harivamsa, the Mahabharata has a total length of more than 90,000 verses. The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... The Harivamsha (also Harivamsa; Sanskrit the lineage of Hari (Vishnu)) is an important work of Sanskrit literature, containing 16,375 verses. ...


It is of immense importance to the culture of India and Nepal, and is a major text of Hinduism. Its discussion of human goals (artha or wealth, kama or pleasure, dharma or duty/harmony, and moksha or liberation) takes place in a long-standing mythological tradition, attempting to explain the relationship of the individual to society and the world (the nature of the 'Self') and the workings of karma. Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages) is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Artha is a Sanskrit term referring to the idea of material prosperity. ... Kama may refer to several things Kama, a Hindu god, the God of Love, son of Lakshmi. ...   (Sanskrit) (Devnagari: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pali) is the underlying order in nature and human life and behaviour considered to be in accord with that order. ... Moksha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ...


The title may be translated as "the great tale of the Bharata Dynasty", according to the Mahābhārata's own testimony extended from a shorter version simply called Bhārata of 24,000 verses[2] The epic is part of the Hindu itihāsa, literally "that which happened", which includes with the Ramayana and the Purāṇas. Bharat may refer to Bharat Ramesh aka Sajid Mahmood, tho it is impossible to be two people at once, he stil is sajid mahmood Bharata भरत (Sanskrit to be or being maintained) may refer to a name of Agni a name of Rudra one of the Adityas Emperor Bharata, son of... Itihasa (Sanskrit: इतिहास - itihāsa in IAST notation, literally meaning that which happened) is the word for History. ... Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of ancient times) is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ...


Traditionally, Hindus ascribe the Mahabharata to Vyasa. Due to its immense length, its philological study has a long history of attempts to unravel its historical growth and composition layers. Its earliest layers date back to the late Vedic period and it probably reached its final form in the early Gupta period. Veda Vyasa(Contemporary painting) Vyāsa (Devanāgarī: व्यास) is a central and much revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions. ... The Vedic period (or Vedic Age) is the period in the history of India when the sacred Vedic Sanskrit texts such as the Vedas were composed. ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ...

Contents

Influence

Part of a series on
Hindu scriptures
aum symbol
Vedas
Rigveda · Yajurveda
Samaveda · Atharvaveda
Vedic divisions
Samhita · Brahmana
Aranyaka  · Upanishad
Upanishad
Aitareya · Brihadaranyaka
Isha · Taittiriya · Chandogya
Kena · Mundaka
Mandukya · Prashna
Shvetashvatara
Vedanga
Shiksha · Chandas
Vyakarana · Nirukta
Jyotisha · Kalpa
Itihasa
Mahabharata · Ramayana
Other scriptures
Smriti · Śruti
Bhagavad Gita · Purana
Agama · Darshana
Pancharatra · Tantra
Sutra · Stotra ·Dharmashastra
Divya Prabandha
Tevaram
Ramacharitamanas
Shikshapatri · Vachanamrut
Bibliography
This box: view  talk  edit

With its depth and magnitude, the Mahabharata's scope is best summarized by one quotation from the beginning of its first parva (section): "What is found here, may be found elsewhere. What is not found here, will not be found elsewhere."[citation needed] Template:Hindu scriptures - Vedic Scriptures Hindu scripture, which is known as Shastra is predominantly written in Sanskrit. ... Image File history File links Aum. ... The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद) are a large corpus of texts originating in Ancient India. ... The Rigveda (Sanskrit: , a tatpurusha compound of praise, verse and knowledge) is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns dedicated to the gods. ... The Yajurveda (Sanskrit , a tatpurusha compound of sacrifice + veda knowledge) is one of the four Hindu Vedas. ... The Samaveda (Sanskrit: सामवेद, sāmaveda, a tatpurusha compound of ritual chant + knowledge ), is third in the usual order of enumeration of the four Vedas, the ancient core Hindu scriptures. ... The Atharvaveda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, , a tatpurusha compound of , a type of priest, and meaning knowledge) is a sacred text of Hinduism, and one of the four Vedas, often called the fourth Veda. According to tradition, the Atharvaveda was mainly composed by two groups of rishis known as the Bhrigus and the... The Samhita (Sanskrit: joined or collected) is the basic text of each of the Vedas, comprising collections of hymns and ritual texts. ... The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ... The Aranyakas (Sanskrit आरण्यक ) are part of the Hindu Å›ruti; these religious scriptures are written in early Classical Sanskrit, and form part of either the Brahmanas or Upanishads. ... The Upanishads (Devanagari: उपनिषद्, IAST: upaniá¹£ad) are part of the Vedas and form the Hindu scriptures which primarily discuss philosophy, meditation, and the nature of God; they form the core spiritual thought of Vedantic Hinduism. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... The Aitareya Upanishad is one of the older, primary Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. ... The Upanishad is believed to be one of the older, primary (mukhya) Upanishads. ... The Isha Upanishad () or Ishopanishad (), also known as the Ishavasya Upanishad (), is a Sanskrit poem (or sequence of mantras) from the Upanishads and is considered Åšruti by followers of a number of diverse traditions within Hinduism. ... The Taittiriya Upanishad is one of the Upanishads associated to the taittiriya samhita of the Black Yajurveda. ... The Chandogya Upanishad is one of the main ten Upanishads of Hinduism. ... The Kena Upanishad (), is one of the older, primary Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. ... Mundaka Upanishad is an Upanishad of the Atharva Veda. ... MāndÅ«kya Upanishad is one of the shortest Upanishads, that form of the revealed, so called metaphysical, parts of the Vedic texts, the Vedas. ... i hate prashna ... The Shvetashvatara Upanishad is one of the 33 Upanishads of Krishna Yajurveda or Black Yajurveda . ... The Vedanga (IAST , member of the Veda) are six auxiliary disciplines for the understanding and tradition of the Vedas. ... Shiksha is an NGO devoted to improving the standards of education in New Delhi and its neighbouring regions. ... The verses of the Vedas have a variety of different meters. ... The Sanskrit grammatical tradition of , is one of the six Vedanga disciplines. ... Nirukta is Vedic glossary of difficult words. ... Jyotisha (, in Hindi and English usage Jyotish; sometimes called Hindu astrology, Indian astrology, and/or Vedic astrology) is the Hindu system of astrology, one of the six disciplines of Vedanga, and regarded as one of the oldest schools of ancient astrology to have had an independent origin, affecting all other... Kalpa is one of the six disciplines of Vedanga, treating ritual. ... Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Bibliography of Hindu scriptures - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Smriti (Sanskrit स्मॄति, that which is remembered) refers to a specific canon of Hindu religious scripture. ... The Å›ruti (Sanskrit thing heard, sound) is the smallest interval of the tuning system of Indian classical music. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of ancient times) is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... For the Buddhist texts called the Agamas, see Nikaya. ... The Sanskrit word darshana means view or viewpoint. ... Pañcaratra is an pre-Puranic form of Hinduism, which equated Narayana with Vishnu. ... The Tantra (Looms or Weavings), refer to numerous and varied scriptures pertaining to any of several esoteric traditions rooted in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy. ... SÅ«tra (sex) (Sanskrit) or Sutta (Pāli) literally means a rope or thread that holds things together, and more metaphorically refers to an aphorism (or line, rule, formula), or a collection of such aphorisms in the form of a manual. ... Stotras are Hindu prayers that praise aspects of God, such as Devi, Siva, or Vishnu. ... The Dharmashastra is a volume of Hindu legal texts, covering moral, ethical and social laws. ... The Nalayira Divya Prabandha is a divine [1] collection of 4,000 verses (Naalayira in Tamil means four thousand) composed sometime around the 8th and 12th century AD, by the 12 Alvars (also aazhvaars), the Tamil mystic poets, and was compiled in its present form by Nathamuni during the 9th... The Tevaram is a body of ancient religious hymns composed by the thousands in the popular Tamil language by Saiva, Nayanars and Vaishnava saints to spread their faith among common people. ... ÅšrÄ« Rāmcaritmānas (Hindi: रामचरितमानस) is an epic poem composed by the great 16th-century Indian poet, Goswami Tulsidas (c. ... The Shikshapatri is a text of two hundred and twelve verses, and was written by Shree Swaminarayan, a reforming Hindu from the Vaishnava tradition, who lived in Gujarat from 1781-1830 and who was recognised by his followers as a deity during his lifetime. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bibliography of Hindu scriptures - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


In its scope, the Mahabharata is more than simply a story of kings and princes, sages and wise men, demons and gods. Vyasa, says that one of its aims is elucidating the four goals of life: dharma (duty),artha (wealth),kama (pleasure), and moksha (liberation). The narrative culminates in moksha, believed by Hindus to be the ultimate goal of human beings. Karma and dharma play an integral role in the Mahabharata. Veda Vyasa(Contemporary painting) Vyāsa (DevanāgarÄ«: व्यास) is a central and much revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions. ...   (Sanskrit) (Devnagari: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pali) is the underlying order in nature and human life and behaviour considered to be in accord with that order. ... Artha is a Sanskrit term referring to the idea of material prosperity. ... Best understood as aesthetics, the definition of Kama involves sensual gratification, sexual fulfillment, pleasure of the senses, love, and the ordinary enjoyments of life regarded as one of the four ends of man (purusharthas). ... Moksha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Moksha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ...   (Sanskrit) (Devnagari: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pali) is the underlying order in nature and human life and behaviour considered to be in accord with that order. ...


The Mahabharata includes aspects of Hindu mythology, stories of the gods and goddesses, and explanations of Hindu philosophy. Among the principal works and stories that are a part of the Mahabharata are the following (often considered isolated as works in their own right): Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

  • Bhagavad Gita (Krishna advises and teaches Arjuna when he is ridden with doubt. Anusasanaparva.)
  • Damayanti (or Nala and Damayanti, a love story. Aranyakaparva.)
  • Krishnavatara (the story of Krishna, the Krishna Lila, which is woven through many chapters of the story)
  • An abbreviated version of the Ramayana. Aranyakaparva.
  • Rishyasringa (also written as Rshyashrnga, the horned boy and rishi. Aranyakaparva.)
  • Vishnu sahasranama (a hymn to Vishnu, which describes his 1000 names; Anushasanaparva.)

Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... Damayanti is a character in Hindu mythology. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... In Indian and Hindu mythology, Rishyasringa (Sanskrit:ऋष्यश्रृंग, IAST: ) (horned rishi in Sanskrit) was a boy born with the horns of a deer. ... The Vishnu sahasranāma (literally: the thousand names of Vishnu) is a list of 1,000 names for Vishnu, one of the main forms of God in Hinduism and the Supreme Person for Vaishnavas (followers of Vishnu). ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being or Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavas and a manifestation of Brahman in the Advaita or Smarta traditions. ...

Textual history and organization

It is undisputed that the full length of the Mahabharata has accreted over a long period. The Mahabharata itself (1.1.61) distinguishes a core portion of 24,000 verses, the Bharata proper, as opposed to additional secondary material, while the Ashvalayana Grhyasutra (3.4.4) makes a similar distinction. According to the Adi-parva of the Mahabharata (shlokas 81, 101-102), the text was originally 8,800 verses when it was composed by Vyasa and was known as the Jaya (Victory), which later became 24,000 verses in the Bharata recited by Vaisampayana, and finally over 90,000 verses in the Mahabharata recited by Ugrasravas.[3] The Grhya Sutras domestic sutras are a category of Sanskrit texts in the tradition of the Brahmanas, commenting on Vedic ritual. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Veda Vyasa(Contemporary painting) Vyāsa (Devanāgarī: व्यास) is a central and much revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions. ... Vaisampayana or Vaiśampayana was a celebrated sage who was the original teacher of the Black Yajur-Veda. ...


As with the field of Homeric studies, research on the Mahabharata has put an enormous effort into recognizing and dating various layers within the text. The complex structure had caused some early Western Indologists to refer to it as chaotic.[4] Homeric scholarship is the study of Homeric epic, especially the two large surviving epics the Iliad and Odyssey. ... The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ... Indology refers to the academic study of the history, languages, and cultures of the Indian subcontinent, and as such a subset of Asian studies. ...


The earliest known references to the Mahabharata and its core Bharata date back to the 6th-5th century BC, in the Ashtadhyayi (sutra 6.2.38) of Pāṇini (c. 520-460 BC), and in the Ashvalayana Grhyasutra (3.4.4), while various characters from the epic are also mentioned in earlier Vedic literature.[3] This indicates that the core 24,000 verses, known as the Bharata, as well as an early version of the extended Mahabharata, were composed by the 6th-5th century BC, with parts of the Jaya's original 8,800 verses possibly dating back as far as the 9th-8th century BC.[5] (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 5th century BC started on January 1, 500 BC and ended on December 31, 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... The Ashtadhyayi (Ạṣtādhyāyī, meaning eight chapters) is the earliest known grammar of Sanskrit, and one of the first works on descriptive linguistics, generative linguistics, or linguistics altogether. ... SÅ«tra (sex) (Sanskrit) or Sutta (Pāli) literally means a rope or thread that holds things together, and more metaphorically refers to an aphorism (or line, rule, formula), or a collection of such aphorisms in the form of a manual. ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (पाणिनि; IPA ) was an ancient Indian grammarian from Gandhara (traditionally 520–460 BC, but estimates range from the 7th to 4th centuries BC). ... The Grhya Sutras domestic sutras are a category of Sanskrit texts in the tradition of the Brahmanas, commenting on Vedic ritual. ... The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद) are a large corpus of texts originating in Ancient India. ...


The earliest testimony of the existence of the full text of the Mahabharata is by the Greek Sophist Dion Chrysostom (c. 40-105), who mentions that "the Indians possess an Iliad of 100,000 verses".[3] The later copper-plate inscription of the Maharaja Sharvanatha (533-534) from Khoh (Satna District, Madhya Pradesh) also describes the Mahabharata as a "collection of 100,000 verses" (shatasahasri samhita). The redaction of this large body of text was carried out after formal principles, emphasizing the numbers 18[6] and 12. The addition of the latest parts may be dated by the absence of the Anushasana-parva from MS Spitzer, the oldest surviving Sanskrit philosophical manuscript dated to the first century, that contains among other things a list of the books in the Mahabharata. From this evidence, it is likely that the redaction into 18 books took place in the first century. An alternative division into 20 parvas appears to have co-existed for some time. The division into 100 sub-parvas (mentioned in Mbh. 1.2.70) is older, and most parvas are named after one of their constituent sub-parvas. The Harivamsa consists of the final two of the 100 sub-parvas, and was considered an appendix (khila) to the Mahabharata proper by the redactors of the 18 parvas. Sophism (gr. ... Dio Chrysostom, Dion of Prusa or Dio Cocceianus ( 40 AD– 120 AD) was a Greek orator, writer, philosopher and historian of the Roman Empire in the first century. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... It has been suggested that Maharaj be merged into this article or section. ... Busy street Satna is a city in central India, in northeastern Madhya Pradesh, adjacent to the Tons River. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... Redaction generally refers to the editing of text to turn it into a form suitable for publication, or to the result of such an effort. ... The Harivamsha (also Harivamsa; Sanskrit the lineage of Hari (Vishnu)) is an important work of Sanskrit literature, containing 16,375 verses. ...


The division into 18 parvas is as follows:

parva title sub-parvas contents
1 Adi-parva 1-19 Introduction, birth and upbringing of the princes.
2 Sabha-parva 20-28 Life at the court, the game of dice, and the exile of the Pandavas. Maya Danava erects the palace and court (sabha), at Indraprastha.
3 Aranyaka-parva (also Vanaparva, Aranyaparva) 29-44 The twelve years in exile in the forest (aranya).
4 Virata-parva 45-48 The year in exile spent at the court of Virata.
5 Udyoga-parva 49-59 Preparations for war.
6 Bhishma-parva 60-64 The first part of the great battle, with Bhishma as commander for the Kauravas.
7 Drona-parva 65-72 The battle continues, with Drona as commander.
8 Karna-parva 73 The battle again, with Karna as commander.
9 Shalya-parva 74-77 The last part of the battle, with Shalya as commander.
10 Sauptika-parva 78-80 How Ashvattama and the remaining Kauravas killed the Pandava army in their sleep (Sauptika).
11 Stri-parva 81-85 Gandhari and the other women (stri) lament the dead.
12 Shanti-parva 86-88 The crowning of Yudhisthira, and his instructions from Bhishma
13 Anusasana-parva 89-90 The final instructions (anusasana) from Bhishma.
14 Ashvamedhika-parva[7] 91-92 The royal ceremony of the ashvamedha conducted by Yudhisthira.
15 Ashramavasika-parva 93-95 Dhritarashtra, Gandhari and Kunti leave for an ashram, and eventual death in the forest.
16 Mausala-parva 96 The infighting between the Yadavas with maces (mausala).
17 Mahaprasthanika-parva 97 The first part of the path to death (mahaprasthana "great journey") of Yudhisthira and his brothers.
18 Svargarohana-parva 98 The Pandavas return to the spiritual world (svarga).
khila Harivamsa-parva 99-100 Life of Krishna.

The Adi-parva is dedicated to the snake sacrifice (sarpasattra) of Janamejaya, explaining its motivation, detailing why all snakes in existence were intended to be destroyed, and why in spite of this, there are still snakes in existence. This sarpasattra material was often considered an independent tale added to a version of the Mahabharata by "thematic attraction" (Minkowski 1991), and considered to have particularly close connection to Vedic (Brahmana literature), in particular the Panchavimsha Brahmana which describes the Sarpasattra as originally performed by snakes, among which are snakes named Dhrtarashtra and Janamejaya, two main characters of the Mahabharata's sarpasattra, and Takshaka, the name of a snake also in the Mahabharata. The Shatapatha Brahmana gives an account of an Ashvamedha performed by Janamejaya Parikshita. The first city of Delhi is believed to be founded by the legendary Pandavas of the Mahabharata around 1400 BC. It was called Indraprastha. ... In Hindu mythology, Virata is the king in whose court the Pandavas spent a year in concealment during their exile. ... In the epic Mahabharata, Drona (Sanskrit: द्रोण, droNa) or Dronacharya (द्रोणाचार्य, droNāchārya) is the royal guru to the Kauravas and the Pandavas. ... Karna (Sanskrit: कर्ण written Karṇa in IAST transliteration) is one of the central figures in Hindu epic Mahabharata. ... King Shalya was the brother of Madri, the mother of Nakula and Sahadeva. ... In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Ashwatthama was the son of guru, Dronacharya. ... The word Gāndhārī can mean more than one thing: Gāndhārī is a character in the Indian epic, the Mahabharata. ... In the great Hindu epic Mahabharata, Yudhisthira (Sanskrit: युधिष्ठिर, yudhiṣṭhira) was the eldest son of King Pandu and Queen Kunti, king of Hastinapura and Indraprastha, and World Emperor. ... Bheeshma makes his vow. ... The Ashvamedha (Sanskrit horse sacrifice) was one of the most important royal rituals of Vedic religion, described in detail in the Yajurveda (YV TS 7. ... In Hinduism, Princess Kunti is the mother of the Pandavas. ... The Yadava Dynasty ruled a kingdom in what is now Maharashtra, India from the 12th century to the 14th century. ... In Hinduism, (Sanskrit: स्वर्ग) Svarga (or Swarga) is set of nether worlds located on Mt. ... The Harivamsha (also Harivamsa; Sanskrit the lineage of Hari (Vishnu)) is an important work of Sanskrit literature, containing 16,375 verses. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, which are the earliest sacred texts of India,. The Vedas were first passed down orally and therefore have no known date. ... The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ... The Tandhya-maha- (or Praudha-) brahmana, or great Brahmana — usually called Panchavimsha-brahmana from its consisting of twenty-five adhyayas is a Brahmana of the Samaveda, treating of the duties of the udgatars generally, and especially of the various kinds of chants. ... Shatapatha Brahmana (Brahmana of one-hundred paths) is one of the prose texts describing the Vedic ritual. ... The Ashvamedha (Sanskrit horse sacrifice) was one of the most important royal rituals of Vedic religion, described in detail in the Yajurveda (YV TS 7. ...


According to Mbh. 1.1.50, there were three versions of the epic, beginning with Manu (1.1.27), Astika (1.3, sub-parva 5) or Vasu (1.57), respectively. These versions probably correspond to the addition of one and then another 'frame' settings of dialogues. The Vasu version corresponds to the oldest, without frame settings, beginning with the account of the birth of Vyasa. The Astika version adds the Sarpasattra and Ashvamedha material from Brahmanical literature, and introduces the name Mahabharata and identifies Vyasa as the work's author. The redactors of these additions were probably Pancharatrin scholars who according to Oberlies (1998) likely retained control over the text until its final redaction. Mention of the Huna in the Bhishma-parva however appears to imply that this parva may have been edited around the 4th century. Pañcaratra is an pre-Puranic form of Hinduism, which equated Narayana with Vishnu. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ...


Historicity

For historical context of the tale, see Kingdoms of Ancient India
Map of "Bharatvarsha" (Kingdom of India) during the time of Mahabharata and Ramayana. (Title and location names are in English.)

Some people believe that "The epic's setting certainly has a historical precedent in Vedic India, where the Kuru kingdom was the center of political power in the late 2nd and early 1st millennia BCE. A dynastic conflict of the period could very well have been the inspiration for the Jaya, the core on which the Mahabharata corpus was built, and eventually the climactic battle came to be viewed as an epochal event. Dating this conflict relies almost exclusively on textual materials in the Mahabaharata itself and associated genealogical lists in the later Puranic literature."[citation needed] This article tries to compile and classify all the kingdoms of ancient India mentioned in the Sanskrit/Vedic literature. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1002x1176, 273 KB) Summary Author: JIJITH NR This image shows the locations of Kingdoms mentioned in the Indian epics. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1002x1176, 273 KB) Summary Author: JIJITH NR This image shows the locations of Kingdoms mentioned in the Indian epics. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Vedic civilization is the Indo-Aryan culture associated with the Vedas, the earliest known records of Indian history. ... The position of the Kuru kingdom in Iron Age Vedic India. ... The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. ... The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of successive empires. ... Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of ancient times) is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ...


The evidence of the Puranas is of two kinds. Of the first kind, there is the direct statement that there were 1015 (or 1050) years between the birth of Parikshit (Arjuna's grandson) and the accession of Mahapadma Nanda, commonly dated to 382 BCE, which would lead to an estimate of about 1400 BCE for the Bharata battle.[8] F.E. Pargiter rejected this because it would imply improbably long reigns on average for the kings listed in the genealogies.[9] Of the second kind are analyses of parallel genealogies in the Puranas between the times of Adhisimakrishna (Parikshit's great-grandson) and Mahapadma Nanda. Pargiter accordingly estimated 26 generations by averaging the lists of ten different dynasties, and assumed 18 years for the average duration of a reign to arrive at an estimate of 850 BCE for Adhisimakrishna, and thus approximately 950 BCE for the Bharata battle.[10] B. B. Lal used the same approach with a more conservative assumption of the average reign to estimate a date of 836 BCE, and correlated this with archaeological evidence from Painted Grey Ware sites, the association being strong between PGW artifacts and places mentioned in the epic.[11] B.B. Lal was born in Jhansi, India in 1921. ... The Painted Grey Ware culture (PGW) is an Iron Age culture of Gangetic plain, lasting from roughly. ...


Attempts to date the events using methods of archaeoastronomy have produced, depending on which passages are chosen and how they are interpreted, estimates ranging from the late 4th to the mid 2nd millennium BCE.[12] The late 4th millennium date has a precedent in the calculation of Aryabhata (6th century), based on planetary conjunctions. His date of February 18th 3102 BCE has become widespread in Indian tradition (for example, the Aihole inscription of Pulikeshi II, dated to Saka 556 = 634 CE, claims that 3735 years have elapsed since the Bharata battle.[13]) Another traditional school of astronomers and historians, represented by Vriddha-Garga, Varahamihira (author of the Brhatsamhita) and Kalhana (author of the Rajatarangini), place the Bharata war 653 years after the Kaliyuga epoch, corresponding to 2449 BCE.[14] The sun rising over Stonehenge at the 2005 Summer Solstice. ... Statue of Aryabhata on the grounds of IUCAA, Pune. ... Aihole (Kannada ಐಹೊಳೆ)is in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka, India. ... Pulakesi II (c. ... Varahamihira (505 – 587) was an Indian astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer born in Ujjain. ... This volume of Varahamihira is an encyclopedia of wide ranging subjects of human interest, including astrology, planetary movements, eclipses, rainfall, clouds, architecture, growth of crops, manufacture of perfume, matrimony, domestic relations, gems, pearls, and rituals. ... Kalhana (c. ... Rajtarangini (River of Kings), a book written in Sanskrit by Kalhana, contains an account of the life and history of Kashmir. ...


In discussing the dating questions historian A. L. Basham says:

"According to the most popular later tradition the Mahabharata War took place in 3102 B.C., which in the light of all evidence, is quite impossible. More reasonable is another tradition, placing it in the 15th century B.C., but this is also several centuries too early in the light of our archaeological knowledge. Probably the war took place around the beginning of the 9th century B.C.; such a date seems to fit well with the scanty archaeological remains of the period, and there is some evidence in the Brahmana literature itself to show that it cannot have been much earlier."[15]

Structure and authorship

The epic employs the story within a story structure, otherwise known as frametales, popular in many Indian religious and secular works. It is recited to the King Janamejaya by Vaisampayana, a disciple of Vyasa. A story within a story is a literary device or conceit in which one story is told during the action of another story. ... Janamejaya, was the son of Arjunas (Mahabharata)grandson Parikishit. ... Vaisampayana or Vaiśampayana was a celebrated sage who was the original teacher of the Black Yajur-Veda. ... Veda Vyasa(Contemporary painting) Vyāsa (Devanāgarī: व्यास) is a central and much revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions. ...


The epic is traditionally ascribed to Vyasa, who is also one of the major dynastic characters within the epic. The first section of the Mahabharata states that it was Ganesha who, at the behest of Vyasa, wrote down the text to Vyasa's dictation. Ganesha is said to have agreed to write it only on condition that Vyasa never pause in his recitation. Vyasa agreed, providing that Ganesha took the time to understand what was said before writing it down. This also serves as a popular variation on the stories of how Ganesha's right tusk was broken (a traditional part of Ganesha imagery). This version attributes it to the fact that, in the rush of writing, his pen failed, and he snapped off his tusk as a replacement in order that the transcription not be interrupted. Veda Vyasa(Contemporary painting) Vyāsa (DevanāgarÄ«: व्यास) is a central and much revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions. ... Ganesha (Sanskrit: ; ;  , also spelled Ganesa or Ganesh) is one of the best-known and most worshipped deities in Hinduism[8]. Although he is known by many other attributes, Ganeshas elephant head makes him easy to identify. ...


Synopsis

The core story of the work is that of a dynastic struggle for the throne of Hastinapura, the kingdom ruled by the Kuru clan. The two collateral branches of the family that participate in the struggle are the Kaurava, the elder branch of the family, and the Pandava, the younger branch, with the situation where Kaurava's elder brother Duryodhana is younger than eldest brother of Pandava's i.e. Yudhisthir, leading to conflict where both have the claims to the throne, citing themselves elder. In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Hastinapura is the capital and the kingdom of the Kauravas, the descendants of Kuru, which include the Pandavas. ... The position of the Kuru kingdom in Iron Age Vedic India. ... The term Kaurava (Sanskrit:कौरव) is a Sanskrit term, that means a descendant of Kuru, a legendary king who is the ancestor of many of the characters of the Mahabharata. ... In the Mahabharata, the Pandava are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti and Madri. ... The term Kaurava (Sanskrit:कौरव) is a Sanskrit term, that means a descendant of Kuru, a legendary king who is the ancestor of many of the characters of the Mahabharata. ... In the Mahabharata, Duryodhana (or Dhuryodhana) is the eldest son of the blind king Dhritarashtra by Queen Gandhari, and the eldest of the one hundred Kaurava brothers, and the chief antagonist of the Pandavas. ... In the Mahabharata, the Pandava are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti and Madri. ... In the great Hindu epic Mahabharata, Yudhisthira (Sanskrit: युधिष्ठिर, yudhiṣṭhira) was the eldest son of King Pandu and Queen Kunti, king of Hastinapura and Indraprastha, and World Emperor. ...


The struggle culminates in the Great battle of Kurukshetra, in which the Pandavas are ultimately victorious. The battle produces complex conflicts of kinship and friendship, instances of family loyalty and duty taking precedence over what is right, as well as the converse. Combatants Pandavas led by Dhristadyumna Kauravas led by Bhishma Commanders Arjuna Bhima Yudhishthira Nakula Sahadeva Bhishma Drona Karna Duryodhana Ashwatthama Strength 7 Akshauhinis 1,530,900 soldiers 11 Akshauhinis 2,405,700 soldiers Casualties Almost Total Only 7 survivors - the five Pandavas, Krishna, and Satyaki Almost Total Only 3 survivors... The Pandavas were the five sons of the king Pandu. ...


The Mahabharata itself ends with the death of Krishna, and the subsequent end of his dynasty, and ascent of the Pandava brothers to heaven. It also marks the beginning of the Hindu age of Kali (Kali Yuga), the fourth and final age of mankind, where the great values and noble ideas have crumbled, and man is heading toward the complete dissolution of right action, morality and virtue. This article is about the Hindu deity. ... In Hinduism, Kali (Devnāgari: ; Gujarati: ; IAST: ; IPA:) is the reigning lord of Kali Yuga and nemesis of Sri Kalki, the 10th and final avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu. ... Kali Yuga is also the title of a book by Roland Charles Wagner. ...


The elder generations

Janamejaya's ancestor Shantanu, the king of Hastinapura has a short-lived marriage with the goddess Ganga and has a son, Devavrata (later to be called Bhishma), who becomes the heir apparent. Shantanu is a king of Hastinapura in the great epic of the Mahabharata. ... In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Hastinapura is the capital and the kingdom of the Kauravas, the descendants of Kuru, which include the Pandavas. ... In Hinduism, the Ganges River (called locally as the Ganga) is personified as a goddess, who holds an important place in the Hindu pantheon. ... Bheeshma makes his vow. ...


Satyavati is the daughter of a fisherman in the kingdom, and she already has a son, Vyasa. Many years later, when the king goes hunting, he see her and asks to marry her. Her father refuses to consent to the marriage unless Shantanu promises to make any future son of Satyavati the king upon his death. To solve the king's dilemma, Devavrata agrees not to take the throne. As the fisherman is not sure about the prince's children honouring the promise, Devavrata also takes a vow of lifelong celibacy to guarantee his father's promise. Satyavati is the great-grandmother of the Pandava and Kaurava princes, principal characters of the Mahabharata, one of the principal texts in Hindu mythology. ... Veda Vyasa(Contemporary painting) Vyāsa (Devanāgarī: व्यास) is a central and much revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions. ...


Shantanu has two sons by Satyavati, Chitrangada and Vichitravirya. Upon Shantanu's death, Chitrangada becomes king. After his death Vichitravirya rules Hastinapura. In order to arrange the marriage of the young Vichitravirya, Bhishma goes to Kashi for a swayamvara of the three princesses Amba, Ambika and Ambalika. He wins them, and Ambika and Ambalika are married to Vichtravirya. Chitrangada, in the Hindu epic Mahabharata, is one of Arjunas wives. ... In Hindu mythology, Queen Satyavati bore King Santanu two sons, Chitrangada and Vichitravirya. ... In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Hastinapura is the capital and the kingdom of the Kauravas, the descendants of Kuru, which include the Pandavas. ... Swayamvara, in ancient India, was a practice of choosing a life partner, among a list of suitors by a girl of marriageable age. ...


The Pandava and Kaurava princes

A motif depicting Bhima in the battle ready posture at Hampi, Karnataka

Vichitravirya died young without any heirs. Satyavati then asked her first son Vyasa to go to Vichitravirya's widows and give them the divine vision of giving birth to son's without losing their chastity. Vyasa fathered the royal children Dhritarashtra, who is born blind, and Pandu, who is born pale. Through a maid of the widows, he also fathers their commoner half-brother Vidura. Image File history File links Bheema. ... Image File history File links Bheema. ... Hampi (Kannada: ಹಂಪೆ, Hampe in Kannada) is a village in northern Karnataka, on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in India. ... Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... Veda Vyasa(Contemporary painting) Vyāsa (DevanāgarÄ«: व्यास) is a central and much revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions. ... In Mahabharata Dhritarashtra was the son bore by Vichitraviryas first wife Ambika from Vyasa. ... In the Mahabharata epic, Pandu is the son of Vichitravirya and his second wife, Ambalika from Vyasa. ... Vidura (Sanskrit: विदुर, vidÅ«ra) was a son of a maid-servant who served the Queens of Hastinapura, Queen Ambika and Ambalika. ...


Pandu marries twice, to Kunti and Madri. Dhritarashtra is married to Gandhari, who blindfolds herself when she finds she has been married to a blind man. Pandu takes the throne because of Dhritarashtra's blindness. Pandu while out hunting deer, is however cursed that if he engages in a sexual act, he will die. He then retires to the forest along with his two wives, and his brother rules thereafter, despite his blindness. In Hinduism, Princess Kunti is the mother of the Pandavas. ... In the Mahabharata epic, Madri was a princess of the Madra kingdom and the second wife of Pandu. ... The word Gāndhārī can mean more than one thing: Gāndhārī is a character in the Indian epic, the Mahabharata. ...


Pandu's elder queen Kunti however, asks the gods Dharma, Vayu, and Indra for sons, by using a boon granted by Durvasa. She gives birth to three sons Yudhishtira, Bhima, and Arjuna through these gods. Kunti shares her boon with the younger queen Madri, who bears the twins Nakula and Sahadeva through the Ashwini twins. However Pandu and Madri, unable to resist temptation, indulge in sex and die in the forest, and Kunti returns to Hastinapura to raise her sons, who are then usually referred to as the Pandava brothers.   (Sanskrit) (Devnagari: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pali) is the underlying order in nature and human life and behaviour considered to be in accord with that order. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (æ°´) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water In Hinduism, Vayu (Sanskrit वायु (properly transliterated as Vāyu), also known as Vāta वात, Pavana पवन, or Pr... Indra (Sanskrit: इन्द्र or इंद्र, indra) is the god of weather and war, and lord of Svargaloka in Hinduism. ... Yudhisthira was the son of King Pandu and Queen Kunti. ... A motif depicting Bheema in the battle ready posture. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... In the Mahabharata epic, Madri was a princess of the Madra kingdom and the second wife of Pandu. ... In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Nakula (Sanskrit: नकुल, naküla) was the son of king Pandu and queen Madri. ... Sahadeva (Sanskrit: सहदेव, sahadéva) is a character in the Mahabharata. ... The Ashvins ( possessor of horses, horse tamer, cavalier, dual ) are divine twin horsemen in the Rigveda, sons of Saranya, a goddess of the clouds and wife of either Surya in his form as Vivasvat. ... In the Mahabharata, the Pandava are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti and Madri. ...


Dhritarashtra has a hundred sons through Gandhari, the Kaurava brothers, the eldest being Duryodhana, and the second Dushasana. There is rivalry between the sets of cousins, from their youth and into manhood. The word Gāndhārī can mean more than one thing: Gāndhārī is a character in the Indian epic, the Mahabharata. ... The term Kaurava (Sanskrit:कौरव) is a Sanskrit term, that means a descendant of Kuru, a legendary king who is the ancestor of many of the characters of the Mahabharata. ... In the Mahabharata, Duryodhana (or Dhuryodhana) is the eldest son of the blind king Dhritarashtra by Queen Gandhari, and the eldest of the one hundred Kaurava brothers, and the chief antagonist of the Pandavas. ... Dushasana (Duśśāsana in IAST transliteration, and sometimes written Duhshasana and Dushyasana) was the second son of the blind king Dhritarashtra and Gandhari in the epic Mahabharata, and the younger brother of Duryodhana. ...


Laakshagriha (The House of Wax)

Duryodhana plots to get rid of the Pandavas and tries to kill the Pandavas secretly by setting fire to their palace which he had made of lac. However, the Pandavas are warned by their uncle, Vidura, who sends them a miner to dig a tunnel. They are able to escape to safety and go into hiding, but after leaving others behind, whose bodies are mistaken for them. Bhishma goes to the river Ganga to perform the last rites of the people found dead in the burned palace, understood to be Pandavas. Vidura then informs him that the Pandavas are alive and to keep the secret to himself. Lac is the scarlet resinous secretion of the insect Laccifer lacca. ...


Draupadi

In course of this exile the Pandavas are informed of a swayamvara, a marriage competition, which is taking place for the hand of the Panchala princess Draupadi. The Pandavas enter the competition in disguise as Brahmins. The task is to string a mighty steel bow and shoot a target on the ceiling while looking at its reflection in water below. Most of the princes fail, being unable to lift the bow. Arjuna, however, succeeds. When he returns with his bride, Arjuna goes to his mother, saying, "Mother, I have brought you a present!". Kunti, not noticing the princess, tells Arjuna that whatever he has won must be shared with his brothers. To ensure that their mother never utters a falsehood, the brothers take her as a common wife. In some interpretations, Draupadi alternates months or years with each brother. At this juncture they also meet Krishna, who would become their lifelong ally and guide. Swayamvara, in ancient India, was a practice of choosing a life partner, among a list of suitors by a girl of marriageable age. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Panchala Kingdom. ... Draupadi. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ...


Indraprastha

After the wedding, the Pandava brothers are invited back to Hastinapura. The Kuru family elders and relatives negotiate and broker a split of the kingdom, with the Pandavas obtaining a new territory. Yudhishtira has a new capital built for this territory at Indraprastha. Neither the Pandava nor Kaurava sides are happy with the arrangement however. The first city of Delhi is believed to be founded by the legendary Pandavas of the Mahabharata around 1400 BC. It was called Indraprastha. ...


Shortly after this, Arjuna marries Subhadra. Yudhishtira wishes to establish his position; he seeks Krishna's advice. Krishna advises him, and after due preparation and the elimination of some opposition, Yudhishthira carries out a Rajasuya Yagna ceremony; he is thus recognised as pre-eminent among kings. Jagannath(far right) with his brother Balarama(far left) and sister Subadra (center) in Radhadesh, Belgium Subhadra is the sister of Krishna. ...


The Pandavas have a new palace built for them, by Maya the Danava. They invite their Kaurava cousins to Indraprastha. Duryodhana walks round the palace, and mistakes a glossy floor for water, and will not step in. After being told of his error, he then sees a pond, and assumes it is not water and falls in. Draupadi laughs at him, and he is humiliated. Maya may refer to: // The Maya, Native American peoples of southern Mexico and northern Central America Maya peoples, the contemporary indigenous peoples Maya civilization, their historical pre-Columbian civilization Mayan languages, the family of languages spoken by the Maya Yucatec Maya language, specific and most widespread Mayan language, frequently referred... Danava is a American progressive hard rock band from Portland, Oregon most famous throughout the underground for there 70 sabbath-esque guitar/bass combo and sythesizers. ...


The dice game

Sakuni, Duryodhana's uncle, now arranges a dice game, playing against Yudhishtira with loaded dice. Yudhishtira loses all his wealth, then his kingdom. He then even gambles his brothers, then his wife, and finally himself, into servitude. The jubilant Kauravas insult the Pandavas in their helpless state and even try to disrobe Draupadi in front of the entire court.


Dhritarashtra, Bhishma, and the other elders are aghast at the situation, and negotiate a compromise. The Pandavas are required to go into exile for 13 years, and for the 13th year must remain hidden. If discovered by the Kauravas, they will be forced into exile for another 12 years.


Exile and return

The Pandavas spend twelve years in exile. Many adventures occur during this time. They also prepare alliances for a possible future conflict. They spend their final year in disguise in the court of Virata, and are discovered at or after the end of the year. In Hindu mythology, Virata is the king in whose court the Pandavas spent a year in concealment during their exile. ...


At the end of their exile, they try to negotiate a return to Indraprastha. However, this fails, as Duryodhana objects that they were discovered while in hiding, and that no return of their kingdom was agreed. War becomes inevitable.


The battle at Kurukshetra

Main article: Kurukshetra war

The two sides summon vast armies to their help, and line up at Kurukshetra for a war. The Kingdoms of Panchala, Dwaraka, Kasi, Kekaya, Magadha, Matsya, Chedi, Pandya and the Yadus of Mathura and some other clans like the Parama Kambojas were allied with the Pandavas. The allies of the Kauravas included the kings of Pragjyotisha, Anga, Kekaya, Sindhudesa (including Sindhus, Sauviras and Sivis), Mahishmati, Avanti in Madhyadesa, Madra, Gandhara, Bahlikas, Kambojas and many others. Prior to war being declared, Balarama, had expressed his unhappiness at the developing conflict, and left to go on pilgrimage, thus he does not take part in the battle itself. Krishna takes part in a non-combatant role, as charioteer for Arjuna. Combatants Pandavas led by Dhristadyumna Kauravas led by Bhishma Commanders Arjuna Bhima Yudhishthira Nakula Sahadeva Bhishma Drona Karna Duryodhana Ashwatthama Strength 7 Akshauhinis 1,530,900 soldiers 11 Akshauhinis 2,405,700 soldiers Casualties Almost Total Only 7 survivors - the five Pandavas, Krishna, and Satyaki Almost Total Only 3 survivors... Kurukshetra may refer to: The Kurukshetra war described in the Mahabharata, an Indian epic The town and district of Kurukshetra in the Indian state of Haryana This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Panchala Kingdom. ... Dwarka is a city in Gujarat, India. ... Benares (also known as Banaras, Kashi, Kasi and Varanasi (वाराणसी)) is a Hindu holy city on the banks of the river Ganga or Ganges in the modern north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Kekaya, the land of the Pauravas (people of the Puru tribe), was one of the janapadas of ancient India. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Incarnation of Vishnu as a Fish, from a devotional text. ... A stupa A stupa (from the Sanskrit) is a type of Buddhist structure found across the Indian subcontinent and Asia. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... Yadu is the name of one of the five Aryan clans mentioned in the Rig Veda. ... , Mathura   (Hindi: मथुरा, Urdu: متھرا) is a holy city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Ancient Sanskrit literature reveals that like the Madras/Uttara Madras and the Kurus/Uttara Kurus, the ancient Kambojas also had, at least two settlements. ... In the Mahabharata, the Pandava are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti and Madri. ... The term Kaurava (Sanskrit:कौरव) is a Sanskrit term, that means a descendant of Kuru, a legendary king who is the ancestor of many of the characters of the Mahabharata. ... Earliest reference to Angas occurs in Atharava Veda (V.22. ... Kekaya, the land of the Pauravas (people of the Puru tribe), was one of the janapadas of ancient India. ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ... Sovira or Souveera was the territory which is now known as the Sindh Province in Pakistan . ... The name may refer to one of the following. ... Madra or Madraka is the name of an ancient region and its inhabitants, located in the north-west division of ancient Indian sub-continent. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Bactria (Bactriana, also Bhalika in Indian languages) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra (now Balkh), was located in what is now northern Afghanistan, southern Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. ... Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Balarama, next to the river Yamuna. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Before the battle, Arjuna, seeing himself facing great-uncle Bhishma and his teacher Drona on the other side, has doubts about the battle and he fails to lift his Gandiva bow. Krishna wakes him up to his call of duty in the famous Bhagavad Gita section of the epic. Bheeshma makes his vow. ... In the epic Mahabharata, Drona (Sanskrit: द्रोण, droNa) or Dronacharya (द्रोणाचार्य, droNāchārya) is the royal guru to the Kauravas and the Pandavas. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ...


Though initially sticking to chivalrous notions of warfare, both sides soon adopt into dishonourable tactics. At the end of the 18-day battle, only the Pandavas, Satyaki, Ashwathama and Krishna survive.


The end of the Pandavas

After seeing the carnage, Gandhari who had lost all her sons, curses Krishna to be a witness to a similar annihilation of his family, for though divine and capable of stopping the war, he had not done so. Krishna accepts the curse, which bears fruit 36 years later. The word Gāndhārī can mean more than one thing: Gāndhārī is a character in the Indian epic, the Mahabharata. ...


The Pandavas who had ruled their kingdom meanwhile, decide to renounce everything. Clad in skins and rags they retire to the Himalaya and climb towards heaven in their bodily form. A stray dog travels with them. One by one the brothers and Draupadi fall on their way. As each one stumbles, Yudhishitra gives the rest the reason for their fall (Draupadi was partial to Arjuna, Nakula and Sahadeva were vain and proud of their looks, Bhima and Arjuna were proud of their strength and archery skills, respectively). Only the virtuous Yudhisthira who had tried everything to prevent the carnage and the dog remain. The dog reveals himself to be the god Dharma, who reveals the nature of the test and assures Yudhishtra that his fallen siblings and wife are in heaven. Yudhisthira alone reaches heaven in his bodily form for being just and humble. Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ...


Arjuna's grandson Parikshita rules after them and dies bitten by a snake. His furious son, Janamejaya, decides to perform a snake sacrifice (sarpasattra) in order to destroy the snakes. It is at this sacrifice that the tale of his ancestors is narrated to him. Parikshita is in the Mahabharata epic the successor of Yudhisthira to the throne of Hastinapura. ...


Versions, translations, and derivative works

Many regional versions of the work developed over time, mostly differing only in minor details, or with verses or subsidiary stories being added. These include some versions from outside the Indian subcontinent, such as the Kakawin Bharatayuddha from Java. First page of Gunnings kakawin Bhāratayuddha (1903) in Javanese characters. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ...


Critical Edition

Between 1919 and 1966, the scholars at the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune, compared the various manuscripts of the epic from India and abroad and produced the Critical Edition of the Mahabharata, on 13,000 pages in 19 volumes, followed by the Harivamsha in another 2 volumes and 6 index volumes. This is the text that is usually used in current Mahabharata studies for reference.[16] This work is sometimes called the 'Pune' or 'Poona' edition of the Mahabharata. The Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, abbreviated BORI, is located in Pune at the junction of Law College Road and Bhandarkar Road. ... , Pune (Marathi: पुणे; pronunciation: ) is a city located in the western Indian state of Maharashtra. ...


Modern Interpretations

Krishna as depicted in Yakshagana from Karnataka which is based largely on stories of Mahabharata
Krishna as depicted in Yakshagana from Karnataka which is based largely on stories of Mahabharata

The acclaimed Kannada novelist S.L. Bhyrappa wrote a novel in Kannada (Translated to most of the Indian languages and English) titled Parva, giving new interpretation to the story of Mahabharata. He carried years of research where Mahabharata happened, in the plains of North India, Uttarakhand and Garwal region in particular. He tried to understand the social and ethical practices in these regions and correlating with the story of Mahabharata. He gave a realistic, rational explanation of the characters and events of Mahabharata. Image File history File links FullPagadeYakshagana. ... Image File history File links FullPagadeYakshagana. ... A Yakshagana artist wearing pagaDe, one type of head-wear. ... Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ ) is one of the major Dravidian languages of India, spoken predominantly in the southern state of Karnataka. ... Santeshivara Lingannaiah Bhyrappa (Kannada:ಸಂತೇಶಿವರ ಲಿಂಗಣ್ಣಯ್ಯ ಭೈರಪ್ಪ) (born July 26, 1934), is a Kannada novelist, whose works are immensely popular both within India and abroad. ... Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... , Uttarakhand (Hindi: उत्तराखंड), known as Uttaranchal from 2000 to 2006, became the 27th state of the Republic of India on November 9, 2000. ...


In the late 1980s, the Mahabharata TV series [17] was televised and shown on India's national television (Doordarshan). The series was written by Dr. Rahi Masoom Reza and directed by B. R. Chopra and his son Ravi Chopra. The concept was by Pt. Narendra Sharma - a well-known poet and lyricist. It became the most popular Indian TV series series in history. It entered the Guinness Book of World Records as having been watched by a majority of Indians around the world at the time.[18] It was also shown in the UK by the BBC, where it achieved audience figures of 5 million, unheard of for a subtitled series being aired in the afternoon.[19] Mahabharat is a successful Indian television series based on the ancient Indian epic Mahabharata. ... Doordarshan (sometimes DoorDarshan; ) is a Public broadcast Terrestrial television channel run by Prasar Bharati, a board nominated by the Government of India. ... Dr. Rahi Masoom Reza was a famous urdu shayar of his times born in Ghazipur in western Uttar Pradesh. ... Baldev Raj Chopra born April 14, 1914) is a director and Producer of Bollywood movies and Indian television sitcoms. ... Television series redirects here. ... Guinness World Records 2007 edition. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ...


In the West, the most acclaimed and well known presentation of the epic is Peter Brook’s nine hour play premiered in Avignon in 1985 and its five hour movie version The Mahabharata (1989) [20], which was shown on other TV networks, including PBS (through the "Great Performances" show) and Danmarks Radio (credited in the movie's credits). The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ... Peter Stephen Paul Brook CH CBE (born 21 March 1925) is a highly influential British theatrical producer and director. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig... The Mahabharata is a 1989 film version of the Hindu epic, directed by Peter Brook. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... Great Performances was a television series devoted to the performing arts which ran on the US television station PBS from 1972. ... Danmarks Radio (normally referred to as just DR) is Denmarks national broadcasting corporation. ...


However, there have been film versions of the Mahabharata long before these two versions, the earliest of which was shown in 1920.[21]. Another upcoming Indian film version The Mahabharata is currently in production. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Among literary reinterpretations of the Mahabharata the most famous is arguably Sashi Tharoor's major work entitled "The Great Indian Novel", an involved literary, philosophical, and political novel which superimposes the major moments of post-Independence India in the 20th century onto the driving events of the Mahabharata epic. An acclaimed book, "The Great Indian Novel" also contemporized well-known characters of the epic into equally well-known politicians of the modern era (e.g. Indira Gandhi as the villainous Duryodhana). Young Shashi Tharoor Shashi Tharoor (Born 9 March 1956 in London) is the United Nations Under-Secretary General for Communications and Public Information. ... The Great Indian Novel is a satirical novel by Shashi Tharoor. ... Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (November 19, 1917 – October 31, 1984) was an Indian politician who served as Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 to 1984. ... In the Mahabharata, Duryodhana (or Dhuryodhana) is the eldest son of the blind king Dhritarashtra by Queen Gandhari, and the eldest of the one hundred Kaurava brothers, and the chief antagonist of the Pandavas. ...


Mahabharata was also reinterpreted by Shyam Benegal in Kalyug. Kalyug is a modern-day replaying of the Mahabharat, with the Pandava industrial family being locked in a titanic battle with their Kaurav rivals. But the times are different from the original Mahabharat's, and external forces impinge on feudal values causing disconcerting results.[22] Shyam Benegal is a prolific Indian director, born 14 December 1934 in Alwal, Hyderabad, British India Andhra Pradesh. ...


Western interpretations of the Mahabharata include William Buck's Mahabharata and Elizabeth Seeger's Five Sons of King Pandu.


English Translations

A poetic translation of the full epic into English, done by the poet P. Lal is complete, and in 2005 began being published by Writers Workshop, Calcutta. The P. Lal translation is a non-rhyming verse-by-verse rendering, and is the only edition in any language to include all slokas in all recensions of the work (not just those in the Critical Edition). It is both poetic and swift to read, and is oriented to the oral/musical tradition in which the work was originally created. The completion of the publishing project is scheduled for 2008. Six of the eighteen volumes are now available: Purusottama Lal, born 1929 in the state of Punjab in India, is a poet, essayist, translator, professor and publisher. ... Writers Workshop is a Calcutta-based literary publisher, founded by the poet P. Lal in the early 1950s. ...

Vol 1: Adi Parva, 1232 pages, 2005, ISBN 81-8157-370-6
Vol 2: Sabha Parva, 520 pages, 2005, ISBN 81-8157-382-X
Vol 3: Vana Parva, 1580 pages, 2005, ISBN 81-8157-448-6
Vol 4: Virata Parva, 400 pages, 2006
Vol 5: Udyoga Parva, 970 pages, 2006, ISBN 81-8157-530-X
Vol 17: Mahaprasthana Parva, 30 pages, 2006 ISBN 81-8157-552-0

A project to translate the full epic into English prose, translated by various hands, began to appear in 2005 from the Clay Sanskrit Library, published by New York University Press. Currently available are portions of Parvas two, three, four, seven, eight, and nine. The Clay Sanskrit Library is a series of books published by New York University Press and the JJC Foundation. ... New York University (NYU) is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university in New York City. ...


Another English prose translation of the full epic is also in progress, published by University Of Chicago Press, initiated by Chicago Indologist J. A. B. van Buitenen (Parvas 1-5) and, following a 20-year hiatus caused by the death of van Buitenen, is being continued by D. Gitomer of DePaul University (Parvas 6-10), J. L. Fitzgerald of Tennessee University (Parvas 11-13) and W. Doniger of Chicago University (Parvas 14-18): The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ...

Vol. 1: Parva 1, 545 pages, 1980, ISBN 0-226-84663-6
Vol. 2: Parvas 2-3, 871 pages, 1981, ISBN 0-226-84664-4
Vol. 3: Parvas 4-5, 582 pages, 1983, ISBN 0-226-84665-2
Vol. 4: Parva 6 (forthcoming)
Vol. 7: Parva 11, first half of parva 12, 848 pages, 2003, ISBN 0-226-25250-7
Vol. 8: Second half of Parva 12 (forthcoming)

Until these three projects are available in full, the only available complete English translations remain the Victorian prose versions by Kisari Mohan Ganguli, published between 1883 and 1896 (Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers) and by M. N. Dutt (Motilal Banarasidoss Publishers). Most critics consider the translation by Ganguli to be faithful to the original text. The complete text of Ganguli's translation is available online (see External Links). Charles Dickens is still one of the best known English writers of any era. ... Kisari Mohan Ganguli was the person who translated the Great Epic- Mahabharata into English between 1883 to 1896. ...


Several editions of the Kisari Mohan Ganguli translation of the Mahabharata incorrectly cite Pratap Chandra Roy as translator and this error has been perpetuated into secondary citations. See the publishers preface to the current Munshiram Manoharlal edition for an explanation. Kisari Mohan Ganguli was the person who translated the Great Epic- Mahabharata into English between 1883 to 1896. ...


Kuru family tree

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kuru
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Parashara
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Satyavati
 
 
 
Santanu
 
 
 
 
 
Ganga
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vyasa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bhishma
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ambalika
 
 
 
Vichitravirya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ambika
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kunti
 
 
 
 
 
Pandua
 
 
 
 
 
Madri
 
Dhritarashtraa
 
Gandhari
 
Shakuni
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yudhishtirab
 
Bhimab
 
Arjunab
 
Nakulab
 
Sahadevab
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Karnac
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Duryodhana
 
Dussala
 
Dushasana
 
(98 sons)
 
 
 

Key to Symbols
Kuru or Kurus may be: Kuru (kingdom), a powerful Indian kingdom during the Vedic period and later a republic during the Mahajanapada period Kuru Kingdom, a kingdom based on the historic Kuru kingdom in Indian epic literature Kuru (disease), neurological, and associated with New Guinea, the Fore, and cannibalism Kuru... Sage Parashara was father of Vyasa. ... Satyavati is the great-grandmother of the Pandava and Kaurava princes, principal characters of the Mahabharata, one of the principal texts in Hindu mythology. ... Shantanu is a king of Hastinapura in the great epic of the Mahabharata. ... In Hinduism, the Ganges River (called locally as the Ganga) is personified as a goddess, who holds an important place in the Hindu pantheon. ... Veda Vyasa(Contemporary painting) Vyāsa (Devanāgarī: व्यास) is a central and much revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions. ... Bheeshma makes his vow. ... Ambalika was the daughter of King of Kashi and the wife of Vichitravirya, King of Hastinapur. ... In Hindu mythology, Queen Satyavati bore King Santanu two sons, Chitrangada and Vichitravirya. ... Ambika (अम्‍बिका) was the daughter of King of Kashi and wife of Vichitravirya, King of Hastinapur. ... In Hinduism, Princess Kunti is the mother of the Pandavas. ... In the Mahabharata epic, Pandu is the son of Vichitravirya and his second wife, Ambalika from Vyasa. ... In the Mahabharata epic, Madri was a princess of the Madra kingdom and the second wife of Pandu. ... In Mahabharata Dhritarashtra was the son bore by Vichitraviryas first wife Ambika from Vyasa. ... Gāndhārī is a character in the India epic, the Mahabharata. ... A character in the Mahabharata, Shakuni was the brother of Gandhari. ... Yudhisthira was the son of King Pandu and Queen Kunti. ... A motif depicting Bheema in the battle ready posture. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Nakula (Sanskrit: नकुल, naküla) was the son of king Pandu and queen Madri. ... Sahadeva (Sanskrit: सहदेव, sahadéva) is a character in the Mahabharata. ... Karna (Sanskrit: कर्ण written Karṇa in IAST transliteration) is one of the central figures in Hindu epic Mahabharata. ... In the Mahabharata, Duryodhana (or Dhuryodhana) is the eldest son of the blind king Dhritarashtra by Queen Gandhari, and the eldest of the one hundred Kaurava brothers, and the chief antagonist of the Pandavas. ... Duhsala (alias Dushala, Dussala etc) was the sister of Duryodhana in the Indian epic Mahabharata. ... Dushasana (Duśśāsana in IAST transliteration, and sometimes written Duhshasana and Dushyasana) was the second son of the blind king Dhritarashtra and Gandhari in the epic Mahabharata, and the younger brother of Duryodhana. ...

Notes
In the Mahabharata, the Pandava are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti and Madri. ... The term Kaurava (Sanskrit:कौरव) is a Sanskrit term, that means a descendant of Kuru, a legendary king who is the ancestor of many of the characters of the Mahabharata. ...

In the Mahabharata epic, Pandu is the son of Vichitravirya and his second wife, Ambalika from Vyasa. ... In Mahabharata Dhritarashtra was the son bore by Vichitraviryas first wife Ambika from Vyasa. ... Rishi Veda Vyasa is a Hindu figure of yore, a divine guru, a luminary of spirituality whose status in Hinduism is equal to that of the gods and goddesses. ... In Hindu mythology, Queen Satyavati bore King Santanu two sons, Chitrangada and Vichitravirya. ... The Pandavas were the five sons of the king Pandu. ... In the Mahabharata epic, Pandu is the son of Vichitravirya and his second wife, Ambalika from Vyasa. ... In Hinduism, Princess Kunti is the mother of the Pandavas. ...   (Sanskrit) (Devnagari: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pali) is the underlying order in nature and human life and behaviour considered to be in accord with that order. ... Yudhisthira was the son of King Pandu and Queen Kunti. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (æ°´) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water In Hinduism, Vayu (Sanskrit वायु (properly transliterated as Vāyu), also known as Vāta वात, Pavana पवन, or Pr... A motif depicting Bheema in the battle ready posture. ... Indra (Sanskrit: इन्द्र or इंद्र, indra) is the god of weather and war, and lord of Svargaloka in Hinduism. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Nakula (Sanskrit: नकुल, naküla) was the son of king Pandu and queen Madri. ... Sahadeva (Sanskrit: सहदेव, sahadéva) is a character in the Mahabharata. ... In the Mahabharata epic, Madri was a princess of the Madra kingdom and the second wife of Pandu. ... The Ashvins ( possessor of horses, horse tamer, cavalier, dual ) are divine twin horsemen in the Rigveda, sons of Saranya, a goddess of the clouds and wife of either Surya in his form as Vivasvat. ... Karna (Sanskrit: कर्ण written Karṇa in IAST transliteration) is one of the central figures in Hindu epic Mahabharata. ... In Hinduism, Princess Kunti is the mother of the Pandavas. ... In Hinduism, Surya (Devanagari: सूर्य, sÅ«rya) is the chief solar deity,one of the Adityas, son of Kasyapa and one of his wife Aditi[1] ,in Nordics Tyr he is said to be the son of Dyaus Pitar. ... In the Mahabharata epic, Pandu is the son of Vichitravirya and his second wife, Ambalika from Vyasa. ...

See also

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... First page of Gunnings kakawin Bhāratayuddha (1903) in Javanese characters. ... This article tries to compile and classify all the kingdoms of ancient India mentioned in the Sanskrit/Vedic literature. ... Combatants Pandavas led by Dhristadyumna Kauravas led by Bhishma Commanders Arjuna Bhima Yudhishthira Nakula Sahadeva Bhishma Drona Karna Duryodhana Ashwatthama Strength 7 Akshauhinis 1,530,900 soldiers 11 Akshauhinis 2,405,700 soldiers Casualties Almost Total Only 7 survivors - the five Pandavas, Krishna, and Satyaki Almost Total Only 3 survivors... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

Notes

  1. ^ It is roughly ten times the size of the Iliad and Odyssey combined, and about four times the size of the Ramayana. The only epics claimed to be longer are the Tibetan Epic of King Gesar and the Kyrgyz Epic of Manas .[citation needed]
  2. ^ bhārata means the progeny of Bharata, the legendary king who founded the Bhāratavarsha Empire.
  3. ^ a b c Subhash Kak. The Mahabharata and the Sindhu-Sarasvati Tradition (pg. 4-5).
  4. ^ Oldenberg (1922) stipulated that the supposed original poem once carried an immense "tragic force", but dismissed the full text as a "horrible chaos." The judgement of other early 20th century Indologists was even more condemning, Winternitz (Geschichte der indischen Literatur 1909) opted that "only unpoetical theologists and clumsy scribes" could have lumped the various parts of disparate origin into an unordered whole.
  5. ^ Brockington (1998, p. 26)
  6. ^ 18 books, 18 chapters of the Bhagavadgita and the Narayaniya each, corresponding to the 18 days of the battle and the 18 armies (Mbh. 5.152.23)
  7. ^ The Ashvamedhika-parva is also preserved in a separate version, the Jaimini-Bharata (Jaiminiya-ashvamedha) where the frame dialogue is replaced, the narration being attributed to Jaimini, another disciple of Vyasa. This version contains far more devotional material (related to Krishna) than the standard epic and probably dates to the 12th century. It has some regional versions, the most popular being the Kannada one by Devapurada Annama Lakshmisha (16th century).[citation needed]
  8. ^ AD Pusalker, History and Culture of the Indian People, Vol I, Chapter XIV, p.273
  9. ^ FE Pargiter, Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, p.180. He shows estimates of the average as 47, 50, 31 and 35 for various versions of the lists.
  10. ^ Pargiter, op.cit. p.180-182
  11. ^ B. B. Lal, Mahabharata and Archaeology in Gupta and Ramachandran, Mahabharata: myth and reality, p.57-58
  12. ^ Gupta and Ramachandran, op.cit., p.246, who summarize as follows: "Astronomical calculations favor 15th century B.C. as the date of the war while the Puranic data place it in the 10th/9th century B.C. Archaeological evidence points towards the latter." (p.254)
  13. ^ Gupta and Ramachandran, p.55; AD Pusalker, HCIP, Vol I, p.272
  14. ^ Ad Pusalker, op.cit. p.272
  15. ^ Basham, p. 40, citing HC Raychaudhuri, Political History of Ancient India, pp.27ff.
  16. ^ Bhandarkar Institute, Pune—Virtual Pune
  17. ^ Mahabharat at the Internet Movie Database (1988-1990 TV series)
  18. ^ Trivia for "Mahabharat". IMDB.
  19. ^ Epic Hindi Language Series Mahabharat Launches Exclusively on Rogers OMNI Television Channels In Ontario and British Columbia
  20. ^ The Mahabharata at the Internet Movie Database (1989 mini-series)
  21. ^ Mahabharat at the Internet Movie Database (1920 film)
  22. ^ http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/fr/2003/01/17/stories/2003011700990100.htm What makes Shyam special...

title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... Beginning of the Odyssey The Odyssey (Greek Οδύσσεια (Odússeia) ) is one of the two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to the Ionian poet Homer. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... The Epic of King Gesar is the premier epic poem of Tibet and much of Central Asia. ... Kyrgyz or Kirghiz (Кыргыз тили) is a Northwestern Turkic language, and, together with Russian, an official language of Kyrgyzstan. ... A traditional Kyrgyz Manaschi performing part of the epic poem at a yurt camp in Karakol The Epic of Manas is a traditional epic poem of the Kyrgyz people and the name of the epics eponymous hero. ... Bharat may refer to Bharat Ramesh aka Sajid Mahmood, tho it is impossible to be two people at once, he stil is sajid mahmood Bharata भरत (Sanskrit to be or being maintained) may refer to a name of Agni a name of Rudra one of the Adityas Emperor Bharata, son of... India, as a country and nation, has three principal names, in both official and popular usage, each of which is historically and culturally significant. ... Subhash Kak (सुभाष काक) (born March 26, 1947, Srinagar, Kashmir) is Delaune Distinguished Professor of Electrical Engineering and Professor in the Asian Studies and Cognitive Science Programs at Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... In general usage a tragedy is a play, movie or sometimes a real world event with a sad outcome. ... Maharshi Jaimini is a student on Vyasa Maharishi. ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) [1] is an online database of information about actors, movies, television shows, television stars and video games. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ...

References

  • Chaturvedi Badrinath, The Mahabharata : An Inquiry in the Human Condition, New Delhi, Orient Longman (2006)
  • Basham, A. L. (1954). The Wonder That Was India: A Survey of the Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent Before The Coming of the Muslims. New York: Grove Press. 
  • J. Brockington, The Sanskrit Epics, Leiden (1998).
  • Alf Hildebeitel, The Ritual of Battle, Krishna in the Mahabharata, SUNY Press, New York 1990.
  • E. W. Hopkins, The Great Epic of India, New York (1901).
  • Keay, John (2000). India: A History. Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0. 
  • H. Oldenberg, Zur Geschichte der Altindischen Prosa, Berlin (1917)
  • Jyotirmayananda Swami, Mysticism of the Mahabharata, Yoga Research Foundation, Miami 1993.
  • Paule Lerner, Astrological Key in Mahabharata, David White (trans.) Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi 1988.
  • Ruth Cecily Katz, Arjuna in the Mahabharata, University of South Carolina Press, Columbia 1989.
  • Majumdar, R. C. (general editor) (1951). The History and Culture of the Indian People: (Volume 1) The Vedic Age. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.. 
  • Krishna Chaitanya (K.K. Nair), The Mahabharata, A Literary Study, Clarion Books, New Delhi 1985.
  • Th. Oberlies, 'Ritual an und unter der Oberfläche des Mahabharata', in: Neue Methoden der Epenforschung (ed. H. L. C. Tristram), Freiburg (1998).
  • H. Oldenberg, Das Mahabharata, Göttingen (1922).
  • M. Mehta, The problem of the double introduction to the Mahabharata, JAOS 93 (1973), 547-550.
  • C. Z. Minkowski, Janamehayas Sattra and Ritual Structure, JAOS 109 (1989), 410-420.
  • C. Z. Minkowski, 'Snakes, Sattras and the Mahabharata', in: Essays on the Mahabharata, ed. A. Sharma, Leiden (1991), 384-400.
  • Bruce M. Sullivan, Seer of the Fifth Veda, Krsna Dvaipayana Vyasa in the Mahabharata, Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi 1999.
  • Nicholas Sutton, Religious Doctrines in the Mahabharata, Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi 2000.
  • N. B. Utgikar, The mention of the Mahabharata in the Ashvalayana Grhya Sutra, Proceedings and Transactions of the All-India Oriental Conference, Poona (1919), vol. 2, Poona (1922), 46-61.
  • M. Witzel, Epics, Khilas and Puranas: Continuities and Ruptures, Proceedings of the Third Dubrovnik International Conference on the Sanskrit Epics and Puranas, ed. P. Koskiallio, Zagreb (2005), 21-80.
  • Gupta, S.P. and K.S. Ramachandran (ed.), Mahabharata: myth and reality. Agam Prakashan, New Delhi 1976.
  • Pargiter, F.E., Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, London 1922. Repr. Motilal Banarsidass 1997.
  • Majumdar, R.C. and A.D. Pusalker (ed.), The History and Culture of the Indian People, Vol I. "The Vedic Age", Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan 1951.

Hermann Oldenberg (1854-1920) was a German scholar of Indology, and Professor at Kiel (1898) and Göttingen (1908). ... R.C. Majumdar (1888-1980) was an Indian historian and Vice-Chancellor of Dacca University. ... The History and Culture of the Indian People is a book by historian R.C. Majumdar in 10 volumes. ... Michael E. J. Witzel (born 1943) is Wales Professor of Sanskrit and Chair of the Committee on South Asian Studies at Harvard University. ...

External links

Original text online (Sanskrit)
Kisari Mohan Ganguli translation (English)
Articles on the Mahabharata
Audio Narration
Other resources
  • [3]Senior Advocate, Supreme Court of India R.V. Bhasin, Author of Mahabharata ;2006 (national publications), Essence of Hinduism (jaico publications).
  • Reading Suggestions J. F. Fitzgerald, University of Tennessee
  • Clay Sanskrit Library publishes classical Indian literature, including the Mahabharata and Ramayana, with facing-page text and translation. Also offers searchable corpus and downloadable materials.
  • Mahabharata Resources Page at its new home Resources on Mahabharata
  • Mahabharata at the Open Directory Project
Movies
  • The Mahabharata at the Internet Movie Database 1989 movie directed by Peter Brook
  • Kalyug at the Internet Movie Database 1980 movie directed by Shyam Benegal. The movie is loosely based on the story of the Mahabharata and reinterprets the struggle for the kingdom in an industrial age, with two family factions fighting for the control of an industrial conglomerate.
The Mahabharata
Characters
Kuru Dynasty Others
Santanu | Ganga | Bhishma | Satyavati | Chitrāngada | Vichitravirya | Ambika | Ambalika | Vidura | Dhritarashtra | Gandhari | Shakuni | Subhadra | Pandu | Kunti | Madri | Yudhisthira | Bhima | Arjuna | Nakula | Sahadeva | Duryodhana | Dushasana | Yuyutsu | Dushala | Draupadi | Hidimbi | Ghatotkacha | Ahilawati | Uttara | Ulupi | Chitrāngadā Amba | Barbarika | Babruvahana |Iravan | Abhimanyu | Parikshita | Virata | Kichaka | Kripa | Drona | Ashwatthama | Ekalavya | Kritavarma | Jarasandha | Satyaki | Mayasura | Durvasa | Sanjaya | Janamejaya | Vyasa | Karna | Jayadratha | Krishna | Balarama | Drupada | Hidimba | Dhristadyumna | Shalya | Adhiratha | Shikhandi
Other
Pandava | Kaurava | Hastinapura | Indraprastha | Kingdoms | Kurukshetra war | Bhagavad Gita



() is an abugida script used to write, either along with other scripts, or exclusively, several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Marwari, Konkani, Bhojpuri, languages from Nepal like Nepali, Tharu Nepal Bhasa and sometimes Kashmiri and Romani. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... Peter Stephen Paul Brook CH CBE (born 21 March 1925) is a highly influential British theatrical producer and director. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... Shyam Benegal is a prolific Indian director, born 14 December 1934 in Alwal, Hyderabad, British India Andhra Pradesh. ... The Kuru kingdom was ruled by the Kuru clan of kings. ... Shantanu is a king of Hastinapura in the great epic of the Mahabharata. ... In Hinduism, the Ganges River (called locally as the Ganga) is personified as a goddess, who holds an important place in the Hindu pantheon. ... Bheeshma makes his vow. ... Satyavati is the great-grandmother of the Pandava and Kaurava princes, principal characters of the Mahabharata, one of the principal texts in Hindu mythology. ... Chitrāngada was the elder son of Shantanu and Satyavati. ... In Hindu mythology, Queen Satyavati bore King Santanu two sons, Chitrangada and Vichitravirya. ... Ambika (अम्‍बिका) was the daughter of King of Kashi and wife of Vichitravirya, King of Hastinapur. ... Ambalika was the daughter of King of Kashi and the wife of Vichitravirya, King of Hastinapur. ... Vidura (Sanskrit: विदुर, vidÅ«ra) was a son of a maid-servant who served the Queens of Hastinapura, Queen Ambika and Ambalika. ... In Mahabharata Dhritarashtra was the son bore by Vichitraviryas first wife Ambika from Vyasa. ... GāndhārÄ« is a character in the India epic, the Mahabharata. ... A character in the Mahabharata, Shakuni was the brother of Gandhari. ... Jagannath(far right) with his brother Balarama(far left) and sister Subadra (center) in Radhadesh, Belgium Subhadra is the sister of Krishna. ... In the Mahabharata epic, Pandu is the son of Vichitravirya and his second wife, Ambalika from Vyasa. ... In Hinduism, Princess Kunti is the mother of the Pandavas. ... In the Mahabharata epic, Madri was a princess of the Madra kingdom and the second wife of Pandu. ... In the great Hindu epic Mahabharata, Yudhisthira (Sanskrit: युधिष्ठिर, yudhiṣṭhira) was the eldest son of King Pandu and Queen Kunti, king of Hastinapura and Indraprastha, and World Emperor. ... A motif depicting Bheema in the battle ready posture. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Nakula (Sanskrit: नकुल, naküla) was the son of king Pandu and queen Madri. ... Sahadeva (Sanskrit: सहदेव, sahadéva) is a character in the Mahabharata. ... In the Mahabharata, Duryodhana (or Dhuryodhana) is the eldest son of the blind king Dhritarashtra by Queen Gandhari, and the eldest of the one hundred Kaurava brothers, and the chief antagonist of the Pandavas. ... Dushasana (Duśśāsana in IAST transliteration, and sometimes written Duhshasana and Dushyasana) was the second son of the blind king Dhritarashtra and Gandhari in the epic Mahabharata, and the younger brother of Duryodhana. ... Yuyutsu (also known as Vikarna), in the Hindu epic Mahabharata, was the son of King Dhritarashtra and one of the palace maidservants. ... In the Mahabharata, Dushala is a Kaurava, the only daughter of Dhritarashtra and Gandhari. ... Draupadi. ... Hidimbi is a Rakshasi, in the Mahabharata. ... In the Mahabharata, Ghatotkacha is the son of Bhima and Hidimbi. ... Ahilawati was at the time of Mahabharat. ... Uttara is the name of two siblings in the Hindu epic Mahabharata, the son and daughter of King Virata, whose court the Pandavas spent a year in concealment during their exile. ... UlÅ«pÄ«, in the Hindu epic Mahabharata, was one of Arjunas wives. ... Chitrāngadā, in the Hindu epic Mahabharata, is one of Arjunas wives. ... Amba was the eldest daughter of King of Kashi. ... In the Mahabharata, Barbarika (IAST BarbarÄ«ka) was the son of Ghatotkacha and Maurvi, daughter of Muru, a Yadava king. ... Babruvahana is one of the sons of Arjuna, begotten through Chitrangada, the princess of Manipur, during the period of his exile at Manipur. ... Iravan: In Hindu mythology Son of Uloopi, and Arjun Can be considered King of the Nagas Fell on the 7th day of the Mahabharat ... Abhimanyu (Sanskrit: अभिमन्यु, abhimanyu) is a tragic hero in the Hindu epic, the Mahabharata. ... Parikshita is in the Mahabharata epic the successor of Yudhisthira to the throne of Hastinapura. ... In Hindu mythology, Virata is the king in whose court the Pandavas spent a year in concealment during their exile. ... Kichaka (Sanskrit: किचक), in the Hindu epic Mahabharata, was the brother of queen Sudeshna of King Virata, the king of Matsya. ... Kripa, also often called Kripacharya, was the chief priest at the court of Hastinapura, in the Mahabharata. ... In the epic Mahabharata, Drona (Sanskrit: द्रोण, droNa) or Dronacharya (द्रोणाचार्य, droNāchārya) is the royal guru to the Kauravas and the Pandavas. ... In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Ashwatthama (Sanskrit: अश्वत्थाम, ashvatthāma) or Ashwatthaman (Sanskrit: अश्वत्थमन, ashvatthamana) was the son of guru Dronacharya. ... In the epic Mahabharata, Ekalavya (Sanskrit: एकलव्य, ékalavya) is a young prince of the Nishadha tribes, and a member of a low caste, who nevertheless aspires to study archery in the gurukul of Dronacharya. ... This article or section is missing needed references or citation of sources. ... Jarasandha , the king of Magadha, is a character of the epic Mahabharata. ... In the Mahabharata epic, Satyaki, also called Yuyudhana, a powerful warrior belong to the Yadava-Vrishni dynasty of Lord Krishna. ... In Hindu mythology, Maya, or Mayasura was a great ancient king of the Asura, Daitya and Rakshasa races upon earth. ... In Hinduism, Durvasa (दुर्वास) is an ancient sage, who was known for his short temper. ... For the Javanese dynasty of the same name, see Sanjaya Dynasty. ... Janamejaya, was the son of Arjunas (Mahabharata)grandson Parikishit. ... Veda Vyasa(Contemporary painting) Vyāsa (DevanāgarÄ«: व्यास) is a central and much revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions. ... Karna (Sanskrit: कर्ण written Karṇa in IAST transliteration) is one of the central figures in Hindu epic Mahabharata. ... In the epic Mahabharata, Jayadratha (Sanskrit: जयद्रथ) is the king of Sindhu. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... Balarama, next to the river Yamuna. ... Drupada, also known as Yajnasena, is a character in the Mahabharata. ... In the Mahabharata, Hidimba (sometimes called Hidimbasura and Hdimba) was a rakshasa, the brother of Hidimbi and a forest dweller. ... Dhristadyumna was the son of Drupada and brother of Draupadi and Shikhandi in the classic epic Mahabharata. ... King Shalya was the brother of Madri, the mother of Nakula and Sahadeva. ... According to the Mahabharata, Adhiratha was a charioteer, and was the foster father of Karna. ... Shikandi (born Shikhandini) is a character in the Hindu epic, the Mahabharata. ... In the Mahabharata, the Pandava are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti and Madri. ... The term Kaurava (Sanskrit:कौरव) is a Sanskrit term, that means a descendant of Kuru, a legendary king who is the ancestor of many of the characters of the Mahabharata. ... In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Hastinapura is the capital and the kingdom of the Kauravas, the descendants of Kuru, which include the Pandavas. ... The first city of Delhi is believed to be founded by the legendary Pandavas of the Mahabharata around 1400 BC. It was called Indraprastha. ... This article tries to compile and classify all the kingdoms of ancient India mentioned in the Sanskrit/Vedic literature. ... Combatants Pandavas led by Dhristadyumna Kauravas led by Bhishma Commanders Arjuna Bhima Yudhishthira Nakula Sahadeva Bhishma Drona Karna Duryodhana Ashwatthama Strength 7 Akshauhinis 1,530,900 soldiers 11 Akshauhinis 2,405,700 soldiers Casualties Almost Total Only 7 survivors - the five Pandavas, Krishna, and Satyaki Almost Total Only 3 survivors... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ...

Hinduism | Hindu mythology | Indian epic poetry
Female Deities: Devi | Saraswati | Lakshmi | Dakshayani | Parvati | Durga | Shakti | Kali | Gayatri | Sita | Radha | Mahavidya | more...
Male Deities: Deva | Brahma | Vishnu | Shiva | Rama | Krishna | Ganesha | Murugan | Hanuman | Indra | Surya | more...
Texts: Vedas | Upanishads | Puranas | Ramayana | Mahabharata | Bhagavad Gita
This box: view  talk  edit

Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages) is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Hindu mythology is a term used by modern scholarship for a large body of Indian literature that details the lives and times of legendary personalities, deities and divine incarnations on earth interspersed with often large sections of philosophical and ethical discourse. ... The ancient Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, laid the cornerstone for much of Hindu religion. ... Image File history File links Hindu_swastika. ... Within Hinduism a large number of personalities, or forms, are worshipped as deities or murtis. ... For other uses see Devi (disambiguation). ... In Hinduism, Saraswati (Sanskrit ) is one of the goddesses, the other two being Lakshmi and Durga, that form the female counterpart of the Trimurti. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... This 14th century statue depicts Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right}. It is housed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. In Hinduism, Gowri or Dakshayani is the Goddess of marital felicity and longevity, who is worshipped particularly by ladies to seek the long life of... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... In Hinduism, Durga (Sanskrit: , Bengali: ) is a form of Devi, the supreme goddess. ... Lakshmi is a common aspect of Shakti Shakti meaning force, power or energy is the Hindu concept or personification of Gods female aspect, sometimes referred to as The Divine Mother. Shakti represents the active, dynamic principles of feminine power. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Gayatri (Sanskrit: , IAST: ) is the feminine form of gāyatra, a Sanskrit word for a song or a hymn. ... Lord Rama (center) with wife Sita, brother Lakshmana and devotee Hanuman. ... A Rajastani style painting of Sri Radha Radha (Devanagari: राधा) is a famous female personality from Hindu, (Vedic) tradition, also known as Radharani, prefixed with the respectful term Srimati by devout followers. ... In Hinduism, the ten mahavidyas (Great Wisdoms) are aspects of Devi. ... Within Hinduism a large number of personalities, or forms, are worshipped as deities or murtis. ... It has been suggested that Deva (tribe) be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being or Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavas and a manifestation of Brahman in the Advaita or Smarta traditions. ... Shiva (also spelled Siva; Sanskrit ) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. ... Rama ( in IAST, in DevanāgarÄ«) or Ramachandra is a legendary or historical king of ancient India. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... Ganesha (Sanskrit: ; ;  , also spelled Ganesa or Ganesh) is one of the best-known and most worshipped deities in Hinduism[8]. Although he is known by many other attributes, Ganeshas elephant head makes him easy to identify. ... Murugan (also Murugan) (Tamil: ) is a popular Hindu deity amongst Tamil Hindus. ... For the Tamil movie by same name see Anjaneya (film). ... Indra (Sanskrit: इन्द्र or इंद्र, indra) is the god of weather and war, and lord of Svargaloka in Hinduism. ... In Hinduism, Surya (Devanagari: सूर्य, sÅ«rya) is the chief solar deity,one of the Adityas, son of Kasyapa and one of his wife Aditi[1] ,in Nordics Tyr he is said to be the son of Dyaus Pitar. ... The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद) are a large corpus of texts originating in Ancient India. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of ancient times) is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Aneesh's Mahabharata Page (660 words)
Possibly the world's longest poem, the Mahabharata is the story of an intense rivalry between two groups of cousins that ends in an apocalyptic war, in which the rules of warfare and law are broken often by both sides.
Clearly the Mahabharata is a case of multiple authorship: because of the long oral tradition, there are many different versions of each story.
I looked at other web pages about the Mahabharata, and, by and large, they were exclusively focused on religious aspects of it, very scholarly, non-literary, or did not take advantage of the fact that its meandering, digression-prone, structure with many interconnecting stories, is almost ideally suited to hypertext.
Mahabharata - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2770 words)
The first section of the Mahabharata states that it was Lord Ganesha (the Hindu god bearing the head of an elephant) who, at the behest of Vyasa, wrote the epic down on manuscript.
Linguistically, the language of the Mahabharata is classified as "Epic" Sanskrit, the oldest stratum post-dating late Vedic Sanskrit, dating to perhaps the 5th century BC.
The Mahabharata itself ends with the death of Krishna, and the subsequent end of his dynasty, and ascent of the Pandava brothers to Heaven.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m