FACTOID # 11: Oklahoma has the highest rate of women in State or Federal correctional facilities.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Mahabad" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Mahabad
View over Mahabad
View over Mahabad

Mahabad (in Persian: مهاباد , in Kurdish: Mehabad or Mihabad, alternative name: سابلاخ, Sablax) is a city in northwestern Iran with an estimated population of 168,328 inhabitants in 2006.[1] The city lies south of Lake Urmia in a narrow valley 1,300 metres above sea level, in West Azarbaijan Province.The name of 'Mahabad' (mah+abad) is the Persian translation of the ancient Mannaean name meaning place of moon, which is also a cognate with the Kurdish word mang. Mannaeans were a branch of Hurrians (Khurrites), a northern Mesopotamian people who many scholars believe were the ancestors of the Kurds. It was referred to in the Turkic languages as 'Savoj-bolaq', or 'Sablakh', which means "Cold-spring water". Image File history File links Mahabad. ... Image File history File links Mahabad. ... Persian is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Kurdish (Kurdî) is an Indo-Iranian language spoken in the region loosely called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... Lake Urmia from space, October 1984 Satellite image of Lake Urmia, taken in November 2003 Lake Urmia (37. ... West Azarbaijan or West Azerbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ØºØ±Ø¨ÛŒ Ä€zārbāijān-e GharbÄ«; Kurdish: Azerbaycanî Rojawa; Azeri: QÉ™rbi AzÉ™rbaycan) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... The Hurrians were a people of the Ancient Near East, who lived in northern Mesopotamia and areas to the immediate east and west, beginning approximately 2500 BC. They probably originated in the Caucasus and entered from the north, but this is not certain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ...


Mahabad is the centre of a rich agricultural region, but the city itself is little developed by Iranian standards. Mahabad is connected by road with Tabriz 300 km north, Urmia 150 km north and Irbil in Iraq. The population of Mahabad is predominantly Kurdish. The city has also a university, the Islamic Azad University of Mahabad.[2] Tabriz City Hall, built in 1934, by Arfaol molk, with the aid of German engineers. ... Map of Iran showing location of Urmia. ... This article is about the province of Iraq. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ...

Contents


History

The region of Mahabad was the centre of the Mannaeans, who flourished in the early 1st millennium BC.[3] The city of Mahabad has often been the centre of Kurdish nationalist movements in Iran.[4] During the Safavid dynasty, the region of Mukriyan saw skirmishes between Kurdish tribes and the Persian government. In 1609-1610, during the battle of "DimDim", the Mukriyan tribes of the region supported "Emîr Xan Lepzêrîn" (Golden Hand Khan), the Kurdish ruler of Beradost. For further detail see "Iranian Kurdistan" section in Kurdistan article. (Also see [5], [6]) . The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The Battle of DimDim was the name for some battles between the kurds and the Savavid empire between 1609 and 1610. ... Kurdistan (literally meaning the land of Kurds)[1] (old: Koordistan, Curdistan, Kurdia, also in Kurdish: Kurdewarî) is the name of a geographic and cultural region in the Middle East, inhabited traditionally predominantly by the Kurds. ...


In the year 1628, near the end of Shah Abbas I's reign, it became the capital city of the local government and many noteworthy buildings were constructed there. [7] Mahabad was briefly the capital of the Kurdish Republic of Mehabad, which declared its independence on January 1, 1946 under the leadership of Qazi Muhammad. The republic fell when the Iranian army invaded the region in 1947. Shah Abbas I (شاه عباس اول) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ... The first modern independent kurdish state, in 20th century, lead by Qazi Muhammad as the president and Mustafa Barzani as the defence minister. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Qazi Mohammad Qazi Muhammad (1893-1947) was the Nationalist and Religious Kurdish leader and the Head of Republic of Mahabad the second modern Kurdish state in the Middle East (after Republic of Ararat). ...


Mahabad was a small village in Deryaz, until the leader of Kurdish Mukri Tribe Budaq Sultan made it capital of its regional government with permission of Safavid kings. They ruled this city until Qajar kings ended their emirate in the middle of 19th century. Mahabad in World War I was a center of combat between the Ottoman Empire and Russia. It was sacked by Russia, and then by Semko. In 1935 a great flood ruined much of the city. Much of the modern city was built is the result of the reconstruction. Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire Canada France Italy Russian Empire United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria German Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Sir Arthur Currie Ferdinand Foch Nicholas II Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Reinhard Scheer Franz Josef I Oskar Potiorek İsmail Enver Ferdinand I... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah...


During the 1979 Islamic Revolution Mahabad was bombed by government forces on the 3rd of September. Other cities in the region were also attacked, and the Iranian Army ultimately recaptured the city from the Kurdish forces. The city was time and time again the center of Kurdish political movements. The latest movement for peace in 2005 was led by Kurdish youth organizations. The peaceful demonstrations were met with violence when Iranian forces arrested and killed several in Mahabad and all throughout the Eastern Kurdistan region. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... // Introduction The Iranian Army is the national army of Iran and called the Artesh. ... For the Iranian province of Kurdistan, please see Kurdistan Province, Iran. ...


Culture

The prolific translator into Persian, Mohammad Qazi came from Mahabad. He translated more than 70 important literary works into Persian. Some poets and writers have hailed from this city in the 19th and 20th century. Wafaei(1844-1902), Hejar (Abdurrahman Sharfkandi)(1920-1990), Hêmin(Sayyed Moháammad Amini Shaykho-al-Eslam Mokri)(1920-1986), Abdorrahamn Zabihi (1920-1980) and Giw Mukriyani, all from Mahabad, are considered as the main writers and poets. The first Kurdish-Kurdish-Persian Dictionary in Iran was written by Hejar. Kurdistan's national poet was the title given to Hejar(along with Hêmin) during the short lived reign of the Republic of Mahabad in recognition of his poetry's service to the cause[8]. After the fall of the Pahlavi monarchy in Iran in 1979, "Hêmin" set up the Salaha-al-Din Ayyubi Kurdish publishing house in Urmia, which publishes Sirwe (from spring 1985), a quarterly cultural magazine that Hêmin ran until his death in 1986 [9]. The dialect of Mahabad, is adopted as the literary standard of Kurdish language in western Iran.(which is very close to the standard "sorani" used in Iraqi Kurdistan) Persian is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Wafaei or Wefayî, (1844-1902), was a Kurdish poet. ... Hejar or Abdurrahman Sharafkandi or Hazhar, (1920-1990), was a renowned Kurdish writer, poet, linguist and translator. ... Hejar or Abdurrahman Sharafkandi or Hazhar, (1920-1990), was a renowned Kurdish writer, poet, linguist and translator. ... Hemin Mukriyani ( Hêmin Mukriyanî), (1921-1986) is the pen name of Seyed Mohammad Amini Shaik-ol-eslam Mokri, Kurdish poet and journalist. ... Hejar or Abdurrahman Sharafkandi or Hazhar, (1920-1990), was a renowned Kurdish writer, poet, linguist and translator. ... Kurdistan (literally meaning the land of Kurds)[1] (old: Koordistan, Curdistan, Kurdia, also in Kurdish: Kurdewarî) is the name of a geographic and cultural region in the Middle East, inhabited traditionally predominantly by the Kurds. ... Hejar or Abdurrahman Sharafkandi or Hazhar, (1920-1990), was a renowned Kurdish writer, poet, linguist and translator. ... Hemin Mukriyani ( Hêmin Mukriyanî), (1921-1986) is the pen name of Seyed Mohammad Amini Shaik-ol-eslam Mokri, Kurdish poet and journalist. ... Qazi Mohammad, president of the Republic of Kurdistan The Republic of Mahabad (Kurdish: Komarî Mehabad, Persian: جمهوری مهاباد ), officially Republic of Kurdistan, established in Iranian Kurdistan, was a short-lived, Soviet backed Kurdish state of the 20th century after the Republic of Ararat in Turkey. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. ... Map of Iran showing location of Urmia. ... Kurdish (Kurdî) is an Indo-Iranian language spoken in the region loosely called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... The Kurdistan Region (Kurdish: Herêmî Kurdistan, Arabic: اقلیم کردستان) is an autonomous, federally recognized, political entity located in Iraq, in the north. ...


Human-rights situation

The most recent unrest in the town of Mahabad began in early July 2005, following the shooting of Shivan Qaderi. Kurdish sources mention him as "a Kurdish opposition activist". Shivan Qaderi also known as Sayed Kamal Astam, or Astom, and two other Kurdish men, are told to be arrested by governmental forces in the town of Mahabad on 9 July. Iranian side claimed he was a smuggler and criminal. Schuaneh Ghaderi or Sivan Ghaderi (*1979 or 1980; † 9. ...


Kurdish and opposition version of events: "The security forces then reportedly tied Shivan Qaderi’s body to a Toyata jeep and dragged him in the streets. The local Iranian authorities are reported to have confirmed that a person of this name, “who was on the run and wanted by the judiciary”, was indeed shot and killed by security forces at this time, allegedly while trying to evade arrest. During the days following Shivan Qaderi’s death, several thousand Mahabad residents, mainly youths, took to the streets to protest the killings. The demonstrations spread to other mainly Kurdish neighbouring towns of Sanandaj (Sinne), Sardasht, Piranshahr, Oshnavieh, Baneh, Bokan and Saqiz. (see [10] and [11]) According to the Human Rights Watch, 17 Kurdish people were killed by the Iranian security forces in July and August 2005, during the demonstartions in different cities in Iranian Kurdistan.[12]". Sanandaj or Senna (Kurdish: Sine;) (Persian: سنندج) is the capital of the province Kurdistan, which is situated in the Kurdish dominated western part of Iran It had an estimated population of 358,084 in 2006 [1] The city of Sanandaj is the capital of the province, and lies at a distance... Sinne (Sanandaj in persian)is the capital of the Kurdistan province of iran, which is situated in the western part of Iran bordering Iraq. ... Sardasht (in Kurdish: SerdeÅŸt, also ZerdeÅŸt) is a city in northwestern Iran with more than 50,000 inhabitants, [1] southwest of Lake Urmia about 1,300 metres above sea level. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Oshnavieh (in Kurdish: Åžino) is a city in northwestern Iran with more than 53,000 inhabitants, west of Lake Urmia about 1,300 metres above sea level. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Kurdistan (literally meaning the land of Kurds)[1] (old: Koordistan, Curdistan, Kurdia, also in Kurdish: Kurdewarî) is the name of a geographic and cultural region in the Middle East, inhabited traditionally predominantly by the Kurds. ...


This interpretation of events is not accepted by the official Iranian sources.


References

  • Hêmin(Hemin) Mokriani in Encyclopaedia Iranica
  • Short Biography and works of Zabihi
  • Zabihi, Abdal Rahman, Qamusi zimanî Kurdî (Dictionary of Kurdish Language),Korî Zaniyarî Kurd Press, Baghdad Vol. I 1977.244 p. Vol. II 1979. 230 + 7 p (through letter b).
  • Mukriyani, Giw, Ferhengî mehabad (Mahabad Dictionary),Kurdish-Arabic dictionary, Kurdistan Press, Hawlir (Arbil), 1961,795 p.
  • Sharafkandi, Abdurrahman (Hejar or Hajar), Henbane Borîne, Ferhengî Kurdî-Kurdî-Farsî (Kurdish-Kurdish-Persian Dictionary) Tehran : Sorush Press, 1991, 1032 p.,[13]

Coordinates: 36°46′N 45°43′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Persian Rugs: Guide to Sauj Bulagh Mahabad Rugs, Azarbayjan-e-Gharbi (952 words)
That is certainly not to say that all Northwest Persian rugs are from Azarbayjan-e-Gharbi but sorting out as much as we can about this province is a start.
The nineteenth-century rugs attributed to Sauj Bulaq were probably woven in nearby tribal areas.
Mahabad Sauj Bulagh Rug mid 19th C Lot 78
Mahabad (126 words)
Mahabad is the centre of a rich agricultural region, but the city itself is little developed by Iranian standards.
Mahabad is connected by road with Tabriz 300 km north, Orumiyeh 150 km north and Irbil in Iraq.
The population of Mahabad is mainly Kurdish, and has been the centre of Kurdish nationalism in Iran.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m