FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Magyars" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Magyars
Magyars
Total population 14.5 million(est)
Regions with significant populations Hungary:
   9,416,015 (2001),

Romania:
   1,431,807 (2002)
Slovakia:
   520,528 (2001)
Serbia:
   293,299 (2002)
Ukraine:
   156,600 (2001)
Austria:
   40,583 (2001)
Croatia:
   16,595 (2001)
Turkey:
   6,800 (2001)
Slovenia:
   6,243 (2001)
United States:
   1,398,000(2000)
Canada:
   267,000(2001)
Western Europe:
   260,000 - 270,000 (est.)
Israel:
   10,000(est)
Brazil:
   150,000 (est) [1]
South America:
   70,000 - 160,000 (est)
Australia and New Zealand:
   65,000 (est)
Germany:
   73, 800 (est)
Asia:
   30,000 (est.)
Africa:
   10,000 (est.)
Image File history File links Hng2. ... Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia      â€“ Vojvodina      â€“ Kosovo (UN admin. ... A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia. ...

Language Hungarian
Religion More than half of Hungarians are Roman Catholic. Protestant (cca. 25%), Atheist and other minorities exist.
Related ethnic groups Mansi, Khanty; Finnic peoples

Magyars are an ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. In English they are more often called Hungarians. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... Mansi (obsolete: Voguls) are an endangered ethnic group living in Khantia-Mansia, an autonomous region within the Russian Federation, together with Khants. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Finnic peoples (Fennic, sometimes Baltic-Finnic) refers to a group of related ethnic groups and nations speaking Finnic languages (also known as Balto-Finnic languages). ...


The word Hungarian has also a wider meaning, because – especially in the past – it referred to all inhabitants of the Kingdom of Hungary irrespective of their ethnicity (i.e. not only to the Magyars). Specifically, the Latin term natio hungarica referred to all nobles of the Kingdom of Hungary regardless of their ethnicity. The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


There are around ten million Magyars in Hungary (2001). Magyars have been the main inhabitants of the Kingdom of Hungary that existed through most of the second millennium. Following its disappearance with the Treaty of Trianon, Magyars have become minority inhabitants of Romania (official: 1,440,000; see: Hungarian minority in Romania), Slovakia (520,500), Serbia (293,000; largely in Vojvodina), Ukraine and Russia (170,000), Austria (40,583), Croatia (16,500), the Czech Republic (14,600) and Slovenia (10,000). Significant groups of people with Magyar ancestry live in various other parts of the world (e.g. 1,400,000 in the United States), but unlike the Magyars living within the former Kingdom of Hungary, only a minority of these preserves the Hungarian language and tradition. The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... The Grand Trianon at Versailles, site of the signing The Treaty of Trianon was an agreement that regulated the situation of the new Hungarian state that replaced the Kingdom of Hungary, part of the former dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy, after World War I. It was signed on June 4, 1920... The Hungarian minority of Romania is the largest ethnic minority in Romania, consisting of 1,431,807 people and making up 6. ... Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia      â€“ Vojvodina      â€“ Kosovo (UN admin. ... Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia      â€“ Vojvodina   â€“ Montenegro Kosovo (UN administration) Official languages Serbian, Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn1 Capital Novi Sad Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water  21,500 km²  n/a Population  â€“ Total (2002)  â€“ Density  2,031,992  94. ...


There was a referendum in Hungary in December 2004 on whether to grant Hungarian citizenship to Magyars living outside Hungary's borders (i.e., without requiring a permanent residence in Hungary). The referendum failed due to insufficient participation on the part of the population. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Contents


History after 896

The Magyar leader Árpád is believed to have led the Hungarians into the Carpathian Basin in 896. Magyar expansion was checked at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955. Hungarian settlement in the area became approved by the Pope by the crowning of Stephen I the Saint (Szent István) in 1001 when the leaders accepted Christianity. The century between the Magyars' arrival from the eastern European plains and the consolidation of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1001 were dominated by pillaging campaigns across Europe, from Dania (Denmark) to the Iberian peninsula (Spain). Árpád (c. ... The Pannonian plain is a large plain in central/south-eastern Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... Events The Bulgarians, under Simeon I, defeat the Byzantine Empire at Bulgarophygon. ... Combatants Holy Roman Empire Magyars Commanders Otto the Great harka Bulcsú; chieftains Lél and Súr Strength 10,000 heavy cavalry 50,000 light cavalry Casualties about 3,500 about 30,000 fell in the battle about 5,000 killed by local farmers maybe 5,000 fleeing Magyars killed... Events August 10 - Otto I the Great defeats Magyars in the Battle of Lechfeld Edwy becomes King of England. ... The Pope (from Greek: pappas, father; from Latin: papa, Papa, father) is the head of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Stephen the Great raising the double cross: equestrian sculpture by Alajos Stróbl, 1906, crowns the Fishermens Bastion, Budapest. ... Events Grand Prince Stephen I of Hungary is named the first King of Hungary by Pope Silvester II. Canonisation of Edward the Martyr, king of England. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus as recounted in the New Testament. ... The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ...


At the Hungarian conquest, the Hungarian nation numbered between 250,000 and 500,000 people. The Slavic population of the region (and remnants of the Avars in the southwest) was also assimilated by the Magyars, except those living approximately in present-day Slovakia (the ancestors of the Slovak people) and those living in present-day Croatia. Croatia joined the Kingdom in 1102. The Slovaks are a western Slavic ethnic group that primarily inhabits Slovakia and speak the Slovak language, which is closely related to the Czech language. ... Events Valencia is captured by the Almoravids. ...


The first accurate measurements of the population of the Kingdom of Hungary including ethnic composition were carried out in 1850-51. There is a debate among Magyar and non-Magyar (especially Slovak and Romanian) historians about the possible changes in the ethnic structure throughout history.

  • Magyar historians support the theory that the Magyars' percentage in the Carpathian Basin was at an almost constant 80% during the Middle Ages, and began to decrease only at the time of the Ottoman conquest, reaching as low as 39% in the end of the 18th century (or 29% according to historians outside Hungary). The decline of the Magyars was due to the constant wars, famines and plagues during the 150 years of Ottoman rule. The main zones of war were the territories inhabited by the Magyars, so the death toll among them was much higher than among other nationalities. In the 18th century their percentage declined further because of the influx of new settlers from Germany, Serbia, and other countries.
  • Non-Magyar historians tend to emphasise the multi-ethnic nature of the Kingdom even in the Middle Ages, and argue that there was not enough reason for such a drastic change in the ethnic structure, thus implying that Magyars accounted for about 30%/40% of the Kingdom's population since its establishment. In particular, there is a fierce debate among Magyar and Romanian historians about the ethnic composition of Transylvania through the times; see Origin of Romanians.

In the 19th century, the percentage of Magyars in the Kingdom of Hungary rose gradually, reaching over 50% by 1900. However, it should be noted that this increase is largely due to the fact that non-Magyar population of the Kingdom was subjected to Magyarisation in the period between 1867 (the Ausgleich) and World War I. Spontaneous assimilation was important too, especially between the German and Jewish minorities and the citizens of the bigger towns. Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl... Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia      â€“ Vojvodina      â€“ Kosovo (UN admin. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Romanians (also sometimes referred to along with other Balkan Latin peoples as Vlachs) are a nation speaking Romanian, a Romance language, and living in Central and Eastern Europe. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday. ... Magyarisation was the official effort of the Hungarian government and institutions to linguistically and nationally unify the Kingdom of Hungary in 19th century. ... 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The German term Ausgleich (Hungarian kiegyezés) refers to the compromise or composition of February 1867 that established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary, which was signed by Franz Joseph of Austria and a Hungarian delegation led by Ferenc Deák. ... Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total of dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First...


The years 1918 - 1920 were a turning point in the Magyars' history. By the Treaty of Trianon the Kingdom was split up, and about one third of the Magyars became minorities. In the 20th century the Magyar population of Hungary grew from 7,1 million (1920) to around 10,4 million (1980), in spite of the big human loss in the second world war and the wave of emigration after the failed revolution in 1956. The number of Hungarians in the neighboring countries mostly stagnated or slightly decreased, because of the assimilation, emigration to Hungary (in the 1990s, especially from Transylvania and Vojvodina) and natural decrease. 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ... The Grand Trianon at Versailles, site of the signing The Treaty of Trianon was an agreement that regulated the situation of the new Hungarian state that replaced the Kingdom of Hungary, part of the former dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy, after World War I. It was signed on June 4, 1920...


After the "baby boom" of the 1960s a serious demographic crisis began to develop in Hungary, parallel to the neighbouring countries. The Magyars reached their highest point in 1980 and after that they began to sink. The Magyar population of Hungary and neighbouring countries is expected to further decrease to 7-8 million by 2050.


The Magyars represent today only around 33% of the population of the Carpathian Basin. Their number is appr. 11,5-12 million in 2001, almost the same as in 1910. While other ethnic groups increased their numbers 2 or 3 times (or even more) during the 20th century, the Magyar population stagnated. The increase of population in Hungary was the third slowest in the world after Bulgaria and St. Kitts & Nevis between 1950 and 2000 -- only 8.6% (from 9,338,000 to 10,137,000).


Origin of the word "Hungarian"

The word derives from the old Slavic word ǫg(ъ)r- for the proto-Magyars. Through Germanic languages, the word got into other European languages ((H)ungarus, (H)ungarn, Vengry etc.). The Slavic word is thought to be derived from the Bulgaro-Turkic Onogur, possibly because the proto-Magyars were neighbours (or confederates) of the Empire of the Onogurs in the 6th century, whose leading tribal union was called the "Onogurs" (meaning "ten tribes"). It has been suggested that Old Great Bulgaria be merged into this article or section. ...


The H- in many languages (Hungarians, Hongrois, Hungarus etc.) is a later addition. It was taken over from the word "Huns", which was a similar semi-nomadic tribe living some 400 years earlier in present-day Hungary and having a similar way of life (or according to the older theories the people from which the Magyars arose). In ancient times, through the middle ages, and even today, the identification of Hungarians with the Huns has often occurred in history and literature, however this identification began to be disputed around the late 19th century, and is still a source of major controversy among scholars who insist that there could be no direct connection between the two. The Huns were a confederation of Eurasian tribes, most likely of diverse origin with a Turkic-speaking aristocracy, who appeared in Europe in the 4th century, the most famous being Attila the Hun. ...


Hun names like Attila and Réka are still popular among Hungarians, and forms derived from Latin Hungaria are used like in the racetrack Hungaroring (mostly due to the strong English language pressure in tourism and international matters). For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ... The Hungaroring is a Formula One race-track near Budapest, Hungary, location of the Hungarian Grand Prix. ...


Magyar is today simply the Hungarian word for Hungarian. In English and many other languages, however, Magyar is used instead of Hungarian in certain (mainly historical) contexts, usually to distinguish ethnic Hungarians (i.e. the Magyars) from the other nationalities living in the Hungarian kingdom.


Ethnic affiliations and origins of the Hungarian people

The origin of the Hungarians (more correctly Magyars) is partly disputed. The most widely accepted Finno-Ugric theory from the late 18th century is based primarily on linguistic and ethnographical arguments, while it is criticised by some as relying too much on linguistics. There are also other theories stating that the Magyars are descendants of Scythians, Huns, Turks, Avars, and/or Sumerians. These are primarily based on medieval legends – whose authenticity and scientific reliability is strongly questionable – and non-systematic linguistic similarities. Most scholars therefore dismiss these claims as mere speculation. Approximate geographical distribution of areas where indigenous Finno-Ugric languages are spoken. ... Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the KulOba kurgan burial near Kerch. ... The Huns were a confederation of Eurasian tribes, most likely of diverse origin with a Turkic-speaking aristocracy, who appeared in Europe in the 4th century, the most famous being Attila the Hun. ... The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia, supposedly of proto-Mongolian Turkic stock, who migrated from eastern Asia into central and eastern Europe in the 6th century. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Egyptian Sangar, Bib. ...


The following section shows the Finno-Ugric theory of the origin of modern Hungarian people. For some other theories see Hungarian prehistory. Explanatory note: This article was originally based on The Hungarian Old Country, written in Hungarian by professor István Kiszely, and translated into English by Csaba Hargita. ...


Finno-Ugric is a group of related languages, which does not mean that the peoples currently speaking those languages are equally related. Same holds true, for example, for Indo-European languages. The Ugric Hungarian language is about as distantly related to Finnic languages like Finnish and Estonian as, e.g., European Russian is related to Italian or Spanish. Finnic peoples (Fennic, sometimes Baltic-Finnic) refers to a group of related ethnic groups and nations speaking Finnic languages (also known as Balto-Finnic languages). ...


East of the Ural mountains (before the 4th century AD)

Migration of the Magyars
Migration of the Magyars

According to this theory, in the 4th millennium BC, some of the earliest settlements of the Finno-Ugric-speaking peoples were situated east of the Ural Mountains, where they hunted and fished. From there, the Ugrians, i.e., the ancestors of the Magyars, were settled in the wood-steppe parts of western Siberia (i.e. to the east of the Urals) – from c. 2000 BC onwards at least. Their settlements were identical with the north-western part of the Andronovo Culture. Some more advanced tribes coming from the southern steppes taught them how to do agriculture, breed cattle and produce bronze objects. Around 1500 BC, they started to breed horses and horse riding became one of their typical activities. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (886x727, 82 KB)Migration of the Hungarians (self made) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (886x727, 82 KB)Migration of the Hungarians (self made) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Approximate geographical distribution of areas where indigenous Finno-Ugric languages are spoken. ... Map of Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: Уральские горы = Урал) also known simply as the Urals and as the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, is a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... A hunter on horseback shoots at deer or elk with a bow. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish. ... Siberia is also an album by Echo & The Bunnymen. ... Map of Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: Уральские горы = Урал) also known simply as the Urals and as the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, is a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Map of the approximate maximal extent of the Andronovo culture. ... Assorted ancient bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Horse (disambiguation). ...


Due to climatic changes in the early 1st millennium BC, the Ugrian subgroup known as the Ob-Ugrians – until then living more in the north - moved to the lower Ob River, while the Ugrian subgroup that was the ancestor of the proto-Magyars remained in the south and became nomadic herdsmen. From the definitive departure of the Ob-Ugrians (around 500 BC), the ancestors of present-day Magyars can be considered a separate ethnic group – the proto-Magyars. During the following centuries, the proto-Magyars still lived in the wood-steppes and steppes southeast of the Ural Mountains, and they were immediate neighbours of and were strongly influenced by the ancient Sarmatians. Ostiaks, or Ostyaks are a tribe who inhabit the basin of the Ob in western Siberia belonging to the Finno-Ugric group and related to the Voguls. ... Ob (also Obi, Russian Обь) is a river in West Siberia, Russia, the countrys fourth longest. ... Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770. ...


Bashkiria and the Khazar khaganate (4th century – c. 830 AD)

In the 4th and 5th centuries AD, the Proto-Magyars moved to the west of the Ural Mountains to the area between the southern Ural Mountains and the Volga River (Bashkiria, or Bashkortostan). The Volga river in Western Russia, Europes longest river, with a length of 3,690 km (2,293 miles), provides the core of the largest river system in Europe. ... The Republic of Bashkortostan, or Bashkiria (Russian: or ; Bashkir: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... The Republic of Bashkortostan, or Bashkiria (Russian: or ; Bashkir: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ...


In the early 8th century, a part of the proto-Magyars moved to the Don River (to a territory between the Volga, the Don and the Donets), a territory later called Levedia. The descendants of those proto-Magyars who stayed in Bashkiria were seen in Bashkiria as late as in 1241. Indeed, many historical references related both the Magyars (Hungarians) and the Bashkirs as two branches of the same nation. However, modern Bashkirs are quite different from their original stock, largely decimated during the Mongol invasion (13th century), and assimilated into Turkic peoples. The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... Length 1,050 km Elevation of the source - m Average discharge - m³/s Area watershed - km² Origin Russia Mouth Don River Basin countries Russia, Ukraine Donets (Донец), is a tributary of Don River, Russia. ... Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal Polish nobility, including Knights Templar, in the battle of Liegnitz April 27 - Mongols defeat Bela IV of Hungary in the battle of Sajo. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ...


The proto-Magyars around the Don River were subordinates of the Khazar khaganate. Their neighbours were the archaeological Saltov Culture, i.e. Bulgars (Proto-Bulgarians, descendants of the Onogurs) and the Alans, from whom they learned gardening, elements of cattle breeding and of agriculture. The Bulgars and Magyars shared a long-lasting relationship in Khazaria, either by alliance or rivalry. The system of 2 rulers (later known as kende and gyula) is also thought to be a major inheritance from the Khazars. Tradition holds that the Magyars were organized in a confederacy of seven tribes called Jenő, Kér, Keszi, Kürt-Gyarmat, Megyer (Magyar), Nyék, and Tarján. The site of the Khazar fortress at Sarkel. ... Khagan, alternatively spelled Chagan, Qaqan etc. ... Name given by archeologists to the early medieval culture of the Pontic steppe region roughly between the Don and the Dnieper Rivers. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Onogur or Onoghur was the name of the European Avar federation spreading from Pannonia to the Kuban during their 2nd Dynasty under the rule of the Bolgar house of Dulo (also Dub or Dubo, of the Unogundur tribe of Bolgars) from 635– 685 CE. It was during this dynasty that... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of mixed backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and shared, in a broad sense, a common culture. ... The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ... The kende (or kündü) was one of the kings of the dual-monarchy of the early Magyars, along with the gyula or war-chief. ... Disambiguation: for the town in Hungary see Gyula (town) Gyula was originally a Turkic word which entered the Hungarian language at some point before 950 CE. Under the system of dual kingship which the Magyars used in the 9th century, the two kings of the tribal confederation were the kende...


Etelköz (c. 830 – c. 895)

Around 830, a civil war broke out in the Khazar khaganate. As a result, three Kabar tribes out of the Khazars joined the Proto-Magyars and they moved to what the Magyars call the Etelköz, i.e. the territory between the Carpathians and the Dnieper River (today's Ukraine). Around 854, the Proto-Magyars had to face a first attack by the Pechenegs. (According to other sources, the reason for the departure of the Proto-Magyars to Etelköz was the attack of the Pechenegs.) Both the Kabars and earlier the Bulgars may have taught the Magyars their Turkic languages; according to the Finno-Ugric theory, this is used to account for at least 300 Turkic words and names still in modern Hungarian. The new neighbours of the Proto-Magyars were the Vikings and the eastern Slavs. Archaeological findings suggest that the Proto-Magyars entered into intense interaction with both groups. From 862 onwards, the proto-Magyars (already referred to as the Ungri) along with their allies, the Kabars, started a series of looting raids from the Etelköz to the Carpathian Basin -- mostly against the Eastern Frankish Empire (Germany) and Great Moravia, but also against the Balaton principality and Bulgaria. Events Christian missionary Ansgar visits Birka, trade city of the Swedes. ... The Kabars (Gr. ... The Etelköz or Atelkuzu was an area settled by the Magyars from the mid-9th century to circa 895 CE when they were driven west by the Pechenegs and occupied the Carpathian Basin. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians Souvenir from Carpathian region (Poland) The Carpathian Mountains are the eastern wing of the great Central Mountain System of Europe, curving 1500 km (~900 miles) along the borders of Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro and northern Hungary. ... The Dnieper River (also: Dnepr, Dniapro, or Dnipro) is a river (2,290 km length) which flows from Russia through Belarus and then Ukraine. ... Events Charles the Bald, Louis the German and Lothar meet at Attigny. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks, also known as Besenyők, were a semi-nomadic steppes people of Central Asia that spoke a Turkic language. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Events Rurik gained control of Novgorod. ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... Great Moravia (Old Church Slavonic approximately Велья Морава, Czech Velká Morava, Slovak Veľká Morava, Latin Magna Moravia) was a Slav state existing on the territory of present-day Moravia and Slovakia between 833 and the early 10th century. ... The Balaton Principality (also called Pannonian or Transdanubian Principality, in Slovak: Blatenské kniežatstvo, in Bulgarian: Blatensko Knezevstvo) (839/840-876) was a Slavic principality (duchy) located in the western part of the Pannonian plain, between rivers Danube to its east, Drava and Mura to the south, the Rába...


Entering the Carpathian Basin (after 895)

Prince Árpád is crossing the Carpathians. A detail of Árpád Feszty and assistants' vast (over 8000 m2) canvas, painted to celebrate the 1000th anniversary of the Magyar conquest of Hungary, now displayed at Ópusztaszer National Memorial Site in Hungary
Prince Árpád is crossing the Carpathians. A detail of Árpád Feszty and assistants' vast (over 8000 m2) canvas, painted to celebrate the 1000th anniversary of the Magyar conquest of Hungary, now displayed at Ópusztaszer National Memorial Site in Hungary

In 895/896, probably under the leadership of Árpád, a part of them crossed the Carpathians to enter the Carpathian basin. The tribe called Magyars (Megyer) was the leading tribe of the Magyar alliance that conquered the center of the basin. At the same time (c. 895), the proto-Magyars in Etelköz were attacked by Bulgaria (due to the involvement of the proto-Magyars in the Bulgaro-Byzantine war of 894-896), and then by their old enemies, the Pechenegs. It is uncertain whether or not those conflicts were the cause of the Magyar departure from Etelköz. Download high resolution version (870x597, 140 KB)Excerpt of Fesztys famous painting The Hungarian Conquest, exhibited at Ópusztaszer National Memorial Park, Hungary File links The following pages link to this file: Magyars Árpád Feszty ... Download high resolution version (870x597, 140 KB)Excerpt of Fesztys famous painting The Hungarian Conquest, exhibited at Ópusztaszer National Memorial Park, Hungary File links The following pages link to this file: Magyars Árpád Feszty ... Árpád Feszty (December 24, 1856 - June 1, 1914) was a Hungarian painter. ... Events Bohemia breaks away from Great Moravia Arnulf of Carinthia undertakes his second Italian campaign Approximate date of composition of the Musica enchiriadis, the beginnings of western polyphonic music Births Athelstan of England Erik Bloodaxe, king of Norway 933-935 (+954) Deaths Categories: 895 ... Events The Bulgarians, under Simeon I, defeat the Byzantine Empire at Bulgarophygon. ... Árpád (c. ... The Pannonian plain is a large plain in central/south-eastern Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βυζαντινή Αυτοκρατορία) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ...


In the Carpathian Basin, the Magyars initially occupied the Great Moravian territory at the upper/middle Tisza river – a scarcely populated territory, where, according to Arabian sources, Great Moravia used to send its criminals, and where the Roman Empire had settled the Iazyges centuries earlier. From there, they intensified their looting raids all over continental Europe. In 900, they moved from the upper Tisza river to Transdanubia (Pannonia), which later became the core of the arising Hungarian state. Their allies, the Kabars, probably led by Kursan, probably settled in the region around Bihar. Upon entering the Carpathian basin, the Magyars found a largely Slavic population there, such as the Bulgarians, Slovaks, Slovenians and Croats. Remnants of the Avars lived in the southwest and Romanians in the east and southeast, although the later is a matter of controversy (see Origin of Romanians). Influenced by the mainly Slavic population of their new country, the Magyars gradually changed their pastoral way of life to an agricultural one and borrowed hundreds of Slavic words. See History of Hungary for a continuation, and Hungary before the Magyars for the background. The Tisza in Szeged, Hungary Length 1358 km Elevation of the source  ?  m Average discharge  ?  m³/s Area watershed  ?  km² Origin  Ukraine Mouth  Dunav (Danube) Basin countries Ukraine, Romania, Slovakia, Hungary, Serbia and Montenegro Tisza ([ˈtisa], Hungarian; Ukrainian Tysa/Тиса Romanian, Slovak and Serbian Tisa) is a river, a tributary of... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Iazyges (Jazyges is an orthographic variant) were a nomadic tribe. ... Events Persian scientist, Rhazes, distinguished smallpox from measles in the course of his writings. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... Bihar is the name of a historic administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia, supposedly of proto-Mongolian Turkic stock, who migrated from eastern Asia into central and eastern Europe in the 6th century. ... The Romanians (also sometimes referred to along with other Balkan Latin peoples as Vlachs) are a nation speaking Romanian, a Romance language, and living in Central and Eastern Europe. ... This is the history of Hungary. ... This article discusses the known pre-history and early history of the area corresponding to modern day Hungary, and the peoples associated with this area. ...


Many of the "proto-Magyars", however, remained to the north of the Carpathians after 895/896, as archaeological findings e.g. in Polish Przemysl suggest. They seem to have joined the other Magyars in 900. There is also a consistent Hungarian population in Transylvania that is historically not related to the Magyars led by Árpád: the Székelys, the main ethnic component of the Hungarian minority in Romania. They are fully acknowledged as Magyars. The Székely people's origin, and in particular the time of their settlement in Transylvania, is a matter of historical controversy (see Székely for details). Places PrzemyÅ›l – a city in SE Poland, probably established by an unknown duke called PrzemysÅ‚ PrzemyÅ›l Voivodship – a Polish province from 1975 to 1998 People PrzemysÅ‚, PrzemysÅ‚aw, PÅ™emysl or Przemko is a common Slavic name. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Székely or Szeklers (Hungarian: , Romanian: , German: ) are a Hungarian ethnic group, mostly living in Transylvania in Romania with a significant population living across the border in Vojvodina, Serbia and Montenegro . ... The Székely or Szeklers (Hungarian: , Romanian: , German: ) are a Hungarian ethnic group, mostly living in Transylvania in Romania with a significant population living across the border in Vojvodina, Serbia and Montenegro . ...


Later genetic influences

Enlarge
Hungarian population count over the world - embossment in Ópusztaszer, in National Memorial Park on History

Besides the various peoples mentioned above, who mixed with the Magyars during their long way to and at their arrival in Hungary, the Magyars also include a genetic input from other peoples settled in this territory after the arrival of the Magyars, for example the Cumanians, Pechenegs, Jazones, Germans and other Western-European settlers in the Middle Ages. Romanians and Slovaks have lived together and blended with Magyars since early medieval times. Turks who occupied the central part of present-day Hungary from c. 1541 to c. 1699 and especially the various nations (Germans, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats and others), that settled depopulated territories after the departure of the Turks in the 18th century all added their important contribution in composing the modern Hungarian nation. Both Jewish and Roma (Gypsy) minorities have been living in Hungary since the Middle Ages. Due to all these influences Magyars became genetically more or less similar to the inhabitants of the states neighbouring Hungary. Image File history File links VilágmagyarÓpuszta. ... Image File history File links VilágmagyarÓpuszta. ... The Cumans, also known as Polovtsy (Slavic for yellowish) were a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks, also known as Besenyők, were a semi-nomadic steppes people of Central Asia that spoke a Turkic language. ... Jassic is a dialect of the Ossetian language and the name of a nomadic tribe settled in Hungary in the 13th century. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ... Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ... Serbs (Serbian: Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia-Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Jews (Hebrew: יהודים, Yehudim) are followers of Judaism or, more generally, members of the Jewish people (also known as the Jewish nation, or the Children of Israel), an ethno-religious group descended from the ancient Israelites and converts who joined their religion. ... The Roma people (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom), often referred to as Gipsies, are a heterogeneous ethnic group who live primarily in Southern and Eastern Europe, Western Asia, Latin America, southern states of North America and the Middle East. ...


Maps

See also

The following is a list of famous Hungarians taken mainly from The Hungary Page at Nobel Prize Winners and Famous Hungarians. ... The following is a list of famous people with some degree of Hungarian origin (typically a Hungarian parent or grandparent) but who were not Hungarian citizens and who were not born in Hungary. ... The Hungarian minority of Romania is the largest ethnic minority in Romania, consisting of 1,431,807 people and making up 6. ... Hungarians in Vojvodina according to the 2002 census Hungarians or Magyars are a second largest ethnic group in the Vojvodina province, Serbia and Montenegro. ... The Csángó (Romanian: Ceangăi) are an ethnic group of Hungarian-speaking Roman Catholics living in the Bacău county, Moldavia region of Romania. ... The Székely or Szeklers (Hungarian: , Romanian: , German: ) are a Hungarian ethnic group, mostly living in Transylvania in Romania with a significant population living across the border in Vojvodina, Serbia and Montenegro . ... Migrations of the Székelys The Székelys of Bukovina are a minor Hungarian ethnic group with a special history. ... The Magyarabs are a people, numbering 6000 - 7000, living along the river Nile who profess Hungarian origins dating back to 1517. ... The Kabars (Gr. ... Turul is the mythological bird of the origin myth of the Magyars (Hungarian people). ... There are special Hungarian species of domestic animals which are seen as national symbols in Hungary, and there are gene banks to ensure their survival, especially in national parks. ...

Footnotes

    External links

    • Origins of the Hungarians from the Enciklopédia Humana (with many maps and pictures)
    • An overview of all the various theories
    • On the origins of the Hungarians by Marcell Jankovics

      Results from FactBites:
     
    Magyars - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2515 words)
    The century between the Magyars' arrival from the eastern European plains and the consolidation of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1001 were dominated by pillaging campaigns across Europe, from Dania (Denmark) to the Iberian peninsula (Spain).
    Magyar historians support the theory that the Magyars' percentage in the Carpathian Basin was at an almost constant 80% during the Middle Ages, and began to decrease only at the time of the Ottoman conquest, reaching as low as 39% in the end of the 18th century (or 29% according to historians outside Hungary).
    In the 20th century the Magyar population of Hungary grew from 7,1 million (1920) to around 10,4 million (1980), in spite of the big human loss in the second world war and the wave of emigration after the failed revolution in 1956.
    Magyars (174 words)
    Magyars are the majority inhabitants of Hungary, while other groups of inhabitants lived or still live in Hungary as well.
    The Magyar Leader Arpad[?] is considered to have founded Hungary in 896, and its stability was blessed by the Pope by crowning Stephen I (Szent István) in 1001 when the leaders accepted christianity.
    The Magyars had recently arrived in Europe from Asia, partially from Khazaria, and were threatening and trying to subdue other Europeans.
      More results at FactBites »

     
     

    COMMENTARY     


    Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
    Your name
    Your comments

    Want to know more?
    Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

     


    Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
    The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
    Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
    All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
    Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m