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Encyclopedia > Magyarization
Distribution of nationalities within Austria- Hungary, according to the 1910 census

Magyarization or Magyarisation (or "Hungarization", "Hungarianization" or "Hungarianisation", etc.) is a common designator applied to a number of ethnic assimilation policies implemented by various Hungarian authorities at various times. These policies aimed at imposing or maintaining the dominance of Hungarian language and culture in Hungarian-ruled regions by encouraging or compelling (often by forcible means[citation needed]) people of other ethnic groups to adopt the Hungarian language and culture, and to develop a Hungarian identity. Image File history File links Circle-question-red. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Download high resolution version (1521x1155, 1345 KB)Distribution of Races in Austria-Hungary from the Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1911 [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (1521x1155, 1345 KB)Distribution of Races in Austria-Hungary from the Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1911 [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ... Hungarian (magyar nyelv  ) is a Finno-Ugric language (more specifically an Ugric language) unrelated to the other languages of Central Europe. ...

Contents

Origin of the term

The term generally applies to the policies that were enforced[citation needed] in the Hungarian part of Austria-Hungary in the 19th century and early 20th century, especially after the Ausgleich, and in particular after the rise in 1871 of Menyhert Lonyay as head of the Hungarian government.[1] The idea owes its existence[citation needed] to the Enlightenment due to which the 19th century saw the emergence of nation-states in many places in Europe (France, Italy, Germany). In its course large areas were culturally and linguistically homogenized[citation needed] (or at least attempts were made to make them so). The term is also used for similar yet more far-reaching policies, which were applied by the Hungarian authorities in Northern Transylvania and Bačka during World War II, which in some cases led to egregious atrocities.[citation needed] The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... The German term Ausgleich (Hungarian kiegyezés) refers to the compromise or composition of February 1867 that established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary, which was signed by Franz Joseph of Austria and a Hungarian delegation led by Ferenc Deák. ... Menyhért Count Lónyai de Nagylónya et Vásárosnamény (Nagylónya, January 6, 1822 - Budapest, November 3, 1884) was a Hungarian politician who served as Prime Minister of Hungary from 1871 to 1872. ... ... Read carefully- a chauvinist bias included! Romania with Northern Transylvania highlighted in yellow Northern Transylvania is a part of Transylvania which, after separation from Hungary in 1920 by the Trianon (Versailles) Treaty, was awarded by Germany and Italy to Hungary in line with the Vienna Awards of 1940. ... Bačka (Serbian: Бачка or Bačka, Hungarian: Bácska, Croatian: Bačka, Slovak: Báčka, German: Batschka) is an area of the Pannonian plain lying between the rivers Danube and Tisa. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


When referring to personal and geographic names, Magyarization stands for the replacement of an originally non-Hungarian name with a Hungarian one. For instance, the Romanian name "Ion Negru" would become "Janos Fekete", or the Slavic name "Novo Selo" would become "Ujfalu".


Magyarization in broader sense

The term is also sometimes used to refer to broader ethnic discrimination, which was used as a rationale for Magyarization.[citation needed] As is often the case with policies intended to forge or bolster national identity in a state, Magyarization was perceived[citation needed] by other ethnic groups such as the Romanians, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats, etc., as aggression or active discrimination, especially where they formed the majority of the population over large areas (for instance, Romanians were a majority in Transylvania). Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) or christian turks are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: / Transilvanija or / Erdelj) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ...


Magyarization can also refer to an identity shift, which would compel someone to identify with the Hungarian ethnicity, while having no Hungarian ancestors. For instance, Sándor Petőfi was a Hungarian of mixed Serb-Slovak descent.[2] From the Hungarian point of view, historically notable personalities that came from Magyarized families were Hungarian. Sándor PetÅ‘fi The native form of this personal name is PetÅ‘fi Sándor. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) or christian turks are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ...


Magyarization in the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary

The term Magyarization is usually used in regards to the national policies implemented by the government of the Kingdom of Hungary, which was part of the Habsburg Empire. The onset of this process dates to the late 18th century[citation needed] and was intensified after the Ausgleich in 1867, which increased the autonomy of the Hungarian government within Austria-Hungary.[3] The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... The German term Ausgleich (Hungarian kiegyezés) refers to the compromise or composition of February 1867 that established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary, which was signed by Franz Joseph of Austria and a Hungarian delegation led by Ferenc Deák. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


The Kingdom of Hungary (also called Transleithania) was a multi-ethnic country inhabited by Magyars, Croats, Germans, Slovaks, Romanians, Serbs, Slovenians, Rusyns, Jews, Roma and other ethnicities. According to the 1910 census, Hungarians represented the largest ethnic group with 48% of the total population. If Croatia-Slavonia is excluded, the percentage grows to 54%, but even this figure is contested by some historians[citation needed], for the census did not count "ethnicity", but native language (as well as "the most often spoken language", which led to manipulations with census results[4]) and the religion. For instance, large numbers of Jews (who sought integration) declared Hungarian as their native language and were, accordingly, counted as Hungarians (The percent of Jews in 1910 census was 5%, thus without Jews, the percent of Hungarians would drop from 54% to 49%). Large minorities were concentrated in various regions of the kingdom, where they formed significant majorities. In Transylvania proper (1876s borders), the 1910 census finds 55.08% Romanian-speakers, 34.2% Hungarian-speakers, and 8.71% German-speakers. In the north of the Kingdom, Slovaks and Ruthenians formed an ethnic majority also, in the southern regions the majority were South Slavic Croats, Serbs and Slovenians and in the western regions the majority were Germans. Map of the Austro-Hungarian Empire: the lighter green shows Hungary proper and the darker green shows autonomous Croatia-Slavonia within Hungary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) or christian turks are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Rusyns, also called Ruthenians, Ruthenes, Rusins, Carpatho-Rusins, and Russniaks, are a modern group of ethnic groups that speak the Rusyn language and are descended from the minority of Ruthenians who did not adopt a Ukrainian national identity and become Ukrainians in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Following the Battle of Mohács, in 1527 some of the Croatian (and Hungarian) nobles supported Ivan Zapolja, while some preferred suzerainty to the Austrian king Ferdinand of Habsburg. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: / Transilvanija or / Erdelj) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ...


The process of Magyarization did not succeed in imposing the Hungarian language as the most used language in all territories in the Kingdom of Hungary. In fact the profoundly multinational character of historic Transylvania was reflected in the fact that during the fifty years of the dual monarchy, the spread of Hungarian as the second language remained limited. In 1880, 5.7 percent of the non-Hungarian population, or 109,190 people, claimed to have a knowledge of the Hungarian language; the proportion rose to 11 percent (183,508) in 1900, and to 15.2 percent (266,863) in 1910. These figures reveal the reality of a bygone era, one in which millions of people could conduct their lives without speaking the state's official language.[5] The policies of Magyarization aimed to make the fluency in Hungarian language a requirement for access to basic government services such as local administration, education, and justice.


State policy and ethnic relations

The first Hungarian government after the Ausgleich, the 1867–1871 liberal regime led by Count Gyula Andrassy and sustained by Ferenc Deak and his followers, passed the 1868 Nationality Act, that declared "all citizens of Hungary form, politically, one nation, the indivisible unitary Hungarian nation (nemzet), of which every citizen of the country, whatever his personal nationality (nemzetiség), is a member equal in rights." The Education Act, passed the same year, shared this view as the Magyars simpy being primus inter pares ("first among equals"). At this time ethnic minorities "de jure" had a great deal of cultural and linguistic autonomy, including in education, religion, and local government.[6] Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Gyula, Count Andrássy (Andrássy Gyula in Hungarian) (March 8, 1823 - February 18, 1890) was a Hungarian statesman. ... Deák Ferenc, (October 17, 1803, Söjtör - January 28, 1876, Budapest), was a Hungarian statesman, known as The Wise Man of the Nation. He first went into politics in 1833 when he attended the assembly of Pressburg (now Bratislava) instead of his older brother. ...


However, after education minister Baron Jozsef Eötvös died in 1871, and in Andrassy became imperial foreign minister, Deak withdrew from active politics and Menyhert Lonyay became the Hungarian prime minister. He became steadily more allied with the Magyar gentry, and the notion of a Hungarian political nation increasingly became one of a Magyar nation. "[A]ny political or social movement which challenged the hegemonic position of the Magyar ruling classes was liable to be repressed or charged with 'treason'…, 'libel' or 'incitement of national hatred'. This was to be the fate of various Slovak, South Slav [e.g. Serb], Romanian and Ruthene cultural societies and nationalist parties from 1876 onward…"[7] All of this only intensified after 1875, with the rise of Kalman Tisza.[8] Menyhért Count Lónyai de Nagylónya et Vásárosnamény (Nagylónya, January 6, 1822 - Budapest, November 3, 1884) was a Hungarian politician who served as Prime Minister of Hungary from 1871 to 1872. ... Countries inhabited by South Slavs (in black) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans, the southern Pannonian Plain and the eastern Alps. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) or christian turks are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ... Kálmán Tisza (1830-1902) was Hungarian prime minister between 1875 and 1890. ...


The political leaders of non-Hungarian ethnic groups claimed that the Kingdom of Hungary is a country of several nations, not only of Hungarians, and asked for recognition of their collective rights[citation needed].


For a long time, number of non-Hungarians that lived in the Kingdom of Hungary was much larger than a number of ethnic Hungarians. According to the 1787 data, the population of the Kingdom of Hungary numbered 2,322,000 Hungarians and 5,681,000 non-Hungarians. In 1809, the population numbered 3,000,000 Hungarians and 7,000,000 non-Hungarians. As an increasingly intense Magyarization policy was implemented after 1867,[9] the ethnic relations changed in favour of Hungarians: according to the 1900 census, number of Hungarian language speakers in the Kingdom was 8,500,000, while number of speakers of other languages was 8,100,000. In 1910 census, number of Hungarian speakers was 9,944,628, while number of speakers of other languages was 8,319,905.[citation needed]


Although in Slovak, Romanian and Serbian history writing administrative and often repressive Magyarization is usually singled out as the main factor accountable for the dramatic change in the ethnic composition of the Kingdom of Hungary in the 19th century, it should be noted that spontaneous assimilation may have been a much more important factor than any of the government policies. In this regard, it must be pointed out that large territories of central and southern Kingdom of Hungary lost their previous, predominantly Magyar population during the numerous wars fought by the Habsburg and Ottoman empires in the 16th and 17th centuries (also, it should be noted that those lands were originally inhabited by Slavs (and possibly by some remnants of Turkic Avars) before Finno-Ugric Hungarians arrived in the end of the 9th century, thus, the change of ethnic structure of those lands in the Middle Ages from predominantly Slavic to predominantly Hungarian is also seen as an early stage of Magyarization by some historians[citation needed]). These empty lands were repopulated, by administrative measures adopted by the Vienna Court especially during the 18th century, by Hungarians and Slovaks from the northern part of the Kingdom that avoided the devastation (see also Royal Hungary), Swabians, Serbs (Serbs were majority in most southern parts of the Pannonian Plain during Ottoman rule, i.e. before those Habsburg administrative measures), Croats and Romanians. The result of this migration was that on a large swath of land, roughly between Kecskemét and the southern border areas, various ethnic groups lived side by side (this ethnic heterogenity is preserved until today in certain parts of Vojvodina, Bačka and Banat). After 1867, Hungarian became the lingua franca on this territory in the interaction between ethnic communities, and individuals who were born in mixed marriages between two non-Magyars often grew a full-fledged allegiance to the Hungarian nation (the best-known example being Sándor Petőfi, Hungarian national poet born from a Serbo-Slovak marriage). Since Latin was the official language until 1842 and the country was directly governed from Vienna (which excluded any large-scale governmental assimilation policy from the Hungarian side before the 1867 Ausgleich), the factor of spontaneous assimilation should be given due weight in any analysis relating to the demographic tendencies of the Kingdom of Hungary in the 19th century. Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) or christian turks are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Look up Ottoman, ottoman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... The term Finno-Ugric people is used to describe a people speaking a Finno-Ugric language. ... Consequences of the Battle of Mohács, and the conquest of Buda in 1541 by the Ottomans: the Kingdom is partitioned. ... Kecskemét is a city in the central part of Hungary. ... Republic of Serbia   â€“Vojvodina   â€“Kosovo (UN admin. ... Bačka (Serbian: Бачка or Bačka, Hungarian: Bácska, Croatian: Bačka, Slovak: Báčka, German: Batschka) is an area of the Pannonian plain lying between the rivers Danube and Tisa. ... Location of Banat in Europe Map of the Banat region with largest cities shown The Banat (Romanian: Banat, Serbian: Банат or Banat, Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság, German: Banat, Slovak: Banát, Banat Bulgarian: Banát) is a geographical and historical region of Central Europe currently divided between... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Sándor PetÅ‘fi The native form of this personal name is PetÅ‘fi Sándor. ... The German term Ausgleich (Hungarian kiegyezés) refers to the compromise or composition of February 1867 that established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary, which was signed by Franz Joseph of Austria and a Hungarian delegation led by Ferenc Deák. ... The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ...


Violent oppression

Although the policy of Magyarisation was mainly pursued in the form of discrimination (see the sections below), the measures were backed by the state police and secret police[citation needed] and the government sometimes resorted to open violence. For example, many Slovak intellectuals and activists (such as Janko Kráľ) were imprisoned or even sentenced to death during the revolution in 1848.[10] One of the incidents that shocked the European public opinion was the Černová massacre in 1907. Janko Kráľ Janko Kráľ (24 April 1822, Liptovský Mikuláš - 23 May 1876, Zlaté Moravce) was one of the most significant and most radical Slovak romantic poets of the Ľudovít Å túr generation, and a national activist. ... The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 was one of many revolutions that year and closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas. ... The ÄŒernová tragedy or ÄŒernová massacre (Slovak: , Hungarian: ) was a bloody massacre in ÄŒernová (now part of Ružomberok) on 27 October 1907. ...


Education

Schools funded by churches and communes had the right to provide education in minority languages. These church-funded schools, however, were mostly founded before 1867, that is, in different socio-political circumstances. Clause 38 of the 1868 law[citation needed] about nationalities of the Kingdom of Hungary, determined that church-funded schools teaching in minority languages could be closed and replaced with commune-funded schools sponsored by the government. In practice, the majority of students in commune-funded schools who were native speakers of minority languages were instructed exclusively in Hungarian. Moreover, the number of minority-language schools was steadily decreasing: in the period between 1880 and 1913, when the number of Hungarian-only schools almost doubled, the number of minority language-schools almost halved.[11] Countless personal names were Magyarized[citation needed] in a short period of time, often forcibly or unwillingly[citation needed]. Nonetheless, Transylvanian Romanians had more Romanian-language schools under Hungarian rule than there were in the Romanian Kingdom itself. Thus, for example, in 1880, in Hungary there were 2,756 schools teaching exclusively in the Romanian language, while in the Kingdom of Romania there were only 2,505.[12]


The effect of Magyarization on the education system in Hungary was very significant, as can be seen from the official statistics submitted by the Hungarian government to the Paris Peace Conference: The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 was a conference organized by the victors of World War I to negotiate the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and the defeated Central Powers. ...

Hungarian Romanian Slovak German Serbian Ruthenian
% of total population 54.5% 16.1% 10.7% 10.4% 2.5% 2.5%
Kindergartens 2,219 4 1 18 22 -
Elementary schools 14,014 2,578 322 417 n/a 47
Junior high schools 652 4 - 6 3 -
Science high schools 33 1 - 2 - -
Teachers' colleges 83 12 - 2 1 -
Gymnasiums for boys 172 5 - 7 1 -
High schools for girls 50 - - 1 - -
Trade schools 105 - - - - -
Commercial schools 65 1 - - - -

Source:[13]


Colonization

The central part of the Kingdom of Hungary was colonized with settlers belonging to different nationalities in the 18th century. Colonization was implemented in the Dunántúl[citation needed] and Alföld regions of present-day Hungary as well as in the Vojvodina region of present-day Serbia. That is considered an example of Magyarization by some Serb sources[citation needed] in spite of the multhiethnic nature of colonization efforts at the same time. For the historic phenomenon of colonization and imperialism, see main article colonialism (and also decolonisation). ... This article is about Transdanubia, the region in Hungary. ... The Great Alföld, Alföld, or Great Hungarian Plain (in Hungarian: Alföld or Nagyalföld, in Slovak Veľká dunajská kotlina, in Romanian Câmpia Tisei, in Serbian/Croatian simply known as Panonski basen, Pannonian Plain) is a plain/basin occupying the southern and eastern part of Hungary... Republic of Serbia   â€“Vojvodina   â€“Kosovo (UN admin. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  Independence c. ...


In the beginning of the 18th century after the Turkish wars the devastated southern regions were mostly populated by South Slavic Serbs, Bunjevci and Šokci, although the population density in the area was low. During the next two centuries, the region was colonized by numerous Germans, as well as members of various other ethnic groups (Slovaks, Rusyns, etc) and in the same time Hungarians were also settling in. The Habsburg government especially favoured the settlements of Germans as part of the Germanization policy.[citation needed] Countries inhabited by South Slavs (in black) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans, the southern Pannonian Plain and the eastern Alps. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) or christian turks are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... The Catholic Church in the Bunjevac village of Stari Žednik Bunjevci (Bunjevac, Serbian and Croatian: Bunjevci/Буњевци, singular Bunjevac/Буњевац, pronounced as Bunyevtzi and Bunyevatz, also in Hungarian: bunyevácok) are a South Slavic ethnic group originally from the Dinaric Alps region, now mostly living in the Bačka region... Catholic Church in the Å okac village of Sonta, Serbia Å okci (Croatian & Serbian Latin: Å okci, singular Å okac, Serbian Cyrillic: Шокци, singular Шокац, pronounced as Shoktzi and Shokatz, also in Hungarian: Sokácok) are a South Slavic ethnic group living in various settlements along the Danube and Sava rivers in the historic regions of...


In the 18th century, Count Antal Grassalkovich (who had Croatian ethnic background) introduced a colonization plan which intended to bring serfs to the sparsely populated Bačka.[14] The plan predicted that Slovak, and Rusyn colonists along with Hungarians should be settled along the rivers Danube and Tisza. Serb historians[citation needed] consider this plan to be an early Magyarization policy assuming that its goal was to provide that ethnic Serb population remain in majority only in central part of Bačka as well as that this Serb population found itself physically separated from other Serbs in Syrmia and Banat. This plan was rejected by the Austrian authorities,[15] but was partially implemented by Grassalkovich who settled Hungarians in parts of Bačka, including Kula (in 1749), Topola (in 1740), Miletić (in 1752), etc.[16] This plan is also mentioned in other non-Serb sources, such is Šviker Johan.[17] Count Grassalkovich also settled many Slovak and German colonists on his other estates in present-day Hungary. Bačka (Serbian: Бачка or Bačka, Hungarian: Bácska, Croatian: Bačka, Slovak: Báčka, German: Batschka) is an area of the Pannonian plain lying between the rivers Danube and Tisa. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river of the European Union and Europes second-longest[3] (after the Volga). ... The Tisza or Tisa is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. ... Map of the Syrmia region Syrmia (Serbian: Srem (Cyrillic: Срем), Croatian: Srijem) is a fertile region of the Pannonian plain in Europe, between the Danube and Sava rivers. ... Location of Banat in Europe Map of the Banat region with largest cities shown The Banat (Romanian: Banat, Serbian: Банат or Banat, Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság, German: Banat, Slovak: Banát, Banat Bulgarian: Banát) is a geographical and historical region of Central Europe currently divided between... This article refers to a colony in politics and history. ...


Serbian historians[citation needed] consider that Count Grassalkovich settled Slovaks and Rusyns among Hungarians with the goal to increase number of Hungarians. Separated from their main ethnic territory in Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia, these two groups would be easily assimilated by the Hungarians. It is evident that most of the Slovaks of Roman Catholic faith that were settled in Vojvodina were later assimilated into the Hungarians, while those that were Protestants retained their Slovak ethnicity. Rusyns, also called Ruthenians, Ruthenes, Rusins, Carpatho-Rusins, and Russniaks, are a modern group of ethnic groups that speak the Rusyn language and are descended from the minority of Ruthenians who did not adopt a Ukrainian national identity and become Ukrainians in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... // Carpathian Ruthenia, aka Transcarpathian Ruthenia, Subcarpathian Rus, Subcarpathia (Ukrainian: Karpats’ka Rus’; Slovak and Czech: Podkarpatská Rus; Hungarian: Kárpátalja; Romanian: Transcarpatia) is a small region of Central Europe, now mostly in western Ukraines Zakarpattia Oblast (Ukrainian: Zakarpats’ka oblast’) and easternmost Slovakia (largely in Prešov kraj... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


The settling in of Hungarians into the region continued until the end of the First World War. The statistics for 1880-1900 period show that the ordinary population growth in the Kingdom of Hungary for this period was +10.3%. However, the comparison between population growth of Serbs and Hungarians in the cities of Vojvodina show that Serb population growth was -19.5%, while Hungarian population growth was +105.2%. The last number, however, indicate both, colonization and Magyarization of non-Hungarians from the area.


Election system

The census system of the post-1867 Kingdom of Hungary was unfavourable to nationalities. According to the 1874 election law, which remained unchanged until 1918, only the upper 5.9% of whole population had voting rights. That high census effectively excluded almost the whole peasantry and the working class from the political life. The percentage of low-income people was somewhat higher among the nationalities than among the Magyars, except the Germans who were generally richer.


In 1900, nearly 33% of the deputies were elected by less than 100 and close upon 66% of the deputies were elected by less than 1000 votes.[18] Transylvania had an even worse representation, the more Romanian a county was, the fewer voters did it possess. Out of the Transylvanian deputies sent to Budapest, 35 represented the 4 mostly Hungarian counties and the chief towns (together forming 20% of the population), whereas only 30 deputies represented another 72% of the population, which was predominantly Romanian. In other words, among Romanians there was an average of one deputy to every 60,000 inhabitants, while among the Hungarians one deputy to 4-5,000.[19][20]


In 1913, even the electorate that elected only one-third of the deputies had a non proportional ethnic composition.[18] The Magyars who gave the 54.5% of the whole population (in Hungary proper) had 60.2% majority in the electorate. Ethnic Germans participated with 10.4% in population and 13.0% in the electorate. The participation of other ethnic groups was as follows: Slovaks (10.7% in population, 10.4% in the electorate), Romanians (16.1% in population, 9.9% in the electorate), Rusyns (2.5% in population, 1.7% in the electorate), Croats (1.1% in population, 1.0% in the electorate), Serbs (2.2% in population, 1.4% in the electorate), and others (2.2% in population, 1.4% in the electorate).


Officially, Hungarian electoral laws haven't contained any legal discrimination based on nationality or language. The high census wasn't uncommon in other European countries in the 1860s but later the countries of Western-Europe gradually lowered and at last abolished their censi. That never happened in the Kingdom of Hungary, although electoral reform was one of the main topic of political debates in the last decades before WW1.


Names

See also: List of Magyarized geographical names

The Magyarization policy under the governing of Dezső Bánffy between 1895 and 1899 also included forced Magyarization of personal and geographical names. The law about registry books prescribed that all names in these books should be in Hungarian. The native names of non-Hungarians were, thus, replaced with Hungarian ones, for example Serbian name Stevan was replaced with Istvan or Jelena with Ilona. The policy included not only Magyarization of personal names, but of surnames as well. List of geographical names in the former Kingdom of Hungary, Magyarized between 1880 and 1918. ... DezsÅ‘ Baron Bánffy de Losoncz (1843-1911) was a Hungarian politician who served as Prime Minister of Hungary from 1895 to 1899. ... Registry has several meanings, all of which generally relate to its original or historical meaning as a written, official or formal record of information, or the place where such records are kept. ...


Hungarian authorities put constant pressure upon all non-Hungarians to Magyarize their names and the ease with which this could be done gave rise to the nickname of Crown Magyars (the price of the registration being one krone).[19] In 1881 the "Society for Name Magyarization" (Központi Névmagyarositó Társaság) was founded in 1881 in Budapest. The aim of this private society was to provide advice and guidelines for those who wanted to Magyarize their surnames. Telkes Simon became the chairman of the society, who professed that “one can achieve being accepted as a true son of the nation by adopting a national name”. The society began an advertising campaign in the newspapers and sent out circular letters. They also made a proposal to lower the fees of the name changing. The proposal was accepted by the Parliament and the fee was lowered from 5 Forints to 50 Krajcárs. After this the name changings peaked in 1881 and 1882 (with 1261 and 1065 registered name changes), and continued in the following years on the average of 750-850 per year.[21] During the Bánffy-administration there was another boost with the highest 6700 application forms in 1897, mostly due to the pressure from authorities and employers of the government sector. Statistics show that only between 1881 and 1905 42,437 surnames were Magyarized.[19] Voluntary Magyarization of German or Slavic-sounding surnames remained a typical phenomenon in Hungary during the course of the whole 20th century. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Berner kreuzer von 1776 The Kreuzer was a silver coin and unit of currency existing in the Southern German states prior to the unification of Germany, and in Austria. ...


Together with Magyarization of personal names and surnames, the exclusive use of the Hungarian names of geographical places, instead of multilingual usage, was also common. For the places that were not known under Hungarian names in the past, new Hungarian names were invented and used in administration instead of the former original non-Hungarian names. Examples of places where original non-Hungarian names were replaced with newly invented Hungarian names: Szvidnik - Felsővízköz (in Slovak Svidník, now Slovakia), Najdás - Néranádas (in Romanian Naidǎş, now Romania), Sztarcsova - Tárcsó (in Serbian Starčevo, now Serbia), Lyutta - Havasköz (in Ruthenian Lyuta, now Ukraine), Bruck - Királyhida (now Bruck an der Leitha, Austria). Svidník is a town in eastern Slovakia, acting as the capital of Svidník District in PreÅ¡ovský kraj. ... map of Pančevo municipality, showing the location of Starčevo Starčevo (Старчево) is a town located in the Pančevo municipality, in the South Banat District of Serbia. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  Independence c. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Zakarpattia Oblast highlighted. ... Bruck an der Leitha is a city located in Lower Austria at the border to the Burgenland, which is marked by the Leitha river. ...


According to Hungarian statistics[22] and considering the huge number of assimilated persons between 1700-1944 (~3 million) only 340,000-350,000 names were magyarised between 1815-1944; this happened mainly inside the Hungarian-speaking area. (One Jewish name out of 17 was Magyarised, in comparation with other nationalities: one out of 139(Catholic) -427(Evangelical) for Germans and 170(Catholic)-330(Evangelical) for Slovaks.


Emigration

As a result of the Magyarization policy[citation needed] many non-Hungarians emigrated from the country. In 1899-1913 period, about 1.4 million people emigrated from the Kingdom of Hungary. Of those, about one million were non-Hungarians and 400,000 were ethnic Hungarians. The Hungarians that were largest ethnic group in the Kingdom (48.1% by the 1910 census), participated in emigration with only 28%, while non-Hungarians that numbered 51.9% of population participated in emigration with 72%. Every year, about 26,000 Hungarians and about 66,000 non-Hungarians emigrated from the Kingdom. Main centres of emigration were northern Slovak-inhabited counties of Abaúj-Torna, Šariš, Spiš, Uzh, and Zemplín, as well as southern counties of Bács-Bodrog, Torontál, Temes, and Krassó-Szörény, largely inhabited by Serbs, Romanians and Germans. Abaúj-Torna (-Hungarian, Slovak: Abov-Turňa, German: Abaujwar-Tornau, Latin: comitatus Abaujvar-Tornensis) is the name of a historic administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. ... Å ariÅ¡ (in Latin: comitatus Sarossiensis, in German: Scharosch, in Hungarian: Sáros) is a historic administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. ... SpiÅ¡ in Slovakia SpiÅ¡ (-Slovak; Latin: Scepusium, Polish: Spisz, German: , Hungarian: Szepesség) is a region in north-eastern Slovakia, with a very small area in south-eastern Poland. ... Uzh county (in Latin: comitatus Unghvariensis, in Hungarian: Ung (vár)megye in Slovak also: Užský komitát/ Užská župa / Užská stolica) is the name of a historic administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. ... Zemplín (Hungarian: Zemplén, German: Semplin, Latin: Zemplinum) is the name of a historic administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. ... Bács-Bodrog (Hungarian: Bács-Bodrog, Serbian: Bačka-Bodrog or Бачка-Бодрог) is the name of administrative county (comitatus) of the historic Kingdom of Hungary. ... Torontál (in Hungarian: Torontál, in Serbian: Torontal or Торонтал) is the name of administrative county (comitatus) of the historic Kingdom of Hungary. ... Bacs-Bodrog, Szerem, Torontal, Temes and Krasso-Szoreny counties after 1881 Temes (Hungarian, in Romanian: Timiş, in Serbian: Tamiš) is the name of administrative county (comitatus) of the historic Kingdom of Hungary. ... Bács-Bodrog, Szerém, Torontál, Temes and Krassó-Szörény counties after 1881 Krassó-Szörény (Hungarian, in Romanian: CaraÅŸ-Severin) is the name of administrative county (comitatus) of the historic Kingdom of Hungary. ...


The state-sponsored shipowner society "Kunard"[citation needed] was founded with a purpose to "help" to as many non-Hungarians as possible to emigrate from the Kingdom. The society provided emigrants with emigrant passports and helped them to emigrate from the country. The "Kunard" society, however, did not gave these passports to the ethnic Hungarians.[23]


People moved chiefly for economic reasons (labour migration) and, until 1914, 25% of the emigrants returned (this process was stopped by World War I). The majority of the emigrants came from the most indigent social groups, especially from the agrarian sector. Almost 530,000 people left the country between 1905 and 1907, which shows a direct connection between the U.S.'s trade fluctuation and Hungary's developing stages (the living standard of the peasantry, decline of agrarian movements, and even the Phylloxera plague). Grape Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, family Phylloxeridae, superfamily Aphidoidea) is a serious pest of commercial grapevines worldwide, originally native to eastern North America. ...


Jews

The Jewish population of the Kingdom of Hungary may have been the only minority to actively embrace Magyarization, because it saw it as an opportunity for assimilation without conceding their religion. Stephen Roth writes, "Hungarian Jews were opposed to Zionism because they hoped that somehow they could achieve equality with other Hungarian citizens, not just in law but in fact, and that they could be integrated into the country as Hungarian Israelites. The word 'Israelite' (Hungarian: Izraelita) denoted only religious affiliation and was free from the ethnic or national connotations usually attached to the term 'Jew', which could therefore be regarded as a derogatory. Hungarian Jews attained remarkable achievements in business, culture and less frequently even in politics. But even the most successful Jews were not fully accepted by the majority of the Magyars as one of their kind — as the events following the Nazi invasion of the country in WW II so tragically demonstrated." [24] The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... In the social sciences, assimilation is the process of integration whereby immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into a generally larger community. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... National Socialism redirects here. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ...


Magyarization in Upper Hungary

As a result of the forced Magyarization policy in the Kingdom of Hungary, the Slovaks were a culturally, politically, etc. decimated nation. Although the share of Slovaks within the electorate (10,4%) largely reflected their weight in the total population of Hungary proper (10,7%) Slovaks had extremely marginal representation in the parliament (0 or 1 deputy out of 420 MPs). Although at the time of the Ausgleich there were more than one thousand Slovak elementary schools, their number was gradually reduced to 322 until 1918. Slovaks had no institutions, offices, judges, they were often prevented from voting[citation needed] on ethnic grounds[citation needed], students were expelled from schools just for speaking Slovak in the street[citation needed] or for owning Slovak books[citation needed], it was impossible to buy a train ticket in Slovak in Slovak speaking regions.[25][26][27][28] The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... The German term Ausgleich (Hungarian kiegyezés) refers to the compromise or composition of February 1867 that established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary, which was signed by Franz Joseph of Austria and a Hungarian delegation led by Ferenc Deák. ...


Notable dates

  • 1844 - Hungarian is gradually introduced for all civil records (kept at local parishes until 1895). German became an official language again after the 1848 revolution, but the laws reverted in 1881 yet again. From 1836 to 1881, 14,000 families had their name Magyarized in the area of Banat alone.
  • 1898 - Simon Telkes publishes the book "How to Magyarize family names".
  • 1897 - The Banffy law of the villages is ratified. According to this law, all officially used village names in the Hungarian Kingdom had to be in Hungarian language.
  • 1907 - The Apponyi educational law made Hungarian a compulsory subject in all schools in the Kingdom of Hungary. This also extended to confessional and communal schools, which had the right to provide instruction in a minority language as well. "All pupils regardless of their native language must be able to express their thoughts in Hungarian both in spoken and in written form at the end of fourth grade [~ at the age of 10 or 11]"[11]

See also

The signers of the Memorandum The Transylvanian Memorandum was a petition sent in 1892 by the leaders of the Romanians of Transylvania to the Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph, asking for Romanians equal national rights with the Hungarians and demanding the cessation of persecutions and the attempts at denationalization of the...

Notes

  1. ^ Bideleux and Jeffries, 1998, p. 363.
  2. ^ Sándor Petõfi (1823-1849?), 2003, on kirjasto.sci.fi. Accessed 12 March 2007.
  3. ^ Bideleux and Jeffries, 1998, p. 363.
  4. ^ A. J. P. Taylor, The Habsburg Monarchy 1809-1918, 1948. (Serbian translation: A. Dž. P. Tejlor, Habzburška Monarhija 1809-1918, Belgrade, 2001.)
  5. ^ http://mek.oszk.hu/03400/03407/html/404.html
  6. ^ Bideleux and Jeffries, 1998, p. 362–363.
  7. ^ Bideleux and Jeffries, 1998, p. 363–364.
  8. ^ Bideleux and Jeffries, 1998, p. 364.
  9. ^ Bideleux and Jeffries, 1998, p. 362–364.
  10. ^ Encyklopédia spisovateľov Slovenska. Bratislava: Obzor, 1984.
  11. ^ a b Romsics, Ignác. Magyarország története a huszadik században ("A History of Hungary in the 20th Century"), p. 85-86.
  12. ^ Raffay Ernő: A vajdaságoktól a birodalomig-Az újkori Románia története = From voivodates to the empire-History of modern Romania, JATE Kiadó, Szeged, 1989)
  13. ^ Z. Paclisanu, Hungary's struggle to annihilate its national minorities, Florida, 1985 pp. 89-92
  14. ^ Borislav Jankulov, Pregled kolonizacije Vojvodine u XVIII i XIX veku, Novi Sad - Pančevo, 2003
  15. ^ Dr. Dušan J. Popović, Srbi u Vojvodini, knjiga 2, Novi Sad, 1990
  16. ^ Dr. D. J. Popović
  17. ^ Šviker Johan - Politička istorija Srba u Ugarskoj, Budimpešta, 1880, translated and published in Novi Sad in 1999
  18. ^ a b R.W. Seton-Watson, Corruption and reform in Hungary, London, 1911
  19. ^ a b c R.W. Seton-Watson, A history of the Roumanians, Cambridge, University Press, 1934, pp.403
  20. ^ Georges Castellan, A history of the Romanians, Boulder, 1989, pp.146
  21. ^ http://www.elib.hu/00000/00060/html/074/pc007478.html
  22. ^ (Hungarian) Kozma, István, A névmagyarosítások története. A családnév-változtatások, História (2000/05-06)
  23. ^ Dr. Dimitrije Kirilović, Pomađarivanje u bivšoj Ugarskoj, Novi Sad - Srbinje, 2006
  24. ^ Roth, Stephen. "Memories of Hungary", p.125–141 in Riff, Michael, The Face of Survival: Jewish Life in Eastern Europe Past and Present. Valentine Mitchell, London, 1992, ISBN 0-85303-220-3. p. 132.
  25. ^ Viator, Scotus: Racial problems in Hungary. 1906
  26. ^ Marko, Martinický: Slovensko-maďarské vzťahy.1995
  27. ^ Dejiny Bratislavy. Archív hlavného mesta SSR Bratislavy. 1978
  28. ^ Hanák, Jozef: Obsadenie Bratislavy.2004

March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (72nd in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... Alan John Percivale Taylor (March 25, 1906–September 7, 1990) was a renowned British historian of the 20th century. ... Robert William Seton-Watson (August 20, 1879 - July 25, 1951) was a British historian. ...

References

  1. Dr. Dimitrije Kirilović, Pomađarivanje u bivšoj Ugarskoj, Novi Sad - Srbinje, 2006 (reprint). Originally printed in Novi Sad in 1935.
  2. Dr. Dimitrije Kirilović, Asimilacioni uspesi Mađara u Bačkoj, Banatu i Baranji, Novi Sad - Srbinje, 2006 (reprint). Originally printed in Novi Sad in 1937 as Asimilacioni uspesi Mađara u Bačkoj, Banatu i Baranji - Prilog pitanju demađarizacije Vojvodine.
  3. Lazar Stipić, Istina o Mađarima, Novi Sad - Srbinje, 2004 (reprint). Originally printed in Subotica in 1929 as Istina o Madžarima.
  4. Dr. Fedor Nikić, Mađarski imperijalizam, Novi Sad - Srbinje, 2004 (reprint). Originally printed in Novi Sad in 1929.
  5. Borislav Jankulov, Pregled kolonizacije Vojvodine u XVIII i XIX veku, Novi Sad - Pančevo, 2003.
  6. Dimitrije Boarov, Politička istorija Vojvodine, Novi Sad, 2001.
  7. Robert Bideleux and Ian Jeffries, A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change, Routledge, 1998. ISBN 0-415-16111-8 hardback, ISBN 0-415-16112-6 paper.

Nickname: Serbian Athens Motto: Град по мери грађана City of the citizens (in English) Location of Novi Sad within Serbia Coordinates: Country  Serbia Province Vojvodina District South Bačka Established 1694 City status February 1, 1748 Politics    - Mayor Maja Gojković (SRS)  - City assembly SRS, DSS and SPS  - Municipalities 2 (Novi Sad and Petrovaradin) Area... Foča (Фоча), known from 1992 to 2004 as Srbinje (Србиње), is a town at Drina, in the Herzegovina region of Republika Srpska. ...

External links


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