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Encyclopedia > Magnus Hirschfeld
Magnus Hirschfeld in 1933.

Magnus Hirschfeld (May 14, 1868 - May 14, 1935) was a German physician, sexologist and gay rights advocate. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Sexology is the systematic study of human sexuality. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also...

Contents

Early life

He was born in Kolberg (modern Kołobrzeg) in a Jewish family, the son of a well-beloved physician and 'Medizinalrat', Hermann Hirschfeld. In 1887-1888 he studied in Breslau Philosophy and Philology, then from 1888-1892 Medicine in Strasbourg, Munich, Heidelberg and Berlin. In 1892 he took his doctoral degree. After his study he traveled through the U.S.A. for eight months, visiting the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, and living from the proceeds of his writing for German journals. Then he started a naturopathic practice in Magdeburg; in 1896 moved to Berlin-Charlottenburg. Kolberg is the German name for the Polish town of Kołobrzeg. ... Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship West Pomeranian Powiat KoÅ‚obrzeg County Gmina KoÅ‚obrzeg Estabilished 10th century City Rights 1255 Government  - Mayor Janusz Gromek Area  - Town 25. ... Wrocław. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. It is most accurately defined as an affinity toward the learning of the backgrounds as well as the current usages of spoken or written methods of human communication. The commonality of studied languages is more important than their origin or age (that is... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Heidelberg (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... One-third scale replica of Daniel Chester Frenchs Republic, which stood in the great basin at the exposition, Chicago, 2004 The Worlds Columbian Exposition (also called The Chicago Worlds Fair), a Worlds Fair, was held in Chicago in 1893, to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Naturopathic medicine (also known as naturopathy) is a school of medical philosophy and practice that seeks to improve health and treat disease chiefly by assisting the bodys innate capacity to recover from illness and injury. ... This article is about the German city. ... Location of Charlottenburg in Berlin Charlottenburg palace Charlottenburg is an area of Berlin within the borough of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf. ...


Early contributions to sexology

Around 1900, Hirschfeld developed the theory of a third, "intermediate sex" between men and women. He was interested in the study of a wide variety of sexual and erotic urges, at a time when the early taxonomy of sexual identity labels was still being formed. His scientific work extended that of Karl Heinrich Ulrichs and influenced Havelock Ellis and Edward Carpenter. Anna P., who lived for many years as a man in Germany, was photographed for Magnus Hirschfelds book Sexual Intermediates in 1922. ... For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ... -1... Henry Havelock Ellis (February 2, 1859 - July 8, 1939), known as Havelock Ellis, was a British doctor, sexual psychologist and social reformer. ... Edward Carpenter in 1875. ...


Gay rights activism

The Scientific Humanitarian Committee board in 1901: left to right, Georg Plock, Dr Ernst Burchard, Dr Magnus Hirschfeld, and Baron von Teschenberg.
The Scientific Humanitarian Committee board in 1901: left to right, Georg Plock, Dr Ernst Burchard, Dr Magnus Hirschfeld, and Baron von Teschenberg.

Magnus Hirschfeld's career successfully found a balance between medicine and writing. After several years as a general practitioner in Magdeburg, in 1896 he issued a pamphlet Sappho and Socrates, on homosexual love (under the pseudoym Th. Ramien). In 1897, Hirschfeld founded the Scientific Humanitarian Committee with the publisher Max Spohr, the lawyer Eduard Oberg, and the writer Max von Bülow. The group aimed to undertake research to defend the rights of homosexuals and to repeal Paragraph 175, the section of the German penal code that since 1871 had criminalized homosexuality. They argued that the law encouraged blackmail, and the motto of the Committee, "Justice through science", reflected Hirschfeld's belief that a better scientific understanding of homosexuality would eliminate hostility toward homosexuals. He was a tireless campaigner and became a well-known public figure. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... For other uses, see Sappho (disambiguation). ... This page is about the Classical Greek philosopher. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The WHK board in 1901: left to right, Georg Plock, Dr Ernst Burchard, Dr Magnus Hirschfeld, and baron von Teschenberg. ... Paragraph 175 (known formally as §175 StGB; also known as Section 175 in English) was a provision of the German Criminal Code from 15 May 1871 to 10 March 1994. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...

This image is a candidate for speedy deletion. It may be deleted after Friday, 7 March 2008.

This image is a candidate for speedy deletion. It may be deleted after Friday, 7 March 2008.

Within the group, some of the members scorned Hirschfeld's analogy that homosexuals are like cripples. They argued that society might tolerate or pity cripples, but never treat them as equals. They also disagreed with Hirschfeld's (and Ulrichs's) view that male homosexuals were by nature womanish. Benedict Friedlaender and some others left the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee and formed another group, the 'Bund für männliche Kultur' or Union for Male Culture, which however did not exist long. It argued that male-male love is a simple aspect of virile manliness rather than a special condition. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


The Scientific-Humanitarian Committee, under Hirschfeld's leadership, managed to gather over 5000 signatures from prominent Germans for a petition to overturn Paragraph 175. Signatories included Albert Einstein, Hermann Hesse, Käthe Kollwitz, Thomas Mann, Heinrich Mann, Rainer Maria Rilke, August Bebel, Max Brod, Karl Kautsky, Stefan Zweig, Gerhart Hauptmann, Martin Buber, Richard von Krafft-Ebing and Eduard Bernstein. “Einstein” redirects here. ... Hermann Hesse (pronounced ) (2 July 1877 – 9 August 1962) was a German-Swiss poet, novelist, and painter. ... Käthe Schmidt Kollwitz (July 8, 1867 - April 22, 1945) was a German painter, printmaker, and sculptor whose work offered an eloquent and often searing account of the human condition in the first half of the 20th century. ... For other persons named Thomas Mann, see Thomas Mann (disambiguation). ... Grave Stamp Luiz (Ludwig) Heinrich Mann (March 27, 1871 – March 12, 1950) was a German novelist who wrote works with social themes whose attacks on the authoritarian and increasingly militaristic nature of post-Weimar German society led to his exile in 1933. ... Rainer Maria Rilke (4 December 1875 – 29 December 1926) is considered one of the German languages greatest 20th century poets. ... August Ferdinand Bebel (February 22, 1840 – March 18, 1913) was a German social democrat and one of the founders of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. ... Max Brod Max Brod (May 27, 1884 – December 20, 1968) was a German-speaking Jewish author, composer, and journalist. ... Karl Kautsky (October 16, 1854 - October 17, 1938) was a leading theoretician of social democracy. ... Stefan Zweig Stefan Zweig (November 28, 1881, Vienna, Austria – February 23, 1942, Petrópolis, Brazil) was an Austrian novelist, playwright, journalist and biographer. ... Gerhart Hauptmann Gerhart Hauptmann (November 15, 1862 - June 6, 1946), German dramatist, was born on at Obersalzbrunn, Prussia (now Szczawno Drój, Poland) in Silesia, the son of a hotel-keeper. ... Martin Buber (8 February 1878 – 13 June 1965) was an Austrian-Israeli-Jewish philosopher, translator, and educator, whose work centered on theistic ideals of religious consciousness, interpersonal relations, and community. ... Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing (August 4, 1840–December 22, 1902), German psychiatrist, wrote Psychopathia Sexualis (1886), a famous study of sexual perversity, and remains well-known for his coinage of the term sadism. ... For other uses, see Eduard Bernstein (disambiguation). ...


The bill was brought before the Reichstag in 1898, but was only supported by a minority from the Social Democratic Party of Germany, prompting a frustrated Hirschfeld to consider what would, in a later era, be described as "outing" — that is, forcing some of the prominent and secretly homosexual lawmakers who had remained silent out of the closet. The bill continued to come before parliament, and eventually began to make progress in the 1920s before the takeover of the Nazi party obliterated any hopes for reform. The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... SPD redirects here. ... While outing often refers to an outdoor excursion, in the late twentieth century the term acquired an additional meaning: taking someone out of the closet - that is, publicising that someone is gay. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ...


In 1921 Hirschfeld organised the First Congress for Sexual Reform, which led to the formation of the World League for Sexual Reform. Congresses were held in Copenhagen (1928), London (1929), Vienna (1930), and Brno (1932). Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... , Country  Czech Republic Region Parts 29  - Bohunice  - Bosonohy  - Bystrc  - Brno-Center  - ÄŒernovice  - Chrlice  - Ivanovice  - Jehnice  - Jundrov  - Kníničky  - Kohoutovice  - Komín  - Královo Pole  - Líšeň  - Maloměřice and ObÅ™any  - Medlánky  - Brno-North  - Nový Lískovec  - OÅ™ešín  - Å˜ečkovice and Mokrá Hora  - Slatina  - Brno-South...


Hirschfeld was both quoted and caricatured in the press as a vociferous expert on sexual manners, receiving the epithet "the Einstein of Sex". He saw himself as a campaigner and a scientist, investigating and cataloging many varieties of sexuality, not just homosexuality. He coined the word "transvestism," for example. A male dressed as a female. ...


Hirschfeld co-wrote and acted in the 1919 film Anders als die Andern ("Different From the Others"), where actor Conrad Veidt played probably the first homosexual character ever written for cinema. The film had a specific gay-rights law reform agenda — Veidt's character is blackmailed by a lover, eventually coming out rather than continuing to make the blackmail payments, but his career is destroyed and he is driven to suicide. Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Anders als die Andern (Different From the Others) is a film which was produced in Germany during the largely liberal period which existed in that country between the world wars. ... Conrad Veidt in The Spy in Black (1939). ...


Institut für Sexualwissenschaft

In 1919, under the more liberal atmosphere of the newly founded Weimar Republic, Hirschfeld was given a former royal palace for his new Institut für Sexualwissenschaft (Institute for Sexual Research) in Berlin. His Institute housed his immense library on sex and provided educational services and medical consultations. People from around Europe visited the Institute to gain a clearer understanding of their sexuality. Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... The Institut für Sexualwissenschaft was an early private sexology research institute in Germany from 1919 to 1933. ...


Christopher Isherwood writes about his and Auden's visit to the Institute in his book Christopher and His Kind. They were visiting Francis Turville-Petre, a friend of Isherwood's who was staying there. The Institute also housed the Museum of Sex, an educational resource for the public which is reported to have been visited by school classes. Christopher Isherwood (left) and W.H. Auden (right), photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1939 Christopher Isherwood (prior to 1946 Christopher William Bradshaw-Isherwood) (August 26, 1904 – January 4, 1986), Anglo-American novelist, was born in the ancestral seat of his family, Wybersley Hall, High Lane, in the north west of... Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) IPA: ;[1], who signed his works W. H. Auden, was an Anglo-American poet, regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century. ... Francis Adrian Joseph Turville-Petre (March 4, 1901 – August 16, 1941) was an English archaeologist, famous for the discovery of the Neanderthal Galilee Skull in 1925 and his work at Mount Carmel, in what was then the British Mandate of Palestine, now Israel. ...


The Institute and Hirschfeld's work there is depicted in Rosa von Praunheim's documentary film Der Einstein des Sex (The Einstein of Sex, Germany, 1999 - English subtitled version available). Rosa von Praunheim (* November 25, 1942 in Riga, Latvia; name of birth Holger Bernhard Bruno Mischwitzky) is a German film director. ... Der Einstein des Sex is a film by the German director Rosa von Praunheim from the year 1999, based on the life of the Jewish doctor Magnus Hirschfeld. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... In printed material In printed material, a subtitle is an explanatory or alternate title. ...


Feminism

In 1904, Hirschfeld joined the Bund fur Mutterschutz (League for the Protection of Mothers), the feminist organization founded by Helene Stöcker. He campaigned for the decriminalisation of abortion, and against policies that banned female teachers and civil servants from marrying or having children. Helene Stöcker (* 13. ...


Criticisms

Hirschfeld's work continues to be controversial. Critics have claimed that some of his financial support came from closeted but prominent German homosexuals whom he blackmailed. Though he was immensely popular in some circles, in others he was reviled. Gatherings at which he spoke came under attack from anti-gay groups: in one such instance in 1921, his skull was fractured and he was left lying in the street. Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Others criticized his view that homosexuality was, at root, hormonal, arguing that this opened the door for others who were seeking a cure for homosexuality.


Nazi reaction

On May 10, 1933, Nazis in Berlin burned works of Jewish authors, and the library of the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft, and other works considered "un-German".
On May 10, 1933, Nazis in Berlin burned works of Jewish authors, and the library of the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft, and other works considered "un-German".

When the Nazis took power they destroyed the Institut and burned down the library on May 6, 1933. The press-library pictures and archival newsreel film of Nazi book-burnings seen today are usually pictures of Hirschfeld's library ablaze.[citation needed] At the time of the book burning, Hirschfeld was away from Germany on a world speaking tour. Hirschfeld never returned to Germany. He died of a heart attack on his 67th birthday in 1935 in Nice, where he is buried. Image File history File links 1933-may-10-berlin-book-burning. ... Image File history File links 1933-may-10-berlin-book-burning. ... The Institut für Sexualwissenschaft was an early private sexology research institute in Germany from 1919 to 1933. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A newsreel is a documentary film that is regularly released in a public presentation place containing filmed news stories. ... Book burning is the practice of ceremoniously destroying by fire one or more copies of a book or other written material. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... This article is about the French city. ...


Works

Hirschfeld's works are listed in the bibliography:

  • Steakley, James D. The Writings of Magnus Hirschfeld: A Bibliography. (1985).

The following have been translated into English:

  • Racism, translated by Eden and Cedar Paul.
  • Homosexuality of Men and Women; translated by Michael A. Lombardi-Nash.
  • The Transvestites: The Erotic Drive to Cross-Dress, Prometheus Books.
  • Men and Women: The World Journey of a Sexologist, AMS Press, 1974.
  • The Sexual History of the World War, Cadillac Publishing Co., 1946.

Autobiographical:

  • Hirschfeld, Magnus Von einst bis jetzt: Geschichte einer homosexuellen Bewegung 1897-1922. Schriftenreihe der Magnus-Hirschfeld-Gesellschaft Nr. 1, Verlag rosa Winkel, Berlin 1986 (Reprint of a series of articles by Hirschfeld for the 1920's gay magazine Die Freundschaft).

Literature

Biographical

  • Dose, Ralf Magnus Hirschfeld: Deutscher, Jude, Weltbürger. Teetz, Hentrich und Hentrich, 2005.
  • Herzer, Manfred Magnus Hirschfeld: Leben und Werk eines jüdischen, schwulen und sozialistischen Sexologen. Second edition. Hamburg, MännerschwarmSkript-Verlag, 2001.
  • Kotowski, Elke-Vera & Julius H. Schoeps (ed.) Der Sexualreformer Magnus Hirschfeld. Ein Leben im Spannungsfeld von Wissenschaft, Politik und Gesellschaft. Berlin, Bebra, 2004.
  • Wolff, Charlotte. Magnus Hirschfeld: A Portrait of a Pioneer in Sexology. London, Quartet Books, 1986.

Others

  • Blasius, Mark & Phelan, Shane. (Eds.) We Are Everywhere: A Historical Source Book of Gay and Lesbian Politics. New York, Routledge, 1997. See chapter: The Emergence of a Gay and Lesbian Political Culture in Germany.
  • Dynes, Wayne R. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. New York and London, Garland Publishing, 1990.
  • Gordon, Mel Voluptuous Panic: The Erotic World of Weimar Berlin. Los Angeles, Feral House, 2000.
  • Grau, Günter (ed.) Hidden Holocaust? Gay and lesbian persecution in Germany 1933-45. New York, Routledge, 1995.
  • Johansson, Warren & Percy, William A. Outing: Shattering the Conspiracy of Silence. New York, Harrington Park Press, 1994.
  • Lauritsen, John and Thorstad, David. The Early Homosexual Rights Movement, 1864-1935. (Second Edition revised).
  • Steakley, James D. The Early Homosexual Emancipation Movement in Germany. (1975).

For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ...

See also

  • Magnus Hirschfeld Medal, awarded to outstanding sexologists by the German sexology society
  • Hirschfeld Eddy Foundation, a Human Rights Foundation for Lesbians and Gays

The Magnus Hirschfeld Medal is awarded by the German Society for Social-Scientific Sex Research for outstanding service to sexual science. ... The Hirschfeld-Eddy Foundation (Hirschfeld-Eddy-Stiftung) was founded in Berlin in June 2007. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935) (935 words)
Hirschfeld believed that sexual orientation was a naturally occurring trait worthy of scientific inquiry and political emancipation rather than social hostility.
Hirschfeld himself estimated that he had spoken to over 30,000 men and women in the course of his work and adamantly believed that sexual honesty was a requisite for healthy living.
This year's centenary celebrations of Hirschfeld's life and work in Berlin and San Francisco are an opportunity to for us to remember the rich history of the gay rights movement before Stonewall and to pay tribute to a man who believed that sexual liberation was an inseparable part of his life's work.
Magnus Hirschfeld (961 words)
Hirschfeld addresses the physical, mental, and emotional life, while explaining the differences between friendship and same-sex love; genuine and false homosexuality; and the inborn nature of homosexuality and bisexuality.
Magnus Hirschfeld : A Portrait of a Pioneer in Sexology by Charlotte Wolff
Hirschfeld’s intention was to move homosexuality from the arena of illness to a natural condition.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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