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Encyclopedia > Magnox
Schematic diagram of a Magnox nuclear reactor showing gas flow. Note that the heat exchanger is outside the concrete radiation shielding. This represents an early Magnox design with a cylindrical, steel, pressure vessel.
Schematic diagram of a Magnox nuclear reactor showing gas flow. Note that the heat exchanger is outside the concrete radiation shielding. This represents an early Magnox design with a cylindrical, steel, pressure vessel.

Magnox is a now obsolete type of nuclear power reactor which was designed and used in the United Kingdom, and exported to other countries, both as a power plant, and, when operated accordingly, as a producer of plutonium for nuclear weapons. The name magnox comes from the material used to clad the fuel rods inside the reactor. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (828x555, 36 KB) Schematic diagram of a Magnox nuclear reactor, drawn using XaraXtreme by Emoscopes 03:11, 17 December 2005 (UTC) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (828x555, 36 KB) Schematic diagram of a Magnox nuclear reactor, drawn using XaraXtreme by Emoscopes 03:11, 17 December 2005 (UTC) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...

Contents

General description

Magnox reactors are pressurised, carbon dioxide-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors using natural uranium (i.e. unenriched) as fuel and magnox alloy as fuel cladding. Boron-steel control rods were used. The design was continuously refined, and very few units are identical. Early reactors have steel pressure vessels, while later units (Oldbury and Wylfa) are of reinforced concrete; some are cylindrical in design, but most are spherical. Working pressure varies from 6.9 to 19.35 bar for the steel pressure vessels, and the two reinforced concrete designs operated at 24.8 and 27 bar. No British construction company at the time was large enough to build all the power stations, so various competing consortia were involved, adding to the differences between the stations. Natural uranium (NU) refers to refined uranium with the same isotopic ratios as found in nature. ... General Name, Symbol, Number boron, B, 5 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 13, 2, p Appearance black/brown Standard atomic weight 10. ... Oldbury-on-Severn is a small village near the mouth of the River Severn in South Gloucestershire. ... Wylfa Nuclear Power Station Wylfa is a nuclear power station situated just west of Cemaes Bay on the island of Anglesey, north Wales. ... The bar (symbol bar) and the millibar (symbol mbar, also mb) are units of pressure. ...


On-load refuelling was an economically essential part of the design, to maximise power station availability by eliminating refuelling downtime. This was particularly important for Magnox as the unenriched fuel had a low burn-up, requiring more frequent changes of fuel than most enriched uranium reactors. These pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment. ...


Safety

The Magnox reactors have a considerable degree of inherent safety because of their sturdy design, low power density, and gas coolant. As such, they do not require or possess secondary containment features. Loss of coolant accidents—considered in the design—would not cause large-scale fuel failure as the Magnox cladding would retain the bulk of the radioactive material, assuming the reactor was rapidly shutdown (a SCRAM). As the coolant is already a gas, explosive pressure buildup from boiling is not a risk, as happened in the catastrophic steam explosion at the Chernobyl accident. A containment building, in its most common usage, is a steel or concrete structure enclosing a nuclear reactor. ... A Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) is a mode of failure for a nuclear reactor; in a nuclear reactor, the results of a LOCA could be catastrophic to the reactor, the facility that houses it, and the immediate vicinity around the reactor. ... A SCRAM is an emergency shutdown of a nuclear reactor - though the term has been extended to cover shutdowns of other complex operations, such as server farms and even large model railroads (see Tech Model Railroad Club). ... A steam explosion (also called a littoral explosion, or fuel-coolant interaction, FCI) is a violent boiling or flashing of water into steam, occurring when water is either superheated, or rapidly heated by fine hot debris produced within it. ... The nuclear power plant at Chernobyl prior to the completion of the sarcophagus. ...


In the older steel pressure vessel design, boilers and gas ducting are outside the concrete biological shield. Consequently this design emits a significant amount of direct gamma and neutron radiation, termed direct "shine", from the reactors. For example the most exposed members of the public living near Dungeness Magnox reactor in 2002 [1] received 0.56 mSv, over half the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommended maximum radiation dose limit for the public, from direct "shine" alone. The doses from the Oldbury and Wylfa reactors, which have concrete pressure vessels which encapsulate the complete gas circuit, are much lower. This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... Neutron radiation consists of free neutrons. ... There are two nuclear power stations located near Dungeness in the south east of Kent, England. ... The sievert (symbol: Sv) is the SI derived unit of dose equivalent. ... The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is an advisory body providing recommendations and guidance on radiation protection; It was founded in 1928 by the International Society of Radiology (ISR) and was then called the ‘International X-ray and Radium Protection Committee’. Then it was restructured to better take account... Oldbury-on-Severn is a small village near the mouth of the River Severn in South Gloucestershire. ... Wylfa Nuclear Power Station Wylfa is a nuclear power station situated just west of Cemaes Bay on the island of Anglesey, north Wales. ...


Reactors in use

Sizewell A Magnox nuclear power station
Sizewell A Magnox nuclear power station

In all, 11 power stations totalling 26 units were built in the UK where the design originated. In addition, one was exported to Japan and another to Italy. North Korea also developed their own Magnox reactors based on the UK design, which was made public at an Atoms for Peace conference. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2784x1572, 428 KB) Taken by John Brodrick of the greenhousetrust [1]. Author gives permission to release under GFDL. File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Magnox Sizewell Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2784x1572, 428 KB) Taken by John Brodrick of the greenhousetrust [1]. Author gives permission to release under GFDL. File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Magnox Sizewell Metadata... View of Sizewell from the south Sizewell is a small fishing village with a few holiday homes in the county of Suffolk, England. ... Atoms for Peace was the title of a speech delivered by Dwight D. Eisenhower to the UN General Assembly in New York City on December 8, 1953. ...


The first Magnox power station, Calder Hall, was the world's first commercial nuclear power station. First connection to the grid was on 27 August 1956, and the plant was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 17 October 1956 [2]. When the station closed on 31 March 2003, the first reactor had been in use for nearly 47 years [3]. The Sellafield facility on the Cumbrian coast, United Kingdom Sellafield is the name of a nuclear site, close to the village and railway station of Seascale, operated by the British Nuclear Group, but owned since 1 April 2005 by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority. ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... October 17 is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


However the first two stations (Calder Hall and Chapelcross) were originally owned by the UKAEA and primarily used in their early life to produce weapons-grade plutonium, with two fuel loads per year [4]. From 1964 they were mainly used on commercial fuel cycles, however it was not until April 1995 that the UK Government announced that all production of plutonium for weapons purposes had ceased [5]. Chapelcross was a Magnox nuclear power station located near the town of Annan in Dumfries and Galloway in south west Scotland. ... The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority was established in 1954 as a statutory corporation to oversee and pioneer the development of nuclear energy within the United Kingdom. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ...


The later and larger units were owned by CEGB and operated on commercial fuel cycles. The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) was the cornerstone of the British electricity industry for almost 50 years, from its nationalisation in 1947 to privatisation in the 1990s. ...


In operation it was found that there was significant oxidation of mild steel components by the high temperature carbon dioxide coolant, requiring a reduction in operating temperature and power output. For example the Latina reactor was derated in 1969 by 24%, from 210 MWe to 160 MWe, by the reduction of operating temperature from 390 to 360 Celsius. Latina is the capital of the province of Latina in the region Latium in Italy. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ...


As of 2007, just two Magnox power stations remain in operation, Oldbury will close in 2008 and Wylfa in 2010. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Wylfa Nuclear Power Station Wylfa is a nuclear power station situated just west of Cemaes Bay on the island of Anglesey, north Wales. ...


Magnox

Main article: magnox (alloy)

Magnox is also the name of an alloy—mainly of magnesium with small amounts of aluminium and other metals—used in cladding unenriched uranium metal fuel with a non-oxidising covering to contain fission products. Magnox is short for Magnesium non-oxidising. This material has the advantage of a low neutron capture cross-section, but has two major disadvantages: Magnox is an alloy—mainly of magnesium with small amounts of aluminium and other metals—used in cladding unenriched uranium metal fuel with a non-oxidising covering to contain fission products. ... An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, Symbol, Number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 26. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

  • It limits the maximum temperature, and hence the thermal efficiency, of the plant.
  • It reacts with water, preventing long-term storage of spent fuel under water.

Magnox fuel incorporated cooling fins to provide maximum heat transfer despite low operating temperatures, making it expensive to produce. While the use of uranium metal rather than oxide made reprocessing more straightforward and therefore cheaper, the need to reprocess fuel a short time after removal from the reactor meant that the fission product hazard was severe. Expensive remote handling facilities were required to address this danger.


The term magnox may also loosely refer to:

  • Three North Korean reactors, all based on the declassified blueprints of the Calder Hall Magnox reactors:
  • Nine UNGG power reactors built in France, all now permanently shut down. These were carbon dioxide-cooled, graphite reactors with natural uranium metal fuel, very similar in design and purpose to the British Magnox reactors except that the fuel cladding was magnesium-zirconium alloy.

The accepted term for all of these first-generation, carbon dioxide-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, including the Magnox and UNGG, is GCR for Gas Cooled Reactor. North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia... MWe and MWt are units for measuring the output of a power plant. ... North Korea has several nuclear facilities with the potential to produce nuclear fuel for weapons. ... North Korea has been attempting to obtain nuclear weapons since the late 1970s. ... The Agreed Framework was signed on October 21, 1994 between North Korea and the United States. ... Taechon, also spelled Thaechon, is a kun, or county, in central North Pyongan province, North Korea. ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ...


The Magnox was replaced in the British power station program by the Advanced gas-cooled reactor or AGR, which was derived from it. A key feature of the AGR was the replacement of magnox cladding to allow higher temperatures and greater thermal efficiency. Stainless steel cladding was adopted after many other alloys had been tried and rejected. Schematic diagram of the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor. ...


Decommissioning

The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is responsible for the decommissioning of the UK Magnox power plants, at an estimated cost of £12.6 billion. There is currently debate about whether a 25 or 100 year decommissioning strategy should be adopted. After 80 years short-lifetime radioactive material in the defueled core would have decayed to the point that human access to the reactor structure would be possible, easing dismantling work. A shorter decommissioning strategy would require a fully robotic core dismantling technique.[6] The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is a public body of the United Kingdom formed by the Energy Act, 2004. ...


In addition the BNFL Sellafield site which, amongst other activities, reprocessed spent Magnox fuel in its B205 plant, has an estimated decommissioning cost of £31.5 billion. Magnox fuel is produced at Springfields near Preston; estimated decommissioning cost is £371 million. The total cost of decommissioning Magnox activities is likely to exceed £20 billion, averaging about £2 billion per productive reactor site. British Nuclear Fuels plc or BNFL manufactures and transports nuclear fuel (notably MOX), runs reactors, generates and sells electricity, reprocesses and manages spent fuel (mainly at Sellafield), and decommissions nuclear plants and other similar facilities. ... The Sellafield facility on the Cumbrian coast, United Kingdom Sellafield is the name of a nuclear site, close to the village and railway station of Seascale, operated by the British Nuclear Group, but owned since 1 April 2005 by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority. ... // Nuclear reprocessing separates any usable elements (e. ... B205 is the name of the magnox nuclear reprocessing plant at Windscale in northern England. ... Preston is a city and local government district in North West England. ...


Calder Hall was opened in 1956 as the world’s first commercial nuclear power station, and is a significant part of the UK’s industrial heritage. The NDA is considering whether to preserve Calder Hall Reactor 1 as a museum site.


List of Magnox reactors in the UK

Calder Hall can refer to - Calder Hall Magnox nuclear power station at Sellafield Calder Hall (Trinidad and Tobago) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Cumbria (IPA: ), is a shire county in the extreme North West of England. ... Chapelcross was a Magnox nuclear power station located near the town of Annan in Dumfries and Galloway in south west Scotland. ... The town of Annan stands on the River Annan in the region of Dumfries and Galloway on the Solway Firth in the south of Scotland. ... Dumfriesshire (Siorrachd Dhùn Phris in Gaelic) was a county of Scotland. ... Berkeley (pronounced ) is a town between the south bank of the River Severn and the M5 motorway in Gloucestershire, England, at grid reference ST685992. ... Gloucestershire (pronounced ; GLOSS-ter-sher) is a county in South West England. ... Bradwell power station, located on the Dengie peninsula in the South East of England is a twin Magnox reactor, now undergoing decommissioning following shutdown in March 2002 after 40 years of operation. ... Statistics Population: 3,776 (2001 Census) Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: TQ961995 Administration District: Maldon Shire county: Essex Region: East of England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Essex Historic county: Essex Services Police force: {{{Police}}} Ambulance service: East of England Post office and telephone Post... Essex is a county in the East of England. ... The Seamill beach looks towards southern Arran and south down the lower Firth of Clyde to Ailsa Craig. ... Fairlie is a small village within the administrative region of North Ayrshire, Scotland. ... North Ayrshire (Sìorrachd Inbhir Air a Tuath in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council areas in Scotland. ... There are two Nuclear power stations at Hinkley Point on the Somerset coast Hinkley Point A is located on a 19. ... Bridgwater in Somerset, England, is a market town, the administrative centre of the Sedgemoor district, and the leading industrial town in the county. ... Somerset is a county in the south-west of England. ... Trawsfynydd is a village in North Wales adjacent to the A470 north of Dolgellau. ... Gwynedd is an administrative county in Wales, named after the old Kingdom of Gwynedd. ... There are two nuclear power stations located near Dungeness in the south east of Kent, England. ... coat of Arms of Kent For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... View of Sizewell from the south Sizewell is a small fishing village with a few holiday homes in the county of Suffolk, England. ... Leiston is a town in East Suffolk in East Anglia in the United Kingdom, near Saxmundham and Aldeburgh, about 2½ miles from the seacoast. ... Suffolk (pronounced ) is a large historic and modern non-metropolitan county in East Anglia, England. ... Oldbury-on-Severn is a small village near the mouth of the River Severn in South Gloucestershire. ... Map sources for Thornbury, South Gloucestershire at grid reference ST637900 Coat of arms of Thornbury Motto: Decus Sabrinae Vallis (Latin: You never expect the spanish inquisition) Thornbury is a historic market town in South Gloucestershire, England, approximately 11 miles (18km) north of the city of Bristol, with a population of... Wylfa Nuclear Power Station Wylfa is a nuclear power station situated just west of Cemaes Bay on the island of Anglesey, north Wales. ... Anglesey (Welsh: , pronounced (IPA)), is a predominantly Welsh-speaking island and county at the northwestern extremity of Wales. ...

Magnox reactors exported from the UK

  • Latina, Italy, 1 unit 160 MWe, first grid connection 1963, shut down 1987 following Italian referendum on nuclear power
  • Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan, 1 unit 166 MWe, first grid connection 1966, shut down 1998

Latina is the capital of the province of Latina in the region Latium in Italy. ... A nuclear power plant at Grafenrheinfeld, Germany. ... Tōkai (東海村; -mura) is a village located in Naka District, Ibaraki, Japan. ...

See also

As of 2006, the United Kingdom has 23 nuclear reactors generating one-fifth of its electricity (19. ... List of nuclear reactors is a comprehensive annotated list of all the nuclear reactors of the world, sorted by country. ... Bob Peck as Yorkshire police officer Ronald Craven, investigating what appears to be the accidental killing of his daughter. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the atomic nucleus gleaned from principles of nuclear physics and the interaction and maintenance of nuclear fission systems and components, specifically, nuclear reactors, nuclear power plants and/or nuclear weapons. ... Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... For the generation of electrical power by fission, see Nuclear power plant An induced nuclear fission event. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Radiation as used in physics, is energy in the form of waves or particles. ... Radiation hazard symbol. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... This diagram demonstrates the defense in depth quality of nuclear power plants. ... Nuclear chemistry is a subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties. ... Nuclear material consists of materials used in nuclear systems, such as nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ... Nuclear Fuel Process A graph compairing nucleon number against binding energy Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned to derive energy. ... Fertile material is a term used to describe nuclides which generally themselves do not undergo induced fission (fissionable by thermal neutrons) but from which fissile material is generated by neutron absorption and subsequent nuclei conversions. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 232. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... These pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment. ... Depleted uranium storage yard. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... A nuclear power station. ... Core of CROCUS, a small nuclear reactor used for research at the EPFL in Switzerland. ... An illustration showing the various sources of nuclear waste Radioactive waste are waste types containing radioactive chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose. ... Internal view of the JET tokamak superimposed with an image of a plasma taken with a visible spectrum video camera. ... Future energy development faces great challenges due to an increasing world population, demands for higher standards of living, a need for less pollution, a need to avert global warming, and a possible end to fossil fuels (see Hubbert peak theory). ... An Inertial fusion power plant is intended to industrially produce electric power by use of inertial confinement fusion techniques. ... Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) (also VVER) are generation II nuclear power reactors that use water under high pressure as coolant and neutron moderator. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Generation IV reactors (Gen IV) are a set of theoretical nuclear reactor designs currently being researched. ... The fast breeder or fast breeder reactor (FBR) is a fast neutron reactor designed to breed fuel by producing more fissile material than it consumes. ... A fast neutron reactor or simply a fast reactor is a category of nuclear reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by fast neutrons. ... Schematic diagram of a Magnox nuclear reactor showing gas flow. ... Schematic diagram of the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor. ... The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) system is a Generation IV reactor concept that features a fast-neutron spectrum and closed fuel cycle for efficient conversion of fertile uranium and management of actinides. ... A molten salt reactor is a type of nuclear reactor where the working fluid is a molten salt. ... A Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor is nuclear reactor where the primary coolant is a liquid molten metal. ... The Lead-cooled Fast Reactor is a Generation IV reactor that features a fast-spectrum lead or lead/bismuth eutectic liquid metal-cooled reactor with a closed fuel cycle. ... The Sodium-cooled fast reactor is a sodium cooled reactor that uses fast neutrons. ... Supercritical water reactor scheme. ... Very high temperature reactor scheme. ... Graphite Pebble for Reactor The pebble bed reactor (PBR) or pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) is an advanced nuclear reactor design. ... The Integral Fast Reactor or Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor is a design for a nuclear fast reactor with a specialized nuclear fuel cycle. ... Nuclear propulsion can include a wide variety of methods, the commonality of which is the use of some form of nuclear reaction as their primary power source. ... In a nuclear thermal rocket a working fluid, usually hydrogen, is heated in a high temperature nuclear reactor, and then expands through a rocket nozzle to create thrust. ... // A radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) is a simple electrical generator which obtains its power from radioactive decay. ... Shown above is the bone scintigraphy of a young woman. ... Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ... Clinac 2100 C100 accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... Radiosurgery is a medical procedure which allows non-invasive brain surgery, i. ... Proton therapy is a kind of external beam radiotherapy where protons are directed to a tumor site. ... Brachytherapy for prostate cancer is administered using seeds, small radioactive rods implanted directly into the tumour. ... Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental form of radiotherapy that utilizes a neutron beam that interacts with boron injected to a patient. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... A nuclear fireball lights up the night in a United States nuclear test. ... For the 1989 computer game, see Nuclear War (computer game). ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... A 23 kiloton tower shot called BADGER, fired on April 18, 1953 at the Nevada Test Site, as part of the Operation Upshot-Knothole nuclear test series. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... // Nuclear weapons delivery is the technology and systems used to place a nuclear weapon at the position of detonation, on or near its intended target. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... This is a list of states with nuclear weapons. ... Main article: Nuclear testing The following is a list of nuclear test series designations, organized first by country and then by date. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
CND - Briefings & Information (1739 words)
Those from the Magnox and AGR stations are plunged into on-site cooling ponds for a short period before being transferred to water-filled rail containers (flasks) and sent to Sellafield in Cumbria for reprocessing.
Magnox and AGR fuel rods, which differ in design features, are transported in differently designed flasks although the principles and processes remain the same.
Magnox rods can only be kept in the cooling ponds at Sellafield for a matter of months before they become so badly corroded that they begin to disintegrate.
Magnox at AllExperts (1437 words)
Magnox is a now obsolete type of nuclear power reactor which was designed and used in Britain, and exported to other countries, both as a power plant, and, when operated correctly, as a producer of plutonium for nuclear weapons.
Loss of coolant accidentswould not cause large-scale fuel failure as the Magnox cladding would retain the bulk of the radioactive material, assuming the reactor was rapidly shutdown (a SCRAM).As the coolant is already a gas, explosive pressure buildup from boiling is not a risk, as happened in the catastrophic steam explosion at the Chernobyl accident.
Magnox is also the name of an alloy—mainly of magnesium with small amounts of aluminium and other metals—used in cladding unenriched uranium metal fuel with a non-oxidising covering to contain fission products.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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