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Encyclopedia > Magnolia
Magnolia
Magnolia x wieseneri
Magnolia x wieseneri
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Magnoliales
Family: Magnoliaceae
Genus: Magnolia
L.
Species

See text Magnolia could refer to: Magnolia, the name of a genus of flowering plants. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (718x1200, 114 KB) Summary Magnolia Watsoni, taken in June 2004 by me. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class: this name is formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name Magnoliaceae by the termination -opsida (Art 16 of the ICBN). ... Families Annonaceae Degeneriaceae Eupomatiaceae Himantandraceae Magnoliaceae Myristicaceae The Magnoliales are an order of flowering plants. ... Genera Magnolioideae Elmerillia (4 species) Kmeria (5 species) Magnolia (128 species) Manglietia (29 species) Michelia (49 species) Pachylarnax (2 species) Liriodendroidae Liriodendron (2 species) The Magnoliaceae is a family in the flowering plant Order Magnoliales. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ...

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Magnolia

Magnolia is a large genus of about 210[1] flowering plant species in the subfamily Magnolioideae of the family Magnoliaceae. Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification. ... Genera Magnolioideae Elmerillia Kmeria Magnolia Manglietia Michelia Pachylarnax Liriodendroidae Liriodendron A family in the flowering plant order Magnoliales. ... Genera Magnolioideae Elmerillia (4 species) Kmeria (5 species) Magnolia (128 species) Manglietia (29 species) Michelia (49 species) Pachylarnax (2 species) Liriodendroidae Liriodendron (2 species) The Magnoliaceae is a family in the flowering plant Order Magnoliales. ...


The natural range of Magnolia species is rather scattered and includes eastern North America, Central America and the West Indies and east and southeast Asia. Some species are found in South America. Today many species of Magnolia and an ever increasing number of hybrids can also be found as ornamental trees in large parts of North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


The genus is named after French botanist Pierre Magnol, from Montpellier. See Origin of the name Magnolia. Pierre Magnol (1638 - 1715) was a doctor and botanist who was one of the innovators of the current botanical scheme of classification. ... Montpellier (Occitan Montpelhièr) is a city in the south of France. ... This article is about the plant. ...


Magnolia is an ancient genus. Having evolved before bees appeared, the flowers developed to encourage pollination by beetles. As a result, the carpels of Magnolia flowers are tough, to avoid damage by eating and crawling beetles. Fossilised specimens of M. acuminata have been found dating to 20 million years ago, and of plants identifiably belonging to the Magnoliaceae dating back to 95 million years ago. Another primitive aspect of Magnolias is their lack of distinct sepals or petals. The term tepal has been coined to refer to the intermediate element that Magnolia has instead. Magnolias are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Giant Leopard Moth. For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... Suborders Adephaga Archostemata Myxophaga Polyphaga See subgroups of the order Coleoptera Beetles are the most diverse group of insects. ... Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the outer, often visible part of the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... Flower of the Primrose Willowherb (Ludwigia octovalvis) showing petals and sepals A sepal is one member or part of the calyx of a flower. ... It has been suggested that Corolla be merged into this article or section. ... Look up perianth in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... The order Lepidoptera is the second most speciose order in the class Insecta and includes the butterflies, moths and skippers. ... Binomial name Ecpantheria scribonia (Stoll, 1790) The Giant Leopard Moth (Ecpantheria scribonia) is a moth of the family Arctiidae. ...


Magnolia grandiflora is the official state flower of both Mississippi and Louisiana[2]. The flower's abundance in Mississippi is reflected in its state nickname, "Magnolia State". The magnolia is also the official state tree of Mississippi. This is a list of U.S. state flowers: List of U.S. state trees Lists of U.S. state insignia ^ State Flower of Alabama. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) de jure: none de facto: English & French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans [1] Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33°N  - Longitude 89°W... This is a list of U.S. state nicknames: See also Lists of U.S. state insignia External link Information about U.S. State Nicknames Categories: U.S. state insignia ... This List of U.S. state trees includes official trees of the following states and U.S. possessions: See also Lists of U.S. state insignia National Grove of State Trees External link USDA list of state trees and flowers Categories: | | ...

Contents

Origin of the name Magnolia

In 1703 Charles Plumier (1646-1704) described a flowering tree from the island of Martinique in his Genera[3]. He gave the species, known locally as 'Talauma', the genus name Magnolia, after Pierre Magnol. The English botanist William Sherard, who studied botany in Paris under Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, a pupil of Magnol, was most probably the first after Plumier to adopt the genus name Magnolia. He was at least responsible for the taxonomic part of Johann Jacob Dillenius's Hortus Elthamensis[4] and of Mark Catesby's famous Natural history of Carolina[5]. These were the first works after Plumier's Genera that used the name Magnolia, this time for some species of flowering trees from temperate North America. Charles Plumier (April 20, 1646-November 20, 1704) was a French botanist, after whom the genus Plumeria (originally named Plumiera) is named. ... In biology, a genus (plural genera) is a grouping in the classification of living organisms having one or more related and morphologically similar species. ... Pierre Magnol (1638 - 1715) was a doctor and botanist who was one of the innovators of the current botanical scheme of classification. ... William Sherard (February 27, 1659 - August 11, 1728) was an English botanist. ... Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (June 5, 1656 – December 28, 1708) was a French botanist. ... Johann Jakob Dillen (Dillenius) (1687-April 2, 1747) was a German botanist. ... Mark Catesby (April 3, 1683 - December 1749) was an English naturalist. ...


Carolus Linnaeus, who was familiar with Plumier's Genera, adopted the genus name Magnolia in 1735 in his first edition of Systema naturae, without a description but with a reference to Plumier's work. In 1753, he took up Plumier's Magnolia in the first edition of Species plantarum. Since Linnaeus never saw a herbarium specimen (if there has ever been one) of Plumier's Magnolia and had only his description and a rather poor picture at hand, he must have taken it for the same plant which was described by Catesby in his 1731 'Natural History of Carolina, and placed it in the synonymy of Magnolia virginiana variety foetida, the taxon now known as Magnolia grandiflora. Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Cover of the tenth edition of Linnaeuss Systema Naturae (1758). ... Writing the Species Plantarum was one of Carolus Linnaeus two great contributions to the Scientific community. ... In scientific classification, synonymy is the existence of multiple systematic names to label the same organism. ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ...


The species that Plumier originally named Magnolia was later described as Annona dodecapetala by Lamarck[6], and has since been named Magnolia plumieri and Talauma plumieri (and still a number of other names) but is now known as Magnolia dodecapetala[7]. xx Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (August 1, 1744 - December 28, 1829) was a major 19th century naturalist, who was one of the first to use the term biology in its modern sense. ...


Early references and descriptions

Magnolias have long been known and used in China. References to their medicinal qualities go back to as early as 1083[8]. After the Spanish conquest of Mexico, Philip II commissioned his court physician Francisco Hernandez in 1570 to undertake a scientific expedition. Hernandez made numerous descriptions of plants, accompanied by drawings, but publication was delayed and hampered by a number of consecutive accidents. Between 1629 and 1651 the material was re-edited by members of the Academy of Lincei and issued (1651) in three editions as Nova plantarum historia Mexicana. This work contains a drawing of a plant under the vernacular name Eloxochitl, that is almost certainly Magnolia dealbata (= Magnolia macrophylla subsp. dealbata). This must have been the first-ever description of a Magnolia that came to the Western World[9]. It is unclear whether there are early descriptions made by English or French missionaries that were sent to North America but the first introduction of a Magnolia into Europe is well documented. It was the missionary and plant collector John Bannister (1654-1693) who sent back Laurus tulipifera, foliis subtus ex cinereo aut argenteo purpurascentibus[10] from Virginia in 1688, to Henry Compton, the Bishop of London. To date, the species is known as Magnolia virginiana (Sweetbay magnolia). Thus the first Magnolia had already found its way to Europe before Charles Plumier discovered his Talauma on Martinique and gave it the name Magnolia[11]. Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was the first official King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord... The Accademia dei Lincei, (literally the Academy of the Lynxes, but also known as the Lincean Academy), is located at the Palazzo Corsini on the Via della Lungara in Rome, Italy. ... Two Mormon missionaries A missionary is traditionally defined as a propagator of religion who works to convert those outside that community; someone who proselytizes. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Henry Compton (1632 - July 7, 1713), English divine, was the sixth and youngest son of the second earl of Northampton. ...


Nomenclature and classification

When Linnaeus took up Magnolia in his Species plantarum (1753), he created a lemma of only one species: Magnolia virginiana. Under that species he described five varieties (glauca, foetida, grisea, tripetala and acuminata). In the tenth edition of Systema naturae (1759), he merged grisea with glauca, and raised the four remaining varieties to specific status[12]. Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Writing the Species Plantarum was one of Carolus Linnaeus two great contributions to the Scientific community. ... Cover of the tenth edition of Linnaeuss Systema Naturae (1758). ...


By the end of the 18th century, botanists and plant hunters exploring Asia began to name and describe the Magnolia species from China and Japan. The first Asiatic species to be described by western botanists were Magnolia denudata and Magnolia liliiflora[13], and Magnolia coco and Magnolia figo[14]. Soon after that, in 1794, Carl Peter Thunberg collected and described Magnolia obovata from Japan and, within a close proximity to that period, Magnolia kobus was also first collected[15]. The list of species has become much longer ever since. Carl Peter Thunberg (November 11, 1743 _ August 8, 1828) was a Swedish naturalist. ...


With the number of species increasing, the genus was divided into subgenus Magnolia, and subgenus Yulania. Magnolia contains the American evergreen species Magnolia grandiflora, which is of horticultural importance, especially in the United States, and Magnolia virginiana, the type species. Yulania contains several deciduous Asiatic species, such as Magnolia denudata and Magnolia kobus, which have become horticulturally important in their own right and as parents in hybrids. Classified in Yulania, is also the American deciduous Magnolia acuminata (Cucumber tree), which has recently attained greater status as the parent which is responsible for the yellow flower colour in many new hybrids. Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) is classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... Deciduous means temporary or tending to fall off (deriving from the Latin word decidere, to fall off) and is typically used in reference to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally. ...


Relations in the family Magnoliaceae have been puzzling taxonomists for a long time. Because the family is quite old and has survived many geological events (such as ice ages, mountain formation and continental drift), its distribution has become scattered. Some species or groups of species have been isolated for a long time, while others could stay in close contact. To create divisions in the family (or even within the genus Magnolia), solely based upon morphological characters, has proven to be a near impossible task[16]


By the end of the 20th century, DNA sequencing had become available as a method of large scale research on phylogenetic relationships. Several studies, including studies on many species in the family Magnoliaceae, were carried out to investigate relationships[17][18][19]. What these studies all revealed was that genus Michelia and Magnolia subgenus Yulania were far more closely allied to each other than either one of them was to Magnolia subgenus Magnolia. These phylogenetic studies were supported by morphological data[20]. The term DNA sequencing encompasses biochemical methods for determining the order of the nucleotide bases, adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, in a DNA oligonucleotide. ... Phylogenetic groups, or taxa, can be monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic. ...


As nomenclature is supposed to reflect relationships, the situation with the species names in Michelia and Magnolia subgenus Yulania was undesirable. Taxonomically there are three choices; 1: to join Michelia and Yulania species in a common genus, not being Magnolia (for which the name Michelia has priority); 2: to raise subgenus Yulania to generic rank, leaving Michelia names and subgenus Magnolia names untouched; or 3: to join Michelia with genus Magnolia into genus Magnolia s.l. (a big genus). Magnolia subgenus Magnolia can not be renamed because it contains Magnolia virginiana, the type species of the genus and of the family. Not many Michelia species have so far become horticulturally or economically important, apart for their wood. Both subgenus Magnolia and subgenus Yulania include species of major horticultural importance, and a change of name would be very undesirable for many people, especially in the horticultural branch. In Europe, Magnolia even is more or less synonym for Yulania, since most of the cultivated species in this continent have Magnolia (Yulania) denudata as one of their parents. Most taxonomists who acknowledge close relations between Yulania and Michelia therefore support the third option and join Michelia with Magnolia.


The same goes, mutatis mutandis, for the (former) genera Talauma and Dugandiodendron, which are then placed in subgenus Magnolia, and genus Manglietia, which could be joined with subgenus Magnolia or may even earn the status of an extra subgenus. Elmerrillia seems to be closely related to Michelia and Yulania, in which case it will most likely be treated in the same way as Michelia is now. The precise nomenclatural status of small or monospecific genera like Kmeria, Parakmeria, Pachylarnax, Manglietiastrum, Aromadendron, Woonyoungia, Alcimandra, Paramichelia and Tsoongiodendron remains uncertain. Taxonomists who merge Michelia into Magnolia tend to merge these small genera into Magnolia s.l. as well. At present, western botanist tend toward a big Magnolia genus, whereas many Chinese botanists still recognize the different small genera.


Selected species of Magnolia

Note: the following list only includes temperate species; many other species occur in tropical areas. For a full list, see the Magnolia Society list

  • Magnolia subgenus Magnolia: Anthers open by splitting at the front facing the centre of the flower. Deciduous or evergreen. Flowers produced after the leaves.
    • Magnolia delavayi - Chinese evergreen magnolia
    • Magnolia fraseri - Fraser magnolia
    • Magnolia globosa - Globe magnolia
    • Magnolia grandiflora - Southern magnolia or bull bay
    • Magnolia guatemalensis - Guatemalan magnolia
    • Magnolia lenticellata
    • Magnolia macrophylla - Bigleaf magnolia
      • Magnolia macrophylla subsp. ashei - Ashe magnolia
      • Magnolia macrophylla subsp. dealbata - Mexican bigleaf magnolia
    • Magnolia nitida -
    • Magnolia obovata - Japanese bigleaf magnolia
    • Magnolia officinalis - Houpu magnolia
    • Magnolia sieboldii - Siebold's magnolia
    • Magnolia tripetala - Umbrella magnolia
    • Magnolia virginiana - Sweetbay magnolia
    • Magnolia wilsonii - Wilson's magnolia
  • Magnolia subgenus Yulania: Anthers open by splitting at the sides. Deciduous. Flowers mostly produced before leaves (except M. acuminata).
    • Magnolia acuminata - Cucumber tree
    • Magnolia amoena -
    • Magnolia biondii -
    • Magnolia campbellii - Campbell's magnolia
    • Magnolia cylindrica -
    • Magnolia dawsoniana - Dawson's magnolia
    • Magnolia denudata - Yulan magnolia
    • Magnolia kobus - Kobushi magnolia
    • Magnolia liliiflora - Mulan magnolia
    • Magnolia salicifolia - Willow-leafed magnolia
    • Magnolia sargentiana - Sargent's magnolia
    • Magnolia sprengeri - Sprenger's magnolia
    • Magnolia stellata - Star magnolia
    • Magnolia zenii -
  • Other

Flower of the spider tree (Crateva religiosa) with its numerous conspicuous stamens The stamen is the male organ of a flower. ... Deciduous means temporary or tending to fall off (deriving from the Latin word decidere, to fall off) and is typically used in reference to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Look up flower in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Franch. ... Binomial name Magnolia fraseri Walter The Fraser magnolia (Magnolia fraseri) also called Mountain magnolia, Earleaf cucumbertree, or Mountain-oread, is a small, deciduous tree native to the southern Appalachians. ... Binomial name J. D. Hooker & Thomson Globe Magnolia (Magnolia globosa) is a species of Magnolia native to Bhutan, southwestern China (Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan), northeastern India (Assam, Sikkim), northern Myanmar, and eastern Nepal. ... Binomial name Magnolia grandiflora L. The Southern magnolia, also known as bull bay, is a magnolia native to the southeastern United States, from coastal North Carolina south to central Florida, and west to East Texas. ... Binomial name Guatemalan magnolia (Magnolia guatemalensis), known locally in its native range as the Mamey (a name also used for the unrelated species Pouteria sapota from Cuba and the fruit tree Mammea americana from Central and South America,) is found in the highlands and mountains of Guatemala, El Salvador, and... Binomial name Michx. ... Binomial name Thunb. ... Binomial name Rehder & Wilson Houpu Magnolia (Magnolia officinalis) is a species of Magnolia native to the mountains and valleys of China at altitudes of 300-1500 m. ... Binomial name Magnolia sieboldii Siebolds magnolia, (Magnolia sieboldii), also known as Oyama magnolia, is native to Japan and Korea. ... Binomial name Magnolia tripetala L. The Umbrella magnolia (Magnolia tripetala) is a deciduous tree native to the southeastern United States in the Allegheny Mountains region. ... Binomial name Magnolia virginiana L. The Sweetbay magnolia, Magnolia virginiana, also called just Sweetbay, is a member of the magnolia family, Magnoliaceae. ... Binomial name (Finet & Gagnepain) Rehder Wilsons Magnolia (Magnolia wilsonii) is a species of Magnolia native to China, in the provinces of western Guizhou, Sichuan and northern Yunnan, where it grows in the forest understory at altitudes of 1,900-3,000 m, rarely up to 3,300 m. ... Flower of the spider tree (Crateva religiosa) with its numerous conspicuous stamens The stamen is the male organ of a flower. ... Binomial name L. Several plants are known as the Cucumber tree. ... Binomial name Cheng Magnolia amoena is a species of plant in the Magnoliaceae family. ... Binomial name Hook. ... Binomial name Wilson Magnolia cylindrica is a species of plant in the Magnoliaceae family. ... Binomial name Rehder & Wilson. ... Binomial name Magnolia denudata, known as the Yulan magnolia, is native to central and eastern China. ... Binomial name Magnolia kobus, known as the Kobushi Magnolia, is a species of Magnolia native to Japan. ... Binomial name Desrouss. ... Binomial name Maxim. ... Binomial name Rehder & E.H.Wilson Sargents magnolia, Magnolia sargentiana, is a tall deciduous tree that grows only in a small area in province of Yunnan in China, where its forest habitat is severely fragmented into many small segments. ... Binomial name Pampanini, Nuovo Giorn Sprengers magnolia, (Magnolia sprengeri), is a species of Magnolia native to China, occurring in Gansu, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, and Sichuan in forests or thickets at 1300-2400 m altitude. ... Binomial name Magnolia stellata (Siebold & Zucc. ... Binomial name Cheng Magnolia zenii is a species of plant in the Magnoliaceae family. ... Binomial name Magnolia hodgsonii (Hook. ...

Uses

In general, Magnolia is a genus which has attracted a lot of horticultural interest. Hybridisation has been immensely successful in combining the best aspects of different species to give plants which flower at an earlier age than the species themselves, as well as having more impressive flowers. One of the most popular garden magnolias is a hybrid, M. x soulangeana (Saucer magnolia; hybrid M. liliiflora x M. denudata). // This article is about a biological term. ...


The bark from M. officinalis has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine, where it is known as houpu. In Japan, M. obovata has been used in a similar manner. The aromatic bark contains magnolol and honokiol, two polyphenolic compounds that have demonstrated anti-anxiety and anti-angiogenic properties. Magnolia bark also has been shown to reduce allergic and asthmatic reactions.[21] [22] Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... Honokiol (C18H18O2) is a biphenolic molecule present in the cones, bark, and leaves of Magnolia grandifloris that has been used in the traditional Japanese medicine Saiboku-to as an anxiolytic, anti-thrombotic, anti-depressant, anti-emetic, and anti-bacterial. ... Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol group per molecule. ... Angiogenesis is the physiological process involving the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels. ...


Gallery

References

  1. ^ The number of species in the genus Magnolia depends on the taxonomic view that one takes up. Recent molecular and morphological research shows that former genera Talauma, Dugandiodendron, Manglietia, Michelia, Elmerrillia, Kmeria, Parakmeria, Pachylarnax (and a small number of monospecific genera) all belong within the same genus, Magnolia s.l. (s.l. = sensu lato: 'in a broad sense', as opposed to s.s. = sensu stricto: 'in a narrow sense'). The genus Magnolia s.s. contains about 120 species. See the section Nomenclature and classification in this article.
  2. ^ For this reason, it has become a symbol of support for the regions most heavily damaged by Hurricane Katrina in the late summer of 2005 (for example, presenters at the 2005 Emmy Awards on September 18, 2005, wore magnolias on their lapels, as did host Ellen DeGeneres, a New Orleans native).
  3. ^ Plumier, C. (1703) Nova plantarum Americanarum genera. Paris. [New genera of American plants].
  4. ^ Dillenius, J.J. (1732), Hortus Elthamensis, seu plantarum rariorum quas in horto suo Elthami in Cantio coluit vir ornamentissimus et praestantissimus Jacobus Sherard. London [The garden of Eltham, or rather about the rare plants that the most distinguished and prominent man Jacob Sherard grows in his garden in Eltham in Kent].
  5. ^ Catesby, M. (1731), The natural history of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands, containing the figures of birds, beasts, fishes, serpents, insects and plants, Vol. 1. London.
  6. ^ Lamarck, J.B.P.A. de (1786), Encyclopédie Méthodique Botanique, tome second: 127. Paris.
  7. ^ Under the rule of priority, the first name that is validly published in Linnaeus' Species plantarum (1 May 1753) or any other work of any other botanist after that, takes precedence over later names. Plumier's name was not a binomen and moreover published before Species plantarum, so it has no status. The first binomen that was published after 1753 was Lamarck's Annona dodecapetala (1786). Magnolia plumieri (1788) was published on a later date by Schwartz, and is treated as a later synonym, as are Magnolia fatiscens (1817; Richard), Talauma caerulea (Jaume St-Hilaire 1805) and Magnolia linguifolia (1822).
  8. ^ Treseder (p. 9) quotes the "Cheng Lei Pen Tshao" (Reclassified Pharmaceutical Natural History).
  9. ^ Treseder, N.G. (1978), Magnolias: 9-13.
  10. ^ Laurel-leaved tulip tree, with leaves of which the under sides from ash grey or silvery grey turn into purplish.
  11. ^ Treseder, N.G. (1978), Magnolias: 14.
  12. ^ Magnolia glauca has the same type specimen as Magnolia virginiana and as the latter is the first valid name, the species is now called Magnolia virginiana (Sweetbay magnolia). Var. foetida was renamed Magnolia grandiflora, which is legitimate as the epithet foetida only has priority in its rank of variety. Magnolia grandiflora is the Southern magnolia. Magnolia tripetala (Umbrella magnolia) and Magnolia acuminata (Cucumber tree) are still recognized as species to date.
  13. ^ Under these names the species were described by Desrousseaux in Lamarck's Encyclopédie Méthodique Botanique, tome troisieme (1792): 675. In the beginning of the 20th century, descriptions which seemed to represent the same species, were (re)discovered in a work of the French naturalist P.J. Buc'hoz, Plantes nouvellement découvertes (1779), under the names Lassonia heptapeta and Lassonia quinquepeta. In 1934, the English botanist J.E. Dandy argued that these names had priority over the names by which both species had been known for over a century and hence from then on Magnolia denudata had to be named Magnolia heptapeta, Magnolia liliiflora should be changed into Magnolia quinquepeta. After a lengthy debate, specialist taxonomists decided that the Buc'hoz names were based on chimaeras (pictures constructed of elements of different species), and as Buc'hoz did not cite or preserve herbarium specimens, his names were ruled not to be acceptable.
  14. ^ These species were published as Liriodendron coco and Liriodendron figo by J. de Loureiro in Flora Cochinchinensis (1790) and later (1817) transferred to Magnolia by A. P. de Candolle. Magnolia figo was soon after transferred to the genus Michelia.
  15. ^ Magnolia kobus only received its name in 1814, when it was validly published by A.P. de Candolle. There has been much confusion about earlier attempts to validly publish this species, especially because descriptions and type specimens did not match.
  16. ^ In 1927 J.E. Dandy accepted 10 genera in The genera of Magnoliaceae, Kew Bulletin 1927: 257-264. In 1984 Law Yuh-Wu proposed 15 in A preliminary study on the taxonomy of the family Magnoliaceae, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 22: 89-109; in 2004 even 16, in Magnolias of China. This is not just about grouping some genera together where others do not; authors often choose different boundaries.
  17. ^ Azuma, H., L.B. Thien & S. Kawano (1999), Molecular phylogeny of Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) inferred from cpDNA sequences and evolutionary divergence of the floral scents. Journal of Plant Research 112(1107): 291-306.
  18. ^ Azuma, H., García-Franco, J.G., Rico-Gray, V., and Thien, L.B. (2001). Molecular phylogeny of the Magnoliaceae: the biogeography of tropical and temperate disjunctions. American Journal of Botany. 88: 2275-2285.
  19. ^ Kim, S. et al. (2001), Phylogenetic relationships in family Magnoliaceae inferred from ndhF sequences. American Journal of Botany. 88(4): 717-728.
  20. ^ Figlar, R.B. (2000), Proleptic branch initiation in Michelia and Magnolia subgenus Yulania provides basis for combinations in subfamily Magnolioideae. In: Liu Yu-hu et al., Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Family Magnoliaceae: 14-25, Science Press, Beijing.
  21. ^ SupplementWatch library entry on Magnolia Bark
  22. ^ Guangsong Pharmaceutical page on Magnolia Bark Extract
  • Treseder, N.G. (1978). Magnolias. London/Boston, Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-571-09619-0
  • Callaway, D.J. (1994). The World of Magnolias. Portland, Oregon, Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-236-6
  • Hunt, D. (ed). (1998). Magnolias and Their Allies. International Dendrology Society & Magnolia Society. ISBN 0-9517234-8-0
  • Law, Y.W. (= Liu, Y.H.) (2004). Magnolias of China. Hong-Kong, Beijing Science & Technology Press. ISBN 7-5304-2765-2

This article is about the plant. ... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ... An Emmy Award. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The word lapel can mean:- In standard office-type jackets, each of the two triangular pieces of cloth which are folded back below the throat, leaving a triangular opening between. ... Ellen Lee DeGeneres (born January 26, 1958) is an American actress, stand-up comedian, and currently the Emmy Award-winning host of the syndicated talk show The Ellen DeGeneres Show. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (August 1, 1744 - December 28, 1829) was a major 19th century naturalist, who was one of the first to use the term biology in its modern sense. ... A. P. de Candolle A. P. de Candolle (February 4, 1778 - September 9, 1841) was one of the great botanists of all time. ...

External links

  • Flora of China: Magnoliaceae (draft account)
  • Magnolias: 50% Face Extinction from Botanic Gardens Conservation International
  • Magnolias: Bloom or Doom? (Botanic Gardens Conservation International)
  • Magnolia Society
  • "Magnolias Threatened by Logging, Development" from National Public Radio
  • Selecting Trees for your Home - Magnolia Trees University of Illinois Extension

  Results from FactBites:
 
Floridata: Magnolia grandiflora (539 words)
Southern magnolia is a large, broad-leafed evergreen tree that can grow 60-90 ft (18-27 m) in height with a trunk up to 2-3 ft (0.6-0.9 m) in diameter.
This is the immature fruit or "burr" of the southern magnolia.
Southern magnolia should be a part of every cultivated landscape in zones 7-9 that is large enough for a full-size tree (folks farther north to Zone 5 should be able to find hardy cultivars for their areas too).
Magnolia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2350 words)
Mississippi's state nickname is the "Magnolia State", because of the abundance of magnolias in the state.
Magnolia contains the American evergreen species Magnolia grandiflora, which is of horticultural importance, especially in the United States, and Magnolia virginiana, the type species.
Magnolia plumieri (1788) was published on a later date by Schwartz, and is treated as a later synonym, as are Magnolia fatiscens (1817; Richard), Talauma caerulea (Jaume St-Hilaire 1805) and Magnolia linguifolia (1822).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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