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Encyclopedia > Magnitude

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Apparent magnitude - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1178 words)
The absolute magnitude, M, of a star or galaxy is the apparent magnitude it would have if it were 10 parsecs away; that of a planet (or other solar system body) is the apparent magnitude it would have if it were 1 astronomical unit away from both the Sun and Earth.
Magnitude is complicated by the fact that light is not monochromatic.
For this purpose the UBV system is widely used, in which the magnitude is measured in three different wavelength bands: U (centred at about 350 nm, in the near ultraviolet), B (about 435 nm, in the blue region) and V (about 555 nm, in the middle of the human visual range in daylight).
Richter magnitude scale - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (844 words)
The diminution of amplitude due to distance between the earthquake epicenter and the seismometer is corrected for by subtracting the common logarithm of the expected amplitude of a magnitude 0 event at that distance.
Richter arbitrarily chose a magnitude 0 event to be an earthquake that would show a maximum combined horizontal displacement of 1 micrometre on a seismogram recorded using a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer 100 km from the earthquake epicenter.
By the beginning of the 21st century, most seismologists considered the traditional magnitude scales to be largely obsolete, being replaced by a more physically meaningful measurement called the seismic moment which is more directly relatable to the physical parameters, such as the dimension of the earthquake rupture, and the energy released from the earthquake.
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