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Category: Disambiguation Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Science For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... An order of magnitude is the class of scale or magnitude of any amount, where each class contains values of a fixed ratio to the class preceding it. ... Mathematics is often defined as the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change. ... // Real numbers The magnitude of a real number is usually called the absolute value or modulus. ... A negative number is a number that is less than zero, such as â3. ... In mathematics, the real numbers are intuitively defined as numbers that are in one-to-one correspondence with the points on an infinite lineâthe number line. ... A black hole concept drawing by NASA. Physics (from the Greek, ÏÏ ÏÎ¹ÎºÏÏ (physikos), natural, and ÏÏÏÎ¹Ï (physis), nature) is the science of the natural world dealing with the fundamental constituents of the universe, the forces they exert on one another, and the results produced by these forces. ... In physics and in vector calculus, a spatial vector is a concept characterized by a magnitude, which is a scalar, and a direction (which can be defined in a 3-dimensional space by the Euler angles). ... The term scalar is used in mathematics, physics, and computing basically for quantities that are characterized by a single numeric value and/or do not involve the concept of direction. ... A physical quantity is either a quantity within physics that can be measured (e. ... See Cartesian coordinate system or Coordinates (elementary mathematics) for a more elementary introduction to this topic. ... Look up Number in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A number originally was a count or a measurement. ... The definition, agreement and practical use of units of measurement have played a crucial role in human endeavour from early ages up to this day. ... Astrology: the study of the positions of the celestial objects relative to the Earth and how these positions affect happenings on the lives of cultures, nations and the natural environment. ... In science, magnitude refers to the numerical size of something: see orders of magnitude. ... Logarithms to various bases: is to base e, is to base 10, and is to base 1. ... The wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a wave pattern. ... Prism splitting light Light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength that is visible to the eye (visible light) or, in a technical or scientific context, electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength. ... Image of a small dog taken in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of microwave radiation. ... The apparent magnitude (m) of a star, planet or other heavenly body is a measure of its apparent brightness; that is, the amount of light received from the object. ... In astronomy, absolute magnitude is the apparent magnitude, m, an object would have if it were at a standard luminosity distance away from us. ... Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the movement of waves through the Earth. ... Global earthquake epicenters, 1963â1998 An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earths surface. ... The Richter magnitude test scale (or more correctly local magnitude ML scale) assigns a single number to quantify the size of an earthquake. ... The moment magnitude scale (a successor to the Richter scale), was introduced in 1979 by Tom Hanks and Hiroo Kanamori and is used by seismologists to compare the energy released by earthquakes. ...
The absolute magnitude, M, of a star or galaxy is the apparent magnitude it would have if it were 10 parsecs away; that of a planet (or other solar system body) is the apparent magnitude it would have if it were 1 astronomical unit away from both the Sun and Earth.
Magnitude is complicated by the fact that light is not monochromatic.
For this purpose the UBV system is widely used, in which the magnitude is measured in three different wavelength bands: U (centred at about 350 nm, in the near ultraviolet), B (about 435 nm, in the blue region) and V (about 555 nm, in the middle of the human visual range in daylight).
The diminution of amplitude due to distance between the earthquake epicenter and the seismometer is corrected for by subtracting the common logarithm of the expected amplitude of a magnitude 0 event at that distance.
Richter arbitrarily chose a magnitude 0 event to be an earthquake that would show a maximum combined horizontal displacement of 1 micrometre on a seismogram recorded using a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer 100 km from the earthquake epicenter.
By the beginning of the 21st century, most seismologists considered the traditional magnitude scales to be largely obsolete, being replaced by a more physically meaningful measurement called the seismic moment which is more directly relatable to the physical parameters, such as the dimension of the earthquake rupture, and the energy released from the earthquake.
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